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ii
Science and Technology IV
PRACTICAL AND EXPLORATIONAL PHYSICS
Modular Approach
Second Edition
ISBN 978-971-07-2669-1
Copyright 2010 by Vibal Publishing House, Inc. and Alicia L. Padua and a Ricardo M.
Crisostomo
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information
storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher and the authors.
Artwork belongs solely to Vibal Publishing House, Inc.
Published and printed by Vibal Publishing House, Inc.
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PREFACE
This book was designed and written for use by physics teachers regardless
of the textbook they are using in the classroom. To make sure that this goal is
achieved, we incorporated the following features in the book:
1. The teaching tips revolve around topics generally covered in a high
school physics text, following the DepEd Curriculum Guide.
2. The discussions take into consideration the unifying themes of high
school physics, namely: (a) physics as a basic science, (b) energy, (c) sta-
bility and equilibrium, (d) diversity and unity, (e) systems and interac-
tions and (f) technology.
3. The book discusses Wiggins and Mctighes Understanding by Design
(UbD) in the context of Physics, identifying the EUs and EQs per chapter
and giving examples of performance tasks for assessment that denote un-
derstanding, nd application in real life, and help develop thinking skills.
To illustrate discussion points as well as sample instructional activities, we
used VPHIs Practical and Explorational Physics (Modular Approach) Second Edi-
tion and Laboratory Manual and Workbook in Physics by Padua and Crisosto-
mo. And for additional information, we recommend internet resources, including
i-learn.vibalpublishing.com.
To our colleagues, good luck!
THE AUTHORS
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Copyright 2010 by Vibal Publishing House, Inc. NOT FOR SALE.
CONTENTS
Part ONE: TIME TABLE FOR THE COURSE t .................................................. 2
Part TWO: GENERAL COMMENTS t ............................................................... 4
Part THREE: SUGGESTIONS FOR EACH CHAPTER t .................................... 10
UNIT I Introduction to Physics .............................................................. 10
Chapter 1 What Is Physics? .............................................................................................................. 10
Chapter 2 How Are Physical Quantities Described? ................................................................... 14
UNIT II MECHANICS ............................................................................... 18
Chapter 3 How Far and How Fast Do Objects Move? ................................................................. 18
Chapter 4 How Does Force Cause a Change in Motion? ............................................................ 25
Chapter 5 How Is Equilibrium Achieved? .................................................................................... 33
Chapter 6 What Inuences the Movements of Heavenly Bodies? ............................................. 38
Chapter 7 How Does Energy Produce Work? ............................................................................... 42
Chapter 8 What Happens When Objects Rotate? ......................................................................... 47
Chapter 9 What Forces Inuence Particle Movement in Matter? ............................................. 51
UNIT III Oscillations and Waves ............................................................... 56
Chapter 10 How Do Particles Move in a Medium and Transfer Energy? .................................. 56
Chapter 11 How Is Sound Produced, Propagated and Perceived? .............................................. 60
UNIT IV Thermodynamics ........................................................................ 65
Chapter 12 How Are Heat and Temperature Related? .................................................................. 65
Chapter 13 What Laws Govern the Transfer of Heat? ................................................................... 70
UNIT V Electricity and Magnetism.......................................................... 74
Chapter 14 How Do Electric Charges That Are at Rest Interact? ................................................ 74
Chapter 15 How Is Electricity Put into Use? ................................................................................... 78
Chapter 16 How Are Electricity and Magnetism Interrelated? ................................................... 84
Chapter 17 How Do Electronic Components Work? ..................................................................... 88
UNIT VI Electromagnetic Waves and Optics .............................................. 91
Chapter 18 How Are Electronic Waves Used in Communication? ............................................. 91
Chapter 19 What Is the Mystery Behind Light? ............................................................................. 94
Chapter 20 How Are Images Reected and Refracted by Mirrors and Lenses? ....................... 98
UNIT VII MODERN PHYSICS ....................................................................... 102
Chapter 21 What Is Relativity? .......................................................................................................... 102
Chapter 22 How Is Nuclear Physics Useful to Man? ..................................................................... 106
Chapter 23 What Are the Basic Building Blocks of the Universe? .............................................. 109
Appendix ....................................................................................................................... 112
Glossary .......................................................................................................................... y 122
1
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2 Practical and Explorational Physics
Part ONE: TIMETABLE FOR THE COURSE
A. NUMBER OF CLASS DAYS
Unit/Chapter
Duration
(number of days)
UNIT I Introduction to Physics (10 days) T
Chapter 1 What Is Physics?
Chapter 2 How Are Physical Quantities Described?
3-5 days
3-5 days
UNIT II Mechanics (75 days) T
Chapter 3 How Far and How Fast Do Objects Move?
Chapter 4 How Does Force Cause a Change in Motion?
Chapter 5 How Is Equilibrium Achieved?
Chapter 6 What Inuences the Movements of Heavenly 6
Bodies?
Chapter 7 How Does Energy Produce Work? 7
Chapter 8 What Happens When Objects Rotate?
Chapter 9 What Forces Inuence Particle Movement in
Matter?
12-15 days
15-18 days
5-7 days
3-5 days
15-18 days
3-4 days
5-8 days
UNIT III Oscillations and Waves (15 days) T
Chapter 10 How Do Particles Move in a Medium and
Transfer Energy?
Chapter 11 How Is Sound Produced, Propagated and
Perceived?
5-10 days
3-5 days
UNIT IV Thermodynamics (10 days) T
Chapter 12 How Are Heat and Temperature Related?
Chapter 13 What Laws Govern the Transfer of Heat?
3-5 days
3-5 days
UNIT V Electricity and Magnetism (40 days) T
Chapter 14 How Do Electric Charges That Are at Rest
Interact?
Chapter 15 How Is Electricity Put into Use?
Chapter 16 How Are Electricity and Magnetism Interre- 6
lated?
Chapter 17 How Do Electronic Components Work? 7
3-5 days
10-15 days
10-15 days
3-5 days
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UNIT VI Electromagnetic Waves (15 days) T
Chapter 18 How Are Electromagnetic Waves Used in Com-
munication?
Chapter 19 What Is the Mystery Behind Light?
Chapter 20 How Are Images Reected and Refracted by
Mirrors and Lenses?
3-5 days
3-5 days
3-5 days
UNIT VII Modern Physics (13 days) T
Chapter 21 What Is Relativity?
Chapter 22 How Is Nuclear Physics Useful to Man?
Chapter 23 What Are the Basic Building Blocks of the
Universe?
3-5 days
3-5 days
2-3 days
B. SEMESTRAL AND QUARTERLY SCHEDULE
First Semester
First Quarter
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Second Quarter
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Second Semester
Third Quarter
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
Chapter 16
Chapter 17
Fourth Quarter
Chapter 18
Chapter 19
Chapter 20
Chapter 21
Chapter 22
Chapter 23
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4 Practical and Explorational Physics
Part TWO: GENERAL COMMENTS
Following its mandate to improve the countrys curriculum for Basic Educa-
tion in order to equip the youth with the skills and knowledge needed in this In-
formation Age, the Department of Education (DepEd) deemed it wise to utilize
the teaching-learning paradigm proposed by Grant Wiggins and Jay Mctighe
(2002). The authors call it Understanding by Design, now popularly called
UbD.
1. UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN (UbD)
Q1: In essence, what is UbD?
It is a proposed design for a curriculum framework, a course pro-
gram, a unit plan, a learning system and the like. It can simply be de-
scribed as an instructional design.
Q2: What are the major components of all instructional designs?
All instructional designs, including UbD, have: (a) educational
goals/objectives and content, (b) teaching-learning strategies, and
(c) assessment.
1.1 Goals/Objectives and Content
Educational psychologists group the general goals of education into
three:
a. Knowledge (cognitive goal)
b. Skills, both cognitive and manipulative (behavioral goal)
c. Attitudes (affective goal)
Some educators express objectives as learning competencies. For les-
son plans, some educators recommend that these be stated as behavioral
objectives, since behavior is easiest to detect if the objectives have been
attained.
Content includes the main topics and major ideas per chapter.
1.2 Teaching Strategies and Techniques
All instructional designs encourage teachers to use varied instruc-
tional activities that are relevant to the students daily life and cater to
their learning styles and multiple intelligences.
The strategies and techniques that teachers use vary depending on
various factorsLEARNER factors (their characteristics, SES, readiness,
etc.); LEARNING ENVIRONMENT factors (school facilities and equip-
ment, books and other learning resources, etc.); and TEACHER factors
(their academic background, trainings attended, teaching experience,
etc.).
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Teachers Manual 5
The teaching strategies also vary among the various academic dis-
ciplines. In science, for instance, found to be most effective are: (a) the
inquiry approach and (b) hands-on learning or learning by doing, where the
learner employs as many senses as possible in the learning process
touch, sight, hearing, smell. On the other hand, very effective in a skill
subject are: (a) learning by doing and (b) drill/repetition.
1.3 Assessment
Assessment is used to monitor learning, to nd out if the students
are achieving the objectives. It tells the teacher if the students under-
stood what he/she taught them.
Nontraditional or alternative tests, also called performance-based as-
sessment or performance tasks, are characterized by the fact that the out-
puts or the answers to questions in the task are constructed by the stu-
dents, borrowing the term from constructivism.
The outputs of performance tasks are not graded the same way as
the results of traditional tests. They are graded based on a set of criteria
that is unique to each output. Thus, performance tasks are accompanied
by rubrics.
2. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES OF THE PROPOSED DESIGN
Q3: In terms of the basic components of an instructional design, what are the
contributions of UbD?
The major contributions of UbD are in the areas of content and as-
sessment.
2.1 Content
Content is the structural base of the knowledge goal of education in
school.
a. UbD recommends that, from the start, the teacher should iden-
tify the main idea, or what UbD calls big idea or enduring
understanding and what DepEd calls essential understand-
ing (EU). The idea is that, as far as content is concerned, the EU
should serve as the focus of all the instructional activities in each
chapter or unit or quarter.
b. UbD also recommends that, to arrive at the EU, the teacher
should initiate the discussion by means of a question, what UbD
and DepEd call essential questions (EQ). The answer to the EQ
is the EU. Sometimes, several EQ are answered by one EU. And
sometimes, one EQ is answered by several EU.
2.2 Assessment
a. UbD recommends that, right after the identication of the EU, the
teacher should think of the appropriate performance task that will- k
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6 Practical and Explorational Physics
depict student understanding of the EU and supporting concept(s)
and, at the same time, promote lifelong learning.
The reason is that, since the teacher has a goal, he/she must have
the appropriate tool, or instrument, to determine attainment of said
goal.
b. Once the students performance task has been identied, the teacher
may now choose instructional activities that will help the students
understand the EU and EQ and, at the same time, give them the
knowledge and skills that will enable them to successfully accom-
plish the identied performance assessment.
3. UbD IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SCIENCE DISCIPLINE
Q4: What are EU and U EQ to the science teacher?
3.1 In a science class, the EU is usually called U main idea or major idea or un-
derlying science principle. And in this book, the EQ is called major area of
inquiry.
When a science teacher decides to write a lesson plan, the science
principle or generalization to be taught is usually very clear in his/her
mind right from the start.
But the teacher does not teach the science principle per se. He/She
uses science ideas or concepts to teach it. A science principle is actually
a generalization from or synthesis of related concepts.
But then again, the teacher does not teach a science concept per se.
He/She uses facts (concrete things or experiences) to teach it.
Let us illustrate this pedagogical strategy as follows:
I II III
Principle Concepts/Ideas
Facts/Experiences
(Strategies)
Energy is conserved.
There are many kinds
of energy.
There are many sources
of energy.
Energy can be changed
from one form to
another.
E.g., lab work
eld trips
lm showing
demonstration
Figure 1
Figure 1 shows that the sequence of steps in the teachers lesson
plan is: I-II-III. But from the learners perspective, it is the reverse:
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Teachers Manual 7
First: The students will probably be given a laboratory activity
where they will be asked to observe how energy is trans-
formed.
Also, they will probably go on a eld trip to an amuse-
ment park to observe how energy is transformed in the dif-
ferent rides.
And they will probably be shown a lm about the differ-
ent sources of energy and how they are transformed to other
forms.
Second: After the activities that exposed them to different sources of
energy and transformation of energy, the students are now in
the position to say that: energy can be transformed from one
form to another.
Third: Finally, the students can make the generalization that: en-
ergy is conserved, it cannot be created nor destroyed.
Thus, the sequence of steps (Figure 1) in the learners
psyche is III-II-I.
3.2 To the science teacher, what are the essential features that should be re-
ected in his/her instructional design?
The following questions should guide him/her in constructing the
lesson plan:
a. What are the science principles (EU) and supporting science
concepts (EQ) that you would like your students to learn from
the lesson? (This is essentially the CONTENT of the lesson.)
b. What TEACHING STRATEGIES will you use so that the stu-
dents will understand the content (EU and EQ) of the lesson?
(Understanding here implies the ability of the learner to apply/
transfer what is learnt in school to situations in life.)
c. How do you plan to test if the students understood the les-
son? Or what do you want the students to do as evidence of
understanding? (This ASSESSMENT is a performance task that
should be evaluated on the basis of certain criteria. To this end,
the Appendix of this book contains sample rubrics for different
outputs: poster, model, foldables, etc.)
4. LABORATORY/FIELD ACTIVITIES
VPHI has published a book entitled Laboratory Manual and Workbook in
Physics. The authors prepared exercises based on the resources available in
the community, the facilities and equipment present in the school, and other
considerations like length of time entailed, expenses to be incurred, and se-
curity of the students.
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8 Practical and Explorational Physics
Needless to say, no physics class is expected to perform all exercises. The
teacher has the nal decision as to how many and which exercises his/her
class will perform. In fact, the teachers are enjoined to feel free to modify the
exercises according to the needs of the students and the limitations in the
school setting.
5. INTEGRATION OF VALUES EDUCATION
Perhaps the best guidelines with regard to values education are these:
a. Model the values, attitudes and traits related to the topic or activity
scheduled for the day.
b. Take advantage of every opportunity in class to integrate desirable val-
ues and attitudes appropriate for the subject matter scheduled for dis-
cussion. Do not hesitate to give a spiritual orientation to the discussion,
as long as the values/attitudes are indeed suited to the topic(s) at hand.
c. Do not leave the matter of integration of values purely to chance. Do
prepare for it. Be ready with teaching techniques and instructional
materials for the purpose.
6. FRAMEWORK OF THE BOOK
This book has three main parts: Part One is the timetable for the course;
Part Two contains general comments; and Part Three contains suggestions
for each chapter. These are followed by the Appendix.
The suggestions for each chapter include the following sections.
The introductory paragraph includes one or more of the pertinent unify-
ing themes of physics listed below:
Physics as a basic science. How does everything in nature act in con-
formity with a law?
Energy. What is the unifying concept of all sciences?
Stability and Equilibrium. What is and what is not changing in nature?
Diversity and Unity. How are the forms of energy different or alike?
Systems and Interactions. How do the different systems interact with
one another?
Technically, as far as the general framework of each chapter is concerned, k
the sections are supposed to be organized under the following headings:
I. CONTENT (Stage 1 of the Proposed Instructional Design) T
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Questions (EQ)
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Teachers Manual 9
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK(S) AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTAND-
ING (Stage 2)
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS (STRATEGIES, etc.) (Stage 3)
Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Suggested Activities
But, if we make a paradigm shift from the chapters GENERAL FRAME-
WORK to short LESSON PLANS, the instructional activities can be moved
from section III to section II. And assessment can be moved from section II to
section III, this time, as formative tests for daily monitoring of learning.
The rest of the sections are the following:
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS IN THE TEXTBOOK W
V. CONCEPT MAP/OTHER GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS
These sections, especially the subsections of item No. III (Comments and
Suggestions), may be rearranged whenever deemed advisable.
Finally, the Appendix contains sample scoring rubrics that you may want
to use for rating the students performance tasks (item No. II).
These sections, especially the subsections of item No. II, may be rear-
ranged when deemed advisable.
7. INTERNET RESOURCES
To facilitate student understanding of specic topics and to widen their
perspective of that particular area of physics, the students may be encour-
aged to visit the websites suggested in the book Practical and Explorational
Physics, Second Edition by Alicia L. Padua, and Ricardo M. Crisostomo.
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10 Practical and Explorational Physics
Part THREE: SUGGESTIONS FOR EACH CHAPTER
UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS T
Unit I consists of two chapters: What Is Physics? (Chapter 1) and How Are
Physical Quantities Described? (Chapter 2). The unit is about physics and its na-
ture. It deals with the different branches of physics. It also deals with the major
steps of the scientic method and how this has been applied by famous physi-
cists, both local and foreign. Furthermore, it discusses the fundamental quanti-
ties, their representations, measurements, and derivations of mathematical rela-
tionships.
Chapter 1 What Is Physics? r
This chapter includes three modules. Physics: The Basic Science (Module 1),
Natures Laws Are Mathematical and Simple (Module 2) and Career Opportunities
that Await a Physicist (Module 3).
Module 1 presents the relationship of physics with other branches of natu-
ral science. It also discusses how a problem can be solved using the Scientic
Method. Furthermore, it explains how physics becomes the basis of technology
that changes peoples way of living and thinking.
Module 2 is about tools that are used in the study of the physical world. It
also discusses how physical quantities are classied, measured, quantied, and
related to one another.
Module 3 presents famous Filipino and foreign physicists. It also discusses
career opportunities that await a physicist.
I. CONTENT T
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. Physics principles are applicable in everyday life.
2. Scientic theories are based on careful observations and measurements.
3. Greatness of ideas starts from simple things.
4. Peoples way of thinking and living is greatly affected by their attitudes.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. Why is physics considered a basic science?
2. How can the scientic method lead to discoveries and advances in sci-
ence?
3. Why do we measure?
4. How will you measure a quantity with a reasonable degree of accuracy
and precision?
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Teachers Manual 11
5. Why are the concepts in physics described with mathematical formula?
6. How do physicists think and work?
7. How can gained knowledge, acquired skills and formed values lead to
better opportunities in life?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instruction.
a. Prepare a plan for improving an existing technology.
b. Design and construct a box with a square base of 100 cm
2
using one
used short folder and without any adhesive or binding material.
Make sure that the box can hold grains or liquid.
c. Make a foldable about a Filipino physicist that includes his/her
picture, life, works, and contributions.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Use What I Know-What I Want to Know-What I learned (K-W-L)
Chart to elicit students prior knowledge on the nature of physics as a
branch of science.
B. Suggested Activities
1. Motivation: Begin by asking the students, How will you compare sci-
ence to a tree?
2. Discuss the branches of science based on the output of the motiva-
tional activity.
3. Perform Exercise 1: Physics and Its Branches (VPHI Laboratory Manual
and Workbook in Physics, p. 4).
4. Provide a real life problem that can be solved using the scientic
method.
5. PerformExercise 2: Scientic Method: (LMWP, p. 5).
6. Weblink: Ask the students to visit http://www.sossrilanka.com/uni/
sponge-bob-scientic-method-worksheet.html.
7. Panel Discussion: Select a number of students to be part of a panel
discussion on Impacts of Technology.
8. Ask the students to make an estimate of the size of the room. Then, let
them determine the area of the room using their body parts as units
of measurement.
9. Lead the students in the discussion on the importance of measurement.
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12 Practical and Explorational Physics
10. PerformExercise 4: Using a Vernier Caliper (LMWP, pp. 8-9).
11. Weblink: Ask the students to visit http://www.aaastudy.com/mea69_
x6.htm#section2.
12. Provide the students with different sets of data that they could pres-
ent graphically on a graphing paper or using EXCEL to determine the
relationship that exists between the physical quantities.
13. PerformExercise 5: The Physicist Way of Life (LMWP, pp. 10-13).
14. Lead the students in the discussion on local and foreign physicists
and the career opportunities that await a physicist.
15. Let the students answer the last column of the K-W-L chart.
16. Ask the students to prepare a graphic organizer that will show their
understanding of the concepts learned.
17. Enrichment Activity: Ask the students to interview Filipino physicists.
18. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quiz
c. Portfolio
d. Prompts
e. Learning Logs
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. 1. d
2. b
3. a
4. d
B. 1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
2. a. 604 800 s e. 2.16 10
2
m/s
b. 99 500 KHz f. 2.5 10
13
mm
2
c. 300 L g. 2.96 10
4
ft/s
d. 4.75 10
4
m
3
h. 7.5 10
4
mm
SF SN
3 1.43 10
2
3 3.67 10
1
4 2.009 10
3
1 5 10
3
4 3.5 10
3
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Teachers Manual 13
3. a. direct square
b. d = 4.9 t
2
c. t = 6.39 s
d. d = 122.5 m
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: TREE DIAGRAM
300
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Time
200
100
2
4 6 8
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14 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 2 How Are Physical Quantities Described? r
This chapter is composed of two modules: Identifying Scalars and Vectors
(Module 4) and Adding Vectors (Module 5).
Module 4 reviews the physical quantities and classies these quantities as
either scalar or vector. It also illustrates how to represent a vector quantity.
Module 5 demonstrates how to add or combine two or more vectors into a
single vector and how to nd the perpendicular components of a single vector
using graphical and analytical method.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. A scalar quantity has magnitude only while a vector quantity has both
magnitude and direction.
2. A vector quantity is represented by an arrowthe length of the arrow
represents the magnitude and the arrowhead points the direction.
3. The resultant is the single vector that represents the sum of two or more
vectors.
4. The equilibrant is the single vector that is equal in magnitude but oppo-
site in direction to the resultant.
5. A single vector can be resolved into its perpendicular components.
6. Vectors can be combined or resolved using graphical or analytical method.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. How can you say that an object is in equilibrium?
2. Into what type of forces can a singular force be resolved?
3. How many forces can be combined to a single force?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instruction.
a. Prepare a vector art using ten vectors.
b. Create at least ve (5) vector problems on vector addition and at least
ve (5) on vector resolution.
Note: Use the appropriate rubrics found in Appendix.
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Teachers Manual 15
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
1. Given the following physical quantities, group them according to
their common characteristics.
acceleration mass
displacement speed
distance velocity
force weight
B. Suggested Activities
1. Discuss the difference between distance and displacement.
2. Identify quantities with directions (vectors) and without directions
(scalars).
3. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 31). k
4. Illustrate how to represent the vector quantity graphically.
5. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 32). k
6. Perform Exercise 6: Vectors and Scalars (LMWP, pp. 14-15).
7. Illustrate how to do a vector addition using the graphical method.
(See Examples 1-4, textbook, p. 33-34).
8. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 35). k
9. Review the Pythagorean Theorem and the Trigonometric Functions
as an introduction to Vector Resolution.
10. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 36). k
11. Illustrate how to add vectors using the Analytical Method (See ex-
amples on pp. 37-39, textbook).
12. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 39). k
13. PerformExercise 7: Who Will Win? (LMWP, pp. 16-17)
14. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quiz
c. Board work
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. Multiple Choice
1. b 4. b
2. d 5. b
3. b
B. 1. 12 km E
8 km W
12 km 8 km = 4 km E
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16 Practical and Explorational Physics
3. 25 N 60

