• • Abstract Introduction

Architecture and Technical Details Secure Storage and Attestation Curtained Memory • • Working of palladium Protection using palladium

Uses of palladium Digital Rights Management Network Security Multiplayer Games

Case study




 • Conclusion

Re-structing data security of jntu examination system Existing system

Palladium-as a solution  Advantages

Today the illicit activities of the hackers

“SECURITY” in this contemporary scenarios has become a more sensible issue either it may be in the “REAL WORLD” or in the “CYBER WORLD”. In the real world as opposed to the cyber world an attack is often preceded by information gathering. Movie gangsters “case the joint”; soldiers “scout the area”. This is also true in the cyber world. Here the “bad guys” are referred to as intruders, eavesdroppers, hackers, hijackers, etc. The intruders would first have a panoramic view of the victim’s network and then start digging the holes.

are growing by leaps and bounds, viz., “THE RECENT ATTACK ON THE DNS SERVERS HAS CAUSED A LOT OF HULLABALOO WORLD”. antagonists reacted ALL OVER THE promptly and However, fortunately, the

resurrected the Internet world from the brink of prostration. Newton’s law says “Every action has got an equal but opposite reaction”. So is the case with this. Nevertheless the security breaches and eavesdroppers, the technological prowess has been stupendously developed to defy against each of the assaults. Our paper covers the ADVANCED technical



combats that have been devised all through the way, thus giving birth to the notion of “NETWORK -SECURITY”. Various antidotes that are in fact inextricable with security issues are – Cryptography, Authentication, Integrity and Non Repudiation, Key Distribution and certification, Access control by implementing Firewalls etc. To satiate the flaws in the network security more and more advanced security notions are being devised day by day. Our paper covers a wide perspective of such arenas where the contemporary cyber world is revolving around viz., THE DMZ ZONE, IP PALLADIUM Sec & CRYPTOGRAPHY, KERBEROS SYSTEM.

In June 2002, Microsoft released information regarding its new "Palladium" initiative. Palladium is a system that combines software and hardware controls to create a "trusted" computing platform. In doing so, it would establish an unprecedented level of control over users and their computers. Palladium could place Microsoft as the gatekeeper of identification and authentication. Additionally, systems embedded in both software and hardware would control access to content, thereby creating ubiquitous Digital Rights Management schemes that can track users and control use of media. Microsoft expects to have elements of the system in place by 2004. Professor Ross Anderson has written an extensive FAQ on the Palladium system. Seth Schoen of EFF has published a detailed summary of a meeting about Palladium. Known Elements of the Palladium System


The system purports to stop viruses by preventing the running of malicious programs. The system will store personal data within an encrypted folder.




• •

The system will depend on hardware that has either a digital signature or a tracking number. The system will filter spam. The system has a personal information sharing agent called "My Man." The system will incorporate Digital Rights Management technologies for media files of all types (music, documents, e-mail communications). Additionally, the system purports to transmit data within the computer via encrypted paths.

Architecture and Technical Details

Many questions remain regarding the Palladium system. For instance, is the system even necessary? Many of the known elements are already offered by third parties or could be accomplished through simple means that do not require identification and authentication. For instance, simply avoiding the use of Microsoft's Outlook e-mail software, which in some cases automatically executes attachments, can prevent the running of malicious code and the spread of viruses. Products already exist that can store personal information on encrypted partitions of the user's hard drive. Spam avoidance is served by a number of tools, such as whitelists, blacklists, and filtering, without any requirement of identification or authentication. "Trusted" Computing Means Controlled Computing

Architecture of NGSCB A complete Microsoft-based Trusted Computing-enabled system will consist not only of software components developed by Microsoft but also of hardware components developed by the Trusted Computing Group. The majority of features introduced by NGSCB are heavily reliant on specialised hardware and so will not operate on contemporary PCs. In current Trusted Computing specifications, there are two hardware components; the Trusted Platform Module (TPM), which will provide secure storage of cryptographic keys and a secure cryptographic co-processor, and a curtained memory feature in the Central Processing Unit (CPU). In NGSCB, there are two software components, the Nexus, a security kernel that is part of the Operating System, and Nexus Computing



Agents (NCAs), trusted modules within NGSCB-enabled applications.

Curtained Memory
NGSCB also relies on a curtained memory feature provided by the CPU. Data within curtained memory can only be accessed by the application to which it belongs, and not by any other application or the Operating System. The attestation features of the TPM can be used to confirm to a trusted application that it is genuinely running in curtained memory; it is therefore very difficult for anyone, including the owner, to trick a trusted application into running outside of curtained memory. This in turn makes reverse engineering of a trusted application extremely difficult.

