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FOUNDATION IN SCIENCE

APRIL 2012 FINAL EXAMINATION


SUBJECT: BIOLOGY 1
SUBJECT CODE: FIS0414
TIME ALLOWED: 3 HOURS
(2.00 PM !.00 PM"
DATE: APRIL 24# 2012
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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATE:
1. Answer ALL questions.
2. There are FORTY (40" questions in SECTION A.
3. There are SIX (8" questions in SECTION B.
INFORMATION TO CANDIDATE:
1. You are permitted to use a non-programmable electronic calculator in this
examination.
SECTION A
A+&9'3 ALL :6'&,%-+&
1. When using a light microscope, magniication o the structure being obser!ed can be
increased b" a !ariation in the
A. light intensit".
#. stage position.
$. ob%ecti!e lens power.
&. iris diaphragm setting.
R';'3 ,- ,$' ;-00-9%+5 4%)53)* -; ) 1'00 ,- )+&9'3 :6'&,%-+ 2.
2. A protein being pac'aged and modiied or export would be ound in
A. W
#. (
$. Y
&. )
2
3. Which o the ollowing t"pes o molecules are s"nthesi*ed in the rough endoplasmic
reticulum+
A. lipids
#. proteins
$. nucleic acids
&. carboh"drates
R';'3 ,- ,$' ;-00-9%+5 4%)53)* -; ) 1'00 ,- )+&9'3 :6'&,%-+ 4.
,. #ased on the internal structure, the cell is li'el" to
A. be a chee' epithelial cell.
#. be a mature red blood cell.
$. require high le!els o ox"gen.
&. produce high le!els o sugars.
-. The organelle which contains inormation or the production o protein in a cell is
A. the nucleus.
#. the nucleolus.
$. the .olgi bod".
&. the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

R';'3 ,- ,$' ;-00-9%+5 4%)53)* -; ) 1'00 -35)+'00' ,- )+&9'3 :6'&,%-+ 8.
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/. 0ne unction o structure X is to
A. replicate &1A.
#. produce am"lase.
$. transcribe m21A.
&. h"drol"*e nuclease.
R';'3 ,- ,$' ;-00-9%+5 4%)53)* -; ) 1'00 *'*.3)+' ,- )+&9'3 :6'&,%-+ <.
3. 4 a substance temporaril" intereres with the unction o the structure labelled X, which o
the ollowing would occur+
A. The brea'down o worn-out cell organelles would stop.
#. There would be an increase in the production o m21A.
$. The number o amino acid molecules entering the cell would decrease.
&. The acti!e transport o water across the cell membrane would decrease.
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,
5. The polarit" o the molecule abo!e accounts or which o the ollowing characteristics+
A. An acidic p6
#. 7ow densit" as a liquid
$. 4ts abilit" to act as a sol!ent
&. 4ts abilit" to buer reactions
T$' 4%)53)* %& ) *-4'0 -; )+ %*2-3,)+, .%-0-5%1)0 23-1'&&.
8. What prediction can be made using the model+
A. 9alt ions mo!e b" osmosis into an area o low solute concentration rom an area o high
solute concentration.
#. 9alt ions mo!e b" diusion rom an area o high solute concentration to an area o low
solute concentration.
$. Water molecules mo!e b" diusion rom an area o high solute concentration to an area
o low solute concentration.
&. Water molecules mo!e b" osmosis rom an area o low solute concentration to an area o
high solute concentration.
1:. A characteristic o unsaturated att" acids is that the"
-
A. are made up o gl"cerol.
#. are pol"mers o glucose.
$. are pol"mers o nucleotides.
&. ha!e double bonds between some carbon atoms.
11. The ma%or component o a plant cell wall is a product ormed rom the deh"dration
s"nthesis o
A. att" acids
#. nucleotides
$. amino acids
&. monosaccharides
12. 6ow are starch and cellulose similar+
A. #oth are pol"mers o glucose.
#. #oth are produced in human cells.
$. #oth are components o the cell membrane.
&. #oth can be digested b" en*"mes produced in the pancreas.
13. ;rimar" protein structure is dependent on
A. peptide bonding.
#. h"drogen bonding.
$. bonding between 2-groups.
&. bonds between protein molecules.
1,. .l"cogen is
A. a pol"saccharide ound in animal cells.
#. an energ"-storing lipid molecule.
$. a molecule in which plants store sugars.
&. a pol"saccharide ound in plant cell walls.
1-. Two water molecules are produced b" the union o glucose molecules during
deh"dration s"nthesis. The new molecule ormed is a
A. dipeptide.
#. disaccharide.
$. pol"saccharide.
&. monosaccharide.
1/. $arboh"drates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids are similar because the"
A. act as catal"sts.
/
#. are made up o carbon atoms.
$. ha!e a tertiar" shape held together b" h"drogen bonds.
&. orm part o the phospholipid bila"er in the cell membrane.
13. <xperiments were carried out to show the eects o p6 and temperature on en*"me acti!it".
The experiments also tested the eects o a chemical called an inhibitor. The results are
shown in the graphs.
The best conclusion that can be drawn rom these results is that the inhibitor aects
A. p6.
#. temperature.
$. en*"me acti!it".
&. en*"me concentration.

