Introduction to EMTP/ATP power

system simulation tool
Oct 10, 2012 - Bp
11/6/2012
2 / 17
Main characteristics of
Electromagnetic Simulation Tools
Circuit-oriented tools based on a time-domain technique
– A combination of the trapezoidal rule and the Bergeron’s method
– Advantages: simplicity, numerical stability
Modeling power system devices and components
– Transmission Lines, Cables and Transformers
– Switching devices
– Nonlinear elements (e.g. surge arresters)
– Rotating machines, Power Electronics
– Controls
Computationally intensive →can be slow if system size is large
Waveforms obtained by these tools are realistic (e.g suitable for
relay protection off-line testing)
Typical EMTP-type studies in
phasor domain
Advantages: Fully represented system
Unbalanced primary system
– Non transposed lines
– Unequal length lines (cables)
– Different transformers/phase
– Series capacitor 1 phase bypass
Cross country faults
Interaction with underbuilds, - railway lines
Harmonic analysis, network resonances
Typical EMTP-type studies in time domain
Switching transients and faults
Lightning overvoltage studies, insulation co-ordination
Fault tripping and reclosing
System or component energization/de-energization
– Transformer and shunt reactor/capacitor bank switching
– Line energization, load rejection
Instrument transformer saturation
Non-linear element modeling and duties
Statistical and systematic overvoltage studies
Very fast transients in GIS and earthing system
Rotating machine modeling (synchronous, asynchronous)
– Transient stability, motor startup
– Shaft torsional oscillations
Ferroresonance
Circuit breaker duty (electric arc), current chopping
FACTS devices: STATCOM, SVC, UPFC, TCSC modeling
Protection device testing
Modeling guidelines
EMTP useful for
– Steady state (system unbalances or harmonics)
– Transient studies
Never use EMTP as a „black-boxtool”
– Fully understand the physics of event you
simulate
– Have a rough estimation about the results
– Very detailed representation, long simulation
– The more components, the higher the probability
of wrong modeling
Input data
– Very often only approximated values (speciallys
for transients of Group III and IV)
– Representation of losses is important
11/6/2012
6 / 17
The EMTP/ATP simulation package
Pre-processors
– Specify the network connection
– Specify data of each components
– Specify simulation data (dT, Tmax, F-domain, T-domain, HFS)
– ASCII editor has been used for decades
– Now ATPDraw is the most widely used GUI
Simulation engine (solver): TPBIG.EXE
– To run the simulation
Postprocessors
– Display simulation results (viewPL4 files)
– Export graphs to reports, spreadsheets, etc
11/6/2012
7 / 17
Software components in EMTP/ATP
11/6/2012
8 / 17
File structure of TPBIG.EXE
11/6/2012
9 / 17
Main characteristics of EMTP/ATP
Power system devices and components
– Transmission Lines
Single and multi-phase
Constant parameter (CPDL-Bergeron) or with frq.
dependency (J Marti)
– Cables
Single core (SC) or Pipe type (PT cables)
Flat or trefoil arrangement
Any type of insulation (paper or XLPE)
– Sources
Sinusoidal
Surges
11/6/2012
10 / 17
Main characteristics of EMTP/ATP (cont)
Power system devices and components
Transformers
– Single or multiphase representation
– Linear model (BCTRAN)
– Frequency dependent model (Hybrid transformer)
– With or w/o saturation
Rotating machines
Switching devices
– Time controlled or voltage controlled deterministic switches
– Statistical switches with pre-defined distribution function
– TACS/MODELS controlled switches
– Power Electronics switches (diodes, thyristors, etc)
11/6/2012 EMTP/ATP Training Course in Doha, Qatar, May 2009
11 / 17
Nonlinear elements
– surge arresters
– nonlinear inductors
with hysteresis or w/o hysteresis
– MODELS controlled resistor
Controls
– TACS
– MODELS
Frequency components (Freq. domain studies)
– HFS sources
– Freq. dep load model
User specified models
Main characteristics of EMTP/ATP (cont)
Power system devices and components
11/6/2012
12 / 17
ATPDraw main windows, v5.5
Circuit
map
Circuit
windows
Header,
circuit file
name
Main menu
Tool bar
Component
bar (optional)
Component
selection menu
Circuit
under
construction
11/6/2012
13 / 17
ATPDraw capability
30.000 nodes
10.000 components
10.000 connections
1.000 text strings
Up to 64 data and 32 nodes per component
Up to 26 phases per node (A..Z extension)
21 phases in LCC module
Circuit world is 10.000x10.000 pixels
100 UnDo/ReDo steps
11/6/2012
14 / 17
All standard components (All.acp)
U(0)
+
I
i(0)
+
R(i)
MOV
U
MOV
T
LINE
Z-MT
LINE
Z-T
+Vf -
XFMR
Y
S
C
M
STAT
SYST
H
+
SM
P S
: n 1
P S
MODEL
flash_1
V
F
+
T
T
T
T
T
SAT
Y
50
f
51
52
53
54
56
58
G u
59
G
du
dt
60
if
61
64
MIN
MAX
63
MIN
MAX
65
ACC
LIB
ABC DEF
I
INIT
TACS
66
RMS
T
H L
G(s)
SM
K
s
62
Sampl
Track
R(t)
S
C
HFS
CIGRE
LOAD
CIGRE
LOAD
RLC
BCT
Y
+
v
-
LINE
Z-T
SM
ω
IM
ω
IM
ω
SP
ω
DC
ω
LCC
K·s
K
1+T·s
K·s
1+T·s
+
-
+
+
K
*
x
y
x
y
|x|
x
NEG
x
x
y
y
x
x
y
y
P S
: n 1
Y Y
57
55
F(s|z)
H
M
sin
x=y
exp
log
log10
RAD
DEG
RND
cos
tan
cotan
asin
acos
atan
sinh
cosh
tanh
x
x
y
y
PCH
Probes &
3-phase
Branch NonLin
Lines
lumped
Lines
distributed Switches Sources Machines Transformers
Models
TACS Devices
Fortran
statements
UserSpec
Line/Cable
Init.cond.
FreqComp
Logic
Math.
Transfer
functions
11/6/2012
15 / 17
ATPDraw Component dialog
11/6/2012
16 / 17
ATPDraw node naming
"What you see is what you get"
Connected nodes automatically get the same
name
– Direct node overlap
– Positioned on connection
Warnings in case of duplicates and
disconnections
3-phase and n-phase nodes
– Extensions A..Z added automatically
– Objects for transposition and splitting
– Connection between n- and single phase
nodes connected nodes overlap
Splitter Transposition
Connection
ABC
1
11/6/2012
17 / 17
Main features of PlotXY (PlotXWin)
Post-processor
• Easy-to use
• Full 32 bit (win32) code for very fast operation
• Up to 8 curves per plot
• Plots from up to 3 different files on the same sheet
• Plots versus time as well as X-Y plots allowed
• Factors and offsets and zoom support
• Clever automatic axis scaling
• Cursor to see values in numerical format
• Allows plot export via win32 clipboard
• Allows plotting data even during simulations
• Simple Fourier analysis supported
• Data export in ASCII format

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful