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978-1-4577-2109-0/11/$26.

00 2011 IEEE 70
Proceedings of the 2011 Winter Simulation Conference
S. Jain, R.R. Creasey, J. Himmelspach, .P. White, and !. "u, eds.
SIMULATION OPTIMIZATION OF PART INPUT SEQUENCE IN A FLEXIBLE
MANUFACTURING SYSTEM
Howe Chiat Cheng David Yin Kai Chan
Republic Polytechnic Advent2 Labs Consultation Pte. Ltd.
9 oodlands Avenue 9 2! Kallang Avenue" Level 2" Pico C#eative Cent#e
$%&'(9)*+" $,-.AP/R0 $%''9*11+" $,-.AP/R0
ABSTRACT
2his pape# desc#ibes the develop3ent o4 a si3ulation 3odel 4o# p#oduction planning pe#sonnel to ca##y
out opti3i5ation o4 pa#t input se6uence. 2he 3odel si3ulates a 4le7ible 3anu4actu#ing syste3 4o# the
p#oduction o4 3achined co3ponents. 8sing a custo3 built use# inte#4ace" the planne# i3po#ts p#oduction
and de3and data 4#o3 an 07cel sp#eadsheet into the 3odel. 2he 3odel opti3i5es pa#t input se6uence by
si3ulating di44e#ent co3binations o4 pa#t input se6uences and dete#3ining the co3bination with the high9
est total slac: ti3e. $i3ulation conducted by the autho#s using this 3odel shows that even a sho#t" pa#tial
opti3i5ation #un yields a schedule with i3p#oved slac:. P#esented in the pape# a#e the steps involved in
the develop3ent o4 the 3odel and the bene4its o4 the si3ulation9opti3i5ation 3odel to the planne#.
1 INTRODUCTION
;le7ible 3anu4actu#ing syste3s %;<$+ a#e highly auto3ated 3anu4actu#ing syste3s that co3p#ise co39
pute# nu3e#ical cont#olled %C-C+ 3achines" an auto3ated 3ate#ial handling syste3" a pa#t 4i7tu#e and
sto#age syste3 and hu3an ope#ato# wo#:stations. Due to a ;<$=s 4le7ibility in p#ocessing a va#iety o4
pa#ts si3ultaneously" p#oduction scheduling can be daunting and p#ope# planning is necessa#y in achiev9
ing desi#able ope#ational e44iciencies such as sho#t p#oduction lead ti3e" adaptability to changing custo39
e# needs and low invento#y %2e3pel3eie# and Kuhn 199'+. 2he #esea#ch o4 ;<$ scheduling has gene#at9
ed 3uch inte#ests and 3any 3athe3atical algo#ith3s have been c#eated 4o# the scheduling p#oble3. <ost
#esea#ch 4ocused on single ob>ective opti3i5ation and dealt with speci4ic ;<$ con4igu#ations %8dhaya9
:u3a# and Ku3anan 2!1!+.
2he inhe#ent co3ple7ity" high invest3ent cost and i3po#tance o4 scheduling in a ;<$ suggest that
si3ulation can be a valuable tool. 2he#e have been 3any si3ulation studies done and #ecent ones include
pa#t launching and se6uencing decisions %?oseph and $#idha#an 2!!9+" analysis o4 3ate#ial handling sys9
te3 pe#4o#3ance %Devi:a# et al. 2!1!+" evaluation o4 tool assign3ent algo#ith3s %@ui#oga" Cio#cia#i and
Rossetti 2!!&+ and evaluation 3ethodology o4 cont#ol st#ategies in ;<$ %adhwa" $ingholi and P#a:ash
2!!9+. -eve#theless" the#e is a sense that si3ulation has been unde#9utili5ed in 3anu4actu#ing due to a
nu3be# o4 4acto#s %<cLean and Leong 2!!1+. ;o# si3ulation to be a 3o#e #eadily accepted and use4ul
tool" it will need to de3onst#ate g#eate# #eal9ti3e planning and scheduling capability to #espond to the in9
c#easingly dyna3ic natu#e o4 3anu4actu#ing %D#a:e" $3ith" and Pete#s 199A+.