R = (1 cm)
2
+ (3 cm)
2
= 1 cm
2
+ 9 cm
2
= 10 cm
2
R = 3.16 cm
=
1
3
= tan
1
(.33)
= 18 W of N
N
R= 4 km E
12 km E
8 km W
S
W E
6 cm W
5 cm E
3 cm N
N
R
S
W E

2
5

N
Fy
Fx
60
2. 5 cm E
3 cm N
6 cm W
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Teachers Manual 17
F
x
= F cos F
y
= F sin
= 25 cos 60 = 25 sin 60
F
x
= 12.5 N 13 N F
y
= 21.65 N 22 N
4. 50 km N
30 km 20 N of W
x y
50 km N 0 50
30 km 20 N of W
(30 cos 20)
28.19
(30 sin 20)
10.26
28.19 60.26
R = (

28.19 km)
2
+ (60.26 km)
2
= 794.68 km
2
+ 3631.27 km
2
= 4425.95 km
2
R = 66.53 km
5. 70 m 50 SE
d
x
= 70 cos 50 d
y
= 70 sin 50
= 45 m East = 53.62 m South 54 m South
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
tan =
60.26
28.19
= 64.93 N of W
SCALARS VECTORS GRAPHICALLY ANALYTICALLY
can be classied as can be combined
HEAD-TAIL
METHOD
POLYGON
METHOD
using
PHYSICAL QUANTITIES
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18 Practical and Explorational Physics
UNIT II MECHANICS T
Unit II consists of seven chapters: How Far and How Fast Do Objects Move?
(Chapter 3), How Does Force Cause a Change in Motion? (Chapter 4), How Is Equi-
librium Achieved? (Chapter 5), What Inuences the Movements of Heavenly Bodies?
(Chapter 6), How Does Energy Produce Work? (Chapter 7), What Happens When
Objects Rotate? (Chapter 8) and What Forces Inuence Particle Movement in Matter?
(Chapter 9).
This unit deals with subbranch of classical physics that is concerned with
the forces acting on bodies whether at rest or in motion. It includes statics which
focuses on the way in which forces combine with each other so as to produce
equilibrium, kinematics which focuses on the motion of the body without regard
to the cause of that motion and dynamics which focuses on the way in which
force produces motion.
Chapter 3 How Far and How Fast Do Objects Move? r
This chapter includes three modules. Kinematics: Description of Motion (Mod-
ule 6), Motion of Falling Objects (Module 7) and Projectile Motion (Module 8).
Module 6 deals with the description of motion using graphs and kinematic
equations.
Module 7 discusses the motion of falling objects and the factors that affect
their rate of fall.
Module 8 deals with the motion of an object thrown with an initial velocity
horizontally or at an angle.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. Motion is relative.
2. Acceleration can be positive or negative (deceleration).
3. Motion problems can be broken into parts.
4. Anything that goes up, goes down.
5. When you reach the top, there is no way but to go down.
6. Resistance affects output.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. When do you say that a body is in motion?
2. How would you describe an accelerating object?
3. What factors affect an objects rate of fall?
4. How will you compare free fall and projectile motion?
5. How do you hit/attain the targets/goals that you set in your life?
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Teachers Manual 19
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Ask the students to determine their reaction time or determine the height
of a building using the concept of free fall.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Identify whether the given situation illustrates a body in motion.
1. a car parked in a garage
2. a passenger inside a moving vehicle
3. a boy walking with his dog side by side
4. a passenger seated in a moving airplane
5. a ball rolling along the oor
B. Suggested Activities
1. Motivation: Relate the students responses in part A above with their
response to this questionWhat do objects in motion have in common?
2. Ask the students to show the difference between distance and dis-
placement by walking from a specic starting point to a particular
location inside the room.
3. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 49).
4. Discuss speed and velocity.
5. Illustrate how to solve speed and velocity problems.
6. Guide the students in the derivation of the kinematic equations. (Re-
fer to Table 6 on p. 51 textbook).
7. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 52).
8. Ask the students to plot the given data and draw the graph.
d (m) 10 20 30 40 50
t (s) 1 2 3 4 5
9. From the graph in No. 8, review how to determine the slope of a line.
10. Compare the slopes of the graph in Fig. 6.3 and Fig. 6.4 on page 52 of
the textbook to show the difference between the motion of the object
in the two graphs.
11. Use Fig. 6.5 to describe the different types of motion.
12. PerformTask (textbook, p. 53). k
13. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 53). k
14. PerformExercise 8: Changing Speed in the Laboratory Manual and Work-
book in Physics (LMWP, pp. 26-27).
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20 Practical and Explorational Physics
15. PerformExercise 9: Falling Objects (LMWP, pp. 28-29).
16. Conduct a post lab-discussion and derive formulas for free fall from
uniformly accelerated motion.
17. Illustrate how to solve free fall problems.
18. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 58). k
19. PerformExercise 10: Beyond Free Fall: Throwing the Ball Upward (LMWP,
p. 30).
20. Show video clips that exhibit terminal velocity and ask the students
what will happen if the object does not attain terminal velocity.
21. Perform Exercise 11: Comparing Free Fall and Projectile m (LMWP, p. 31 32). e
22. Derive the formulas for horizontal projection.
23. Illustrate how to solve problems on horizontal projection.
24. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 60).
25. Perform Exercise 12: Projectile Launched Horizontally (LMWP, pp. 33 -34).
26. Derive the formulas for projectiles launched at an angle.
27. Illustrate how to solve problems on projectiles launched at an angle.
28. PerformExercise 13: Projectile Launched at an Angle (LMWP, p. 35).
29. Enrichment Activity: Determine the hang time of a basketball player
using the equation on a projectile motion.
30. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quiz
c. Board work
31. Ask the students to visit the suggested Weblink on p. 64 of the text- k
book.
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. 1. d
2. a and e
3. b and h
4. d
5. c and f
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Teachers Manual 21
B. 1. a = 2
m
s
2
v
i
= 0
a)
t = 10 s
v
f
= v
i
+ at
= 0 + 2
m
s
2

(10 s)
v
f
= 20
m
s
b)
t = 15 s
d = v
i
t +
at
2
2
= 0 +
2
m
s
2

(15 s)
2
2
=
2
m
s
2

(225 s
2
)
2
d = 225 m
c) d = 500 m
d = v
i
t +
at
2
2
2d = at
2
t =
2 d
a
=
2 (500 m)
2
m
s
2
= 500 s
2
t = 22.36 s 22 s
2. d
y
= 25 m v
i
= 0
a) v
f
= v
i
2
+ 2 dg
= 0 + 2 (25 m) 9.8
m
s
2

= 490
m
2
s
2
v
f
= 22.14
m
s
22
m
s
b) t =
v
f
v
i
g
=
22.14
m
s
0
9.8
m
s
2
t = 2.26 s 2.3 s
s
2
s)
s
2
s
2
m
m
m
s
2
220 m
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v
i
= 35
m
s
= 35
v
y
v
y
= v
i
sin
= 35
m
s

(0.57)
= 35
m
s

(sin 35)
= 19.95
m
s
Practical and Explorational Physics
3. d = 30 m v
x
= 12
m
s
a) t =
2 d
g
=
2(30 m)
9.8
m
s
2
=
60 s
2
9.8
= 6.12 s
2
t = 2.47 s 2.5 s
b) R = v
x
t
= 12
m
s

(2.47 s)
R = 29.64 m 30 m
c) v
f
y
= 0 + gt
= 9.8
m
s
2

(2.47 s)
= 24.21
m
s
v
f
R
= 12
m
s

2
+ 24.21
m
s

2
= 144
m
2
s
2
+ 586.12
m
2
s
2
v
f
R
= 27.02
m
s
27
m
s
4.
s
s)
2
s)
m
m
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Teachers Manual 23
a) R =
v sin
g
=
35
m
s

2
2
i
[sin 2
2
(35)]
g
=
1225
m
2
s
2

(sin 70)
9.8
m
s
2
=
(1225 m)(0.94)
9.8
=
1151.5 m
9.8
= 117.5 m 120 m
b) d
y
=
(v
i
sin )
2
2 g
=
35
m
s

(sin 35)

2
2 9.8
m
s
2

=
35
m
s

(0.57)

2
19.6
m
s
2
=
398
m
2
s
2
19.6
m
s
2
d
y
= 20.31 m 20 m
c)
t
T
=
2 v
y
g
=
2 19.95
m
s

9.8
m
s
2
=
39.9
m
s
9.8
m
s
2
t
T
= 4.07 s 4.1 s
m
2
s
2
m
s
2
m
2
m
s
2
s
2
s
m
2
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24 Practical and Explorational Physics
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
MC1lCN
LNllCRM ACCLLLRA1LD
HCRlZCN1ALLY
VLR1lCALLY
( ree u )
cun be
or obects movng
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Teachers Manual 25
Chapter 4 How Does Force Cause a Change in Motion? r
This chapter includes ve modules: Force Causes Changes in Motion (Module
9), Newtons Laws of Motion (Module 10), Impulse and Momentum (Module 11),
Conservation of Momentum (Module 12 ) and Friction (Module 13).
Module 9 focuses on the way force produces motion.
Module 10 deals with the study of Newtons Laws of Motion.
Module 11 discusses the concepts of linear momentum and impulse in ana-
lyzing the behavior of objects in motion.
Module 12 discusses conservation of momentum in the analysis of situations
that involve collision.
Module 13 discusses the causes, advantages and disadvantages of friction
and how to increase and decrease its effects.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. Force causes changes in motion.
2. Newtons laws describe the general principles that guide the patterns of
motion of objects.
3. Forces come in pairs.
4. Total momentum remains constant.
5. Friction can be both an advantage and disadvantage.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. How does force cause change in motion?
2. How do Newtons laws of motion explain everyday life situations/oc-
currences?
3. How can damages caused by collision be minimized?
4. What does it mean to say that momentum is conserved?
5. In what ways do we observe conservation of momentum?
6. How can friction be overcome?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASKS AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instructions.
1. Make a photo essay/scrapbook/video clips of real situations show-
ing application of Newtons Laws of Motion, conservation of mo-
mentum and friction. Provide descriptions/captions to explain each
situation.
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26 Practical and Explorational Physics
2. Design a safe transport container for fragile objects using scrap/recy-
clable materials.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Use the anticipation guide to explore students prior knowledge.
Anticipation Guide: Read each statement and check if you agree or
disagree with each.
Statements Agree Disagree
1. Action and reaction forces cancel each other.
2. No forces act on objects at rest.
3. Friction depends on the area of contact.
4. A karate expert does not pull back upon striking his
target.
5. Two objects with the same mass which collide head -on
will stop.
B. Other Suggestions
1. Motivation: Ask the students to demonstrate the effects of applying
force to an object in the classroom.
2. Lead the discussion on balanced and unbalanced forces and contact
and eld forces.
3. PerformExercise 14: Forces in Action (LMWP, p. 36).
4. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 68). k
5. Ask students to present some inertia tricks.
6. Discuss Newtons First Law of Motion.
7. Perform Exercise 15: Law of Inertia (LMWP, p. 37).
8. Apply POE (Predict-Observe-Explain) to introduce Newtons Second
Law of Motion by using balls of different masses.
a. Ask the students to write their predictions as to what will happen
if they roll two balls of different masses.
b. Let them share their predictions.
c. Let the students observe what happens as the balls are rolled.
d. Let the students explain their observations.
9. Derive equations for the Second Law of Motion with the students.
10. Illustrate how to solve problems using equations for the Second Law
of Motion.
11. PerformExercise 16: Force, Mass and Acceleration (LMWP, pp. 38-39).
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Teachers Manual 27
12. Perform Exercise 17: Balloon Rocket (LMWP, p. 40) as prelude to the
discussion of Newtons Third Law.
13. PerformExercise 18: Action-Reaction Forces (LMWP, p. 41).
14. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 75). k
15. Do Task (textbook, p. 75). k
16. Ask students to cite examples where momentum is used to describe a
situation (Example: a basketball team has regained momentum when
it is leading the game).
17. Introduce the scientic denition of momentum.
18. Let students explore the relationship between mass and velocity.
19. Illustrate how to solve momentum problems.
20. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 77). k
21. Guide the students to derive the relationship of impulse and momen-
tum using Newtons Law of Motion, F = ma.
22. Illustrate how to solve impulse and momentum problems.
23. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 78). k
24. PerformExercise 19: Impulse and Momentum (LMWP, pp. 42-45).
25. Discuss the Law of Conservation of Momentum.
26. Demonstrate the different types of collisionelastic and inelastic, us-
ing explosion carts. (If not available, rubber balls and clay putty may
be used.)
27. PerformExercise 20: Conservation of Momentum (LMWP, p. 46).
28. Derive with the students the formulas for conservation of momen-
tum in inelastic collision.
29. Illustrate how to solve collision problems.
30. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 83). k
31. Show video clips of actual vehicular collisions and discuss safety pre-
cautionary measures to prevent road accidents.
32. Introduce friction with the question: Is friction nuisance or neces-
sity? Let the students explain their answers.
33. Use the students responses in No. 32 to discuss the types of friction
and the factors affecting friction.
34. Derive the equation for coefcient of friction.
35. Illustrate how to solve friction problems.
36. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 88).
37. PerformExercise 21: Friction: Nuisance or Necessity? (LMWP, pp. 47-48).
38. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seat work (Chapter Review)
b. Short quiz
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28 Practical and Explorational Physics
c. Board work
d. Research work
39. Ask the students to visit the suggested Weblinks on p. 91 of the text-
book.
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. 1. a
2. b
3. d
4. d
5. d
6. a
B. 1. m = 1500 kg vi = 30 m/s v
f
= 65 m/s t = 8 s
F =
m (v
f
vi)
t
=
(1500 kg)(65 m/s 30 m/s)
8 s
=
(1500 kg)(35 m/s)
8 s
=
52 500 kg m/s
8 s
= 820.31 kg m/s
2
F = 820.31 N 800 N
2. m
1
= 1600 kg m
2
= 1600 kg + 240 kg
a
1
= 1.2 m/s
2
a
2
= ?
m
1
a
1
= m
2
a
2
a
2
=

(1600 kg)(1.2 m/s
2
)
1840 kg
a
2
= 1.04 m/s
2
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Teachers Manual 29
3. m
1
= 1800 kg v
1
= 30 m/s E v = 12 m/s
m
2
= 2200 kg v
2
= ?
m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
= (m
1
+ m
2
) v
v
2
=
(m
1
+ m
2
) v m
1
v
1
m
2
=
(1800 kg + 2200 kg) 12 m/s (1800 kg)(30 m/s)
2200 kg
=
(4000 kg)(12 m/s) 54 000 kg m/s
2200 kg
=
48 000 kg m/s 54 000 kg m/s
2200 kg
=
6000 kg m/s
2200 kg
v
2
= 2.73 m/ s 3 m/ s westward
4. m
1
= 25 g v
2
= 15 m/s
v
1
= 30 m/s v
1
= 22 m/s
m
2
= 10 g v
2
= ?
v
2

=
m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
m
1
v
1

m
2
=
(25 g)(30 m/s) + (10 g)(15 m/s) (25 g)(22 m/s)
10 g
=
750 g m/s + 150 g m/s 550 g m/s
10 g
v
2

= 35 m/ s
5. F
w
= 400 N
= 0.035
F
f
= ?
=
F
f
F
N
F
f
= F
N
= F
W
= (0.035)(400 N)
F
f
= 14 N 10 N
kg
kg
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30 Practical and Explorational Physics
6.
m = 42 kg
= 30
= 0.25
F
f
= ?
F
f
= F
N
= (mg cos )
= (0.25)(42 kg)(9.8 m/s
2
)(cos 30)
= (0.25)(42 kg)(9.8 m/s
2
)(.87)
F
f
= 89.52 N 90 N
7. m
1
= 0.4 kg v
2
= 0
v
1
= 21 m/s v
2
= 30 m/s
m
2
= 0.20 kg v
1
= ?
v
1

=
m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
m
2
v
2

m
1
=
(0.4 kg)(21 m/s) + (0) (0.2 kg)(30 m/s)
0.4 kg
=
8.4 kg m/s 6.0 kg m/s
0.4 kg
v
1

= 6 m/ s
8. m = 75 kg t = 0.5 s
v
1
= 25 m/s v
f
= 0
f
a) F =
m (v
f
v
i
)
t
=
(75 kg)(0 25 m/s)
0.5 s
=
1875 kg m/s
0.5 s
F = 3750 N 4000 N
b)

t = .001 s
F =
m (v
f
v
i
)
t
=
(75 kg)(0 25 m / s)
0.001 s
F =
1875 kg m / s
0.001 s
= 1 875 000 N 2 000 000 N
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Teachers Manual 31
9. m = 60 kg
F
N
= (60 kg)(9.8 m/s
2
) = 588 N
= 0.450
F
f
=
f
F
N
= (0.450)(588 N)
F
f
= 264.6 N
f
10. m = 0.60 kg
v
i
= 0
v
f
= 7 m/s
t = 0.20 s
F =
m (v
f
v
i
)
t
=
(0.60 kg)(7 m/s 0)
0.20 s
=
4.2 kg m/s
0.20 s
F = 21 N
11. m = 45 kg
F
net
= 7 N
a =
F
net
m
a =
7 kg m/s
2
45 kg
a = 0.16 m/ s
2
0.2 m/ s
2
12. m
1
= 1200 kg v
2
= ?
v
1
= 40 m/s v
1
= 45 m/s
m
2
= 1100 kg v
2
= 35 m/s
v
2
=
m
1
v
1

+ m
2
v
2

m
1
v
1
m
2
=
54 000 kg m/s + 38 500 kg m/s + 48 000 kg m/s
1100 kg
v
2
= 29.55 m/ s
kg
kg
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32 Practical and Explorational Physics
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
lorce o Cruvty
Lectrcu lorce
Mugnetc lorce
vhch
ncudes
cun be cussed us
such us
vhch muy be
uect
vhch muy
be expuned
by
Noncontuct
lrcton
Stutc
lnetc
Contuct
Luv o
lnertu
Luv o
Acceeruton
Luv o
Acton-Reucton
MC1lCN lCRCLS
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Teachers Manual 33
Chapter 5 How is Equilibrium Achieved? r
This chapter includes three modules: Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies (Module 14),
Center of Gravity and Equilibrium (Module 15) and Conditions for Equilibrium
(Module 16).
Module 14 discusses the motion of rigid bodies characterized by translation-
al and rotational motion. It also discusses the conditions to be met for a body to
be in mechanical equilibrium.
Module 15 denes center of gravity. It includes the ways of locating the cen-
ter of gravity of different objects. It also discusses the different states of equilib-
rium.
Module 16 deals with forces in equilibrium. It discusses the conditions for
translational and rotational equilibrium.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. Systems react to change by seeking stability.
2. Location of center of gravity is affected by the shape of the object.
3. An object will always try to orient itself in such a way that the center of
mass is directly below the center of support.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. How is equilibrium achieved?
2. How is center of gravity related to equilibrium?
3. How does shape affect the location of the center of gravity?
4. How does changing your center of gravity affect how well you can balance?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASKS AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instructions.
1. Construct a mobile that will show the different conditions for equilib-
rium using recyclable materials.
2. Construct a balancing toy.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Ask the students to give examples of objects in stable and unstable con-
ditions by passing a sheet of paper with the table shown on the next page.
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34 Practical and Explorational Physics
Stable Unstable
This will be done by group wherein each member writes one example
for each column.
B. Suggested Activities
1. Motivation: Use a balancing toy and ask the students the question:
How does the toy achieve balance?
2. Lead the discussion on equilibrium of rigid bodies.
3. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 96). k
4. PerformExercise 22: Motion of Rigid Bodies (LMWP, p. 49).
5. Ask the students to try the simple exercises on p. 97 of the textbook,
section 15.1.
6. Let the students explain their experience and lead discussion on cen-
ter of gravity.
7. PerformExercise 23: Center of Gravity (LMWP, pp. 50-51).
8. Do a postlab discussion on locating center of gravity.
9. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 98). k
10. Do Task on p. 98 of the textbook. k
11. Let the students show the different states of equilibrium using a cone.
Let them compare one state with the other.
12. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 99). k
13. Present different situations where concurrent forces are applied (Fig-
ure 16.1, p. 100 of the textbook). Then show how to draw a free-body
diagram (FBD).
14. Illustrate how to solve problems using the rst condition for equilibrium.
15. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 102). k
16. Net-link: Ask the students to visit the following websites:
http://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/center_of_gravity.html quick //
demonstration of center of gravity using a meter stick and clay
http://wow.osu.edu/experiments/ntb/center_of_mass.html simple //
way to nd the center of mass of some interesting shapes
http://www.teachingk-8.com/archives/integrating_science_in_
your_classroom/balancing_acts_by_john_cowers.html experiments
with center of gravity that will help you see the artistic side of science
by allowing you to be creative in designing, building and assembling
simple sculptures that require balance (locating the center of gravity)
and varying amounts of mass
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Teachers Manual 35
17. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 103). k
18. PerformExercise 24: Moving Mobiles (LMWP, p. 52-53).
19. Conduct a postlab discussion on moving mobiles and lead discussion
on Second Condition for Equilibrium.
21. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 105). k
22. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seat work (Chapter Review)
b. Short quiz
c. Board work
d. Journal Prompt
How can the center of gravity be changed?
What will be its effect?
23. Ask the students to visit the suggested Weblink on p. 108 of the textbook. k
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. 1. c
2. c
3. c
4. b
5. c
B. Problem Solving
1. F
x
= T
2x
+ (T
1y
) = 0
T
2
cos 30 T
1
cos 40 = 0
T
2
cos 30 = T
1
cos 40
T
2
=

T
1
cos 40
cos 30
F
y
= T
2y
+ T
1y
F
W
= T
2
sin 30 + T
1
sin 40 25 N
T
2
sin 30 + T
1
sin 40 = 25 N

T
1
cos 40
cos 30
(sin 30) + T
1
sin 40 = 25 N


T
1
(0.77)(0.5)
0.87
+ T
1
(0.64) = 25 N
T
1
0.385
0.87
1
(0.64) = 25 N
T
1
(0.44) + T
1
(0.64) = 25 N
T
1
(1.08) = 25 N
T
1
= 23.15 N
40 30
T
1 T
2
F
W
= 25.0 N
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36 Practical and Explorational Physics
T
2
= T
1
cos 40
cos 30
=
(23.15 N)(0.77)
0.87
T
2
= 20.49 N
2. m = 2000 kg
= 30
F
W
= (2000 kg)(9.8 m/s
2
)
= 19 600 N
F|| = F
W
sin 30
= (19 600 N)(sin 30)
F||= 9800 N
3. (65 kg)(x) + (20 kg)(1.75 m) = (85 kg)(4.5 m)
x =

347.5 kg m
65 kg
x = 5.35 m
The painter can stand up to the
farthest end without tipping over.
4. (80 N)(2 m) + (200 N)(5 m) + (500 N)(10 m) = (1080 N)x
x =
6160 N m
1080 N
5.
F
1
+ F
2
= 735 N
Take F
2
as pivot point:
F
1
(2.75 m) + F
2
(0) (49 N)(1.375 m) (735 N)(1 m) = 0
F
1
(2.75 m) = (735 N m) + (67.375 N m)
F
1
=
802.375 N m
2.75 m
F
1
= 291.77 N
30
m = 2000 kg
1.75 m 1.0 m
2.75 m
x
20 kg 60 kg
5.5 m
cg cg
2 m 5 m 10 m
300 N 300 N 80 N 80 N 200 N 200 N 500 N 500 N
kg
kg
2.75 m
l.75 m
l m
75 kg
5 kg
735 N 49 N
ll l2
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Teachers Manual 37
6. a. (200 g)(20 cm) = (10 cm)m
3
m
3
= 400 g
b. (600 g)(15 cm) = (20 cm)m
2
m
2
= 450 g
c. (1050 g)(10 cm) = (30 cm)m
4
m
4
= 350 g
C.
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
vhen vhen
CLN1LR Cl CRAVl1Y
uects obect's
S1A1L Cl LLlLlRlLM
cun be
S1ALL LNS1ALL NLL1RAL
Cbect tends
to return to
ts orgnu
poston
uter beng
dspuced
Cbect tps
even
gven ony
u sght
push
Cbect
nether
ruses or
overs ts
center o
gruvty
vhen
dspuced
vhen
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38 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 6 What Inuences the Movement r
of Heavenly Bodies?
This chapter involves four modules. Circular Motion (Module 17), Laws of
Planetary Motion (Module 18), Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation (Module 19)
and Mass and Weight (Module 20).
Module 17 discusses circular motion which includes such motion like the
Earth around the sun, a swinging object tied to a string, Ferris wheel and a race
car around a circular track and others.
Module 18 describes the motion of planets in the solar system.
Module 19 explains the Law of Universal Gravitation in terms of the relation-
ship among gravitational force, mass and distance separating objects.
Module 20 shows the differences and relationships among mass, weight and
force of gravity.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. Heavenly bodies move in space in an orderly manner.
2. Understanding of planetary motion changes over time.
3. Weight decreases as the distance from center of the earth increases.
4. Mass of an object is not affected by a change in location.
5. An inward force pulls an object towards the center.
6. You always move with uniform circular motion because of the earths
rotation.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. What forces are involved in the following statements?
a. a car rounding a curve
b. a boy riding on a merry-go-round
c. a girl on a swinging ying esta
d. clothes in a spinning washing machine
2. How do the planets move around the sun?
3. How does gravitational force help explain planetary motion?
4. What is the distinction between mass and weight?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASKS AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instruction.
Amusement Park Physics:
Visit an amusement park and analyze the motion of the following
rides applying concepts learned in this chapter.
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Teachers Manual 39
a. grand carousel/merry-go-round
b. ferris wheel
c. ying esta
Prepare a chart that will show comparison of the three different rides.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Identify whether the statement is true or false.
1. I will weigh less on the moon.
2. Planets move in a circular motion.
3. Chairs in an orbiting spacecraft are massless and weightless.
4. The earth attracts the moon with a greater force than the moon
attracts the earth.
B. Suggested Activities
1. Motivation: Water-Pail Swing
Challenge the students to swing a pail (they can use paper cup or
empty noodle cup tied to a string) half-lled with water in a vertical
circle. Ask the students why the water does not spill.
2. Lead the discussion on circular motion.
3. Derive with the students the equations used to solve the problem on
circular motion.
4. Illustrate how to solve circular motion problem.
5. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 118). k
6. PerformTask in p. 118 of the textbook. k
7. Perform Exercise 15: Uniform Circular Motion (LMWP, pp. 54-55)
and Exercise 26: Application of Centripetal Force in The Sticky Coin
(LMWP, p. 56).
8. Ask the students to come up with a creative output to show the de-
velopment of ideas on planetary motion (e.g., comic strips, models,
posters, etc.) and present in class.
9. Discuss Keplers Laws of Planetary Motion and the Law of Universal
Gravitation.
10. Illustrate how to solve problems using the equation for the Law of
Universal Gravitation.
11. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 124). k
12. PerformExercise 28: Gravitational Force of Attraction (LMWP, p. 59).
13. PerformExercise 29: Relationship of Mass and Weight (LMWP, p. 60).
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40 Practical and Explorational Physics
14. Do a postlab discussion on Exercise 29 and proceed to the discussion
on the relationship among mass, weight and force of gravity.
15. Do Task on p. 127 of the textbook. k
16. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 127). k
17. Net-link: Ask the students to visit http//galileoandeinstein.physics.
virginia.edu.
18. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seat work (Chapter Review)
b. Short quiz
c. Board work
d. Journal
19. Ask the students to write a brief essay on their experience of weight-
lessness.
20. Let the students visit the suggested Weblink on p. 130 of the textbook. k
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. 1. d
2. c
3. c
4. c
5. c
B. Problem Solving
1. a. (5 kg)(10 N/kg) = 50 N, (10 kg)(10 N/kg) = 100 N
b. 10 m/s
2
c. 10 N/kg
2. r = 3.0 m
f = 0.025 Hz
a
c
= 4
2
r f
2
= 4 (3.14)
2
(3.0 m)(0.025/s)
2
= 4 (9.86)(3.0 m)(0.025/s
2
)
a
c
= 2.96 m/ s
2
3 m/ s
2
3. F = 8400 N m = 1600 kg
r = 130 m
v =

Fr
m
=
(8400 N)(130 m)
1600 kg
v = 26.12 m/s
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Teachers Manual 41
4. a. F
g
= G
m
1
m
2
(2r)
2

F
g
4
= 145 N
b.
580 N
9.8 m/s
2
= 59.18 kg
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
CENTRIPETAL FORCE
UNIFORM CIRCULAR
MOTION
ACCELERATED MOTION
CONSTANT SPEED CHANGING DIRECTION
causes an object
to move in
which is an
with
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42 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 7 How Does Energy Produce Work? r
This chapter includes three modules: Energy: The Capacity To Do Work
(Module 21), Conservation of Mechanical Energy (Module 22) and Power: Rate of
Doing Work (Module 23). k
Module 21 discusses the importance of the use of energy in our daily activities.
Module 22 discusses energy transformation as the unifying principle among
the various forms of energy.
Module 23 explains the relationship among energy, work and power.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. Energy is conserved.
2. Energy can be changed from one form to another but it cannot be created
nor destroyed.
3. Energy is needed for you to do work.
4. Power is the rate of energy and its application.
5. Work is done when energy is changed into different forms.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. How do you know if you are doing work?
2. How is energy related to work?
3. What is power?
4. What does it mean to say that energy is conserved?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASKS AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the pupils the instruction below.
Construct a owchart which will show common daily activities that
exhibits transformation of energy from one form to another.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Pass a sheet of paper per column/row and ask the students to write
activities that show work.
B. Suggested Activities
1. Use the students responses to A to discuss concept of work.
Note: Highlight examples that do not show work.
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Teachers Manual 43
2. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 134). k
3. Derive equations for work.
4. Illustrate how to solve problems using equations for work.
5. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 135).
6. Perform Exercise 30: Use of Energy (LMWP, p. 61).
7. Use the results of Exercise 30 to discuss energy and its many forms.
8. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 137).
9. Perform Exercise 31: Conservation of Mechanical Energy (LMWP, pp. 62-63). y
10. Discuss conservation of mechanical energy using the results of Exer-
cise 31 and Figure 22.1 (textbook, p. 138).
11. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 138).
12. Derive the equations for conservation of mechanical energy.
13. Illustrate how to solve problems using equation for Conservation of
Mechanical Energy
14. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 140 and p. 143). k
15. Ask the students to share their experiences in climbing up and going
down the stairs.
Ask the following questions:
a. How did you feel in climbing up?
b. How would you relate this to the amount of work done?
16. Introduce the concept of power.
17. Let the students do Task (textbook, p. 145). k
18. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 145). k
19. PerformExercise 32: The Power of Exercise (LMWP, pp. 64-65).
20. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quiz
c. Reection log
Ask the students to react on the following:
1. Choose a job you love and you will never work a day in life
(By Confucius).
2. Its not how much power youve got that counts but how you
use it (by Leaving).
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44 Practical and Explorational Physics
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. 1. a
2. c
3. b
4. d
5. d
B. 1. F = 30 N d = 5 m
a)
b)
c)
2. m = 0.6 kg h = 5 m
a) W = PE
= mgh
= (0.6 kg)(9.8 m/s
2
)(5 m)
W = 29.4 J
Total energy = KE
max
= 54 J
KE
5m
= Total energy PE
5m
= 54 J 29.4 J
= 24.6 J
c) v =
KE
5m
m
=
24.6 kg m
2
/s
2
0.6 kg
= 41 m
2
/s
2
v = 6.40 m/ s

