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TITLE: ROLE OF “ HCI ” IN EXTERNAL


ENVIRONMENT

ABSTRACT :

A basic goal of HCI is to improve the interaction between users and computers by
making computers more user-friendly and receptive to the user's needs.

HCI is concerned with:

• Methodologies and processes for designing interfaces (i.e., given a task and a
class of users, design the best possible interface within given constraints,
optimizing for a desired property such as learnability or efficiency of use)
• Methods for implementing interfaces .
• Techniques for evaluating and comparing interfaces
• Developing new interfaces and interaction techniques

AIM :

HCI is to design systems that minimize the barrier between the human's
cognitive model of what they want to accomplish and the computer's understanding of the
user's task .

Professional practitioners in HCI are usually designers concerned with the


practical application of design methodologies to real-world problems. Their work often
revolves around designing graphical user interfaces and web interfaces.

Researchers in HCI are interested in developing new design methodologies,


experimenting with new hardware devices, prototyping new software systems, exploring
new paradigms for interaction, and developing models and theories of interaction

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INTRODUCTION :

DEFINITION :

Systems Exhibiting with some sort of Intelligence are termed as intelligence


systems and those interactions that exist in between the computer and the user is called
as “ HCI “.

Ex :Atm , Sensors(Eye ,touch,laser applications ), robotics etc

Human–computer interaction (HCI) or computer–human interaction (CHI), deals


with the interaction between people and computers.

It is an branch of computer science which deals with the study , research and
Interaction between users and computers which includes both software and hardware.

PURPOSE :

The study of the relationship between humans and increasingly powerful,


portable, interconnected and ubiquitous computers is becoming one of the most dynamic
and significant fields of technical investigation. The Interdepartmental Graduate Major in
Human Computer Interaction is an interdisciplinary training program created to provide
advanced education and training while fostering research excellence in Human Computer
Interaction

TERMINOLOGY :

HCI vs MMI :

MMI has been used to refer to any man-machine interaction, including, but not
exclusively computers. The term was used early on in control room design for anything
operated on or observed by an operator

HCI vs CHI :

The acronym CHI (pronounced kai), for computer-human interaction, has been
used to refer to this field, perhaps more frequently in the past than now. However,
researchers and practitioners now refer to their field of study as HCI.

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USABILITY :

Usability is the degree to which the design of a particular user interface takes into
account the human psychology and physiology of the users, and makes the process of
using the system effective, efficient and satisfying.

USER INTERFACES IN COMPUTING:

The user interface is the aggregate of means by which people (the users) interact
with a particular machine, device, computer program or other complex tool (the system).
The user interface provides means of:

Input : allowing the users to manipulate a system

Output : allowing the system to produce the effects of the users' manipulation

In computer science and human-computer interaction, the user interface refers to


the graphical, textual and auditory information the program presents to the user, and the
control sequences (such as keystrokes with the computer keyboard, movements of the
computer mouse, and selections with the touchscreen) the user employs to control the
program.

HISTORY OF USER INTERFACES :

The history of user interfaces can be divided into the following phases according to
the dominant type of user interface:

• Batch interface, 1945-1968


• Command-line user interface, 1969-1983
• Graphical user interface, 1981

TYPES OF USER INTERFACES :

Graphical user interfaces (GUI) :

Accept input via devices such as computer keyboard and mouse and provide
articulated graphical output on the computer monitor. There are at least two different
principles widely used in GUI design: object-oriented interfaces (OOUI) and application
oriented interfaces.

Web-based user interfaces :

Accept input and provide output by generating web pages which are transported via
the Internet and viewed by the user using a web browser program. Newer
implementations utilize Java, AJAX, Microsoft .NET, or similar technologies to

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provide realtime control in a separate program, eliminating the need to refresh a


traditional HTML based web browser.

Crossing-based interfaces :

These are graphical user interfaces in which the primary task consists in crossing
boundaries instead of pointing.

Gesture interfaces :

These are graphical user interfaces which accept input in a form of hand gestures,
or mouse gestures sketched with a computer mouse or a stylus.

Multi-screen interfaces :

These employ mulitple displays to provide a more flexible interaction. This is often
employed in computer game interaction in both the commercial arcades and more
recently the handheld markets.

Tangible user interfaces :

It places a greater emphasis on touch and physical environment or its element.

Telephone user interfaces :

It accept input and provide output by generating telephone voice which are
transported via the telephone network and heard by the user using a telephone. The user
input is made by pressing telephone keys.

Text user interfaces :

These are user interfaces which output text, but accept other form of input in addition
to or in place of typed command strings.

Zooming user interfaces :

These are graphical user interfaces in which information objects are represented
at different levels of scale and detail, and where the user can change the scale of the
viewed area in order to show more detail.

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MODALITIES AND MODES :

MODALITY :

A modality is a path of communication employed by the user interface to carry


input and output. Examples of modalities:

• Input — computer keyboard allows the user to enter typed text, digitizing tablet
allows the user to create free-form drawing
• Output — computer monitor allows the system to display text and graphics
loudspeaker allows the system to produce sound

The user interface may employ several redundant input modalities and output
modalities, allowing the user to choose which ones to use for interaction.

MODE :

A mode is a distinct method of operation within a computer program, in which


the same input can produce different perceived results depending of the state of the
computer program. Heavy use of modes often reduces the usability of a user interface, as
the user must expend effort to remember current mode states, and switch between mode
states as necessary.

APPLICATION AREAS :

Text Editing:

The Hypertext Editing System [50, p. 108] from Brown University had screen
editing and formatting of arbitrary-sized strings with a lightpen in 1967 (funding from
IBM). NLS demonstrated mouse-based editing in 1968.

Spreadsheets:

The initial spreadsheet was VisiCalc which was developed by Frankston and
Bricklin (1977-8) for the Apple II while they were students at MIT and the Harvard
Business School.

Computer Aided Design (CAD):

The same 1963 IFIPS conference at which Sketchpad was presented also
contained a number of CAD systems, including Doug Ross's Computer-Aided Design
Project at MIT in the Electronic Systems Lab [37] and Coons' work at MIT with
SketchPad [7]

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Video Games:

The first graphical video game was probably SpaceWar by Slug Russel of MIT in
1962 for the PDP-1 [19, p. 49] including the first computer joysticks. The early computer
Adventure game was created by Will Crowther at BBN, and Don Woods developed this
into a more sophisticated Adventure game at Stanford in 1966 [19, p. 132]. Conway's
game of LIFE was implemented on computers at MIT and Stanford in 1970. The first
popular commercial game was Pong (about 1976)

CONCLUSION :

So there by HCI is playing a mojor role in the external environment in


various aspects and even to drive out various circumstances that supports the users in a
pre-defined way.

It even supports in devoluping the gestures recognitions, ultrasonic 3D


location sensing system, flowering of 3D raster graphics, 3-D real-time with commercial
systems, molecular modeling, Multi-Media & The Interactive Graphical Documents

REFERENCES : Wikipedia

• S. Bainbridge, ed. (2004): Berkshire Encyclopedia of Human-Computer


Interaction.. Great Barrington,
• Allen Newell: Ronald M. Baecker, Jonathan Grudin, William A. S. Buxton, Saul
Greenberg (1995): Readings in human-computer interaction.
• William The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction. Erlbaum, Hillsdale .

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