2he study desc#ibed in this pape# is an endeavo# at developing a si3ulation 3odel as an e44icient
schedule# 4o# opti3i5ing pa#t input se6uence in a ;<$. 2he 3odel was built using ;le7si3 so4twa#e
%;le7si3 $o4twa#e P#oducts" ,nc. 2!11+ and has a use#9inte#4ace %:nown as the $chedule#+ that enables
pa#t and p#ocess data p#epa#ed in an 07cel 4ile to be i3po#ted into the 3odel. /pt@uest" the opti3i5ation
3odule in ;le7si3" is con4igu#ed to #un di44e#ent se6uences o4 pa#t input and dete#3ine the se6uence with
the highest total slac:. 8sing this si3ulation opti3i5ation 3ethod" the p#oduction planne# is able to in9
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c#ease the e44iciency o4 the o#de# scheduling tas:. A '!93inute opti3i5ation #un based on a 1&!9pa#t o#de#
has shown that a potential i3p#ove3ent o4 2.'B in total slac: ti3e can be achieved by i3ple3enting the
new input se6uence.
2he pape# is o#gani5ed as 4ollowsC $ection 2 desc#ibes the 4le7ible 3anu4actu#ing syste3 in the study.
$ection ' cove#s 3odel building and assu3ptions. $ection * p#esents the wo#: on ve#i4ication and valida9
tion. $ection A desc#ibes the opti3i5ation p#ocess and #esults. Lastly" $ection ) p#ovides concluding #e9
3a#:s 4o# the study.
2 MANUFACTURING SYSTEM AND PROCESS OVERVIEW
2he 4le7ible 3anu4actu#ing syste3 %;<$+ in the study consists o4 ) C-C 3achines %:nown as 3achining
cente#s o# <Cs+" 1 coo#dinate 3easu#e3ent 3achine %C<<+ and 2 wo#: cont#ol stations %C$+ %;igu#e
1+. 2he#e a#e seve#al sto#age #ac:s in the syste3" which sto#e 3ulti94aceted 4i7tu#es %<;;+ used to hold
pa#ts in place du#ing 3achining. An auto3ated #ail guided vehicle %R.D+ 4acilitates the <;; 3ove3ent
between sto#age #ac:s" wo#: stations and 3achining cente#s. 2he tu#n tables auto3ate the t#ans4e# o4 the
<;; between the R.D and 3achining cente#sE C<<E C$. Flan: inspection and clean G p#ess stations
cannot be #eached by the R.D. /pe#ato#s ca##y the pa#ts to these 2 stations.
;igu#e 1C Layout o4 the ;le7ible <anu4actu#ing $yste3
;igu#e 2 shows the gene#al 4low o4 the 3anu4actu#ing p#ocess. 2he p#ocess begins at one o4 the C$
with the 4i7ing o4 a pa#t onto a speci4ic 4ace o4 the <;; by the ope#ato#. He will activate the R.D to
3ove the pa#t to the 4i#st 3achine. /nce the pa#t is p#ocessed and e7its 4#o3 the 3achining cente#" the
R.D #etu#ns it to the C$ and the ope#ato# will unload it 4#o3 the <;;. 2he ope#ato# then 4i7es the pa#t
to anothe# <;; acco#ding to assigned in4o#3ation 4o# the ne7t 3achining p#ocess. ,4 the #e6ui#ed 3achin9
ing cente# o# C$ is not available" the <;; that contains the pa#t will be sent to the sto#age #ac: to wait.