= 50
W = (30 N)(cos 50)(5 m)
= (30 N)(.64)(5 m)
W = 96 J 100 J
kg
kg

W = Fd
= (30 N)(5 m)
W = 150 J 200 J

= 25
W = F
a
cos d
= (30 N)(cos 25)(5 m)
= (30 N)(0.91)(5 m)
W = 136.5 J 100 J
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Teachers Manual 45
3.
m = 75 kg
v
i
= 0 m/s
v
f
= 10 m/s
t = 3 s
a =
v
t
=
v
f
v
i
t
=
10 0
3
a = 3.33 m/ s
2
d =
1
2
at
2
=
1
2
(3.33 m/s
2
)(3 s)
2
d = 15 m
P =
w
t
=
Fd
t
=
mad
t
=
(75)(3.33)(15)
3
= 1248.75 w
P = 1.25 kw
4. h
1
= 75 m
h
2
= 30 m
PE
1
= (75 m)(9.8 m/s
2
)(mass)
PE
2
= (30 m)(9.8 m/s
2
)(mass)
KE =

1
2
mv
2
= m[(75 m)(9.8 m/s
2
) (30 m)(9.8 m/s
2
)]
1
2
v
2
= (75 m)(9.8 m/s
2
) (30 m)(9.8 m/s
2
)
v =

2(9.8 m/s
2
)(75 m 30 m) = 29.70 m/s
5. m = 2.5 kg
= 32.6
d = 1.5 m
W = Fd
= mg sin d
= (2.5 kg)(9.8 m/s
2
)(sin 32.6)(1.5 m)
W = 19.8 J
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46 Practical and Explorational Physics
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
LNLRCY
muy be n
the orm o
chunges vth
ncudes
vhch s
ether
s the rute
o dong
s needed to do
uctng on un obect
over u dspucement
purue to the
orce s dong
\ork lorce
lnetc
muss
eustc
potentu
energy
gruvtutonu
potentu
energy
veocty
Lnergy
lotentu
Lnergy
Mechuncu Lnergy
lover
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Teachers Manual 47
Chapter 8 What Happens When Objects Rotate? r
This chapter includes three modules, (Module 24),
Rotational Inertia (Module 25) and Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
(Module 26).
Module 24 shows how the distance, velocity and acceleration of an object in
rotational motion can be measured. It also includes comparison of rotational and
linear kinematic equations.
Module 25 discusses how inertia applies to objects exhibiting rotational mo-
tion.
Module 26 focuses on angular momentum of an object in rotational motion.
It shows the similarity between linear and angular momentum. It also includes
discussion on conservation of angular momentum and its application.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. In the absence of an unbalanced external torque, the angular momentum
of a system remains constant.
2. Decreases in rotational inertia lead to increases in rotational velocity such
as in the spinning ice skater or diver and a planet orbiting the sun.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. How can you describe rotational motion?
2. Why do bicycles and other similar objects remain upright when they are
moving but not when they are stationary?
3. How do spinning objects (such as skates and discus) change their rota-
tional velocities?
4. When is angular momentum conserved?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASKS AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Examples:
Give the students the following instructions.
1. Prepare demonstration activity that will explain how the location of
an objects mass with respect to its axis of rotation determines its ro-
tational inertia.
2. Visit an amusement park/playground with a freely-rotating childs
merry go round. Take some time to observe some of the phenomena
discussed in this chapter. Prepare a report that includes the time it
takes for the merry-go-round to come to rest after you stop pushing
it and discuss the steps on how you did it.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
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48 Practical and Explorational Physics
Note: If there is no merry-go-round available in the park, you may use
the Lazy Susan of a round dining table or you may improvise with the
use of any rotating disc.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Ask the students to performExercise 33: Rotational Kinematics (LMWP,
p. 66).
B. Suggested Activities
1. Discuss Rotational Kinematics using the results of Exercise 33.
2. Derive the equations for Rotational Kinematics.
3. Illustrate how to solve problems on Rotational Kinematics.
4. Do Task (textbook, p. 155). k
5. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 155).
6. Demonstration:
Have the students try to balance on a nger an upright long stick
with a massive weight on one end. Try at rst with the weight at the
nger tip, then with the weight at the top.
7. Lead the demonstration activity to the concept that rotational inertia
is greater for the stick when it is made to rotate with the massive part
far from the pivot point than closer. Thus the farther the mass, the
greater the rotational inertia; the more it resists a change in motion.
8. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 156).
9. PerformExercise 34: Rotational Inertia (LMWP, pp. 67-68).
10. Present Table 25 (Textbook, p. 158) Moments of Inertia of Selected
Bodies with Mass m and show illustrative examples.
11. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 157).
12. Discuss Angular Momentum by comparing it with linear momen-
tum. Refer to Table 26 (textbook, p. 159).
13. Show how to solve problems on Angular Momentum.
14. Do Task (textbook, p. 160). k
15. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 160).
16. Perform Exercise 35: Conservation of Angular Momentum (LMWP,
pp. 69-70).
17. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seat work (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Demonstrations
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Teachers Manual 49
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. 1. c
2. b
3. a
4. b
5. a
B. 1. L = 25 kg m
2
/s
m = 4 kg
r = 0.25 m
v =

L
mr
=
25 kg m
2
/s
(4 kg)(0.25 m)
=
25 kg m
2
/s
1 kg m
= 25 m/s
2. m = 40 kg
r =
0.5 m
2
= 0.25 m
I =

1
2
mr
2
=

1
2
(40 kg)(0.25 m)
2
= (20 kg)(0.063 m
2
)
I = 1.26 kg m
2
3. = (4 rev)(2 rad/rev) = 8 rad

f
2
=
i
2
+ 2
=

f
2

i
2
2
=
0 (3 rad/s)
2
2(8 rad)
=
9 rad
2
/s
2
50.24 rad
= 0.18 rad/s
2
4. =

I
=
48 N m
8 kg m
2
=
48 N m
2
/s
2
8 kg m
2
= 6 rad/s
2
5. I
1

1
= I
2

2
=
I
1

1
I
2
=
3.6 kg m
2
1.2 kg m
2

(1 rev/s)

2
= 3 rev/s
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50 Practical and Explorational Physics
6. t = 2 s

i
= 4990 rpm
= 4990
rev
min

6.28
rev

1 min
60 s

i
= 522.29 rad/s

f
= 0
=

f

i
t
=
0 522.29 rad/s
2 s
= 261.14 rad/ s
2
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
RC1A1lCNAL lNLR1lA
s uso termed
depends on
s the unt or
mutped by
unguur veocty s
uppes to
such us
us
lg m
2
Moment o lnertu
Anguur
Momentum
Rotutonu
Moton
Crbtu
Moton
Spn
Moton
Dstrbuton
o the muss
o un obect
rev
min i rev
min ii
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Teachers Manual 51
Chapter 9 What Forces Inuence Particle r
Movement in Matter?
This chapter includes two modules: Properties of a Solid (Module 27) and Me-
chanics of Fluids (Module 28).
Module 27 discusses the characteristics and properties of solids.
Module 28 discusses uid statics and uid dynamics.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. All matter on Earth generally exist in any of the states of matter (solid,
liquid, gas, plasma).
2. The behavior of matter depends on its characteristics and properties.
3. Most types of matter you encounter every day are mixtures of two or
more components.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. What happens to the density of an object when it is cut into smaller pieces?
2. Force = Pressure?
3. Which objects oat? sink?
4. Why do some materials cling to each other?
5. How is pressure transmitted? increased? reduced?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASKS AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instructions.
1. Construct a boat using aluminum foil or clay that can carry the great-
est number of marbles without sinking.
2. Prepare a video/power point presentation of the application of the
principles learned in this chapter in actual situations. Provide the
necessary explanations.
3. Construct a cartesian diver and explain how it works.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Word Webbing:
Write the word solid in the center of the board. Ask volunteers
(around 10) to write a word that comes to their mind related to the word.
Circle each word and draw a line to connect the words that relate to
each other.
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52 Practical and Explorational Physics
B. Suggested Activities
1. Use the clusters of words to discuss the properties of solids.
2. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 165).
3. PerformExercise 36: Hookes Law (LMWP, pp. 71-72).
4. Discuss Hookes Law.
5. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 169).
6. Derive the equations for Modulus of Elasticity.
7. Show illustrative examples.
8. Recall with the students the concept of density.
9. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 174).
10. PerformExercise 37: Pressure (LMWP, p. 73).
11. Discuss the results of Exercise 37 and introduce liquid pressure.
12. Perform the activities in Do This (textbook, p. 174).
13. Derive the equations for pressure.
14. Show illustrative examples.
15. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 176).
16. Show Pascals Principle in actual situations.
Example: squeezing a tube of toothpaste.
17. Derive the equation for Pascals Principle.
18. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 178).
19. PerformExercise 38: Liquid Pressure (LMWP, p. 75).
20. Do POE (Predict-Observe-Explain)
a. Fill a large clear container with water.
b. Show two cans full of soft drink, one diet and one regular.
c. Ask students to predict what happens if the can of diet soft drink
is placed in the container. Ask them to observe and write their
explanation. Do the same with the can of regular soft drink.
21. Discuss Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle using POE results.
22. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 180).
23. Perform this activity.
Pour water into a glass until it is full.
Gently place a needle on the surface of the water. Try to make it
oat.
Do the same with paper clip and staple wire and other light-
weight items.
Relate cause and effect.
24. Discuss surface tension using observations from the previous activ-
ity.
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Teachers Manual 53
25. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 182).
26. PerformExercise 40: Bernoullis Principle (LMWP, p. 77).
27. Discuss Bernoullis Principle using the results of Exercise 40.
28. Do the Task (textbook, p. 185). k
29. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 185).
30. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Journal
Have students think of the effects of waters high surface ten-
sion as applied in daily life. Describe the effect.
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. 1. d
2. d
3. c
4. c
5. b
B. 1. diameter = 1.0 mm = 1 10
3
m
L
o
= 2.0 m
m = 5.0 kg
L = 1.2 mm = 1.2 10
3
m
Y =
FL
o
A L
=
(5.0 kg)(9.8 m/s
2
)(2.0 m)
(3.14)(5 10
4
m)
2
(1.2 10
3
m)
=
98 J
9.42 10
10
m
3
10
11
N/m
2
2. F
air
= 50 N F
oil
= 41 N
F
water
= 36 N
m
metal
=

F
air
g
=
50 N
9.8 m/s
2
= 5.10 kg
F
b(water)
=
water
gV
metal
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54 Practical and Explorational Physics
V
metal
=
F
b( water)

water
g
=

14 N
(1 10
3
kg/m
3
)(9.8 m/s
2
)
= 1.43 10
3
m
3

metal
=

5.10 kg
1.43 10
3
m
3
= 3.57 10
3
kg/m
3
F
b(oil)
= F
air
F
water
= 50 N 41 N = 9 N
F
b(oil)
=
oil
gV
metal

oil
=

F
b(oil )
g V
metal
=
9 N
(9.8 m/s
2
)(1.43 10
3
m
3
)

oil
= 6.42 10
2
kg/m
3
3. h
water
= 20 cm
h
oil
= 30 cm
P = 0.70 10
3
kg/m
3
a. P = gh
oil
+ P
a
= (0.70 10
3
kg/m
3
)(9.8 m/s
2
)(0.30 m) + P
a
= 2058 Pa + (1 10
5
Pa)
= 102 058 Pa
P = 1.02 10
5
Pa (surface)
b. P = P
a
+ gh
oil
+ gh
water
= (1 10
5
Pa) + 2058 Pa + (1000 kg/m
3
)(9.8 m/s
2
)(0.2 m)
= (1 10
5
Pa) + 2058 Pa + 1960 Pa
= 104 018 Pa
P = 1.04 10
5
Pa (bottom)
4. F
2
= (1200 kg)(9.8 m/s
2
) = 11 760 N
A
1
= 12 cm
2
A
2
= 700 cm
2
F
1
= ?
F
1
A
1
=
F
2
A
2
F
1
=
F
2
A
1
A
2
=
(11 760 N)(12 cm
2
)
700 cm
2
F
1
= 201.6 N
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Teachers Manual 55
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
lLLlD lRLSSLRL lLLlD MLCHANlCS
deus vth
ucts n u
drectons vhch
s purt o
ncreuses
vth depth
becuuse o
us shovn n
ncudes
decreuses vth speed
o ov us stuted n
ncudes study o
h
u
s

t
v
o

c
u
t
e
g
o
r

e
s

v
h

c
h

u
r
e
behuvor o uds
such us
Lquds
lud Stutcs
lud Dynumcs
Hydronumcs
Cus Dynumcs
luscu's
lrncpe
Cuses
Cruvty
ernou's
lrncpe
Archmedes'
lrncpe
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56 Practical and Explorational Physics
UNIT III OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES T
Unit III consists of two chapters: How Do Particles Move in a Medium and Trans-
fer Energy? (Chapter 10) and How Is Sound Produced, Propagated and Perceived?
(Chapter 11).
This unit is about the nature and properties of waves. It describes how waves
transfer energy. It explains how waves are classied and interact.
Chapter 10 How Do Particles Move in a Medium r
and Transfer Energy?
This chapter includes three modules. Simple Harmonic Motion (Module
29), Waves: Carriers of Energy (Module 30) and Wave Properties and Interactions
(Module 31).
Module 29 is about the basic concepts of periodic motion and oscillatory mo-
tion that involve repetitive motion in a regular cycle.
Module 30 deals with the nature of waves as carriers of energy and the dif-
ferent types in which they occur.
Module 31 discusses the properties of waves.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. The source of all waves is something that vibrates.
2. Information gets to us in some form of wave.
3. When a wave travels in a medium, the medium does not move with the
wave.
4. Objects vibrate at their own particular frequency.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. How do waves travel?
2. How do waves transfer energy?
3. What human activities are considered periodic? Why?
4. Why is there a common notion that wave frequency and speed are the
same?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Ask students to construct foldables about types, characteristics and prop-
erties of waves.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
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Teachers Manual 57
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Correcting misconceptions. Ask students to agree or disagree with
the given statements.
1. Wave speed and wave frequency are the same.
2. When a wave travels in a medium, a medium travels with a wave.
3. Waves can be added but not cancelled.
4. Wave amplitude and wave displacement are the same.
5. Waves travel in a vacuum (empty space).
B. Suggested Activities
1. Use the corrected misconceptions to introduce wave motion.
2. Ask the students to observe your tapping of the teachers table or the
blackboard. Let the students relate their observation to the frequency
and period and link this to periodic motion.
3. Recall Hookes Law and Simple Pendulum in relation to periodic mo-
tion.
4. Show how to solve periodic motion problems.
5. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 192). k
6. Do a demo activity using a slinky/long coiled spring (or perform
Exercise 43: Waves on a Slinky, LMWP pp. 83-84).
Ask two students to hold each end of the spring or slinky and
send transverse pulses along it.
Let them shake it and produce sine waves.
Then send a stretch and squeeze down the spring showing a lon-
gitudinal pulse.
Send a series of pulses.
7. Use the observations in the demo activity to discuss the nature and
types of waves.
8. Use Fig. 30.4 to show the characteristics of a wave.
9. Show how to solve problems on waves.
10. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 195). k
11. Demonstrate the different properties of waves using a big transpar-
ent bowl lled with water and discuss each property.
a. For reection
Dip a pencil into the water to form circular waves. Pay atten-
tion to the ripple as it hits the wall of the bowl.
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58 Practical and Explorational Physics
b. For diffraction
Place a barrier (like a ruler or block of wood) in the bowl and
dip the pencil. Observe what happens.
c. For refraction
Submerge a pencil into the bowl of water and have the students
observe the appearance of the pencil from the side of the container.
d. For interference and superposition
Dip two pencils simultaneously into the bowl of water. Ob-
serve what happens. Repeat what you have done but vary the
speed of dipping of the other pencil. Observe what happens.
12. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 199). k
13. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Journal reection
Ask the students to share their insights on how they can relate
the characteristics and properties of wave to their life.
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. 1. a
2. d
3. b
4. d
5. b
B. Problem Solving
1. f = f

