AP Music Theory Syllabus 2009-1010 Room Assignment: Band Room Block: A4 General Overview of AP Music Theory Students

in AP Music Theory will be expected to accomplish a high level of basic musicianship skills. The AP Music Theory curriculum is designed to prepare each student to take the AP Music Theory Exam, given in the spring of the year. Rewards for the successful AP Music Theory student are great, gaining musical understanding and confidence in that understanding, enhancing their performance skills thereby getting a head start on college-level study. The course includes a wide range of music literature to be studied from standard Western tonal repertoires with an emphasis on 18th century chorale style analysis and harmonization. Other styles of music including 20th century compositions will be studied and students will be required to complete minor exercises displaying their understanding of these compositional procedures. Evaluation: Tests and Quizzes- 50% (written, aural and oral) includes sight singing and ear training Homework, classwork and pop quizzes- 25% Class Participation- 25% Materials: Three-ring binder Notebook paper Music staff paper Pencils Texts: Issued to Students: Ottman, Robert. Elementary Harmony, Theory and Practice, 5th Edition. Upper Saddle River, Princeton, NJ Printice Hall, 1998. Resources: Benward, Bruce and J. Timothy Kolosick. Ear Training:A Technique for Listening, 4th edition. Wm. C. Brown Publishers.1991. Kostka, S., and Payne, D. Tonal Harmony: With an Introducation to Twentieth Century Music, 5th edition. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. 2004. Kostka, S., and Payne, D. Tonal Harmony Workbook, 5th edition. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. 2004 Ottman, Robert. Music For Sight Singing, 6th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Prentice Hall, 1998.

Course Overview: First nine weeks:
• • • • • • • • Visually identify standard musical notation symbols. Accurately notate music using accepted conventions. Visually and aurally identify rhythmic values. Visually identify all major and minor scales and key signatures. Visually identify piano keyboard octave register designations. Aurally identify all major and minor scales, including modes. Visually and aurally identify all major, minor, augmented, and diminished intervals and their inversions. Accurately notate all major, minor, augmented, and diminished intervals. Visually and aurally identify all major, minor, augmented, and diminished triads and seventh chords, in root position and inversions. Accurately notate all major, minor, augmented, and diminished triads and seventh chords.


• • • • • • • • • •

Second Nine Weeks:
Visually and aurally identify melodies and their use of typical melodic tendencies. Compose melodies using typical melodic tendencies. Visually and aurally identify melodic embellishments including non-harmonic tones. Aurally identify and notate melodies in a variety of keys and modes. Identify implied harmonies to given melodies. Compose melodies to given harmony. Visually and aurally identify common chord progressions (Tonic – Dominant; Tonic – Subdominant). Visually identify vocal and keyboard scoring and open and closed position. Accurately construct and notate 4-part triads and their inversions following appropriate spacing and doubling guidelines. Accurately realize figured bass. Demonstrate proper voice leading procedures.

Third Nine Weeks: • Visually identify major and minor key major and minor triads and seventh chords and their inversions using Roman Numeral analysis and figured bass. • Accurately notate major and minor key diatonic progressions following applicable chord construction and voice leading guidelines. • Visually and aurally identify and notate Perfect Authentic, Imperfect Authentic, Half, Plagal, Phrygian and Deceptive cadences. • Visually and Aurally identify and notate secondary dominant and secondary leading tone chords. • Accurately realize major and minor key diatonic figured bass progressions in four-part harmony. • Accurately harmonize major and minor key soprano melodies using diatonic triads and seventh chords in four-parts. • Aurally identify and accurately notate bass and soprano voices from a four-part homorhythmic texture. • Visually and aurally identify motives, phrases, and periods and their component parts.

Identify parallel, contrary and oblique motion between two or more voices.