Pa#ts a#e selected 4o# C<< inspection acco#ding to a sa3pling plan. 2he selected pa#ts a#e sent to the
C<< a4te# eve#y 3achining p#ocess. ,4 a pa#t 4ails C<< inspection" it will be t#anspo#ted to the p#evious
3achining cente# and be #e93achined. A blan: inspection is ca##ied out a4te# eve#y success4ul C<< in9
spection" upon unloading o4 the pa#t 4#o3 the <;;. Pa#ts that 4ail the blan: inspection a#e #e3oved 4#o3
the ;<$ and :ept in view pending action by an enginee#. ;inally" a pa#t 3ay #e6ui#e clean G p#ess a4te#
ce#tain 3achining p#ocess.
/#de#s a#e #eceived in batches indicating pa#t nu3be#" 6uantity and due date. Lead ti3e can #ange
4#o3 ' days %u#gent #e6uest+ to ' 3onths" though typically the du#ation is 1 wee:. 2he ope#ational ai3 o4
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the ;<$ is to co3plete e7isting o#de#s within the sho#test ti3e in o#de# to 3a7i3i5e the total slac: ti3e
%slac: ti3e 4o# each o#de# H due ti3e I actual co3pletion ti3e+. ,t is not in4#e6uent 4o# custo3e#s to hand
in u#gent o#de#s" in which case the challenge will be to co3plete the3 as soon as possible while 3eeting
the due dates o4 the e7isting o#de#s. Fesides the dyna3ic natu#e o4 inco3ing o#de#s" the ;<$ contains a
nu3be# o4 co3ple7ities that 3a:es pa#t input scheduling a de3anding tas:C
;igu#e 2C Pa#t p#ocess 4low o4 the ;le7ible <anu4actu#ing $yste3
1. 2he ope#ato# can launch the p#oduction o4 any new pa#ts at any ti3e" and will do so as long as the
C$ and the #e6ui#ed <;; a#e available.
2. 2ypically a pa#t #e6ui#es 4ive to eight 3achining p#ocesses to co3plete p#oduction. $o3e pa#ts
ta:e longe# due to sa3pling inspection and the possibility o4 #ewo#:.
'. heneve# the#e a#e 3any in9p#ocess pa#ts" the C$ natu#ally beco3es the bottlenec:. 2he pa#ts
waiting to ente# the wo#: station could be 4#o3 one o4 the 4ollowingC 3achining cente#" C<<"
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cleanEp#ess p#ocess" blan: inspection" o# new pa#t launch. ,t is di44icult to plan a schedule with
3ini3al waiting ti3e due to the co3ple7 natu#e o4 the p#ocess 4low.
*. /the# pa#ts o4 the ;<$ 3ay also e7pe#ience 6ueuing. 2hey include the <;;" R.D" 3achining
cente#" C<<" blan: inspection and p#essEclean station.
3 MODEL BUILDING
e built the ;<$ 3odel using ;le7si3 si3ulation so4twa#e. ;le7si3 o44e#s a '9D view 4o# 3odel build9
ing and ani3ates the p#ocess 4low" which is ve#y use4ul when p#esenting the si3ulation 3odel to the p#o9
cess owne#s. 2he layout and di3ensions o4 the 4acility we#e c#eated in an AutoCAD d#awing. 2he d#aw9
ing was i3po#ted into ;le7si3 and used to calib#ate the 3odel to scale. ;o# e7a3ple" the distance
between any 2 3achining cente#s as well as the 3ove3ent speed o4 the ope#ato# and the R.D a#e accu9
#ately #ep#esented in the 3odel.
;#o3 ;le7si3=s disc#ete ob>ect lib#a#y" we pic:ed suitable ob>ects and custo3i5ed thei# '9D appea#9
ance to const#uct the ;<$ 3odel shown in ;igu#e '. .lobal 2ables a#e used e7tensively 4o# data input
and to :eep t#ac: o4 pa#t status du#ing si3ulation. Additional p#og#a33ing using ;le7sc#ipt %si3ila# to
CJJ language+ we#e ca##ied out to inco#po#ate the below algo#ith3s into the 3odelC
0ve#y pa#t type has a uni6ue p#oduction #outing togethe# with speci4ic 3achining ti3ings.