1
T
=
1
7
2. L = 2.5 m
f =
1
T
T = 2
L
g
= 2(3.14)
2.5 m
9.8 m/s
2
= 6.28 0.255 s
2
T = 3.17 s
f =
1
3.17 s
= 0.315 Hz
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Teachers Manual 59
3. f = 0.5 Hz
T =
1
f
L =
gT
2
4
2
=
(9.8 m/s
2
)(2 s)
2
4(3.14)
2
= 0.99 m
4. F
1
= 16 N
x
1
= 1.0 cm
x
2
= 2.5 cm
F
2
= ?
F
1
x
1
=
F
2
x
2
F
2
=
(16 N)(2.5 cm)
1.0 cm
= 40 N
= 12 m
v = f
v = (2.0 Hz)(12 m) = 24 m/s
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
\AVL
Lnergy
s churucterzed
by
s cussed us
s u dsturbunce
thut cuuses
through mutter
or spuce cued
s requred or
propuguton o
s not requred
to propugute
Amptude
\uveength
lrequency
Speed
Medum
Mechuncu
vuves
Lectro-
mugnetc
vuve
Suruce Longtudnu 1runsverse
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60 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 11 How Is Sound Produced, Propagated r
and Perceived?
This chapter includes four modules: Sound Production, Propagation and Percep-
tion (Module 32), Speed of Sound (Module 33), Sound Wave Interactions (Module 34)
and Musical Sounds (Module 35).
Module 32 discusses sounds nature and properties. It also discusses the
ways in which sound is produced, propagated and perceived.
Module 33 discusses the factors that affect the speed of sound and how the
speed of sound can be measured.
Module 34 discusses how sound is changed. It also includes the different
properties that sound exhibit.
Module 35 discusses the variety of sounds produced by different instru-
ments.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. Sound travels at different speeds and media but not in a vacuum.
2. Sound waves carry energy.
3. Not all sounds are pleasant.
4. Noise is an unpleasant sound that can be harmful to people and their
environment.
5. The mental impressions we have are related to the sound that we hear.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. How is sound produced, propagated and perceived?
2. Do you hear all sounds?
3. What kind of sound is music for you? noise for you?
4. What latest technology makes use of sound waves?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASKS AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
1. Let the students construct improvised musical instruments applying
what they learned about sound waves.
2. Have them write a letter of inquiry to a law maker/local ofcials regard-
ing laws/hindrances on noise pollution.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
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Teachers Manual 61
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Think-Pair-Share
Students will write down ideas on propagation and medium of
sound. Then they will turn to a partner and share their ideas.
B. Suggested Activities
1. Call on some students to share with the class what they have dis-
cussed during the Think-Pair-Share and use this to discuss sound
waves production, propagation and perception.
2. PerformExercise 45: Properties of Sound Waves (LMWP, pp. 86-87).
3. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 207). k
4. Pose the question: Do you see lightning before you hear thunder or
do you hear thunder before seeing lightning? Use the responses of
students to discuss variations in the speed of sound.
5. Ask the students to complete a table by giving situations that will
show how properties of a medium affect the speed of sound.
Property Situation
Density
Elasticity
Temperature
6. Ask students to study Table 33 Speed of Sound in Some Materials on
p. 209 (textbook) and make a generalization.
7. Show the students how to solve problems involving speed of sound.
8. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 209). k
9. Perform Exercise 46: Use of Echoes (LMWP, pp. 88-89).
10. Gallery Walk
Divide the class into ve groups.
Assign each to draw/sketch a diagram/illustration/picture
about the following ideas:
Group 1 Refraction of sound
Group 2 Reection of sound
Group 3 Diffraction of sound
Group 4 Interference of sound
Group 5 Resonance
Let them post their output on strategic places and then give time
for them to take turns to view other groups output and write com-
ments.
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62 Practical and Explorational Physics
Do this until they have seen all the outputs, then proceed to sharing
to the big group.
Provide synthesis to the discussion.
11. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 212). k
12. PerformExercise 48: Musical Sounds (LMWP, p. 91) or let the students
listen to a recorded sound produced by different instruments.
13. Discuss the different musical instruments.
14. Do Task on p. 214 of the textbook. k
15. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 214). k
16. Let the students listen to a recorded soft sound (mellow music, soft
whisper, rustling of leaves) and loud sounds (plane taking off, con-
struction site, heavy trafc).
17. Let them compare the two sounds (soft and loud) and discuss music
and noise.
18. Ask students to share what they can do to prevent/minimize noise
pollution.
19. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Learning log
Ask the students to write a reection on the kind of music
they prefer to listen/appreciate in terms of nature and quality of
sound.
Compare this with their friends and parents preference.
20. Ask the students to visit the suggested Weblink on p. 216. k
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. 1. a
2. d
3. a
4. c
5. c
6. b
7. c
8. b
B. 1. The ear may be blocked by an object (i.e., ear plugs) or loud sounds
may cause temporary hearing loss.
2. Different objects have different densities so their vibrations and the
sound frequency produced vary.
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Teachers Manual 63
3. The Doppler effect exists when a sound is moving towards or away
from you. The sound changes in frequency and wavelength but not
in speed.
4. A shock wave is a compression wave that is produced by a sudden
change in pressure and particle velocity, such as in an explosion, or
by a body moving faster than sound.
5. The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch.
6. Sound wave interactions illustrated in items a to c:
a. diffraction
b. reection/echo
c. refraction
7. Kind of interference shown in items a and b:
a. destructive interference
b. constructive interference
C. 1. t = 0.8 s (time for sound emitted to return to source)
v = 344 m / s (at room temperature of 20C)
d = vt
= (344 m / s)(0.8 s)
= 275.2 m
d (from source to cliff) =
1
2
(275.2 m)
= 137.6 m 100 m
2.
3.
(distance traveled by sound from
source to the cliff back to the source)

f = 36 Hz T = 20C
=
v
f
=
344 m/s
36/s
= 9.56 m

f = 457 Hz = 0.75 m
v = f
= (0.75 m)(457/s)
v = 342.75 m/ s (air at 20C)
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64 Practical and Explorational Physics
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
SOUND LCNCl1LDlNAL \AVL
s descrbed
by the
cun ony
move through
vhch
s
meusured
n
SCLlDS
LlLlDS
CAS
ll1CH
HLR1Z
LCLDNLSS 1CNL LALl1Y
lRLLLNCY
Cl
SCLND
\AVL
AMlLl1LDL
Cl
1HL
SCLND
\AVL
\AVL lCRM
Cl 1HL
SCLND
\AVL
DLClLL
depends
on
depends
on the
s determned
by the
vhch s
meusured n
s u
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Teachers Manual 65
UNIT IV THERMODYNAMICS T
Unit IV consists of two chapters: How Are Heat and Temperature Related?
(Chapter 12) and What Laws Govern the Transfer of Heat? (Chapter 13).
This unit deals with heat and its transformation to mechanical energy. It dis-
cusses thermodynamics, the study of heat in relation to temperature, work and
energy. It covers the Zeroth, First and Second Law of Thermodynamics.
Chapter 12 How Are Heat and Temperature Related? r
This chapter includes four modules: Temperature and Thermal Energy (Module
36), Thermal Expansion (Module 37), Heat Transfer (Module 38) and Phase Changes
(Module 39).
Module 36 discusses the difference between heat and temperature.
Module 37 explains thermal expansion of different materials.
Module 38 presents ways in which heat is transferred
Module 39 explains what causes matter to change state.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science priciples, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. Temperature = Heat?
2. Matter expands when heated and contracts when cooled.
3. Heat ows from warmer objects to cooler objects.
4. Heat loss by one object equals the heat gained by another object.
5. When heat is absorbed or given off, an object may undergo a change of
phase.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. How are heat and temperature related?
2. What makes an object hot? cold?
3. What causes transfer of thermal energy?
4. Does adding heat always change the temperature of a substance? Are
there other ways of changing the temperature of an object besides adding
heat?
5. How do the different ways of heat transfer apply to heating and cooling
systems?
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66 Practical and Explorational Physics
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF LEARNING
Example:
Give the students the following instructions.
Design and construct an icebox that can keep ice from melting for a
longer period using low-cost materials.
Identify the factors that you considered in the design.
Explain how you came up with the design.
Compare your ice box with existing commercial products.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Ask the students to recall the last time that their temperature was
taken using a thermometer.
Pose the question: Does the temperature reading give the amount of
heat in your body?
B. Suggested Activities
1. Start discussion of heat and temperature using their response to part A
and follow it up with this question: Which has higher temperature, a
cup of boiling water or a teapot of boiling water?
2. PerformDo This activity on p. 221 of the textbook.
3. Present and discuss with the students pictures of different types of
thermometer.
4. Use Fig. 36.6 (p. 223 of the textbook) to discuss the different scales
used to measure temperature.
5. Show how to convert from one temperature scale to another.
6. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 223). k
7. Introduce thermal expansion by posing this question: (1) How would
you open a tight bottle cap? (2) How would you remove a glass stuck
into another glass? (3) What time of the day should you buy a pair of
leather shoes?
8. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 225). k
9. Perform Exercise 49: Temperature and Thermal Energy (LMWP, p. 95) or
Exercise 50: Expansion by Heat (LMWP, p. 96).
10. Ask the students to identify the three ways of heat transfer and give
examples.
11. PerformExercise 51: Heat Transfer (LMWP, p. 97).
12. Answer Self -check (textbook, p. 227). k
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Teachers Manual 67
13. Ask the students to analyze Table 38, p. 227 of the textbook and rec-
ognize that specic heat of substances varies as temperature changes.
14. Show how the amount of heat transfer is computed.
15. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 228). k
16. PerformExercise 52: Heat Loss and Heat Gain (LMWP, pp. 98-99).
17. Do a postlab activity that will lead to the discussion of latent heat and
heat of phase change.
18. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 230). k
19. Show the students how to solve problems on heat of phase change
using Sample Problems on p. 231 of the textbook.
20. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 231). k
21. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Conduct an energy survey of your home.
What is the heat source of your home?
Explain how heat ows into and out of your home.
What could be done to improve the energy efciency of your
home?
22. Visit the suggested Weblinks on p. 233 of the textbook.
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
A. 1. b
2. c
3. d
4. d
5. c
6. c
B. Problem Solving
1. mercury 39C
38F
copper 1083C
1981F
oxygen 219C
362F
2. m
w
= 150 g m
i
= 1 g
T
iw
T = 10C T
if
T = 75C T
f f
= ?
f
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68 Practical and Explorational Physics
mCT
i
T = mCT
w
(1 g) 0.105
cal
gC

(75C T
f
) = (150 g) 1
cal
gC

(T
f
10C)
0.105
cal
C

T
f
+ 7.875 cal = 150
cal
C

T
f
1500 cal
0.105
cal
C
T
f
+ 150
cal
C
T
f
= 7.875 cal + 1500 cal
150.105
cal
C
T
f
150.105
cal
C
=
1507.875 cal
150.105
cal
C
T
f
= 10.05C

3. m
Cu
= 200 g m
w
= 350 g
T
i
T = 25C m
ice
= ? T
f
= 9C
f
Cu + H
2
O = ice + ice
mCT + mCT = mL
f
+ mCT
f

(200 g) 0.093
cal
gC

(25C 9C) + (350 g) 1


cal
gC

(25C 9C)
= m 80
cal
g

+ m 1
cal
gC

(9C)
297.6 cal + 5600 cal = m 89
cal
g

5897.6 cal
89
cal
g
=
m 89
cal
g

89
cal
g
m = 66.27 g
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Teachers Manual 69
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
1HLRMAL LNLRCY
Convecton
Ruduton
Spuce
Creenhouse eect
Lectro-
mugnetc
vuves
vhch s responsbe
or the
Conducton
Medum
Densty
lud movement
utoms
moecues
eectrons
s trunserred by
nvovng
moves
through
conssts o
due to derences
n
s shovn by
thermu energy
movng through
u
cuused by
contuct
betveen
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70 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 13 What Laws Govern the Transfer of Heat? r
This chapter includes four modules: The Zeroth Law and Thermodynamic Pro-
cesses (Module 40), The First Law of Thermodynamics (Module 41), Heat Engines
and Heat Pumps (Module 42) and Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
(Module 43).
Module 40 discusses how work can transfer energy to a substance and the
possibility of its reverse process.
Module 41 explains the principle of the conservation of energy which serves
as the basis of the First Law of Thermodynamics.
Module 42 discusses the conversion of mechanical energy into thermal en-
ergy, and vice versa.
Module 43 introduces the Second Law of Thermodynamics and includes
heat engines and environmental pollution problem.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. You can never invent a perpetual motion machine.
2. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be transformed from one
form to another.
3. Heat is nothing more than the motion of the atoms and molecules that
comprise matter.
4. The Law of Thermodynamics is crucial to making wise energy choices
and policy decision.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. How can we generate power efciently?
2. Why does the human body work?
3. How does the law of thermodynamics explain chaos?
4. If you could build an ideal heat engine, how will it operate?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give students the following instruction.
Study your refrigerator at home and make a report on the following:
a. the energy source that provides the work to remove the heat
b. the power rating
c. the location of heat engine coils
d. the temperature at several different times
1) inside the refrigerator
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Teachers Manual 71
2) inside the freezer compartment
3) near the heat exchange coil
4) in the room some distance away from the refrigerator
Include in your report how the information you gathered affect the ef-
ciency of the refrigerator. Relate your answer to entropy and the Second Law
of Thermodynamics. Discuss how the refrigerator (as an example of a heat
engine) affect environmental condition.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Picture Analysis:
Present pictures of refrigerator, aircon unit, car engines, steam engine.
Ask students the question: What comes into your mind when you see
these pictures?
B. Suggested Activities
1. Pose the question: How long does it take to measure a patients body
temperature with a thermometer? Explain why.
2. Using the students responses, lead the discussion to zeroth law of
thermodynamics.
3. PerformExercise 53: Zeroth Law (LMWP, p. 100).
4. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 236). k
5. Recall the principle of conservation of energy and relate this to the
First Law of Thermodynamics.
6. Derive the equation for the First Law of Thermodynamics and show
how to solve problems using Sample Problemon p. 238 of the textbook.
7. Answer Self-check, p. 238 of the textbook. k
8. PerformExercise 54: What Heat Can Do (LMWP, pp. 101-102).
9. Ask the students to take a link at Fig. 42.1 p. 239 of the textbook and
explain what happens to the heat and the piston during the cycle.
10. Ask the students to compare Fig. 42.1, Fig. 42.2 and Fig. 42.3 and an-
swer the question: Would it be possible to use heat engine to pro-
vide the work to operate a refrigerator?
11. Derive the formula for measuring the thermal efciency of an engine
and show how to solve problems on heat engines using sample prob-
lems on p. 241 of the textbook.
12. Answer Self-check (textbook, p. 241). k
13. Demonstrate an increase in entropy using a glass of water and food
coloring. Refer to Fig. 43.1 of the textbook.
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72 Practical and Explorational Physics
14. Lead the discussion on the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
15. Show how to solve problems involving the Second Law of Thermo-
dynamics using Sample Problems on p. 244 of the textbook.
16. Answer Self-check, p. 244 of the textbook. k
17. Documentary lm viewing on air pollution.
18. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Interview two vehicle owners, one using diesel-engine car and
the other using gasoline-engine car. Ask them the advantages and
disadvantages of these engines. You may also ask a driver using
LPG fueled vehicle.
19. Ask the students to visit the suggested Weblink on p. 246 of the text- k
book.
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. 1. d 5. b
2. d 6. a
3. b 7. c
4. c 8. b
B. 1. No, there would be no suitable low-temperature reservoir to absorb
the waste heat from the engine.
2. to increase efciency
3. As rising air undergoes adiabatic expansion, it cools.
4. a. Act. Eff. =
W
Q
H
=
1700 J
9000 J
= 18.89%
b. Max. Eff. = 1

T
C
Q
H
= 1
643 K
923 K
= 30.34%
5. S
B2
=

Q
T
Q = S
B2
T
= (2.8 10
4
J/K)(291 K)
Q = 8.15 10
6
J
S
universe
= S
B2
+ S
B1
= 2.8 10
4
J/K + 6.4 10
4
J/K
S
universe
= 9.2 10
4
J/K
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Teachers Manual 73
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
INTERNAL ENERGY
llRS1 LA\ Cl 1HLRMCDYNAMlCS
Dong \ork 1runserrng Heut
cun be
chunged by
ure governed by
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74 Practical and Explorational Physics
UNIT V ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM T
The unit consists of four chapters: How Do Electric Charges That Are at Rest
Interact? (Chapter 14), How Is Electricity Put into Use? (Chapter 15), How Are Elec-
tricity and Magnetism Interrelated? (Chapter 16) and How Do Electronic Components
Work? (Chapter 17).
This unit explains the phenomena of electricity and magnetism. It discusses
their nature and relationships. It also discusses how electricity and magnetism are
applied in electric power generation, production of motion and in electronics.
Chapter 14 How Do Electric Charges That Are r
at Rest Interact?
This chapter includes two modules, Interaction of Electric Charges (Module 44)
and Electric Fields (Module 45).
Module 44 discusses the nature and transfer of electric charges. It also deals
with Coulombs Law.
Module 45 includes a discussion on natures characteristics of electric eld.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. Electric elds provide the force that moves charged particles.
2. Like charges repel, unlike charges attract.
3. Different materials have different afnities for electrons.
4. Electrostatic force is stronger than gravitational force.
5. Charge is conserved.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. How do objects acquire charge?
2. How is electrostatic force similar to and different from gravitational
force?
3. How does the concept of a eld eliminate the idea of action at a distance?
4. Can electric elds be shielded?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instruction.
Choose one problem and one application of electrostatics.
(Ex. Problems: sheets of paper stick together, cotton bers attract dust)
Application: electrostatics paint spraying, photocopying and laser printing)
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Teachers Manual 75
Build a model or create a poster to show the solution to the problem
and a procedure on how the application works.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
1. Ask the students to agree or disagree on the following.
a. Electricity was discovered by Benjamin Franklin.
b. It is safer to stay inside a car than stand outside during a thunder-
storm.
c. A charged body has only one type of charge.
d Friction is a necessary factor in charging an object.
e. The human body is a conductor.
2. Ask the students to give examples of static charge.
(Ex. clinging clothes, static charge experienced after walking across a
oor and touching a doorknob.)
3. Discuss students responses and relate them to transfer of electric
charge.
4. Perform Exercise 57: Interaction Between Charged Particles (LMWP,
p. 111) and Exercise 58: Electrostatic Charges (LMWP, p. 112).
5. Demonstrate the use of an electroscope (if available) or use Fig 44.5
textbook, p. 252 and Fig. 44.6, p. 253 to show charging by conduction,
induction and polarization.
6. Ask the students to classify the following materials and group them
into conductors and insulators using POE
a. alcohol g. paper
b. aluminum foil h. plastic
c. copper i. rubber
d. cork j. salt
e. glass k. water
f. oil l. wood
7. Answer Self-check, p. 254 of the textbook. k
8. Recall Newtons Laws of Universal Gravitation and compare with
Coulombs Law.
9. Show how to solve problems applying Coulombs Law using Sample
Problem on p. 255 of the textbook.
10. Answer Self-check on p. 256 of the textbook.
11. Discuss electric eld strength using Fig. 45.2, p. 257 of the textbook.
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76 Practical and Explorational Physics
12. Show how to solve problems involving electric eld strength using
Sample Problem on p. 258 of the textbook.
13. Ask the students to describe the direction of the electric lines of force
using Fig. 45.4, p. 259 of the textbook.
14. Answer Self-check on p. 261 of the textbook. k
15. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Surf the internet to nd out the effects of static charge on your
daily life and what you can do to minimize these effects.
16. Have the students visit the suggested Weblink on p. 262. k
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. Multiple Choice
1. c
2. d
3. b
4. d
5. c
B. Essay; Problem Solving
1. The charges that make up Q will spread out over the objects surface.
2. No, two objects need not be charged for them to attract each other
electrically.
Yes, two objects have to be charged for them to repel each other elec-
trically.
3. Q
1
= 5 10
7
C Q
2
= 2 10
7
C
F = 100 N
d =

kQ
1
Q
2
F

(9 10
9
Nm
2
/C
2
)(5 10
7
C)(2 10
7
C)
100 N
d = 3 10
3
m
4. F
1
= 9.3 10
4
N
d
1
= 20 cm = 0.2 m
d
2
= 4.5 cm = 0.045 m
d
3
= 86 cm = 0.86 m
F
2
= ? F
3
= ?
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Teachers Manual 77
F
1
d
1
2
=
F
2
d
2
2
2
=