Secure Storage and Attestation
At the time of manufacture, a cryptographic key is generated and stored within the TPM. This key is never transmitted to any other component, and the TPM is designed in such a way that it is extremely difficult to retrieve the stored key by reverse engineering or any other method, even to the owner. Applications can pass data encrypted with this key to be decrypted by the TPM, but the TPM will only do so under certain strict conditions. Specifically, decrypted data will only ever be passed to authenticated, trusted applications, and will only ever be stored in curtained memory, making it inaccessible to other applications and the Operating System. Although the TPM can only store a single cryptographic key securely, secure storage of arbitrary data is by extension possible by encrypting the data such that it may only be decrypted using the securely stored key. The TPM is also able to produce a cryptographic signature based on its hidden key. This signature may be verified by the user or by any third party, and so can therefore be used to provide remote attestation that the computer is in a secure state.

NGSCB-enabled applications are to be split into two distinct parts, the NCA, a trusted module with access to a limited Application Programming Interface (API), and an untrusted portion, which has access to the full Windows API. Any code which deals with NGSCB functions must be located within the NCA. The reason for this split is that the Windows API has developed over many years and is as a result extremely complex and difficult to audit for security bugs. To maximise security, trusted code is required to use a smaller, carefully audited API. Where security is not paramount, the full API is available.

Working of palladium:




attack were to get at them, these core Palladium is a new hardware and software architecture. This architecture will include a new security computing chip and design changes to a computer’s central processing unit (CPU), chipsets, and peripheral devices, such as keyboards and printers. It also will enable applications and components of these applications to run in a protected memory space that is highly resistant to tempering and interference. The pc-specific secret coding within palladium makes stolen files useless on other machines as they are physically and cryptographically locked within the hardware of the machine. This means software attacks can’t expose these secrets. Even if a sophisticated hardware Email: Palladium prevents identity theft and unauthorized access to personal data on the user’s device while on the internet and on other networks. Transactions and processes are verifiable and reliable through the attestable hardware and software architecture and they cannot be imitated. With palladium, a system’s secrets are locked in the computer and are only revealed on terms that the user has system secrets would only be applicable to the data within a single computer and could not be used on other computes.

Protection using palladium:


specified. In addition, the trusted user interface prevents snooping and impersonation. The user controls what is revealed and can separate categories of data on a single computer into distinct realms. Like a set of vaults, realms provide the assurance of separability. With distinct identifiers, policies and categories of data for each, realms allow a user to have a locked-down work environment and fully open surfing environment at the same time, on the same computer. Finally, the “ palladium” architecture will enable a new class of identity service providers that can potentially offer users choices for how their identities are represented in online transactions. These service providers can also ensure that the user is in control of policies for how personal information is revealed to others. In addition, palladium will allow users to employ identity service providers of their own choice. From the perspective of privacy ( and anti-virus protection), one of the key benefits of palladium is the ability for users to effectibely delegate certification Email: of code. Anyone can certify ‘palladium” hardware or software, and it is expected that many companies and organizations will offer this service. Allowing multiple parties to independently evaluate and certify “ palladium” capable systems means that users will be able to obtain verification of the system’s operation from organizations that they trust. In addition, this will form the basis for a strong business incentive to preserve and enhance privacy and security. Moreover, palladium allows any number of trusted internal or external entities to interact with a trusted component or trusted platform.

NGSCB is currently set to be a framework for building Trusted Computing applications. It therefore has a wide range of potential uses, but does not inherently provide any features from the point of view of the user.

Digital Rights Management
By utilising the attestation, curtained memory and cryptographic features of the TPM, a secure form of Digital Rights Management (DRM) may be developed; critics charge that although it does not


provide DRM features itself, DRM is nevertheless the primary motivation for the development of NGSCB. DRM would be implemented by encrypting DRM-protected files and only making the decryption key available to trusted applications. A wide range of copy-protection and similar features could thereby be implemented, limited only by the imagination. For example, it would be possible to create a file that can only be read on one computer, or within one organisation, or a file that can only be opened for reading three times. While any DRM-protected file could be just as easily copied or read as an unprotected file, it would be impossible to decrypt the file at an unauthorised destination, rendering it useless. diminishes the enjoyment of those games by legitimate players. Common methods of cheating include:

Modification of the game executable or video drivers, e.g. to allow the player to see through walls. This type of cheat can be prevented by using remote attestation to confirm that neither the game executable nor the video driver has been modified.