0ach <;; has a nu3be# o4 4aces and each 4ace can be 4i7ed with a pa#t. Fe4o#e a pa#t is sent to a
3achining cente#" it has to be loaded onto a pa#ticula# 4ace o4 an assigned <;;" and this in4o#9
3ation is p#e9dete#3ined and dependent on the 3achining p#ocess.
A <;; 3ay be 4i7ed with 3o#e than one pa#t. ,4 a <;; contains two o# 3o#e pa#ts" and thei# ne7t
p#ocess utili5es the sa3e 3achining cente#" the pa#ts will be p#ocessed consecutively in the 3a9
chining cente# without having to unload one 4inished pa#t 4#o3 the <;; 4i#st.
,4 a <;; that is 4i7ed with a pa#tEpa#ts is available" it will be called upon to be loaded with a new
pa#t wheneve# possible.
P#io#ity o4 pa#t ent#y into 3achining cente#s is based on 4i#st9co3e94i#st9se#ved %;C;$+ #ule. ;o#
ent#y into the C$s" waiting pa#ts a#e acco#ded the 4ollowing o#de#C 1+ pa#ts #etu#ning 4#o3 3a9
chining cente# o# C<< to be unloaded" 2+ new pa#t launch" and '+ pa#ts #etu#ning 4#o3 clean G
p#ess o# blan: inspection to be loaded. ,4 the#e a#e 3o#e than one pa#t #etu#ning 4#o3 the sa3e
p#ocess" the ent#y o#de# is ;C;$.
2he R.D ope#ates on a ;C;$ basis with #ega#d to pa#ts waiting 4o# t#anspo#tation.
3.1 Assum!"#$s
All p#ocess ti3ings %3achining" inspections" clean G p#ess" loading" unloading and 3ove3ent+ ta:e on
constant values in the 3odel. 2he assu3ption is that p#ocessing and t#anspo#t ti3e va#iations a#e s3all
and does not in4luence the co3pa#ison o4 di44e#ent input se6uences. Anothe# assu3ption is having a 4i7ed
C<< sa3pling plan and inspection pass #ate as well as p#e9dete#3ined pe#iods o4 ope#ato# b#ea: and 4a9
cility 3aintenance. Downti3e 4#o3 3achine b#ea:down is not conside#ed as the data is unavailable. ;i9
nally" 4o# blan: inspection #e>ection #ate" histo#ical #eco#ds showed that the occu##ence is #ando3 and in9
4#e6uent. A s3all #e>ection #ate is conside#ed when validating the 3odel. Howeve#" it is not applied in
opti3i5ation #uns as it will not a44ect the opti3al se6uence o4 pa#t input.
% VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION
2he 3odel was put th#ough #igo#ous debugging. ,n o#de# 4o# the so4twa#e to detect e7plicit e##o#s in the
3odel" all pa#t types we#e included" each having an o#de# 6uantity o4 th#ee. 0ach ti3e an e##o# was un9
cove#ed and debugged" 1! si3ulation #uns we#e subse6uently 3ade. Di44e#ent input se6uences we#e gen9
e#ated 4o# the #uns to inc#ease debugging e44ectiveness. 2o ensu#e that the#e is no logic e##o#" the 3ove9
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3ents o4 individual pa#ts we#e obse#ved th#ough the enti#e p#ocess. ,n9p#ocess in4o#3ation we#e #eco#ded
and ve#i4ied du#ing the si3ulation.