F
1
d
2
2
d
1
2

=

(9.3 10
4
N)(4.5 cm)
2
(20 cm)
2
F
2
= 4.71 10
5
N
b. F
3
=

F
1
d
2
2
d
1
2

=

(9.3 10
4
N)(86 cm)
2
(20 cm)
2
F
3
= 1.72 10
2
N
5. The two forces (i.e., the gravitational attraction between two protons
and their electric repulsion) are never equal.
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: C0NCEPT MAP
S1A1lC LLLC1RlCl1Y
Attruct
Repe
Lectrc Churges Lectroscope
lostve
Negutve
hus tvo opposte
types vhch ure
presence o
detects the
nvoves
cuuse obects
to
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78 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 15 How Is Electricity Put Into Use? r
This chapter includes three modules: Electrical Quantities and Units (Module
46), Ohms Law (Module 47) and Multiple-Load Circuits (Module 48).
Module 46 introduces certain quantities and units in describing electric circuits.
Module 47 presents applications of Ohms Law and the devices that are used
to relate and measure the different quantities involved.
Module 48 discusses the different types of circuit connections and their ap-
plications. It also includes a discussion on how to use electricity safely.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. Electric circuits and electric current are central to understanding how
simple electrical devices work.
2. Materials have the property of opposing an electric current.
3. There is a relationship among voltage, current and resistance given in
Ohms law.
4. Current carries energy and does work.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. Why does a bulb light?
2. What is the relationship between current and voltage in a simple circuit?
3. When a battery dies, does it run out of charge?
4. Why are Christmas lights connected in series but houselights are con-
nected in parallel?
5. Is electric energy the same as electric power? Explain.
6. What do we pay for, energy or power?
7. What safety measures are to be considered in using electricity?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instructions.
1. Make a survey of your electric energy consumption for the past three
consecutive months.
2. Identify which devices consume more electric energy.
3. Propose an action plan on how to reduce your electrical energy con-
sumption.
4. Discuss the plan with the other members of your family and explain
how the plan will work.
5. Find out the results after two months.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
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A B C D E F G A B C D E F G
Teachers Manual 79
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Pose the question: Give instances when electricity can be dangerous
to you.
(Example: handling a wet hair dryer, pulling appliances by their ex)
B. Suggested Activities
1. P-O-E
a. Show the diagram below and ask students to predict which set-
up will make the bulb light. up will make the bulb light.
b. Ask the students to explain their answers.
c. Provide materials (bulb, battery, copper wire) and let students
verify their predictions through observations.
d. Ask the students to explain the result.
2. Introduce electric circuit and the quantities needed in describing an
electric circuit.
3. Use Table 46.1 p. 266 of the textbook to discuss the factors that affect
resistance (R) to length (), cross-sectional area (A) and resistivity ()
given by R =

A

4. Show how to solve problems involving factors affecting resistance
using Sample Problems on p. 267 of the textbook.
5. Answer Self-check, p. 267 of the textbook. k
6. Using activity in No. 1 (P-O-E), ask the students to identify the parts
of an electric circuit. Let them illustrate the circuit using a schematic
diagram. Refer to Table 47.1 p. 268 of the textbook for symbols used
in schematic diagram.
7. Let students make an analogy between electric circuit and the ow
of water in a pipe by asking them to match the terms in Column A
(water-ow system) with Column B (electric circuit)
A B
Water-ow system Electric Circuit
water battery
pump bulb
pipes charge
narrow pipe switch
valve wires
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R = 5 R = 5
T 2
R = 5 R = 5
2 Emf = 3V Emf = 3V T
80 Practical and Explorational Physics
Ask the students to explain their analogy.
8. PerformExercise 62: Ohms Law (LMWP, pp. 117-118) to determine the
relationship between current and voltage and between current and
resistance.
9. Show how to solve problems by applying Ohms law using the Sam-
ple Problems on p. 269 of the textbook.
10. Derive with the students the formula for power and electrical energy.
11. Guide the students in distinguishing between energy and power by
using a sample electricity bill shown in Table 47.2, p. 271.
12. Ask the students to share what they do at home to save electricity.
13. Answer Self-check, p. 272 of the textbook. k
14. Show the students actual set-ups of series and parallel circuit connec-
tions. Let them compare the two connections.
15. Show how to solve problems involving circuit connections using
these circuit connections.
a. series b. parallel
Find: R
T
RR = 10 Find: R
T
RR = 2.5
I
T
= 0.3 A I
T
= 1.2 A
V
1
= 1.5 V V
1
= 3 V
V
2
= 1.5 V V
2
= 3 V
I
1
= 0.3 A I
1
= 0.6 A
I
2
= 0.3 A I
2
= 0.6 A
16. Show how to solve problems involving simple network connections
using Sample Problems on pp. 274-275 of the textbook.
17. Answer Self-check on p. 277 of the textbook. k
18. Ask the students to study Table 48 on p. 276 of the textbook to deter-
mine the electric shock hazards at different values of current.
19. Discuss with the students how electricity can both be a friend and a
foe. Let the students share how car accidents related to electricity be
prevented.
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Teachers Manual 81
20. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Write a report on why various devices are wired in parallel.
(Example: Ignition, head lights, tail lights, CD player)
Estimate the combined resistance if another load will be added.
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. Multiple Choice
1. a
2. b
3. d
4. a
5. c
B. Problem Solving
1. R = 10.4
V = 220 V
I =

V
R
=
220 V
10.4
I = 21.15 A
2. P = 320 W
V = 110 V
I =

P
V
=
320 W
110 V
= 2.91 A
3. R
1
= 4
R
2
= 8
R
3
= 12
V
T
= 24 V
a. R
T
RR = R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
= 4 + 8 + 12
R
T
RR = 24
b. I
T
=

V
T
R
T
=
24 V
24
= 1 A
c. I
T
= I
1
= I
2
= I
3
= 1 A
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82 Practical and Explorational Physics
4. R
1
= 18
R
2
= 9
R
3
= 6
V
T
=12 V
a.
1
R
T
=

1
R
1
+
1
R
2
+
1
R
3
=

1
18
+
1
9
+
1
6

=

1
3
R
T
RR = 3
b. I
T
= 4 A
c. I
1
= 0.67 A
I
2
= 1.33 A
I
3
= 2 A
d. V
T
= V
1
= V
2
= V
3
= 12 V
5. R
1
= 3 R
5
= 4
R
2
= 3 R
6
= 2
R
3
= 6 R
7
= 2
R
4
= 6 R
T
RR = ?
1
R
3 4
=
1
6
+
1
6
=
2
6
R
3 4
= 3
1
R
5 6
=
1
4
+
1
2
=
3
4
R
5 6
=
4
3
Series: R
2
and R
34
R
234
= 3 + 3
= 6
Series: R
56
and R
7
R
567
=

6
3
+ 2
=

10
3
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Teachers Manual 83
LLLC1RlC ClRCLl1
cun be
buscuy
ncudes
vth constunt vth constunt
Lectrons
Lectrc current
knovn us
uovs ov
o
Seres lurue
Votuge
Current
Resstor/oud
Svtch
Conductng vre
Source
Parallel: R
234
and R
567
=

1
6
+
3
10
=
5 + 9
30
=
14
30
R
234567
=

30
14
=
15
7
T
RR = R
1
+ R
234567
= 3 +

15
7
R
T
RR =

36
7
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
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84 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 16 How Are Electricity and Magnetism Interrelated? r
This chapter includes three modules: Nature of Magnetism (Module 49), Elec-
tricity to Magnetism (Module 50) and Magnetism to Electricity (Module 51).
Module 49 describes the properties of magnets and the magnetic elds.
Module 50 explains how electricity can be used to generate a magnetic eld.
Module 51 explains how magnetism can be used to produce electricity.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. The earth itself behaves like a large magnet.
2. Like poles repel, unlike poles attract.
3. Relationships between electricity and magnetism led to development of
modern technology.
4. The only test to conrm that an object is a magnet is when repulsion occurs.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. What causes magnetism?
2. How can electricity be used to generate a magnetic eld, and vice versa?
3. How do we make or destroy a magnet?
4. What role do generators and transformers play in the production and
transmission of electric power?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instruction.
Prepare a brochure to inform and convince your local community
(barangay, village, etc.) the importance of using electricity wisely. The
brochure should include:
a. how electricity is generated, transmitted and distributed;
b. the cost of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity
and the factors that affect this cost; and
c. the effects of power transmission to the environment.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Use Rotational Cooperative Grafti to generate as many ideas as pos-
sible about magnets. This can be done by passing a large sheet of paper
from one student to another in a group of 10 where students will write
their ideas.
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Teachers Manual 85
B. Suggested Activities
1. Ask the students to organize their brainstormed ideas into big ideas
about magnets. (Take note of some misconceptions to be addressed in
the discussion.)
2. Perform Exercise 64: Tracing Magnetic Field (LMWP, pp. 121-122) and
have a postactivity discussion.
3. Answer Self-check on p. 285 of the textbook. k
4. Let the students construct a simple electromagnet and test one vari-
able that they think might affect the strength of the electromagnet,
given the following materials:
two 1.5 battery nail
copper wire paper clips
6. Using motorized toys. Ask students to nd out how these toys work.
Guide the students in identifying the motor which makes toys work.
7. Demonstrate how an electric motor works (if materials are available),
or use Fig. 50.4 on p. 287 of the textbook to explain how a simple mo-
tor works.
8. Ask the students to compare ammeter and voltmeter.
9. Answer Self-check on p. 288 of the textbook. k
10. Using PhET simulation (from the internet) or an actual demonstra-
tion. Show the students how magnetism is used to produce electric-
ity. Use this as springboard to discuss Faradays and Lenzs Laws.
11. Ask the students to give examples of where generators and trans-
formers are found (e.g., Meralco post transformer, transmission lines,
power plants).
Let the students describe the parts and functions of a transformer and
a generator. Fig. 51.4 and 51.5 p. 291 of the textbook can be used as
reference.
13. Ask the students to use a Venn diagram to compare motor and gen-
erator.
Motor Generator
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86 Practical and Explorational Physics
14. Answer Self-check on p. 293 of the textbook. k
15. Ask the students to report in class the results of their performance
task on generation and transmission of electricity.
16. Use Table 51, p. 293 of the textbook, to show the advantages and
disadvantages of the various energy sources.
17. Use any of the following to assess the students understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Debate: To Nuke or Not to Nuke?
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. Multiple Choice
1. a
2. b
3. c
4. c
5. c
6. d
7. a
8. c
9. b
B. Essay
1. AC is made by a generator that directs current through two slip rings
which produce a current that changes direction from time to time.
DC is made by a generator that directs current through a split ring or
commutator which produces a current that ows in only one direc-
tion.
2. A direct current (DC) motor operates as follows:
a. Current ows from the battery to the armature.
b. The magnetic eld inside the motor exerts a downward or up-
ward force on the armature, depending on its position.
c. After half a revolution, the current switches direction because of
the split ring. It then continues the revolution and the cycle con-
tinues.
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Teachers Manual 87
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
MAGNETIC FIELD
Movng Chunges
Lectrc Crcut
lermunent
Mugnet
s surrounded
by
vhere drecton
s determned
by
s produced
by u
chungng
s produced
by
surrounded
by
contuns
crcuutory
Lectrc
Churge
Lectrc led
Mugnetc
led Lne
Rght Hund
Crp Rue
s represented by
exerts orce on
consst o
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88 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 17 How Do Electronic Components Work? r
This chapter includes two modules: Electronic Components (Module 52) and
Electronic Logic Circuits (Module 53).
Module 52 discusses the structure and functions of electronic components.
Module 53 deals with the three basic logic gates.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. The complex digital computer is made of numerous simple logic gates.
2. Codes are used to send information.
3. Large amount of information can now be stored in small devices.
4. Integrated circuit technology has a major impact on how people commu-
nicate, learn, work and play.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. How do electronic components work?
2. How do semiconductors revolutionize electronics industry?
3. Does computer really make the world small?
4. How do you make logical decisions given different options?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instruction.
In one assembly of Third Year Students, present how to make deci-
sions logically.
Your presentation should include:
a. a real-life problem that can be solved using the right combination
of logic gates; and
b. at least three options that can be considered to arrive at the decision.
Provide illustrations of the decision making process without men-
tioning technical terms. Discuss the process in laymans terms.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Use metacards and ask students to list down electronic components
that they know and have these posted on the board.
B. Suggested Activities
1. Present to the students actual electronic components and let them
identify each component using the terms written in the metacards.
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Teachers Manual 89
2. Discuss with the students the different electronic components.
4. Answer Self-check p. 300 and p. 302 of the textbook. k
5. Using the truth table and circuit diagram on p. 304, let the students
differentiate the three logic gates and their combinations.
6. Show illustrative sample on how to solve a problem using logic gates.
Refer to Fig. 53.5, p. 306 of the textbook.
7. Answer Self-check, p. 306 of the textbook. k
8. PerformExercise 71: Basic Logic Gates (LMWP, pp. 134-135).
9. Use any of the following to assess students understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Poster-making on Basic Electronic Components.
Poster should include different electronic devices their sym-
bols and functions and pictures of appliances which contain these
components.
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. Multiple Choice
1. c
2. a
3. b
4. d
5. c
B. Essay
1. a. X Y Z
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0
b. A B C D
0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1
0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0
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90 Practical and Explorational Physics
2. a. (L M) N = O
b. (A B) +

