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even though it's the same size as a CD/DVD. This together with the change Abstract: Blu-Ray is a new generation, high capacity and speed data storage technology. It is supported by several industry leading companies and has a bright future according to professionals. The name Blu-ray Disc (BD) is derived from the blueviolet laser it uses to read and write to the disc. A Blu-ray. While current optical disc technologies such as DVD, DVD±R, DVD±RW, and DVD-RAM rely on a red laser to read and write data, the new format uses a blue-violet laser instead, hence the name Blu-ray. Despite the different type of lasers used, Blu-ray products can easily be made backwards compatible with CDs and DVDs through the use of a BD/DVD/CD compatible optical pickup unit. The benefit of using a blue-violet laser (405nm) is that it has a shorter wavelength than a red laser (650nm), which makes it possible to focus the laser spot with even greater precision. This allows data to be packed more tightly and stored in less space, so it's possible to fit more data on the disc 2 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org What is Blu ray technology? Blu-ray , also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD), is the name of a next-generation optical disc format jointly developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA), a group of the world's leading consumer electronics, personal computer and media manufacturers (including Apple, Dell, Hitachi, HP, JVC, LG, Mitsubishi, Panasonic, Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, TDK and Thomson). The format was developed to enable recording, rewriting and playback of high-definition video (HD), as well as storing large amounts of data. The format offers more than five times the storage capacity of traditional of numerical aperture to 0.85 is what enables Blu-ray This Discs extra to hold 25GB/50GB. capacity
combined with the use of advanced video and audio codecs will offer consumers experience. Sony has released 50GB recordable BDs and will soon be releasing 50GB BD media discs. an unprecedented HD
DVDs and can hold up to 25GB on a single-layer disc and 50GB on a duallayer disc Why the name Blu-ray? The name Blu-ray is derived from the underlying technology, which utilizes a blue-violet laser to read and write data. The name is a combination of "Blue" (blue-violet laser) and "Ray" (optical ray). According to the Blu-ray Disc Association the spelling of "Blu-ray" is not a mistake; the character "e" was intentionally left out so the term could be registered as a trademark. Media type: High-density optical disc Encoding: MPEG-2, VC-1 Capacity: 25GB(single layer), MPEG-4 and Mechanism of blu ray tech Building of blu ray disc blank rewritable Blu-ray disc (a BD-RE)
50 GB (dual layer) Read mechanism: 1x@36 Mbit/s 2x@72 Mbit/s &
Developed by: Blu-rayDisc Association Usage: Data storage, Highdefinition video and PlayStation 3 Games
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manufacturing process. Blu-ray discs are better armed than current DVDs. They come equipped with a secure encryption system -- a unique ID that protects against video piracy and copyright infringement. Blu-ray discs are better armed than current DVDs. They come equipped with a secure encryption system -- a unique ID that protects against video piracy and copyright infringement. Each Blu-ray disc is about the same thickness (1.2 millimeters) as a DVD. But the two types of discs store data differently. In a DVD, the data is sandwiched between two polycarbonate layers, each 0.6-mm thick. Having a polycarbonate layer on top of the data can cause a problem called birefringence, in which the substrate layer refracts the laser light into two separate beams. If the beam is split too widely, the disc cannot be read. Also, if the DVD surface is not exactly flat, and is therefore not exactly perpendicular to the beam, it can lead to a problem known as disc tilt, in which the laser beam is distorted. All of these 4 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org The Blu-ray disc overcomes DVDreading issues by placing the data on top of a 1.1-mm-thick polycarbonate layer. Having the data on top prevents birefringence and therefore prevents readability problems. And, with the recording layer sitting closer to the objective lens of the reading mechanism, the problem of disc tilt is virtually eliminated. Because the data is closer to the surface, a hard coating is
placed on the outside of the disc to protect it from scratches and fingerprints. The design of the Bluray discs saves on manufacturing costs. Traditional DVDs are built by injection molding the two 0.6-mm discs between which the recording layer is sandwiched. The process must be done very carefully to prevent birefringence. 1. The two discs are molded. 2. The recording layer is added to one of the discs. 3. The two discs are glued together. Blu-ray discs only do the injectionmolding process on a single 1.1-mm disc, which reduces cost. That savings balances out the cost of adding the protective layer, so the end price is no more than the price of a regular DVD. Dual layer The power conservation allows the development of multi-layer platforms recording and high-speed
BD-ROM: read-only format BDR and BD-RE: (RE: recordable R: formats rewritable;
recordable once) Phase change implies that the disc The section is either an amorphous or crystalline state. reflectivity changes accordingly thus representing a binary bit.