;igu#e 'C ;le7si3 si3ulation sc#eenshot o4 the ;<$ 3odel
/nce we we#e satis4ied with the 3odel" the si3ulation was p#esented to the p#oduction supe#viso# and
the 3ain planne#. $tep9by9step si3ulation o4 the enti#e p#oduction p#ocess via '9D ani3ation enabled the
audience to visuali5e the di44e#ent pa#ts o4 the ;<$ in the 3odel" inspect the accu#acy in the p#ocess 4low
and t#anspo#t ti3ings and unde#stand how the assu3ptions a44ect the si3ulation. 2o validate the 3odel" a
1'29pa#t histo#ical o#de# we#e used and the scena#io si3ulated 4o# 1! #eplications. 2he output o4
3a:espan as well as ave#age utili5ations we#e assessed to be acceptable to the p#ocess owne#s %2able 1+.
2able 1C $i3ulation #esults 4o# ;<$ pe#4o#3ance
<a:espan %3inutes+
Ave#age 8tili5ation
Flan: ,nspec9
tion Re>ect
<achining
Cente#s C<< C$ R.D
**9'.9 K 1**.&L *9.&B 1(.AB )*.9B 12.&B 1'.1B
L<a:espan value indicates 3ean and 9!B con4idence inte#valM the othe#s a#e 3ean
,t was obse#ved 4#o3 the #esult that the deviation o4 the 3a:espan values 4#o3 the 3ean can be as
la#ge as 2.* hou#s based on 9!B con4idence li3its. 2he#e a#e 2 cont#ibuting 4acto#s to the va#iationC a+
Rando3 C<< inspection 4ailu#es inc#ease the 3a:espan as a #esult o4 #e93achining" b+ A s3all p#obabil9
ity o4 #e>ect 4#o3 blan: inspection %once a pa#t 4ails blan: inspection" it e7its the syste3+. e also noted
that the#e is a deg#ee o4 negative co##elation between 3a:espan and the ave#age utili5ation o4 the 3a9
chines %;igu#e *+.
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Cheng and Chan
& OPTIMIZATION
,n cu##ent p#actice" the planne# sta#ts to p#epa#e the $e6uence o4 /#de# %$/+ on the 4i#st wo#: day o4 the
wee: 4o# the 4ollowing wee:. 2he $/ is sub>ect to 4#e6uent changes 4#o3 u#gent o#de#s and change o#9
de#s. 2h#oughout the wee:" the planne# will atte3pt to #educe the co3pletion ti3e by ad>usting the se9
6uence acco#ding to his e7pe#ience o# by t#ial9and9e##o#. 2he schedule is #eady only at the end o4 the
wee:. ith the i3ple3entation o4 a use# inte#4ace 4o# data input %the $chedule#+ and si3ulation opti3i5a9
tion in ;le7si3" the c#eation o4 $/ ta:es about 1.A hou#s. 2his g#eatly #educes the p#epa#ation ti3e" giv9
ing the planne# the option to wo#: on the $/ on the last wo#: day o4 the wee:.
;igu#e *C Dalidation #esults showing negative co##elation between 3achine utili5ation and 3a:espan
&.1 W#'()*#+
;igu#e A illust#ates the wo#:4low 4#o3 #aw wo#: o#de# to the $/ gene#ated by the opti3i5ation. 2he p#e9
li3ina#y input se6uence to the 3odel is a list o4 wo#: o#de#s gene#ated th#ough <aste# $cheduling. 0ach
wo#: o#de# contains the pa#t nu3be#" 6uantity #e6ui#ed and due date. 2he planne# will input the wo#: o#9
de# in4o#3ation into an 07cel sp#eadsheet. A 3ac#o p#og#a3 is w#itten to b#ea: down the o#de#s into None
pieceO o#de#s. 2hese data a#e then i3po#ted into the ;le7si3 3odel.
Raw Work
Order
Simulation Model
Spreadsheet
Interface
Optimized Se-
quence of Order
Optimization
Module
;igu#e AC Data 4low between wo#: o#de# and si3ulation opti3i5ation
hen the p#oduction and o#de# data a#e #eady" the planne# #uns the opti3i5ation 3odule %/pt@uest+
within ;le7si3. ,n /pt@uest" the se6uence o4 each o#de# is t#eated as a decision va#iable and the opti3i9
5ation engine atte3pts to 3a7i3i5e the total slac: to achieve the opti3al input se6uence. $ubse6uently
the #esult is e7po#ted bac: to the sp#eadsheet as $e6uence o4 /#de#.