C = D
A
B
C
D
N
L
M
O
3. a. P R = Q
b. (A B) +

C = D
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
LLLC1RCNlC DLVlCLS
cun be
cun
cun
ncude
cun be
ncude
Vucum 1ubes
Semconductors
Dodes
1runsstors
lntegruted Crcuts
Ampy
Recty
Dodes
Cupuctors
Resstors
1runsstors
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Teachers Manual 91
UNIT VI ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND OPTICS T
The unit consists of three chapters: How Are Electromagnetic Waves Used in
Communication? (Chapter 18), What Is the Mystery Behind Light? (Chapter 19)
and How Are Images Reected and Refracted by Mirrors and Lenses? (Chapter 20).
This unit discusses electromagnetic wavestheir different forms and how
they are produced and received. It also discusses nature and behavior of light
waves. It explains how images are formed by reection and refraction of light.
Chapter 18 How Are Electromagnetic Waves r
Used in Communication?
This chapter includes two modules: The Electromagnetic Spectrum (Module 54)
and Radio Communication and Broadcasting (Module 55).
Module 54 deals with the electromagnetic spectrum. It includes discussion
on characteristics and properties of the different regions of electromagnetic spec-
trum. It also emphasizes the uses and effects of the different EM waves.
Module 55 deals with the transmission of information using EM waves. It
includes discussion of the methods of transmitting information using amplitude
modulation and frequency modulation in radio.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. What people can see and touch is less than one-millionth of reality.
2. Electromagnetic waves comprise different forms representing a wide
range of phenomenon that have applications in modern technology.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. In what ways are radio waves and light waves similar? How are they
different?
2. How do the properties of EM waves determine their uses?
3. What are some effects of electromagnetic waves in humans?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instruction.
Prepare a display board that will inform the school community on the
useful applications and effects of electromagnetic waves on humans. It
must include a specic theme (Example: Electromagnetic Waves in Com-
munications), the source, detection and application.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
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92 Practical and Explorational Physics
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Present to the students the following technology:
radar, radio, microwave oven, x-ray, infrared camera, thermography,
cellphone
Ask the students what they have in common and how they work.
B. Suggested Activities
1. From the response of the students in part A, lead the discussion on
the different components of the electromagnetic wave spectrum and
their uses.
2. Answer Self-check on p. 316 of the textbook. k
3. Prepare an activity that will show that different types of electromag-
netic waves have different abilities to penetrate materials using a
portable AM radio and a material that can block the different wave-
lengths.
4. Discuss with the students how radiowaves are used in communica-
tion and broadcasting.
5. Answer Self-check on p. 319 of the textbook.
6. Perform Exercise 73: Sending Messages by Radiowaves (LMWP, p. 141).
7. Use any of the following to assess understanding
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Using models
Ask students to create a model that reects how radiowaves
propagate from a point source.
8. Ask the students to visit the Weblink on p. 321. k
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. 1. b
2. a
3. a
4. c
5. d
B. 1. An oscillator circuit manipulates positive and negative charges by
moving them sinusoidinally, producing an electromagnetic wave. It
is based on Maxwells principle that moving charges produce mov-
ing waves. However, the EM wave produced alternately moves up to
down, left to right three dimensionally.
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Teachers Manual 93
2. Elements of the Electromagnetic Spectrum
Radiowaves (1 MHz to 1 GHz)
with a wavelength the size of a house or building
produced by radio antennas
Microwaves (1 GHz to 10
11
Hz)
with a wavelength the size of a baseball
produced by microwave ovens and microwave antennas
Infrared (10
12.5
Hz to 10
14.5
Hz)
with the wavelength the size of a cell up to that of a bee
produced by lamps and lasers
Visible light (10
14.5
Hz to 10
15
Hz)
with a wavelength the size of a virus
produced by light bulbs
Ultraviolet (10
15
Hz to 10
16
Hz)
with a wavelength the size of a protein
produced by synchotrons
X rays and gamma rays (10
16
Hz to 10
24
Hz)
with a wavelength the size of a proton, nucleus, atom or molecule
produced by particle accelerators, X-ray machines and unstable
matter
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
Electromagnetic
Spectrum
Radiowaves Microwaves Infrared Visible Light Ultraviolet X-rays
Gamma
Rays
Radio
telecommunication
and Navigation
Oven and
Satellites
Remote
Control
Optical
fibers
Sterilization
Medical
Radiography
Radiation
Therapy
(cancer treatment)
consists
of
are
used
for
are
used
for
are
used
for
are
used
for
are
used
for
are
used
for
is
used
for
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94 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 19 What Is the Mystery Behind Light? r
This chapter includes three modules: Light: In Focus (Module 56), Properties of
Light (Module 57) and Spectrum and Colors (Module 58).
Module 56 traces the development of the theories about the nature of light. It
explains the behavior of light.
Module 57 discusses the different properties of light.
Module 58 deals with the factors that determine the color of an object and
how colors are combined to form different colors.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. Light is a form of energy that can be manipulated.
2. Light has a dual nature.
3. White light is a combination of all colors while black is the absence of colors.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. How does light travel?
2. How can we explain the different colors that we see?
3. How do we perceive color?
4. Why is the sky blue?
5. How do our eyes distinguish different colors?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instruction.
Design an energy-saving house that maximizes the use of natural
light to minimize the amount of electrical light needed during the day.
Your design must consider the angle at which light is reected and re-
fracted. It should also include the use of types and colors of materials to
be used.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Ask the students the question: How do you see an object? Let them
give observations and inferences that will support their answer.
Example:
Answer: Luminous source creates light that travels to the object and
reected by the object.
Proof: We cannot see in a dark room.
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Teachers Manual 95
B. Suggested Activities
1. Perform Exercise 74: Open Forum with Our Famous Scientists (LMWP,
p. 142) or present a role play which will show the contribution of sci-
entists in the development of the theory of light.
2. Let students create shadows and ask them to explain how they are
formed. Lead them to conclude that light travels in a straight line and
the distance of the object from the light source affects the size of the
shadow. Relate this to the eclipse phenomenon.
3. Show the students how to solve problems on luminous intensity us-
ing Sample Problem on p. 327 of the textbook.
4. Use Table 56.1 and 56.2 on p. 328 of the textbook and ask the students
to determine the required intensity of illumination in a specic room.
5. Answer Self-check on p. 328 of the textbook.
6. Demonstrate to the students how different materials respond to light
(i.e., opaque, translucent, transparent).
7. Use the observations made from the demonstrations to discuss the
different properties of light.
8. Answer Self-check on p. 335 of the textbook.
9. PerformExercise 78: Spectra and Colors (LMWP, p. 146) or demonstrate
the effect of combining or mixing colors using ashlights and colored
cellophanes.
10. Do a postlab discussion to identify the factors that determine the col-
or of an object.
11. Let the students compare how colors combine in light and in pig-
ments using paint or water color.
12. Answer Self-check on p. 337 of the textbook. k
13. Use any of the following to assess understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Creative output to show the difference in combining colors of
light and mixing colors of pigment.
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. 1. b
2. b
3. b
4. a
5. c
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96 Practical and Explorational Physics
6. d
7. d
8. c
B. 1. Two physical evidences that light travels in straight lines are: the ex-
istence of solar eclipses (the moon blocks the suns rays) and the exis-
tence of shadows (an opaque material blocks the light rays).
2. Since water is a transparent, colorless material, it lets light pass
through it without absorbing any of its wavelengths. Whatever the
color (frequency and wavelength) of the light that comes from you
heading to the water is reected in a straight line to your eye, which
enables you to see a reection of yourself. Note that when the water
in the basin is disturbed only some of the light (particles) is reected
as it passes through the molecules of water. Some of them hit a water
molecule and gets reected, while some continue to pass through to
the bottom of the basin and bounce back with the basins color, since
some of the frequencies and wavelengths have been absorbed by the
basins material.
3. Soap bubbles are the lms of soap that are locked in an apparent
spherical shape. However, a soap bubble is not an exact sphere for
some parts of it are thicker than the other parts, which causes more
refraction, hence, slowing the lights speed as well as its frequency
and wavelength. Understandably, therefore, light is reected in sev-
eral colors. A thicker soap lm will be somewhere near red, whereas
a very thin one should be more on the violet spectrum.
4. F = 2275 lm
r = 3 m
E = ?
F = 4I
I =
F
4
=
2275 lm
4
= 181.04 cd
E =
I
r
2
=
181.04 cd
(3 m)
2
= 20.12 lux
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Teachers Manual 97
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
Particles
Waves
Straight path Light
Colors
Primary Secondary
Red
Green
Blue
Yellow
Cyan
Magenta
Yellow
Cyan
Magenta
exhibits properties
of
are
classified
as
colors of
pigment
are
colors of
light
are
colors of
light
are
colors of
pigment
are
enables
us to
see
travels in
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98 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 20 How Are Images Reected and Refracted r
by Mirrors and Lenses?
This chapter includes three modules: Images Formed by the Reection of Light
(Module 59), Images Formed by the Refraction of Light (Module 60) and Optical
Devices (Module 61).
Module 59 focuses on the laws of reection and the formation of images by
plane and curved mirrors.
Module 60 focuses on the laws of refraction and the formation of images by
lenses.
Module 61 focuses on the different optical instruments.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. The image that you see in the mirror depends on the quality of the mir-
ror. It may or may not be an accurate reection of what is real. But you
are free to choose what you believe.
2. Lenses and mirrors can be combined to come up with useful devices to
help us see better.
3. The eye is a remarkable optical device.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. How are images formed by a mirror or lens?
2. How is the eye similar to a camera?
3. What is the secret behind one-way mirrors?
4. How can lenses be used to correct eye defects?
5. How do we locate the position of an image?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instruction.
Some public utility vehicle drivers think that any mirror can be used
to replace a standard side-view mirror. Your task is to convince them that
side-view mirror should always be a convex mirror. Prepare a presenta-
tion that will include:
a. approximate magnication produced by a plane mirror as com-
pared to a convex mirror
b. actual distance of the object from the plane mirror as compared to
a convex mirror
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Teachers Manual 99
c. advantages of using a convex mirror; and
d. results of experiences of drivers who used plane mirror and con-
vex mirror for their side-view mirror during a road test driving.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric for presentation found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Brainstorming: Ask the students to write as many uses of mirrors and
lenses in everyday situations and explain why they are used for a par-
ticular purpose.
B. Suggested Activities
1. Ask the students to choose a partner and role play how images are
formed in a plane mirror.
2. From the role play activity, lead the students to the discussion on re-
ections on plane mirror.
3. Ask students to visit http://www.Nelsonthormes.com/secondary/
science/scinet/light/reect/mirror.htm, to learn more about image
formed in a plane mirror.
4. Perform Exercise 76: Multiple Reections (LMWP, p. 144) or demon-
strate the number of images formed between two adjacent mirrors.
Show how the angle between the mirrors affect the number of images
formed.
5. Ask the students to use a well-polished metal spoon as a mirror and
compare the images formed on the side curved outside and on the
side curved inward.
6. Lead the discussion on concave and convex mirrors.
7. PerformExercise 79: Images Formed by a Concave Mirror (LMWP, p. 147)
or demonstrate how to trace images formed in concave and convex
mirrors (Table 59, p. 345 of the textbook).
8. Answer Self-check on p. 346 of the textbook. k
9. Perform Exercise 77: Refraction with Edible Lenses (LMWP, p. 145) or
demonstrate how light is refracted as it passes through a lens made
of clear gelatin.
10. Do a postlab activity to discuss refraction in their lenses.
11. PerformExercise 80: Images Formed by a Convex Lens (LMWP, p. 148) or
show ray diagrams for the object and the images formed by a convex
lens (Table 60, p. 348 of the textbook).
12. Answer Self-check on p. 349 of the textbook. k
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100 Practical and Explorational Physics
13. Let the students compare the human eye with a camera. Use Figure
61.6, p. 352 of the textbook.
14. Divide the class into small groups. Have students in each group com-
pare the different applications of lenses and mirrors in this module.
Go back to part A to check if students responses are correct.
15. Answer Self-check on p. 354 of the textbook. k
16. Ask the students to visit http://www.phys.u.edu~phy3054/light/
lens/raydiag for tracing images formed in curved mirrors and lenses.
17. Use any of the suggested other evidences of understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Distinguishing mirrors and lenses
Have students look through convex lens, concave lens, plane mir-
ror and curved mirror, without allowing them to look from the sides.
Ask them to identify the type of lens/mirror and tell whether it con-
verges or diverges light.
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. 1. b
2. b
3. b
4. d
5. d
B. Drawing Diagrams
1.
2.
3.
F F 2F
C
F
V
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Teachers Manual 101
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
Mirrors
Real image
Virtual image
produce
Flat mirror Curved mirror
Concave Convex
can be
classified
as
can be
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102 Practical and Explorational Physics
UNIT VII MODERN PHYSICS T
The unit consists of three chapters: What Is Relativity? (Chapter 21), How Is
Nuclear Physics Useful to Man? (Chapter 22) and What Are the Basic Building Blocks
of the Universe? (Chapter 23).
This unit introduces the concept of relativity and the atomic and subatomic
particles. It discusses practical applications of nuclear physics.
Chapter 21 What Is Relativity? r
This chapter includes three modules: The Special Theory of Relativity (Module 62), y
Time Dilation, Length of Contraction and Mass Increase (Module 63) and The General
Theory of Relativity (Module 64).
Module 62 deals with the consequences of a lack of universal frame of reference.
Module 63 discusses the concept of time dilation, length of contraction and
mass increase.
Module 64 explains the principles of equivalence and discusses the general
theory of relativity.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. The laws of Physics are the same in any inertial frame of reference.
2. Time is natures way of seeing that everything does not happen at once.
3. Space-time exists within the universe.
4. We see into the past as we look out into the universe.
5. Motion is relative.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. What are the effects of time dilation and length contraction?
2. How must Newtons second law be modied when objects are moving at
very high velocities?
3. Can you travel while remaining in one place in space?
4. Can you get younger by traveling at speeds near the speed of light?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instruction.
Imagine that you are a Space-Time Tour Coordinator.
Prepare a travel brochure that will include a feature where space
travelers may take relatively short trips of a few years or so and return in
decades or centuries. Identify problems that may be encountered during
the tour and present solutions to address them.
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Teachers Manual 103
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Ask each student to imagine that he/she is in a playground playing
ball with someone who is moving toward or away from him/her. Ask
each one to describe the relative speed of the ball as he/she catches the
ball from the thrower who is moving toward him/her, at rest, or moving
away.
B. Suggested Activities
1. Relate prior knowledge to Michelson-Morley experiment.
2. Answer Self-check on p. 361 of the textbook. k
3. Perform Exercise 82: Special Relativity (LMWP, p. 153) or dene basic
terms in Special Relativity.
4. Discuss Special Relativity using Fig. 62.2 p. 361 of the textbook.
5. Ask the students to surf the net on time dilation, length contraction
and mass increase and report it to class.
6. Show the students the equation for time dilation , length contraction
and mass increase.
7. Answer Self-check on p. 363 of the textbook.
8. Discuss with the students the General Theory of Relativity.
9. Use Fig. 64.3 and 64.4 on p. 365 of the textbook to discuss the Equiva-
lence Principle.
10. Answer Self-check on p. 366 of the textbook.
11. Use any of the suggested other evidences of understanding.
a. Seatwork (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Poster making on time dilation, length contraction and mass in-
crease (Exercise 83 on p. 154, LMWP)
d. Comic Strip on General Theory of Relativity (Exercise 84 on p.
155, LMWP)
12. Have the students visit the suggested Weblink on p. 368. k
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104 Practical and Explorational Physics
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. Multiple Choice
1. d
2. d
3. a
4. a
5. c
B. Problem Solving
1. t = 3600 s
t = 3601 s
t =

t
1
v
2
c
2

1
v
2
c
2
=
t
t

2
v = c

1
t
t

2
10
8
m/s)

1
3600 s
3601 s

2
10
6
m/s
2. m = 9.1 10
31
kg
v = 0.99c
Here,

v
c
= 0.99 and

v
2
c
2
= 0.98.
So, m =

m
1
v
2
c
2
=

9.1 10
31
kg
1 0.98
m = 6.43 10
30
kg which is 7 times greater than the elec-
trons rest mass.
3. l = 100 m
v = 0.500c
Here,

v
c
= 0.500 and

v
2
c
2
= 0.25.
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Teachers Manual 105
So, l = l

