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Instruction: Submit your answer sheet

(provided) together with this

questionnaire to the office for

Time Element: 4 hours

1. The total energy of a revolving electron in
an atom can:

A. have any value above zero
B. never be positive *
C. never be negative
D. not be calculated

2. An atom is said to be ionized when any
one of its orbiting electron:

A. jumps from one orbit to another
B. is raised to a higher orbit
C. comes to the ground state
D. is completely removed *

3. The maximum number of electrons which
the M-shell of an atom can contain is:

A. 32 C. 18 *
B. 8 D. 50

4. Electronic distribution of an Si atom is:

A. 2, 10, 2 C. 2, 7, 5
B. 2, 8, 4 * D. 2, 4, 8

5. Semiconductor materials have ____

A. ionic C. mutual
B. covalent * D. metallic

6. The maximum number of electrons which
the valence shell of an atom can have is:

A. 6 C. 18
B. 8 * D. 2

7. Silicon has Z = 14. Its outermost orbit is:

A. partially filled
B. half filled *
C. completely occupied
D. empty

8. Major pat of the current in an intrinsic
semiconductor is due to:

A. conduction-band electrons *
B. valence-band electrons
C. holes in the valence band
D. thermally-generated electrons

9. Conduction electrons have more mobility
than holes because they

A. are lighter
B. experience collision less frequently
C. have negative charge

D. need less energy to move them *

10. Doping materials are called impurities
because they:

A. decrease the number of charge
B. change the chemical properties of
C. make semiconductors less than 100
percent pure
D. alter the crystal structures of the pure
semiconductor *

11. Current flow in a semiconductor depends
on the phenomenon of:

A. drift
B. recombination
C. doping
D. all of the above *

12. The process of adding impurities to a pure
semiconductor is called _____.

A. mixing C. diffusing
B. doping * D. refining

13. The most widely used semiconducting
material in electronic devices is ____.

A. germanium
B. copper
C. silicon *
D. carbon

14. Electron-hole pairs are produced by

A. recombination
B. ionization
C. thermal energy *
D. doping

15. Recombination takes place when

A. an electron falls into a hole *
B. a positive and a negative ion bond
C. a valence electron becomes a
D. a crystal is formed

16. When a P-N junction is formed, diffusion
current causes

A. mixing of current carries
B. forward bias
C. reverse bias
D. barrier potential *

17. The leakage current of a P-N diode is
caused by:

A. heat energy *
B. barrier potential
C. chemical energy
D. majority carriers

18. Electronic components which are made of
semiconductor materials are often called
____ devices.

A. solid-state *
B. silicon
C. germanium
D. intrinsic

19. Any voltage that is connected across a P-
N junction is called ____ voltage.

A. breakdown
B. bias *
C. barrier
D. reverse

20. The area within a semiconductor diode
where no mobile current carriers exist
when it is formed is called ____ region.

A. depletion *
B. potential barrier
C. saturation
D. space charge

21. The depletion region of a semiconductor
diode is due to:

A. reverse biasing
B. forward biasing
C. crystal doping
D. migration of mobile charge carriers *

22. If an intrinsic semiconductor is doped with
a very small amount of boron, then in the
extrinsic semiconductor so formed, the
number of electrons and holes will:

A. decrease
B. increase
C. increase and decrease respectively
D. decrease and increase respectively *

23. Two initially identical samples A and B of
pure germanium are doped with donors to
concentrations of 1 x 20
and 3 x 10

respectively. If the hole concentration in A
is 9 x 10
, then the hole concentration in
B at the same temperature will be:

A. 3 x 10
B. 11 x 10

C. 7 x 10

D. 27 x 10

24. Hall effect is observed in a specimen when
it (metal or a semiconductor) is carrying
current electric field inside the specimen
will be in:
A. a direction normal to both current and
magnetic field *
B. the direction of current
C. a direction antiparallel to the magnetic
D. an arbitrary direction depending upon
the conductivity of the specimen

25. Mobilities of electrons and holes in a
sample of intrinsic germanium at room
temperature are 0.36 m
/V-s and 0.17
/V-s respectively. If the electron and
hole densities are each equal to 2.5 x 10

per m
, calculate the conductivity in S/m.