15. <n*"mes increase the rate o a reaction b"
A. producing energ".
#. becoming denatured.
$. producing coen*"mes.
&. decreasing the energ" o acti!ation.
18. =itamins unction as
3
A. en*"mes.
#. coen*"mes.
$. emulsiiers.
&. competiti!e inhibitors.
2:. Which o the ollowing is +-, a part o the theor" o how an en*"me unctions+
A. The shape o the acti!e site acilitates a reaction.
#. The en*"me and substrate it li'e a loc' and 'e".
$. The en*"me lowers the acti!ation energ" required or the reaction.
&. The shape o the en*"me is permanentl" changed b" the chemical reaction.
R';'3 ,- ,$' ;-00-9%+5 4%)53)* ,- )+&9'3 :6'&,%-+ 21.
METABOLIC PATHWAY
21. 4 substance ? inhibits en*"me 2, this will in turn inhibit the production o
A. en*"me 1.
#. en*"me 2.
$. substance W.
&. substance Y.
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22. The structure labelled ( in the reaction abo!e is
A. product.
#. en*"me.
$. substrate.
&. en*"me-substrate complex.
R';'3 ,- ,$' 4%)53)* -+ '+@A*' )1,%7%,A .'0-9 ,- )+&9'3 :6'&,%-+ 23
23. Which one o the graphs abo!e represents the data rom an experiment exploring the eect
o p6 on the acti!it" o pepsin+
A. W
#. (
$. Y
&. )
2,. The ma%orit" o AT; is produced b"
A. gl"col"sis.
#. the >rebs c"cle.
$. the respirator" chain.
&. $02 reducing reactions.
2-. The autotrophic acti!ities o plant cells occur in the
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A. c"toplasm.
#. chloroplast.
$. ribosome.
&. nucleus.
R';'3 ,- ,$' ;-00-9%+5 4%)53)* -; ) 1$0-3-20)&, ,- )+&9'3 :6'&,%-+ 28.
2/. The area o the diagram in which 1A&; is produced is
A. W
#. (
$. Y
&. )
23. The most eecti!e wa!elengths o the light spectrum or photos"nthesis are
A. red and "ellow.
#. blue and "ellow.
$. red and blue.
&. blue and purple.
25. &uring the light-dependent reactions o plants the ollowing occurs
A. electron transport.
#. chemiosmosis.
$. splitting o water.
&. all o the abo!e.
28. &uring c"clic photophosphor"lation,
1:
A. ox"gen is generated.
#. water is split.
$. AT; is produced.
&. 1A&;6 is produced.
3:. Which one o the ollowing acts as an electron carrier in cellular respiration+
A. A&;.
#. AT;.
$. 0x"gen.
&. 1A&
?
31. 7actic acid ermentation occurs in