&.2 O!"m",-!"#$ Fu$.!"#$
2he assu3ption in developing the ob>ective 4unction is that o#de#s a#e to be scheduled and co3pleted
such that the#e is 3a7i3u3 total slac:. $lac: is de4ined as the di44e#ence between the due ti3e and co39
pletion ti3e 4o# each wo#: o#de#" whe#e when slac: is positive" the o#de# is ea#ly and when slac: is nega9
tive" the o#de# is late. $ince all o#de#s a#e in the ;<$ and #eady 4o# p#ocessing at ti3e !" 3a7i3i5ing total
slac: is the sa3e as 3ini3i5ing the ave#age co3pletion ti3e o# 4low ti3e.
<athe3atically" let n be the o#de# o4 wo#: o#de# whe#e n is a positive intege# nu3be#" #
d
is the due
ti3e and #
c
is the actual co3pletion ti3e. 2he slac: 4o# the n
th
wo#: o#de# isC Slac$
n
% &#
d
' #
c
(, whe#e n
is 1, 2, )...
,4 the ob>ective is to have a schedule whe#e the total slac: o4 wo#: o#de#s is as high as possible" the
ob>ective 4unction isC !a*imi+e #otal Slac$ % ,
n
&#
d
' #
c
(, whe#e n is 1, 2, )...
,4 it is desi#able to ensu#e that the due ti3e o4 wo#: o#de# i is 3et" the due ti3e const#aint 4o# the wo#:
o#de# can be addedC Slac$
i
- 0
&.3 O!"m",-!"#$ R/su*!
2he scena#io used 4o# ou# si3ulation opti3i5ation #un is based on an o#de# o4 1&! pa#ts. 2he nu3be# o4
possible co3binations o4 o#de# input se6uence is 1&!PEQn
i
P" whe#e n
i
is the nu3be# o4 pa#ts 4o# pa#t type i.
2he opti3i5ation p#og#a3 #uns a di44e#ent se6uence in each scena#io" so si3ulating all co3binations o4
se6uence is p#actically i3possible. ,n ou# co3pa#ison study %#esults shown in 2able 2" ;igu#e ) and &+" a
'!93inute ti3e 4#a3e was i3posed on the opti3i5ation. A total o4 2! scena#ios 4o# the 1&!9pa#t wo#: o#9
de# we#e #un. <o#e #uns should i3p#ove the slac: ti3e 4u#the#.
2able 2C Co3pa#ison o4 slac: be4o#e and a4te# opti3i5ation
Fe4o#e /pti3i5ation A4te# /pti3i5ation ,3p#ove3ent P9value 4o# 29
$a3ple 29test
Ave#age slac: A*'.' days AA).! days 12.& days
%2.'*B+
R !
$tanda#d deviation 2.&9 days 2.1! days
A 29sa3ple hypothesis 29test was pe#4o#3ed to co3pa#e the slac: ti3e 4o# the wo#: o#de# be4o#e %the
actual histo#ical $/+ and a4te# opti3i5ation. 2he slac: i3p#ove3ent" though s3all in pe#centage te#3s" is
statistically signi4icant. 2he opti3i5ation is see:ing the best non9delay schedule" which st#ictly spea:ing"
3ay not be opti3al but will be close to opti3al 3ost o4 the ti3e %As:in and $tand#idge 199'+.