A. 4.25
B. 3.21
C. 2.12 *
D. 1.02

26. A germanium diode draws 40 mA with a
forward bias of 0.25 V. The junction is at
room temperature of 293
K. Calculate the
reverse saturation current of the diode.

A. 1.82 A *
B. 1.24 A
C. 2.13 A
D. 2.73 A

27. For a silicon diode, the value of the
forward bias voltage typically

A. must be greater than 0.3V
B. must be greater than 0.7V *
C. depends on the width of the depletion
D. depends on the concentration of
majority carriers

28. When forward bias, a diode

A. blocks current
B. conducts current *
C. has a high resistance
D. drops a large voltage

29. The term bias means

A. the ratio of majority carriers to minority
B. the amount of current across the P-N
C. a dc voltage applied across the P-N
junction to control its operation *
D. none of the above

30. To forward-bias a P-N junction, diode,

A. an external voltage is applied that is
positive at the anode and negative at
the cathode
B. an external voltage is applied that is
negative at the anode and positive at
the cathode
C. an external voltage is applied that is
positive at the P-region and negative
at the N-region
D. A and C above *

31. When a P-N junction is forward-biased

A. the only current is the hole current
B. the only current is the electron current
C. the only currents produced by majority
D. the current is produced by both holes
and electrons *
32. A P-N junction diodes dynamic
conductance is directly proportional to

A. the applied voltage
B. the temperature
C. the current *
D. the thermal voltage

33. The junction capacitance of a linearly
graded junction varies with the applied
reverse bias VR as




34. The diffusion capacitance of a forward
biased P
N (P
indicates heavily doped P-
region) junction diode with a steady
current I depends on:

A. width of the depletion region
B. mean life-term of holes
C. mean life-term of electrons *
D. junction area

35. The width of depletion layer of a P-N

A. decreases with light doping
B. increases with heavy doping
C. is independent of applied voltage
D. is increased under reverse bias *

36. At room temperature of 25
C, the barrier
potential for silicon is 0.7V. Its value at
C is ____V.

A. 0.5
B. 0.7
C. 0.9 *
D. 0.3

37. Junction breakdown occurs

A. under high temperature condition
B. with forward bias
C. under reverse bias *
D. because of manufacturing defect

38. Avalanche breakdown is primarily
dependent on the phenomenon of

A. collision *
B. ionization
C. doping
D. recombination

39. Reverse current in a silicon junction nearly
doubles for every ____
C rise in

A. 10
B. 6 *
C. 2
D. 5

40. Without a dc source, a clipper acts like a

A. rectifier *
B. demodulator
C. clamper
D. chopper

41. The primary function of a clamper circuit is

A. suppress variations in signal voltage
B. raise positive half-cycle of the signal
C. lower negative half-cycle of the signal
D. introduce a dc level into an ac signal *

42. What is the color of light emitted by LED if
the material used is gallium-arsenide-
phosphide (GaAsP)?

A. Infrared radiation
B. Blue
C. Green
D. Red or yellow (amber) *

43. Silicon is preferred for manufacturing
Zener diodes because it

A. is relatively cheap
B. needs lower doping level
C. has higher temperature and current
capacity *
D. has lower breakdown voltage

44. When used in a circuit, a Zener diode is

A. forward-biased
B. connected in series
C. troubled by overheating
D. reverse-biased *

45. The main reason why electrons can tunnel
through a P-N junction is that

A. they have high energy
B. barrier potential is very low
C. depletion layer is extremely thin *
D. impurity level is low

46. The IP/IV ratio of a tunnel diode is of
primary importance in

A. determining tunneling speed of
B. the design of an oscillator
C. amplifier designing
D. computer applications *

47. Mark the INCORRECT statement. A
varactor diode

A. has variable capacitance
B. utilizes transition capacitance of a
C. has always a uniform doping profile *
D. is often used as an automatic
frequency control device

