html everything from factory automation systems to home security systems to consumer electronics.

Zig Bee
ZigBee is a low-power the wireless wireless

The network name comes from the zigzagging path a bee (a data packet) takes to get from flower to flower (or node to node). The technique that honeybees newfound use food to communicate to other sources



sensor equation. It is a secure network technology that rides on top of the recently ratified IEEE 802.15.4 radio standard. It is designed to interact with the remote controlled devices, which are put under a single standardized control interface that can interconnect into a network. Once associated with a network, a ZigBee node can wake up and communicate with other ZigBee devices and return to sleep. Zigbee’s key technical features include three license free frequency bands2.4GHz, 868MHz, 915MHz;multiple channels; up to 100mts range; CSMACA channel access; low power, long battery life; supporting up to 255devices per network. Zigbee is used in home security systems where The wireless same is sensors true in are easily installed than sensors that need wiring. industrial environments, where wiring typically accounts for 80% of the cost of sensor installations. And then there are

members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. Using this silent, but powerful communication system, whereby the bee dances in a zigzag pattern, they are able as the to share information such location,

distance, and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members.

• • • Low cost — Extends wireless to virtually any sensor Low power consumption — Ideal for battery operation Small size, light weight — Easy to integrate

applications for sensors where wiring isn't practical or even possible. ZigBee promises to put wireless sensors in 1 Email:

Visit: • • • • • • • Ease of implementation Reliable data transfer Appropriate levels of security Direct sequence spread spectrum — Fast acquisition time Range- 50m typical (5-500m based on environment) Multiple topologies- star, peer-to-peer, mesh Data rates of 250 kbps (@2.4 GHz), 40 kbps (@ 915 MHz), and 20 kbps (@868 MHz) in PHYSICAL LAYER: ZigBee-compliant products operate unlicensed bands and worldwide, 868MHz including 2.4GHz (global), 902 to 928MHz (Americas), (Europe). Raw data throughput rates of 250Kbps can be achieved at 2.4GHz (16 channels), 40Kbps at 915MHz (10 channels), and 20Kbps at 868MHz (1 channel). The transmission distance is expected to range from 10 to 75m, depending on power output and environmental characteristics. Like WiFi, Zigbee uses direct-sequence spread spectrum in the 2.4GHz band, with offset-quardrature phase-shift keying modulation. Channel width is 2MHz with 5MHzchannel spacing. The 868 and 900MHz bands also use directsequence spread spectrum but with binary-phase-shift keying modulation

ZigBee stack architecture follows the standard Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model; ZigBee's protocol stack is structured in layers. The first two layers, physical (PHY) and media access (MAC), are defined by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The layers above them are defined by the ZigBee Alliance. The model has five layers namely 1. Physical (PHY) layer 2. Media access control (MAC) layer 3. Network (NWK) and security layers 4. Application framework 5. Application profiles
Application Object 240
APSDE-SAP [On Endpoint 24 ] 0

ApplicationFram ork ew
Application Object 1
[On Endpoin 1] t APSDE-SAP

ZigBee Device Object (ZDO)

Table: Frequency bands and data rates
Frequency Band Spreading Parameters

[On Endpoint 0] APSD E-SAP

Security Service Provider

Application Support (APS) Layer

Data Parameters


Netw (NW Layer ork K)

MediumAccess Layer (MAC) Layer

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Physical (PHY) Layer
Figure: ZigBee Stack Model

Channel Numberin g 868 to 915 MHz 868 to 870 MHz 902 to 928 MHz 0 Mod ulatio n BPS K BPS K Sym bol Rate 20 k baud 40 k baud Mod ulatio n BPS K BPS K 162.4 GHz 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz 11 to 26 2.0 M chip/s OQPS K 250 kb/s 62.5 k baud ary Orth ogon al

Chip Rate 300 k chip/s 600 k chip/s

Bit Rate 20 kb/s 40 kb/s

types defined in 802.15.4: data, ACK, MAC command, and beacon.

1 to 10

MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL LAYER The media access control (MAC) layer was designed to allow multiple topologies without power management complexity. The operation doesn't Figure:: The four basic frame types Figure:: defined in 802.15.4: Data, ACK, MAC command, and beacon

require multiple modes of operation. The MAC allows a reduced functionality device (RFD) that needn't have flash nor large amounts of ROM or RAM. The MAC was designed to handle large numbers of devices without requiring them to be "parked". The MAC provides network association and disassociation, has an optional Another important structure for 802.15.4 is the acknowledgment (ACK) frame. It frame. provides feedback from the receiver to the sender confirming that the packet was received without error. The device takes Frame structure: Figure illustrates the four basic frame 3 Email: advantage of specified "quiet time" between frames to send a short packet superframe structure with beacons for time synchronization, and a guaranteed timeslot mechanism for high-priority communications The data frame provides a payload of up to 104 bytes. The frame is numbered to ensure that all packets are tracked. A frame-check sequence ensures that packets are received without error. This frame structure improves reliability in difficult conditions.