Network Security
In corporate and educational networking environments, a desirable feature of NGSCB is the ability of each workstation to securely attest that no unauthorised modifications have been made either to its hardware or software. A workstation that is unable to authenticate itself can then be automatically denied access to some or all network services pending investigation.

Modification of game network traffic in transit between the client and server, e.g. to augment a player's ability to aim their weapon in a first-person shooter game. This type of cheat can be prevented by encryption of network traffic within curtained memory prior to transmission, and corresponding decryption on the server.

Case study:
In order to eliminate the leakage of question papers, the Jawaharlal Nehru

Multiplayer Games
The attestation and curtained memory features of NGSCB could also potentially be used to prevent most kinds of cheating in multiplayer games. Cheating by various means is currently prevalent in a number of multiplayer games and



technological university (J.N.T.U), Though this system is largely stable and secure it has certain loopholes like: 1. As the encrypted question papers are also available on the Internet there is every chance of crackers downloading and trying to decrypt them. 2. This method of 4 sets of question papers has been resented by the student and teacher community alike. 3. There is every chance of failure or mismatch of the college specific C.D., due to the large number of affiliate colleges (as is been observed in some cases). 4. Also, in one case, a previous examination printed, C.D. was mistakenly at an decrypted, and the question papers thus distributed initially examination center.

Hyderabad, has recently decided to implement the system of Electronic Distribution of Examination Papers (EDEP) – a new method of conducting the examinations. In this system, 4 sets of question papers are generated and encrypted into a “college-specific” C.D. ⇒ The encrypted CD is supplied to the examination centers about 3 days in advance. ⇒ The question papers in encrypted form are also made available on the JNTU examination website. ⇒ Password to read the CDs is supplied one hour before the commencement of examination superintendent ⇒ to the principal/chief internet, cell through

Palladium-as a solution (as shown in
figure 2) Palladium is based on the concept of trusted space. A closed sphere of trust binds data or a service, to both a set of users and to a set of acceptable applications. Due to this an unauthorized user cannot access the

phone, telephone or Fax. The principal soon after receipt of password decrypts the original question papers of that day using the software supplied by JNTU examination branch. The EDEP employs the method of public key cryptography.

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by the “nexus” of the JNTU’s palladium based server. 2. If an unauthorized system (without palladium) forwards a request it is immediately rejected by the server’s trusted agent. Even if an unauthorized palladium PC tries to access the server its request is rejected. 3. The PC-specific secret coding data or software which is based on a server. In the revised system the encrypted question papers are put up on the J.N.T.U’s palladium based server and all the affiliate colleges use college-specific palladium computers. It works as follows: 1. A third party trusted agent (government programmed) who is or is private employed for It within palladium makes stolen files useless on other machines as they are physically and cryptographically locked within the hardware of the server or trusted computer. 4. During examinations the palladium computer of the college issues a request to the common trusted agent (of JNTU internet. and This college) request via is

responsible server.

granting of access to JNTU examination processes the requests and forwards only those certified

granted and each-particular question paper pertaining to

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that day is accessed by the college. Nevertheless the cumbersome combats devised against each of the security fissures, yet the cyber MAVERICKS all around the world are succeeding in their ways of perdition. This was quite evident from the E-attacks on BARC server & ADVANTAGES:  As the process of question paper down load is highly secure, the chances of leakage are literally nil.  Since this method is highly trustworthy a single set question paper system can be employed.  An advanced system of Internet communication can be adopted for a broader reach, thus eliminating the role of C.D.  Since the download of question papers is “request-specific and time bound” there can not be a case of question paper mis-match. post-September11th cyber attacks on FBI sites where even sophisticated surveillance systems couldn’t come to their rescue. A case in point is that, EATTACKS are becoming notoriously peerless as compared with the traditional nuke-wars. Consequently, in the quench of thirst for more and more secured systems BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS, QUANTUM-CRYPTOGRAPHY and many more are innovatively being implemented at a cumulative pace. If we are not exaggerating, let’s be optimistic of a 100% foolproof, secured global village in the near future. Doesn’t Forget Newton’s law say “Every action Every has got an equal but opposite reaction”?

The capability of security enabled components still lags behind the claims. Basic security challenges in the corporate realm are not yet completely addressed.

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♦ ♦ ♦

Digit magazine,

Topics- 1 & 2.

Microsoft Press Pass, Topics- 3 & 4.

J.N.T.U website



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