48. The microwave device used as an
oscillator within the frequency ragne 10-
1000 GHz is ____ diode.

A. Schottky

C. Gunn
D. Step recovery

49. A PIN diode is frequently used as a

A. peak clipper
B. voltage regulator
C. harmonic generator
D. switching diode for frequencies up to
GHz range *

50. Mark the wrong statement. A Schottky

A. has no depletion layer
B. has metal-semiconductor junction
C. has fast recovery time
D. is a bipolar device *

51. A special purpose diode which uses
metals like gold, silver or platinum on one
side of the junction, n-type doped silicon
on another side and has almost no charge
storage in the junction, is a

A. Schottky diode *
B. tunnel diode
C. varactor diode
D. zener diode

52. A step-recovery diode

A. has an extremely short recovery time
B. conducts equally well in both directions
C. is mainly used as harmonic generator *
D. is an ideal rectifier of high-frequency

53. A semiconductor device that resembles a
voltage variable capacitor is called diode

A. tunnel C. PIN
B. Schottky D. varactor *

54. A diode that has no depletion layers and
operates with hot carriers is called ____

A. Schottky *
B. Gunn
C. step recovery

55. In switching devices, gold doping is used

A. improve bonding
B. reduce storage time *
C. increase the mobility of the carrier
D. protect the terminals against corrosion

56. When the reverse bias voltage of a
varactor diode increases, its

A. capacitance decreases *
B. leakage current decreases
C. negative resistance increases
D. depletion zone decreases

57. Which of the following are negative
resistance microwave diodes oscillator

A. Gunn
C. Step recovery
D. Both Gunn and IMPATT *

58. A negative-resistance microwave diode
having a thin slice of a semiconductor
material sandwiched between two metal
conductors is called _____ diode.

A. Schottky
B. PIN *
C. Gunn
D. varactor

59. Zener diodes are use primarily as

A. rectifiers
B. voltage regulators *
C. oscillators
D. amplifiers

60. The diode which is often used for voltage
regulation in electronic circuits is called
___ diode.

A. zener * C. silicon
B. varactor D. germanium

61. Avalanche photodiodes are preferred over
PIN diodes in optical communication
systems because of

A. speed of operation *
B. higher sensitivity
C. larger bandwidth
D. larger power handling capacity

62. LEDs are commonly fabricated from
gallium compounds like gallium arsenide
and gallium phosphide because they

A. are cheap
B. are easily available
C. emit more heat
D. emit more light *

63. A LED is basically a _____ P-N junction.

A. forward-biased
B. reverse-biased
C. lightly-doped
D. heavily-doped

64. As compared to a LED display, the distinct
advantage of an LCD display is that it

A. no illumination
B. extremely low power *
C. no forward-bias
D. a solid crystal

65. Before illuminating a P-N junction
photodiode, it has to be

A. reverse-biased *
B. forward-biased
C. switched ON
D. switched OFF

66. In a photoconductive cell, the resistance of
the semiconductor material varies ____
with the intensity of incident light.

A. directly
B. inversely *
C. exponentially
D. logarithmically

67. A photoconductive cell is known as ____

A. phototransistor
B. photoresistor
C. photovoltaic
D. both phototransistor and photoresistor *

68. A phototransistor excels a photodiode in
the matter of

A. faster switching
B. greater sensitivity
C. higher current capacity
D. both higher current capacity and
greater sensitivity *

69. A photodarlington comprises of

A. a phototransistor
B. a transistor
C. a photodiode
D. both a phototransistor and a transistor *

70. A solar cell operates on the principle of

A. diffusion
B. recombination
C. photovoltaic action *
D. carrier flow

71. Solar cells are used as source of power in
earth satellites because they have

A. very high efficiency
B. unlimited life
C. higher power capacity per weight
D. both A and B above *

72. The device possessing the highest
sensitivity is a

A. photoconductive cell
B. photovoltaic cell
C. photodiode
D. phototransistor *

73. The unique characteristic of LASER light
are that it is

A. coherent
B. monochromatic
C. collimated
D. all of the above

74. The LASCR operates like a

A. latch *

B. photodiode
D. phototransistor

75. Optical couplers are designed to ____, one
circuit from another.

A. control C. disconnect
B. isolate * D. protect

76. The main purpose of using optical isolators
is to provide protection to devices from

A. high-voltage transients
B. surge voltages
C. low-level noise
D. all of the above *

77. A LED emits visible light when its

A. P-N junction is reverse-biased
B. depletion region widens
C. holes and electrons recombine *
D. P-N junction becomes hot