0 CONCLUSION
e p#esented a pape# desc#ibing the develop3ent o4 a si3ulation 3odel 4o# a co3ple7 ;<$. 2he si3ula9
tion opti3i5ation app#oach opti3i5es the pa#t input se6uence by dete#3ining the se6uence that has the
highest total slac: ti3e. 2he va#iables in the si3ulation a#e the input se6uence" the sa3pling #ate 4o#
C<< inspection and the inspection 4ail #ate. ,t is possible to study the e44ect o4 othe# 4acto#s such as 3a9
te#ial 3ove3ent speed" 3achine b#ea:down and pa#t dispatch #ule on the ;<$=s pe#4o#3ance. 2he use o4
the 3odel and a custo3i5ed use# inte#4ace p#ovides 4o# 3o#e e44icient p#oduction scheduling.
;igu#e )C ;le7si3 #esults 4o# slac: be4o#e opti3i5ation %values shown in seconds+
;igu#e &C ;le7si3 #esults 4o# slac: a4te# opti3i5ation %values shown in seconds+
2he cu##ent opti3i5ation 3ethod o4 si3ulating eve#y se6uence co3bination is ti3e consu3ing" espe9
cially when the nu3be# o4 pa#ts is high. -o heu#istic was used to 3ini3i5e the nu3be# o4 #uns in the
study but it is possible to c#eate const#aints in the opti3i5ation to #educe the nu3be# o4 #uns. ;o# e7a39
ple" the o#de#s can be p#e9so#ted in ascending o#de# o4 the total #un ti3e. Const#aints 3ay be added such
that the opti3i5ation engine does not conside# scena#ios whe#e o#de#s with the s3allest total #un ti3e a#e
late in the se6uence. 2he const#aints can be p#e9p#og#a33ed and initiated with the $chedule# inte#4ace.
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AUT1OR BIOGRAP1IES
1OWE C1IAT C1ENG is a senio# acade3ic sta44 in Republic Polytechnic" $ingapo#e and holds a
<aste# o4 $cience deg#ee in ,ndust#ial and $yste3s 0nginee#ing 4#o3 -ational 8nive#sity o4 $ingapo#e.
He develops and delive#s acade3ic cu##iculu3 in the a#eas o4 ope#ations 3anage3ent" #eliability engi9
nee#ing" 3anu4actu#ing planning and othe# sub>ects in the #eal3 o4 indust#ial and ope#ations 3anage3ent.
He 4#e6uently supe#vises si3ulation p#o>ects ca##ied out 4o# co3panies in the logistics and 3anu4actu#ing
indust#ies. P#io# to being an acade3ic sta44" he wo#:ed as an analyst in the de4ense indust#y building op9
ti3i5ation and si3ulation 3odels to dete#3ine logistics suppo#t #e6ui#e3ents. His e3ail add#ess is
chengShowe S chiatT#p.edu.sg .
DAVID YIN 2AI C1AN holds a <aste# deg#ee o4 0nginee#ing $cience 4#o3 8nive#sity o4 -ew $outh
ales in <anu4actu#ing <anage3ent" Fachelo# o4 0nginee#ing deg#ee 4#o3 -ational 8nive#sity o4 $in9
gapo#e and Ce#ti4icate in P#oduction and ,nvento#y <anage3ent %CP,<+ by 2he Association o4 /pe#a9
tions <anage3ent. He is the <anaging Consultant with Advent2 Labs since ?uly 2!!1 and p#ovides con9
sultation in i3p#oving p#oductivity and p#ocess #e9enginee#ing #elated p#o>ect i3ple3entation. His clients
include -ational Lib#a#y Foa#d" yeth Pha#3aceutical" Ha3ilton $undst#and" $ie3ens <ate#ial Han9
dling" ,<, %Philippines+" Hewlett Pac:a#d and $ingapo#e ,nstitute o4 <anu4actu#ing 2echnology. He is al9
so cu##ently an Acade3ic Associate with Republic Polytechnic and a 3e3be# o4 ,nstitute o4 0nginee#s"
$ingapo#e" and ,nstitute o4 ,ndust#ial 0nginee#s" $ingapo#e. His e3ail add#ess is
chany:Tadvent2labs.co3.