Fourth nine Weeks: • Visually and aurally identify binary, rounded binary, ternary and theme and variations musical forms. • Visually and aurally identify 12-bar blues, song form (AABA), bridge/chorus/verse musical forms. • Experience music within the context of culture, music history and the study and practice of music theory in 20th Century music. • Visually and aurally identify monophonic, homophonic, heterophonic and polyphonic textures. • Visually and aurally identify ostinatos, canons and fugues. • Visually and aurally identify modulations using diatonic common chords. • Visually and aurally identify other forms of modulation. • Aurally identify common instrument families and ensembles. • Visually interpret musical scores for various performance genres. Terms:

FORM Cadence Cadential extension Coda Codetta Contour Countermelody Elision (phrase elision) Fragment (fragmented motive) Introduction A. Jazz and pop terms 1.Bridge 2. Chorus 3. Song form (AABA) 4. Turnaround 5. Twelve-bar blues B. Melodic procedures 1. Augmentation 2. Conjunct 3. Diminution 4. Disjunct 5. Extended version 6. Fragmentation 7. Internal expansion 8. Inversion, melodic inversion 9. Literal repetition 10. Motivic transformation 11. Octave displacement 12. Retrograde

13. Rhythmic transformation 14. Sequence 15. Sequential repetition 16. Shortened version 17. Transposition 18. Truncation 19. Motive 20. Period a. Antecedent b. Consequent c. Contrasting period d. Double period e. Parallel period 21. Phrase group 22. Refrain 23. Small forms a. Binary b. Rounded binary c. Ternary 24. Solo, soli 25. Stanza 26. Strophic 27. Theme a. Thematic transformation 28. Through-composed 29. Tutti 30. Variation 31. Verse

II. HARMONY A. Cadence Types 1. Conclusive Cadence a. Authentic i. Imperfect authentic ii. Perfect authentic b. Plagal Cadence 2. Inconclusive cadence a. Half b. Deceptive c. Phrygian half B. Chord Quality 1. Triads a. Augmented b. Diminished c. Major d. Minor 2. Seventh Chords a. Major seventh b. Dominant seventh c. Major-minor seventh d. Minor seventh e. Half-diminished seventh f. Fully-dimished seventh C. Functions and Progressions 1. Scale Degrees/Diatonic chord names a. Tonic b. Supertonic c. Mediant d. Subdominant e. Dominant f. Submediant g. Subtonic h. Leading tone 2. Functions a. Tonic function b. Dominant function c. Predominant function Circle of Fifths Deceptive progression Harmonic rhythm 3. Modulation a. Common tone modulation

b. Phrase modulation c. Pivot chord modulation Neighboring chord Rate of harmonic change Retrogression Secondary dominant Secondary leading tone chord Tonicization 4. Second Inversion (6/4 triads) a. Arpeggiating 6/4 b. Cadential 6/4 c. Neighboring or pedal 6/4 d. Passing 6/4 5. Non-harmonic tones a. Anticipation b. Appoggiatura c. Embellishment d. Escape tone (echappee) e. Neighboring Tone (auxiliary
tone, embellishing tone, neighbor note)

1.) Double neighbor 2.) Lower neighbor 3.) Upper neighbor 4.) Neighbor group
(cambiata, changing tones, changing notes)

5.) Ornament a. Passing tone b. Pedal Point c. Preparation d. Resolution e. Retardation f. Suspension 1.) Rearticulated suspension 2.) Suspension chain 6. Spacing/Voicing/Position a. Alto b. Bass c. Close position d. Doubling e. First inversion f. Open position g. Root h. Root position i. Second inversion j. Soprano k. Tenor

l. Third Inversion 7. Voice Leading a. Common tone b. Contrary motion c. Cross relation (false relation) d. Crossed voices (voice crossing) e. Direct fifths (hidden fifths) f. Direct octaves (hidden octaves) g. Oblique motion h. Overlapping voices i. Parallel motion 1.) Parallel intervals 2.) Objectionable parallels 3.) Parallel fifths 4.) Parallel octaves j. Similar motion k. Tendency tone l. Unresolved leading tone m. Unresolved seventh n. Voice exchange 8. Miscellaneous Harmonic Terms a. Arpeggio, arpeggiation b. Chromatic c. Common Practice Style d. Consonance d. Diatonic e. Dissonance f. Figured Bass g. Flatted fifth h. Lead sheet i. Picardy third j. Resolution 9. Intervals a. Compound interval b. Half step (semitone) c. Interval d. Inversion, inversion of an interval e. Numerical names (i.e., third, fifth, octave) f. Quality or type (e.g.) perfect, major, minor, diminished, augmented) g. Tritone