78. In LED, light is emitted because

A. recombination of charge carriers takes
place *
B. diode gets heated up
C. light falling on the diode gets amplified
D. light gets reflected due to lens action

79. GaAs, LEDs emit radiation in the

A. ultraviolet region
B. violet-blue green range of the visible
C. visible region
D. infrared region *

80. Phototransistors respond much like a
conventional transistor except that, in their
cases, light energy is used to _____.

A. alter leakage current
B. change base voltage
C. switch it ON *
D. alter emitter current

81. The emitter of a transistor is generally
doped the heaviest because it

A. has to dissipate maximum power *
B. has to supply the charge carriers
C. is the first region of the transistor
D. must possess low resistance

82. For current working of an NPN bipolar
junction transistor, the different electrodes
should have the following polarities with
respect to emitter.

A. collector + ve, base - ve
B. collector ve, base + ve
C. collector ve, base - ve
D. collector + ve, base + ve *

83. In a properly-biased NPN transistor, most
of the electrons from the emitter

A. recombine with holes in the base
B. recombine in the emitter itself
C. pass through the base to the collector *
D. are stopped by the junction barrier

84. In a junction transistor, the collector cut off
current ICBO reduces considerably by
doping the

A. emitter with high level of impurity
B. emitter with low level of impurity
C. collector with high level of impurity
D. collector with low level of impurity *

85. In a transistor amplifier, the reverse
saturation current ICO

A. doubles for every 10
C rise in
temperature *
B. doubles for every 1
C rise in
C. increases linearly with the temperature
D. doubles for every 5
C in temperature

86. In the case of a bipolar transistor, is

A. positive and > 1
B. positive and < 1
C. negative and > 1
D. negative and <1 *

87. The EBJ of a given transistor is forward-
biased and its CBJ reverse-biased. If the
base current is increased, then its

A. IC will decrease
B. VCE will decrease
C. VCE will increase
D. IC will increase *

88. The collector characteristics of a CE-
connected transistor may be used to find

A. input resistance
B. base current
C. output resistance *
D. voltage gain

89. When a transistor is fully switched ON, it is
said to be

A. shorted C. open
B. saturated * D. cut-off

90. If a change in base current does not
change the collector current, the transistor
amplifier is said to be

A. saturated * C. critical
B. cut-off D. complemented

91. When an NPN transistor is saturated, its

A. is zero and IC is zero
B. is low and IC is high *
C. equals VCC and IC is zero
D. equals VCC and IC is high

92. When an NPN transistor is cut-off, its VCC

A. equals VCC and IC is high
B. equals VCC and IC is zero *
C. is low and IC is high
D. is high and IC is low

93. If, in a bipolar junction transistor, IB = 100
A and IC = 10 mA, in what range does the
value of its beta lie?

A. 0.1 to 1.0
B. 10.1 to 100
C. 1.01 to 10 *
D. 100.1 to 1000

94. In a BJT, largest current flow occurs

A. in the emitter *
B. in the base
C. through CB junction
D. in the collector

95. In a properly-connected BJT, an increase
in base current causes increase in

A. IC only
B. both IC and IE *
C. IE only
D. leakage current

96. When a BJT operates in cut-off

A. VCE = 0
B. VCE = VCC *
C. VCE has negative value
D. IC is maximum

97. When a BJT is in saturation

A. IC = 0
B. IB controls IC
C. VCE = 0 *
D. VCE has positive value

98. A transistor is operated as a non-saturated
switch to eliminate

A. storage time * C. turn-off time
B. turn-on time D. delay time

99. Early-effect in BJT refers to

A. avalanche breakdown
B. thermal breakdown
C. base narrowing *
D. zener breakdown

100. A dc chopper has ON time of 30 s and
OFF time of 10 s. Calculate the chopping

A. 20 kHz C. 25 kHz *
B. 50 kHz D. 30 kHz