A. bread dough.
#. an" en!ironment containing ox"gen.
$. muscle cells.
&. mitochondria.
32. The process common to aerobic and anaerobic respiration is
A. oxidation.
#. gl"col"sis.
$. >erb@s c"cle.
&. electron transport chain.
33. Which o the ollowing shows &1A replication in the correct order+
A. Two &1A double helices strands separate matching bases pair up &1A double
helix.
#. &1A double helix strands separate matching bases pair up two &1A double
helices.
$. 9trands separate two &1A double helices matching bases pair up &1A double
helix.
&. &1A double helix strands separate two &1A double helices matching bases
pair up.
3,. Which one o the ollowing statements correctl" describes &1A+
A. .uanine bonds to c"tosine and adenine bonds to uracil.
#. ;eptide bonds are ound between guanine and c"tosine.
$. 6"drogen bonds are ound between th"mine and guanine.
&. <ach nucleotide is composed o a sugar, a phosphate and a base.
3-. The term codon is used to describe a sequence o bases in
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A. 21A.
#. r21A.
$. t21A.
&. m21A.
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3/. The process which produces molecule ( is
A. translation.
#. replication.
$. denaturation.
&. transcription.
33. The t"pe o bond which %oins the structure in box Y with the structure in box ) is
A. ionic.
#. peptide.
$. co!alent.
&. h"drogen.
35. The two components which are part o the structure shown in box Y are
A. ribose and guanine.
#. ribose and c"tosine.
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$. deox"ribose and uracil.
&. deox"ribose and adenine.
38. Which one o the ollowing is the best deinition o recombinant &1A+
A. ;lasmids.
#. #acterial &1A.
$. &1A which has been cloned.
&. &1A rom more than one source
,:. 4n a !ariet" o garden peas, the allele or tall plants ATB is dominant o!er the allele or short
plants AtB.
A cross between a tall plant and a short plant resulted in -:C o the ospring being short.
What were the genot"pes o the parents+
A. Tt and tt
#. Tt and Tt
$. TT and Tt
&. TT and tt
(T-,)0: 40 *)3/&"
SECTION B
A+&9'3 ALL :6'&,%-+&
=6'&,%-+ 1
aB $omplete T).0' 1 in "our answer paper ,- gi!e TWO (2" wa"s in which the structure o a
plant cell dier rom that o a pro'ar"otic cell.
(2 *)3/&"
T).0' 1
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1.
2.

T).0' 2: &$-9& ,$' )*-6+,& -; ,$3'' 4%;;'3'+, &6.&,)+1'& %+ ,$' &''4& -; 7)3%-6& 20)+,&.
P0)+,
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P3-,'%+& P-0A&)11$)3%4'& L%2%4&
#uc'wheat 1- 5, 1
#ra*il nut 1, 5 35
Dung #ean 28 /8 2
9esame 2- 1/ -8
bB Which plant has
AiB the greatest percentage o pol"mers in its seeds+
(1 *)3/"

AiiB the smallest percentage o nitrogen-containing substances in its seeds+
(1 *)3/"
cB &escribe how "ou could test a #ra*il nut to show that it contained lipids.
(3 *)3/&"
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&,)%+'4 ,- &$-9 ,$' &,)5'& -; *%,-&%&.
1,
dB AiB At what stage o mitosis is cell A+
(1 *)3/"
AiiB What is the e!idence that cell B is in anaphase+
(1 *)3/"

AiiiB $ell C is in interphase. .i!e TWO (2" processes which occur during interphase that
enable cell di!ision to occur.
(2 *)3/&"
eB <xplain how "ou would calculate the magniication o the photograph.
(1 *)3/"
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=6'&,%-+ 2
1-
T$' T).0' .'0-9 &$-9& ,$' 1-+1'+,3),%-+ -; &-*' 4%;;'3'+, 23-,'%+& )+4 '&&'+,%)0 )*%+-
)1%4& %+ &)*20'& -; $6*)+ *%0/.
AaB &escribe how "ou could use a biochemical test to show that a mil' sample contain protein.
(2 *)3/&"