h. Unison (prime) i. Whole step (whole tone) III. PERFORMANCE TERMS A. Antiphonal B. Articulation 1.Arco 2. Legato 3. Marcato 4. Pizzicato 5. Slur 6. Staccato 7. Tenuto C. Call and Response D. Dynamics 1. Crescendo 2. Diminuendo 3. Terrace dynamics 4. Pianissimo 5. Piano 6. Mezzo piano 7. Mezzo forte 8. Forte 9. Fortissimo E. Improvisation, improvisatory F. Phrasing G. Tempo 1. Adagio 2. Allegro 3. Andante 4. Andantino 5. Grave 6. Largo 7. Lento 8. Moderato 9. Presto 10. Vivace 11. Accelerando 12. Ritardando 13. Ritenuto 14. Rubato IV. RHTHYM/METER/TEMPORAL ORGANIZATION Accent Agogic accent Dynamic accent

Metrical accent Anacrusis (pick-up, upbeat) Asymmetrical meter Augmentation Bar line Beat Beat type Compound Simple Changing meter (multimeter) Cross rhythm Diminution Dot, double dot Dotted rhythm Duplet Duration Hemiola Irregular meter Meter Duple Quadruple Triple Note value Polyrhythm Pulse Rhythm Swing rhythm Syncopation Tempo Tie Time signature (meter) Triplet SCALES/KEYS/MODES Accidental Chromatic, chromaticism Diatonic Key signature Major Minor Harmonic minor Melodic minor Natural minor (Aeolian) Mode Ionian Dorian

Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian Modality Parallel key, parallel major or minor Pentatonic Relative key, relative major or minor Tetrachord Tonal Tonality Tonic Whole-tone scale V. TEXT/MUSIC RELATIONS Lyrics Melismatic Stanza Syllabic VI. TEXTURE Alberti bass Canon Canonic Chordal accompaniment Contrapuntal Counterpoint Imitation Imitative polyphony Nonimitative polyphony Countermelody Fugal imitation Heterophony, heterophonic Homophony, homophonic Chordal homophony Chordal texture (homorhythmic) Melody with accompaniment Instrumentation Brass Continuo Percussion Rhythm section Strings Timbre Woodwinds

Melody Monophony, monophonic Obbligato Ostinato Polyphony, polyphonic Register Solo, soli Tessitura Tutti Walking bass VII. OTHER TERMS THAT MAY BE USED ON EXAM Aria

Art song Concerto Fugue Genre Interlude Opera Prelude Postlude Sonata Song String quartet Symphony

Additional Resources: • AP Central homepage for Music Theory: http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/article/0,3045,151-165-0-2261,00.html • www.musictheory.net • www.emusictheory.com • www.apmusichtheoryhelp.org • Scales, Intervals, Keys, Triads, Rhythm and Meters, by John Clugh, Joyce Conley, and Claire Boge • Understanding Music, by Jeremy Yudkin • Personal Music Collections Technological Resources • Alfred’s Music Trainer • Finale Notepad • Practica Musica • Sibelius Music Notation Software • SmartMusic • Band in a Box
Teaching Strategies: I firmly believe in teaching to mastery. Up to ¼ of any given class may be spent in working at the blackboard. We work out many problems together as a class and I encourage students to work in pairs both quizzing and assisting each other through difficult concepts. We often take guided exercises and have multiple students work them out in front of the class demonstrating diverse correct avenues to proceeding with the same harmonic proposition. Since mastery is what I desire students to achieve, my policy is that any daily or homework sheets may be corrected for a return to the student of ½ of the original value. This seems to encourage truly getting the concepts as well as negating their fears of first efforts.

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