How Blu-ray Reads Data Discs store digitally encoded video and audio information in pits -- spiral grooves that run from the center of the disc to its edges. A laser reads the other side of these pits -- the bumps -- to play the movie or program that is stored on the
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DVD. The more data that is contained on a disc, the smaller and more closely packed the pits must be. The smaller the pits (and therefore the bumps), the more precise the reading laser must be. Unlike current DVDs, which use a red laser to read and write data, Blu-ray uses a blue laser (which is where the format gets its name). A blue laser has a shorter wavelength (405 nanometers) than a red laser (650 nanometers). The smaller beam focuses more precisely, enabling it to read information recorded in pits that are only 0.15 microns (µm) (1 micron = 10-6 meters) long -- this is more than twice as small as the pits on a DVD. Plus, Blu-ray has reduced the track pitch from 0.74 microns to 0.32 microns.Numerical aperature measures the ability of a lens to gather and focus light. As the numerical aperture increases, the focusing power increases and the beam size decreases. The smaller pits, smaller beam and shorter track pitch together enable a single-layer Bluray disc to hold more than 25 GB of information -- about five times the amount of information that can be stored on a DVD.
planned? As with conventional CDs and DVDs, Blu-ray plans to provide a wide range of formats including ROM/R/RW. The following formats are part of the Blu-ray Disc specification: BD-ROM software,etc. BD-R - recordable format for HD video recording and PC data storage. BD-RE - rewritable format for HD video recording and PC data storage. How much video can you fit on a Bluray disc? Over 9 hours of highdefinition (HD) video on a 50GB disc. About 23 hours of standarddefinition (SD) video on a 50GB disc. Over two hours of HDTV can be placed on a single layer BD, which correlates to over 13 hours for standard TV. At 1x speed, it takes approximately 1.5 hours to record an entire single layer BD read-only format for
distribution of HD movies, games,
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How fast can you read/write data on a Blu-ray disc? Blu-ray also has a higher data transfer rate -- 36 Mbps (megabits per second) -- than today's DVDs, which transfer at 10 Mbps. A Blu-ray disc can record 25 GB of material in just over an hour and a half. According to the Blu-ray Disc specification, 1x speed is defined as 36Mbps. However, as BD-ROM movies will require a 54Mbps data transfer rate the minimum speed we're expecting to see is 2x (72Mbps). Blu-ray also has the potential for much higher speeds, as a result of the larger numerical aperture (NA) adopted by Blu-ray Disc. The large NA value effectively means that Blu-ray will require less recording power and lower disc rotation speed than DVD and HD-DVD to achieve the same data transfer rate. While the media itself limited the recording speed in the past, the only limiting factor for Blu-ray is the capacity of the hardware. If we assume a maximum disc rotation speed of 10,000 RPM, then 12x at the outer diameter should be possible (about 400Mbps). This is why the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA) already has plans to raise the 7 Email: email@example.com
speed to 8x (288Mbps) or more in the future.
Comparison between cd, DVD and blu-ray
Just as DVD meant a five to 10 times increase in storage capacity compared to CD, Blu-ray Disc represents an increase over DVD capacity by five to 10 times. This is due, among other reasons, to the usage of a blue instead of a red laser and improved lens a specification, allowing for a much smaller focus laser beam which enables the recording of much smaller and higher density pits on the disc.
Due to the fact that the data layer on a Blu-ray Disc is placed much “closer” to the laser lens than in DVD, there is less distortion improved resulting tolerances. in significantly Hence, more
devices will allow updates to Blu-ray Discs via the Internet, adding content such as additional subtitle languages and promotional features that are not included on the disc at pressing time. This Java Version will be called BD-J and will be a subset of the Globally Executable MHP (GEM) standard. What video codecs will Blu-ray
precision and ultra-high storage densities are now possible.
support? Software Standards Java software support It was announced that Sun Microsystems' Java cross-platform software environment would be included in all Blu-ray Disc players as a mandatory part of the standard. Java will be used to implement interactive menus on Blu-ray Discs, as opposed to the method used on DVD video discs, which uses pre-rendered MPEG segments and selectable subtitle pictures, which is considerably more primitive and less seamless. Java creator James Gosling, at the conference, suggested that the inclusion of a Java Virtual Machine as well as network connectivity in BD 8 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Linear PCM (LPCM) - up to 8 channels of uncompressed audio. (Mandatory) Dolby Digital (DD) - format used for DVDs, 5.1-channel surround sound. (Mandatory) Dolby Digital Plus (DD+) - extension of What audio codecs will Blu-ray support? MPEG-2 - enhanced for HD, also used for playback of DVDs and HDTV recordings. MPEG-4 AVC - part of the MPEG-4 standard also known as H.264 (High Profile Microsoft's and Main Media Profile). Video SMPTE VC-1 - standard based on Windows (WMV) technology.
Dolby Digital, 7.1-channel surround sound. (Optional)
menu navigation, exciting, new bonus Broadest features, industry and support network/Internet connectivity. from brands you trust. More than 90% of major Hollywood studios, virtually all leading consumer electronics companies, four of the top computer brands, the world’s two largest music companies, PLAYSTATION® 3 and Disc. the leading gaming companies, all support Blu-ray
Dolby TrueHD - lossless encoding of up to 8 channels of audio. (Optional) DTS Digital Surround - format used for DVDs, 5.1-channel surround sound. (Mandatory) DTS-HD High Resolution Audio extension of DTS, 7.1-channel surround sound. DTS-HD (Optional) Advantages
(Optional) Master Audio lossless
encoding of up to 8 channels of audio.