Visit: immediately transmission. A MAC command frame provides the mechanism configuration for of remote client control nodes. and A The NWK layer supports multiple network topologies including star, cluster tree, and mesh, all of which are shown in Figure In a star topology, one of the FFD-type devices assumes the role of network coordinator and is responsible for initiating and maintaining the devices on the network. All other devices, known as end devices, directly communicate with the coordinator. In a mesh topology, the ZigBee coordinator is responsible for starting the network and for choosing key network parameters, but the network may be extended through the use of ZigBee routers. The routing algorithm uses a request-response protocol to eliminate subNETWORK LAYER ZigBee's self-forming and self-healing mesh-network architecture lets data and control messages pass from one node to another by multiple paths. This feature extends the network range and improves data reliability. It may also be used to build large, geographically dispersed Security and data integrity are key benefits of the ZigBee technology. ZigBee leverages the security model of the IEEE




centralized network manager uses MAC to configure individual clients' command frames no matter how large the network. Finally, the beacon frame wakes up client devices, which listen for their address and go back to sleep if they don't receive it. Beacons are important for mesh and cluster-tree networks to keep all the nodes synchronized without requiring those nodes to consume precious battery energy by listening for long periods of time.

optimal routing. Ultimate network size can reach 264 nodes (more than we'll probably need). Using local addressing, you can configure simple networks of more than 65,000 (216) nodes, thereby reducing address overhead Security layer

networks with smaller networks linked to form a 'cluster-tree' network.

802.15.4 MAC sub-layer which specifies four security services: access control—the


Cluster Tree

4 Email: Full Function Device
Reduced Function Device

PAN coordinator

Visit: device maintains a list of trusted devices within the network

Potential applications of zigbee include the building automation, industrial, medical and residential control & monitoring


encryption, key


uses A new twist on, "I've fallen and I can't get up” The figure basically shows a home-




encryption standard

Frame integrity to protect data from being modified by parties without cryptographic keys

monitoring system for senior citizens. Zigbee-based sensors keep an eye on elderly residents living alone and warn medics about changes in habits that are potentially serious; It switch with a tiny digital pendant (center) worn includes a light camera (left); a around the neck;

Sequential freshness to reject data frames that have been replayed—the network controller compares the freshness value with the last known value from the device and rejects it if the freshness value has not been updated to a new value

and movement tags (right), which can let the system generate an alert based either on detected movement or the lack of any movement.


Zigbee doesn't have the bandwidth to handle video. So light switch / camera combos deliver still images to a controller. An alert from the pendant or from one of the tags activates the camera. The pendant includes accelerometers that APPLICATIONS 5 Email: detect the forces of a person falling. It also contains a panic button. The device can

Visit: send a warning either to a monitoring company or family member if something is up. It can be programmed to generate an alert, for example, if a bedroom or refrigerator door hasn't opened by noon. The bugs this system catches aren't in software One of the more offbeat applications for Zigbee sensors is in catching termites. Wireless bait stations are devised which act as Zigbee nodes. In operation, the bait stations go into the ground at numerous spots surrounding a house. Each bait station has a special sensor that triggers when termites eat at the wood it contains. The station then signals this activity to a receiver, which sends an e-mail. Two key components of the system are a base station and a Home Key. The Key is envisioned to go into your pocket or onto a key chain. When the Key leaves the range of the base station, it carries with it the last status of items such as doors, windows, and lights, as read by sensors on the Zigbee network. Homeowners wondering whether they This wireless approach beats the technique now used on several levels. Existing methods force exterminators to physically check each station for activity. Termites could cause severe damage long before evidence of them could turn up during a periodic inspection. In contrast, the Zigbee bait stations monitor pest activity 24/7. And exterminators need not make long trips just to examine bait stations left the garage door open could conceivably tell by looking at the LCD in their Home Key. (However, the system stops short of asking a sympathetic neighbor to come over and rectify the problem.) The base station is smart enough to notice if one of the sensors changes state when the Home Key is out of range. In this case it can send the homeowner's cell phone a text message detailing what's wrong. 6 Email:

Visit: A variety of sensors have been devised for the system. In addition to proximity switches for doors and windows, there are devices designed to detect leaking pipes, ac loads, and even remind homeowners about periodic maintenance items such as low batteries in smoke detectors or the need for seasonal gutter cleaning. One worthy piece of the system is a water shutoff valve. Zigbeef is a solution for tracking cattle. Zigbee sensors give beef producers the ability to electronically identify cattle whether their herds are crowded into chutes, gathered into pens, or grazing open pasture. ZigBeef radio-based cattle ear tags offer superior reading-range over passive Producers infrequent wand-based are no tag technology. to scan to longer limited


IDs. ZigBeef allows identification of each animal on the range, pen, or working chute, at virtually any time. ZigBeef tags use mass-produced, non-proprietary wireless sensor technologies, offering a proven solution at an inexpensive price. [refer the greeting preview for the figure].

There are many wireless monitoring and control applications for industrial and home markets which require longer battery life, lower data rates and less complexity than available from existing wireless standards like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. So, there was a need for a standard based, interoperable wireless technology that addresses the unique needs of low data rate wireless control and sensor based networks. In this regard, zigbee was poised to become the global control/sensor network standard.

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Visit: Zigbee promises to put wireless sensors in everything from factory automation systems to home security systems to consumer electronics. Zigbee is a new standard that still needs to pass through the circles or rigorous technology critics and establish its own place in the industry. The next zigbee challenge will be devising the proposed extension to the 802.15.4 standard,’4a’ which could be based on ultra-wideband (UWB).

1. Electronics for you- November 2004 2. Computer networks-by Tanenbaum 3. 4. 5. 6.

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