1
v
2
c
2

1 0.25
l = 87 m
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
SlLClAL 1HLCRY
Cl
RLLA1lVl1Y
hus deus bused on
expuns
lostuute 2:
lostuute l:
1he speed o ght n ree
spuce hus the sume vuue n
u nertu rumes o
1he uvs o lhyscs ure
the sume n u
nertu systems
reerence
1me duton
Length contructon
Muss lncreuse
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106 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 22 How Is Nuclear Physics Useful to Man? r
This chapter includes three modules: The Structure of the Atom (Module 65),
Nuclear Reactions (Module 66) and Uses of Nuclear Energy (Module 67).
Module 65 discusses the experiments that formed the bases of the knowl-
edge of atomic structure.
Module 66 deals with radioactivity and other nuclear processes including
nuclear ssion and fusion.
Module 67 discusses the uses of nuclear energy in different areas like biologi-
cal science especially medicine and agriculture.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. Nuclear is unclear.
2. Radiation is everywhere. We cannot escape from it.
3. Radiation is used to make great advances in technology that will benet
mankind.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. How does an atom look like?
2. Why do different isotopes of the same element have the same chemical
properties?
3. Does your body contain more neutrons than protons? More protons than
electrons?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instruction.
As a concerned member of your community, prepare an open letter
about your stand on establishing a nuclear power plant in your commu-
nity. Include in the letter:
how a nuclear power plant operates;
advantages and disadvantages;
impact on the community; and
alternative sources of energy.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric for an open letter found in Appendix.
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Teachers Manual 107
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
You may use Paul Hewitts question: Pretend you are given three ra-
dioactive cookies, one alpha, one beta and the other gamma.
Pretend that you must eat one, hold one in your hand and put the
other in your pocket Which would you eat, hold and pocket if you are
trying to minimize your exposure to radiation?
(Answer: Hold the alpha, the skin in your hand will shield you. Put
the beta in your pocket, your clothing will shield you. Eat the gamma. It
will penetrate your body anyway.)
B. Suggested Activities
1. Perform Exercise 85: Model of An Atom (LMWP, p. 185) or create a
model that will show the most recent model of the structure of an
atom.
2. Discuss the structure of the atom using the model.
3. Discuss isotopes using the three different forms of neon on p. 374
textbook.
4. Answer Self-check on p. 374 of the textbook. k
5. Let the students distinguish alpha, beta and gamma rays.
6. PerformExercise 86: Chain Reaction (LMWP, p. 157) or simulate ssion
process using dominoes.
7. Let the students compare nuclear ssion and fusion.
8. Answer Self-check on p. 378 of the textbook. k
9. Show lms on uses of nuclear energyin industry, medicine, agricul-
ture and research.
10. Divide the class into small groups and ask them to discuss the uses of
nuclear energy in various elds. Include the advantages and disad-
vantages.
11. Answer Self-check on p. 382 of the textbook.
12. Use any of the suggested other evidences of understanding.
a. Seatwork
b. Short quizzes
c. Debate: To Nuke or Not to Nuke
13. Visit the suggested Weblink on p. 383 of the textbook. k
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108 Practical and Explorational Physics
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
1. b
2. a
3. c
4. c
5. c
6. a
7. b
8. a
9. d
10. b
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
LNS1ALL NLCLLl 1RANSML1A1lCN RADlCAC1lVL DLCAY
Stube Nuce
Cummu lurtces
etu lurtces Aphu lurtces
by reeusng
undergo cuuses
vhch resuts
n
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Teachers Manual 109
Chapter 23 What Are the Basic Building Blocks of the r
Universe?
This chapter includes two modules: The Elementary Particles (Module 68) and
Fundamental Forces of Nature (Module 69).
Module 68 discusses the fundamental or elementary particles of matter.
Module 69 discusses the fundamental forces of nature and the grand unied
theory.
I. CONTENT
Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU)
1. The vastness of the universe is incomprehensible.
2. There is unity in diversity.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Question (EQ)
1. What are the basic building blocks of the universe?
2. How are new particles discovered?
3. Is the universe expanding? Shrinking?
II. STUDENTS PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING
Example:
Give the students the following instruction.
As a science student, come up with a theory that will unify or com-
bine the forces of nature into one type of force to show that everything is
interconnected. Include evidences that will support your theory.
Note: Use the appropriate rubric found in Appendix.
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Exploring Students Prior Knowledge
Use LINK (List-Inquire-Note-Know):
Ask the question: What are the building blocks of matter?
Let the students state their thoughts and ideas.
Allow students to ask questions of each other while you take note of
the responses. (The Know portion will be done at the end of the lesson
using exit cards.)
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110 Practical and Explorational Physics
B. Suggested Activities
1. Perform Exercise 88: Elementary Particles (LMWP, p. 160) or identify
the elementary particles using Fig. 68.1 on p. 386 of the textbook.
2. Answer Self-check on p. 388 of the textbook. k
3. Perform Exercise 89: Fundamental Forces of Nature (LMWP, p. 161) or
use Fig. 69 on p. 390 of the textbook to discuss the fundamental forces
and the theories that seek to unify them.
4. Answer Self-check on p. 390 of the textbook. k
5. Use any of the suggested other evidences of understanding.
a. Seat work (Chapter Review)
b. Short quizzes
c. Photo-essay to show the unication of the fundamental forces of
nature.
d. Exit Card
Three things that I learned about...
Two things that confused me about...
One thing that I want to know more about...
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS W
A. Multiple Choice
1. b
2. d
3 b
4. c
5. c
6. b
7. c
8. a
B. Essay
1. Baryons and meson are composed of quarks. Baryons are made up of
three quarks, while mesons are made up of two quarks.
2. Yes, all baryons are hadrons because baryons are types of hadrons.
No, not all hadrons are baryons because some hadrons are mesons.
3. A neutrino is a type of lepton associated with the electron, the muon
and the tau.
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Teachers Manual 111
Force Range Relative Strength Effects (Examples)
Strong ~10
15
1
holds nucleons in
the nucleus
Electromagnetic ~10
2
holds electrons in
atoms; holds atoms
together
Weak ~10
18
~10
5
decay; decay of
unstable hadrons
Gravitational ~10
39
holds matter in
planets, stars and
galaxies
5. The grand unied theory combines the forces of nature into one type of
force by combining the electromagnetic force with the weak nuclear
force into what is known as the electroweak force. The strong nuclear
interaction is unied with the electroweak force through the grand
unied theory. Another theory, called the theory of everything seeks
to unify the previous forces with the gravitational force.
V. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: CONCEPT MAP
LLLMLN1ARY lAR1lCLLS
s cussed nto the
composed o composed o composed o
lrst lumy
Lp uurk Churm uurk
1op uurk
Strunge uurk ottom uurk
Muon 1un
Muon Neutrno
1un Neutrno
Dovn uurk
Lectron
Lectron Neutrno
Secondury lumy 1hrd lumy
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112 Practical and Explorational Physics
APPENDIX
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Teachers Manual 113
APPENDIX
SAMPLE SCORING RUBRICS
Appendix contains sample rubrics for evaluating various type of student
outputs in the sample performance tasks given in this book.
Each table below has four columns: Column I gives the set of criteria for
grading the students output. Column III shows how to use the criteria. If you
prefer qualitative rating, use Column II to interpret Column III. If you prefer
quantitative rating, use Column IV to interpret Column III.
Two types of rubrics are shown here. In most of the rubrics, the rst three cri-
teria are of equal importance; the fourth criterion (neatness) is intended to help
the student develop the habit of submitting neat/clean outputs.
In the second type of rubrics, all four criteria are of the same weight. Notice
that Column III of this type of rubrics differs from that of the rst type.
Chapter 1 a) For Improving Technology
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
Process
1. Has clear vision of
nal product
2. Properly organized to
complete project
3. Managed time wisely
4. Acquired needed
knowledge base
5. Communicated
efforts with teacher
Excellent Meets all ve criteria 4
Very satisfactory
Meets four of the
criteria
3
Satisfactory
Meets three of the
criteria
2
Needs much
improvement
Meets one or two
of the criteria
1
Product (Project)
1. Format
2. Mechanics of
speaking/writing
3. Organization and
structure
4. Creativity
5. Demonstrates
knowledge
Excellent Meets all ve criteria 4
Very satisfactory
Meets four of the
criteria
3
Satisfactory
Meets three of the
criteria
2
Needs much
improvement
Meets one or two
of the criteria
1
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114 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 1 b) For Box Construction
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Use of appropriate
materials
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Correct application of
concepts
Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Performs its intended
function of noise
pollution
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Creativity and
novelty
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
Chapter 1 c) For Foldables
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Accuracy of
information
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Creativity/Novelty of
presentation
Very satisfactory
Meets all of the rst
three criteria
3
3. Proper
documentation
of sources and/or
clarity of instruction
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Neatness
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
Chapter 2 a) For Vector Art
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Correct graphical
representation of
vectors
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Use of appropriate
scale
Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Creativity and
novelty
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Neatness
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
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Teachers Manual 115
Chapter 2 b) For Problem Posing
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Correct application
of concept in all
problems
Excellent
Meets the rst two
criteria
4
2. All are realistic and
practical
Very satisfactory
Meets either criteria 2
and 3 or criteria 3 and 4
3
3. Correct application of
concepts in at least
ve problem
Satisfactory Meets criteria 3 and 4 2
4. At least ve are
realistic and practical
Needs much
improvement
Meets either criteria 3
or 4 only
1
Chapter 3 For Carrying Out a Strategy and Collecting Data
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Appropriate method Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Appropriate tools Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Safe and proper use
of tools
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Accuracy of data
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
Chapter 4 a) For Photo-essay
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Richness/Variety of
items/photos
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Correctness of
accompanying
explanation/
information
Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Creativity/Novelty of
presentation and/or
quality of photos
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Neatness
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
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116 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 4 b) For Designing a Safe Transport Container
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Good selection of
materials
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Clear plan for the
design
Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Correct application of
concept
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Performs its intended
function
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one
of the rst three criteria
1
Chapter 5 For Constructing a Mobile or a Balancing Toy
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Correct application of
concept
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Creativity/Novelty of
presentation
Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Good selection of
materials
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Attractive and
appealing
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
Chapter 6 For a Chart
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Accuracy and
adequacy of data
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Clarity of message Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Creativity/Novelty of
presentation
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Neatness
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
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Teachers Manual 117
Chapter 7 For a Flowchart
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Correctness of
information
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Illustrates more
than three energy
transformations
Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Shows common daily
activities
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Variety of activities
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
Chapter 8 a) For a Demonstration Activity
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Use of appropriate
materials
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Clear demonstration
of concepts
Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Simple and easy to
follow procedures
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Practical
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
Chapter 8 b) For a Report
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Accuracy of
information
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Originality in
organization of ideas
Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Proper documentation
of sources
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Neatness (for
individual report)
Individual
participation in
group effort (for
group report)
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
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118 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 9 a) For Constructing a Model Boat
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Correct application of
concept
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Clear plan for the
design
Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Creativity/Novelty of
Presentation
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Performs its intended
function
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
Chapter 9 b) For Video/Power Point Presentation
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Richness and accuracy
of information
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Clarity of message Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Creativity/Novelty of
Presentation
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Proper documentation
of sources
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
Chapter 9 c) For Constructing a Cartesian Diver
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Use of appropriate
materials
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Simple and easy to
follow procedures
Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Clear explanation of
applied concepts
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Creativity
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
Chapter 10 For Foldables
[Refer to Rubric (c) in Chapter 1]
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Teachers Manual 119
Chapter 11 a) For Constructing Improvised Musical Instruments
[Refer to Rubric (b) in Chapter 1]
Chapter 11 b) For Writing a Letter of Inquiry
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Clarity of purpose Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Organization of ideas Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Accuracy of data that
shows adverse effects
of noise pollution
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Clarity of Message
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
Chapter 12 For Constructing an Icebox
[Refer to Rubric (b) in Chapter 1]
Chapter 13 For a Report
[Refer to Rubric (b) in Chapter 8]
Chapter 14 For a Poster
[Refer to Rubric in Chapter 6]
Chapter 15 For an Action Plan
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Accuracy of
information
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Clarity of objectives Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Clarity of organization
of results of survey
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Complete list of
specic tasks
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
Chapter 16 For a Brochure
[Refer to Rubric in Chapter 10]
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120 Practical and Explorational Physics
Chapter 17 For a Presentation
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Richness and accuracy
of information
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Clarity and accuracy
of visuals
Very satisfactory
Meets three of the
criteria
3
3. Proper documentation
of sources
Satisfactory Meets two of the criteria 2
4. Mastery of content
and clarity of
presentation/
Individual participation
in group effort
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
criteria
1
Chapter 18 For a Display Board
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Correctness of choice Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Accuracy and clarity
of explanation of the
choice
Very satisfactory
Meets the rst
three criteria
3
3. Creativity/Novelty of
presentation
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Neatness
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
Chapter 19 For a Model
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Scientically correct
and made to scale
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Made of sturdy
material
Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Easy to manipulate
for class demonstration
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Properly and neatly
labeled (for individual
project)/Individual
participation in
group effort (for
group project)
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
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Chapter 20 For a Presentation
[Refer to Rubric in Chapter 17]
Chapter 21 For a Brochure
[Refer to Rubric in Chapter 16]
Chapter 22 For Writing an Open Letter About an Issue
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Accuracy and soundness
of arguments
Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Proper documentation
of sources
Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Logic of analysis of
arguments/soundness
and clarity of decision
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Neatness
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
Chapter 23 For Stating a Theory
I
Set of Criteria
II
Rating
III
Description
IV
Points
Earned
1. Includes evidences Excellent Meets all four criteria 4
2. Supports/In-line
with existing
theories
Very satisfactory
Meets the rst three
criteria
3
3. Can be tested and
validated
Satisfactory
Meets two of the rst
three criteria
2
4. Stated in simple
words
Needs much
improvement
Meets only one of the
rst three criteria
1
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122 Practical and Explorational Physics
GLOSSARY
ACCELERATION the rate of change in velocity
ACCURACY pertains to the closeness of a measurement to the accepted value Y
AMMETER measures current
AMPLITUDE OF A WAVE the maximum displacement of the particles of the me-
dium from their equilibrium position
ANGULAR ACCELERATION the change in the angular velocity of a rotating body
with time
ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT the angle turned by a body about a given axis T
ANGULAR MOMENTUM the product of the moment of inertia of a rotating body
and its angular velocity
ANGULAR VELOCITY the change in the angular displacement of a rotating body Y
about the axis of rotation with time
ANTENNA a wire designed to transmit and receive electromagnetic waves
ANTIPARTICLE an elementary particle with some properties such as electric
charge opposite those of the corresponding particle
BARYON the heaviest of subatomic particles like protons and neutrons
BLACKHOLE a mass that has collapsed to a great density that its enormous local
gravitational eld prevents light from escaping
CAPACITOR composed of two metal plates separated by an insulator. It is used to
store electric charges. The quantity of the charge stored is measured in terms
of microfarads.
CENTRIPETAL FORCE a center-directed force that causes an object to move in a cir-
cular path
CONCAVE LENS a diverging lens thinner at its middle than its edges that spreads
out light rays passing through it
CONCAVE MIRROR a mirror that reects light from its inwardly curving surface
CONDUCTORS materials which allow free ow of electrons
CONVEX LENS a converging lens thicker at its center than its edges that refracts
parallel light rays so the rays meet at a point
CONVEX MIRROR a mirror that reects light from its outwardly curving surface
DIFFRACTION the bending of waves as they pass an edge or corner
DIODE used as one-way conductor. It changes an alternating current to direct cur-
rent. The holes provide a means of convection. Without a hole, hot air would
be trapped inside the lampshade, making the lamp xture dangerously hot.
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Teachers Manual 123
DISPERSION the separation of white light into its component colors
DISPLACEMENT the distance with direction T
DISTANCE the total path length traversed by an object
DOPPLER EFFECT the change in the frequency and pitch of a sound that is caused
by the movement of either the source or the listener, or both
ECHO a reected sound wave
ELASTIC MODULI associated with stress that produce change in length, shape and
volume are known as Youngs modulus, shear modulus and bulk modulus,
respectively.
ELASTIC MODULUS the ratio of stress to strain
ELECTRIC CHARGE the fundamental quantity in electrostatics
ELECTRIC CURRENT the movement of charged particles in a specic direction; T
closed loop or pathway that allows electric charges to ow
ELECTRIC FIELD the region around a charged object or particles where the elec-
tric force can be determined
ELECTRIC MOTOR converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
ELECTROMAGNETIC a combined electric and magnetic eld that travels through
space
ENTROPY (a) is a measure of the disorder in a system; (b) a measure of how much
energy is unavailable for conversion into work; and (c) points out the forward
direction of the ow of events.
FLUIDS substances whose shape can easily change and that are able to ow.
FREQUENCY the reciprocal of period
FRICTION the force between two surfaces that resist motion
FUSE a piece of metal that acts as a safety device in electric current by melting
and stopping the current from owing if a dangerously high current passes
through the circuit.
GALVANOMETER uses the magnetic force on a current-carrying wire to turn a
pointer on a scale which can then be used to measure small amounts of current
GENERATOR converts mechanical energy into electrical energy
GRAVITATION the force whereby any two bodies attract each other in propor-
tion to the product of their mass and inversely proportional to the distance
between them
HALF LIFE the time required for one-half of the unstable nuclei in a radioactive
substance to decay into a new element
HEAT ENGINE (or thermal engine) is any device that converts heat energy into
work. An example is a car engine.
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124 Practical and Explorational Physics
HEAT PUMP any device that transfers heat energy from a low-temperature reser-
voir to a high-temperature reservoir. This device operates in the reverse cycle
of a thermal engine. Examples of heat pump are the common refrigerator and
the air conditioner.
HERTZ the unit used to measure the frequency of waves
ILLUMINANCE the amount of illumination that refers to the luminous ux fall-
ing on a unit area of a surface
IMPULSE the change in momentum
INERTIA the tendency of a body to resist change in its state of motion
INSULATORS materials that do not allow free ow of electrons
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (ICS) contain hundreds of diodes, transistors, resistors
and capacitors in one miniaturized package of a wafer-thin chip of silicon
INTERFERENCE results when two waves meet to combine constructively or destructively E
ISOTOPE an atom of an element with identical chemical properties but with dif-
ferent masses; atom of the same element with different number of neutrons
KINEMATICS the study that deals with the description of motion
KINETIC ENERGY energy of an object by virtue of its motion Y
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM states that, if the total external
torque acting on a system is zero, then there is no change in the angular momen-
tum of the system
LEPTON the lightest of subatomic particles like electrons, positions and neutrinos
LEVER ARM the perpendicular distance from the reference point to the direction
or line of action of the force
LIQUID PRESSURE directly proportional to the depth and density of the liquid
LONGITUDINAL WAVES have compressions and rarefactions. In longitudinal
waves, vibrations are parallel to the direction of wave motion.
MAGNETIC FIELD a region in which a magnetic force can be detected. It exerts a
force on a wire, causing current to move through the wire.
MASS-SPRING SYSTEM vibrates with simple harmonic motion and the spring
force is given by Hookes law. F
elastic
= -kx
MASS a measure of an objects inertia; a measure of the amount of matter on an object
MASS DEFECT the difference between the atomic mass of an atom and the total T
mass of each individual particle
MEASUREMENT a process of comparing an unknown quantity with chosen stan- T
dards
MOMENT OF INERTIA/ROTATIONAL INERTIA the measure of the resistance of a
body to a change in its rotational motion
MOMENTUM the product of mass and velocity
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Teachers Manual 125
MUSIC a pleasant sound produced by an object that is vibrating in a regular pattern
NET FORCE the vector sum of all forces acting on an object
NOISE unwanted sound which is generally produced by an object that is vibrat-
ing in an irregular manner
PHYSICS a natural science that deals with the understanding of nonliving
things. It deals specically with matter and energy and their relationship.
PITCH OF A SOUND the perception of highness or lowness. Sound frequency is
the number of sound waves that pass through a point in a certain period of
time.
POTENTIAL ENERGY energy stored in an object due to its position or condition Y
POWER the rate of doing work
PRECISION refers to the closeness of measurement with other measurements
obtained in the same manner
PRESSURE force applied per unit area
PROJECTILE anything that is thrown with an initial velocity and follows a
curved path called trajectory
QUARKS tiny particles that make up protons, neutrons and pions
RADIOACTIVITY continuous emission of particles such as alpha, beta or gamma Y
emission on energy from atomic nucleus as it disintegrates
REFRACTION the bending of waves as they pass from one medium to another
REFLECTION the bouncing of waves on a surface with angle to the normal
RESISTANCE the opposition that materials offer to current
RESISTOR an electronic component made up of two wires connected by a poor
conductor. It limits the ow of electric current in the circuit. The color code
of a resistor determines its resistance.
RESONANCE the vibration of an object at its natural frequency
REST MASS the intrinsic mass of an object independent of speed and energy
REST ENERGY the energy of being given by the equation E Y
0
= mc
2
RESULTANT the single vector that represents the sum of two or more vectors T
SCALAR a quantity with magnitude only
SCIENTIFIC METHOD the application of a logical process of reasoning to solve a prob-
lem
SEMICONDUCTORS include elements with four electrons in their outermost shell,
such as silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge). They are substances whose electrical
resistance lies between that of conductors and insulators.
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126 Practical and Explorational Physics
SHADOW the area where light rays cannot reach
SOUND WAVES longitudinal waves composed of compressions and rarefactions
that move through a medium in the direction of the sound
SPEED the rate of motion
STANDING WAVES result from the interference of waves of identical wavelength,
amplitude and speed traveling in opposite directions
STRESS refers to the stretching force per unit area while strain is the elongation
per unit length
SURFACE WAVES combinations of transverse and longitudinal waves. The vi-
brations are both perpendicular and parallel to the direction that the wave
travels. This produces the circular motion of the wave.
TECHNOLOGY the application of scientic principles in the form of tools/gadgets, Y
products and processes
THERMAL EFFICIENCY the ratio of work done by an engine to the energy added to the Y
system by heat during one cycle. It is a measure of how well an engine operates.
THERMODYNAMICS the branch of classical physics that is concerned with heat
and its relation to temperature, work and energy
TORQUE the product of force and the lever arm
TRANSFORMER increases or decreases the voltage of an alternating current
TRANSISTOR a solid-state component that has replaced the vacuum tube. It is
used as a switch or as an amplier.
TRANSVERSE WAVES have crests and troughs. In transverse waves, vibrations
are perpendicular to the direction of wave motion.
VECTOR a quantity that has both magnitude and directions
VECTOR RESOLUTION the process of nding the magnitude of the vertical and
horizontal concepts of a single vector
VELOCITY speed with direction
VOLTAGE the electric pressure that causes current to ow
VOLTMETER measures voltage
WAVELENGTH the distance between two successive crests or troughs, or between
two successive compressions or rarefactions
WAVE a disturbance that carries energy through medium or through space
WAVE VELOCITY equals wavelength times frequency Y
WEIGHT the measure of the gravitational pull on a body T
WORK the product of the force exerted on the object and the displacement of the K
object along direction of the force
This Teacher's Manual is intended only for teachers who use a Vibal CTLP.
Copyright 2010 by Vibal Publishing House, Inc. NOT FOR SALE.