The largest selection of highdef playback devices.Blu-ray Disc is supported by many of the leading consumer electronics and computing manufacturers. That means you can maximize the use of your HDTV and your home entertainment system with the widest playback aftermarket console. selection of high-def devices—including drives and 3 the game
Maximum picture resolution. Blu-ray Disc delivers full 1080p* video resolution capacity (25 to provide available single pristine picture quality.
layer/50 GB dual layer). Bluray Disc offers up to 5X the capacity of today’s DVDs.
Best audio possible. Blu-ray Disc provides as many as 7.1 channels of native, uncompressed surround sound for crystal-clear audio entertainment.
players, recorders, computers, PLAYSTATION® Backward
Enhanced interactivity. Enjoy such capabilities as seamless 9 Email: email@example.com
Blu-ray Disc players enable you
to continue to view and enjoy your existing DVD libraries.
Error rates increased in reading and writing after the original BD suffered fingerprints For protection, the prototype BD was enclosed in a case The case increased the size of the disc drive A hard coat was derived of an ultraviolet-curable resin that has a scratch resistance similar to the DVD An artificial fingerprint reagent is placed on the disc surface to resist fingerprint oils scratches and
Disc robustness. Breakthroughs in hard-coating technologies enable Blu-ray Disc to offer the strongest resistance to scratches and fingerprints.
Protection System HDTV contains a copyright bit that is detected by the BD recorder. If the broadcast has no copyright information Uses the Data Encryption Standard (DES) that has a key length of 56 bits A Key Block and Disc ID are written into the ROM area to prevent illegal copying Enhancements bit, then the BD recorder is allowed to store the
cartridge? 10 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
No, the development of new low cost hard-coating technologies has made the cartridge obsolete. Blu-ray will instead rely on hard-coating for protection, which when applied will make the discs even more resistant to scratches and fingerprints than today's DVDs, while still preserving the same look and feel. Blu-ray also adopts a new error correction system which is more robust and efficient than the one used for DVDs. Applications
watching another on the disc
create playlists edit or reorder programs recorded on the disc
automatically search for an empty space on the disc to avoid recording over a program
access the Web to download subtitles features and other extra
Compatibility: The Blu-ray Disc device Association to be (BDA) expects every Blu-ray Disc backward compatible with DVDs.
Blu-ray discs not only have more storage capacity than traditional DVDs, but they also offer a new level of interactivity. Users will be able to connect to the Internet download other can: and instantly and movie subtitles
Stand-alone players and the PlayStation 3: The home video game console system PlayStation 3 (Sony) is shipped with a 2x Blu-ray Disc drive. The drive is read-only as is the case with most game console optical drives. According to Sony's press releases, it supports DVD (8x), CD (24x), and SACD (2x) formats in addition to BD-ROM, BD-
features. With Blu-ray, you
record quality loss
television (HDTV) without any
instantly skip to any spot on the disc
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R, and BD-RE. Full HD 1080/60p and 24p True Cinema Video Output. AVCHD Media playback with x.v.Color output.
upgraded to play both highdefinition formats up to their native 1080p resolutions at 24-bit color.
PlayStation 3 (Sony) System
VidaBox 1. Sony BDP-S1 Player 2. Philips
MAX Dual Blu-ray Disc+HD DVD recorder 3.philips Driver Universal players (Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD): VidaBox announced the first media center PC capable of playing back both Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD. The VidaBox MAX and VidaBox LUX can have both drives 12 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Blu ray can be used in: Camcorders Personal Computer and Notebook PC Drives Recordable PC drives Portable players
it's Future Scope Expect the BD to become more prevalent once the HDTV market establishes its presence Audio and video will reach higher qualities with larger storage space Look for BD with more than two layers as the technology is further refined To ensure that the Blu-ray Disc format is easily extendable (future-proof) it also includes support for multi-layer discs, which should allow the storage capacity to be increased to 100GB-200GB (25GB per layer) in the future simply by adding more layers to the discs. There are plans for BD-ROM (read-only), BD-R (recordable) and BD-RE (rewritable) drives for PCs, and with the support of the worlds two largest PC manufacturers, HP and Dell, 2.
technology will be adopted as the next-generation optical disc format for PC data storage and replace technologies such as DVD±R, DVD±RW, and DVDRAM.
References: 1. hp http://www.blue-ray-
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluray_Disc 3. http://electronics.howstuffworks.co m/blu-ray3.htm 4. http://www.howstuffworks.com /framed.htm?parent=bluray.htm&url=http://www.bluraydisc.com 5. www.bluray.com
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