AbB At birth an inant@s intestine secretes relati!el" small amounts o digesti!e en*"mes.
AiB <xplain the ad!antage o mil' containing lipase stimulated b" bile salts.
(2 *)3/&"
AiiB <xplain the ad!antage to the inant o the concentration o essential amino acids in
the mil' sample 3 da"s ater birth.
(2 *)3/&"
T$' T).0' .'0-9 &$-9& ,$' ;),,A )1%4 1-+,'+, -; &)*20'& -; $6*)+ *%0/ -.,)%+'4 ;3-*
9-*'+ %+ ,$' U+%,'4 B%+54-* %+ 1C!3 )+4 1C<<.
1/
AcB &escribe and suggest an explanation or the dierence between the saturated att" acid
contents o the 18-3 and 1833 samples.
(2 *)3/&"
AdB &escribe FOUR (4" wa"s that water is important to li!ing organisms.
(4 *)3/&"
(T-,)0: 12 *)3/&"


=6'&,%-+ 3
Am"lase is an en*"me. 4t catal"ses the reaction
am"lase
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starch maltose
9tudents mixed a starch solution with am"lase. The" recorded the concentration o maltose
at inter!als or 3: minutes. The graph below shows their results.
AaB &escribe how the concentration o maltose changed o!er the period shown in the graph
abo!e.
(2 *)3/&"
AbB AiB A straight line has been drawn on the graph abo!e. <xplain how "ou could use this
line to calculate the initial rate o the reaction.
(1 *)3/"
AiiB The rate o reaction was lower ater - minutes than it was at the start. <xplain wh".
(2 *)3/&"
AcB The graph below shows the eect o p6 on the acti!it" o am"lase.
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9uggest the region o the human gut in which this am"lase would be acti!e. <xplain "our
answer.
(3 *)3/&"
AdB 6ow would the shape o the graph below change i a large amount o concentrated acid
were added to the en*"me-catal"*ed reaction at time X+ 4n "our answer paper 43)9 the
change on the graph and explain "our answer.

(3 *)3/&"
(T-,)0: 11 *)3/&"
=6'&,%-+ 4
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AaB The diagram summarises some o the light-dependent reactions o photos"nthesis.
AiB Ese the diagram to describe what happens to a molecule o chloroph"ll in
photos"stem 44 when it absorbs a photon o light.
(2 *)3/&"
AiiB Dolecules o AT; are ormed as electrons are transerred rom photos"stem 44 to
photos"stem 4. <xplain how this is possible.
(2 *)3/&"
AbB 2educed 1A&; produced during the light-dependent reactions o photos"nthesis is used in
the light-independent reactions. <xplain how.
(2 *)3/&"
(c) In your answer paper complete the following table contrasting photosynthesis and cellular
respiration.

2:
PHOTOSYNTHESIS CELLULAR
RESPIRATION
2eactants
<nd products
9ource o energ"
0rganelle in!ol!ed
(4 *)3/&: 1D 2 *)3/ ')1$"

(T-,)0: 10 *)3/&"
=6'&,%-+ !
AaB 1ucleic acids, such as &1A, are pol"mers, made up o man" repeating monomer units.
1ame the monomer rom which nucleic acids are made.
(1 *)3/"
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AbB The table shows the percentage o dierent bases in the &1A o some organisms.
AiB $alculate the missing igures or rat &1A bases.
(3 *)3/&"
AiiB The !irus has single-stranded &1A as its genetic material. <xplain the e!idence rom
the table which suggests that the &1A is single-stranded.
(2 *)3/&"
AcB 4n "our answer paper complete the table to gi!e TWO (2" wa"s in which the structure o
&1A diers rom the structure o m21A
(2 *)3/&"
DNA *RNA

(T-,)0: > *)3/&"
=6'&,%-+ 8
AaB AiB 9ome human &1A was cut into separate pieces using a restriction en*"me which
produced a staggered cut. A scientist wanted to insert these pieces o &1A into
plasmids and used the same restriction en*"me to cut the plasmids.
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<xplain wh" the pieces o human &1A would be able to %oin to the cut &1A o the
plasmids.
(2 *)3/&"

AiiB Which other en*"me must the scientist ha!e added to the mixture to orm
recombinant plasmids+
(1 *)3/"
AbB A plasmid ma" be used as a !ector. <xplain what is meant b" a vector.
(2 *)3/&"

AcB Dolecular biologists oten use plasmids which contain antibiotic resistance genes.
<xplain the reason or this.
(2 *)3/&"

(T-,)0: < *)3/&"
EEE END OF =UESTION PAPER EEE
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