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Available from:

www.traceengineering.com
Arlington, WA USA
A Division of Trace International
Copyright 1999, Trace Engineering. No part of this publication may be used,
reproduced or copied without the express written permission of Trace Engineering.
W
hen Trace Engineering got its start in 1984, our initial
goal was simple: to build the worlds best
independent power systems and components. Since
that time, we have set the standard for off-grid inverter
performance. Thousands of people worldwide now depend on
Trace equipment in their daily lives. Our inverters are also at
the forefront of utility line-tie and back-up power industries.
Emerging technologies such as fuel cells utilize Trace inverters
to create useful household electricity.
Utility companies are opening up their distribution systems to
independent power producers, thus creating new opportunities
for renewable energy sources. Today we build grid-interactive,
solar and wind powered inverters, ranging in size from a mere
100 watts all the way up to a megawatt (one million watts).
Backup power is increasingly important to those who need a
secure supply of electricity. Aging infrastructure and
increasingly fierce local storms have undermined the old idea
that being connected to a utility automatically guarantees
reliable electric service. Coupled with batteries and generators,
our inverters ensure that electricity is always available, no matter
what happens to the utility grid.
As we enter a new millennium, Trace is proud to have helped
shape important changes in the electric power industry.
Electricity generated from sunshine and wind is becoming
common, and people around the world are using Trace systems
to harness those renewable energy sources.
Weve updated our product line to keep pace with the times,
yet remain true to the original Trace goal - to build the best
inverters, charge controllers and system integration equipment
Introduction
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Accessories ........................................... 13, 14, 15
Backup Power ............................................... 5, 6
Battery Charging............................................. 22
Certifications ................................................... 22
Charge Controllers.................................... 11, 12
Charging Sources ............................................ 22
DR Series ................................................. 3, 6, 18
Glossary ........................................................... 24
Inverter Basics..................................... 21, 22, 23
Microsine ..................................................... 7, 18
Power Centers ................................................... 9
Power Inverters................................................. 1
Power Modules................................................ 10
in the world. Weve produced this catalog to make it easy to
find the right equipment for your unique electrical
requirements. For additional information please visit our Web
Site at www.traceengineering.com. Contact your local
authorized Trace reseller with your specific inverter power
needs.
T
he Trace International family of companies make up
the worlds largest supplier of inverters and related
components. Together, Trace Engineering and Trace
Technologies' products address the power conversion and
control requirements of virtually any power system.
Trace Engineering manufactures a complete line-up of Marine,
RV, Utility, and Fleet Truck inverters which, not surprisingly,
lead the way in their respective industries. Look for these
products where the best quality Marine, RV and Truck
equipment is sold.
In addition to manufacturing their all new PV series of utility
interconnect inverter, Trace Technologies continues to build
custom renewable energy conversion equipment of up to
1 megawatt1,000,000 watts. Contact their Livermore, CA
office or visit their Web Site at www.tracetech.com for more
information on custom industrial inverters.
Trace Engineering manufactures inverters and systems up to
16.5 kW at their plants in Arlington, WA and Sacramento, CA.
Trace Technologies has manufacturing facilities in Sacramento, CA.
Power Panels ................................................... 10
PS Series .................................................. 2, 7, 17
PV Series ..................................................... 8, 17
Renewable Energy Sources............................... 1
Selecting an Inverter....................................... 23
SW Series............................................. 2, 5, 7, 16
Technical Specifications ................ 16, 17, 18, 19
Three Phase..................................................... 14
Tiger Series ............................................. 4, 6, 19
Utility Interactive .......................................... 7, 8
UX Series................................................. 4, 6, 19
Wiring Designs ................................................ 21
Rev 8/26/99
Be Your Own Power Company
Many parts of the world are not serviced by electrical utilities. In
other cases, electrical service is available but at prohibitive prices.
Power line extensions typically cost over $25,000 per mile. Utilities
often discourage remote connections because of high maintenance
costs. Consequently, off-grid locations have often been shunned as
potential home sites, since so many of the conveniences of the
modern world rely upon electricity.
Today cost-effective renewable energy systems, coupled with
powerful Trace inverters, have opened the way to reliable, full-
time independent electrical service, anywhere in the world!
Thousands of off-grid homeowners have connected to a new kind
of power companytheir own. Instead of paying for costly utility
line extension, or running noisy and expensive-to-operate
generators, they are choosing battery-based electrical systems. Many
of them now report that they enjoy cheaper and more reliable
electrical service than their connected neighbors. In fact, off-grid
electrical systems have proven so cost effective and reliable that
some utility companies are recommending them for remote
customers. Your local alternative energy dealer can advise you how
to create your own independent electrical service for a fraction of
what it would cost to extend utility lines or operate a generator.
1
T
he ability to recharge batteries from renewable energy sources is only part of the reason that off-grid living is now a practical
reality. Batteries alone will not provide the comforts and conveniences of modern living. To take full advantage of an independent
electrical system, a DC to AC inverter is essential.
At Trace we have pioneered the development of affordable, efficient inverters and energy systems. We have an inverter model designed for
almost every conceivable application. Summer cabins with modest household current requirements such as lights and TV can get by with
our smallest, TS and UX Series inverters. For full-time homes, farms, and ranchesrequiring greater amounts of AC power to run water
pumps, washing machines, shop tools, kitchen appliances, and computersour DR, and SW Series inverters are widely used. No matter
how muchor littleAC power you require, Trace has an inverter that will do the job for you.
Many independent electrical systems rely on
renewable energy sources for battery recharging.
The power of the sun, wind, and even moving water
is harnessed to provide electrical power for homes,
farms, ranches, seasonal residences, and small
villages. What these systems have in common is that
their source of electrical energy is clean,
nonpolluting and, after initial purchase,
virtually free.
Renewable energy is hardly a new conceptwind
generators have been in use for almost a century.
What is new is that the advent of efficient and
powerful inverters has now made these systems
practical for everyday use. Solar electric systems and
wind generators charge batteries when the sun is
shining or the wind is blowing. When all else fails,
gas, diesel, or propane generators, coupled to the
powerful, automatic battery chargers built into most
Trace inverters, can provide reliable backup power
to the renewable energy systems.
Traces line of sine wave invertersthe SW Series II
makes operating an off-grid electrical system virtually
transparent. The AC output of these inverters is so clean
that they are approved for utility interconnect in many
areas. Loads that are difficult or impossible to operate
from a modified sine wave inverter (including clocks,
timers, laser printers, photocopiers, bread makers,
pellet stoves, and sensitive electronic equipment) all run
flawlessly on our SW Series inverters. A common
problem with some radios and televisions is noise
caused by modified sine wave inverters. This is
eliminated in most Trace SW installations.
The AC power created by our SW Series inverters is
only part of why they are widely regarded as the worlds
best and most advanced inverter. They are also
extremely efficientover 90% through most of their
load range, peaking at up to 96% efficiencyand have
negligible idle current. These brainy inverters can
be programmed to perform a multitude of tasksincluding
automatic generator start and stop, automatic load sensing,
and generator support. When connected to both the grid and
a renewable energy system, the SW Series inverter can actually
process and sell power to the utility company. All Trace SW
Series inverters include a built-in, fully automatic, three-stage
battery charger, specially designed to bring maximum charge
to the batteries while using minimum generator time and fuel.
Trace produces several versions of SW inverters, the smallest
being a 2.5 kW output, 12 volt model and the largest being a
5.5 kW, 48 volt model. The most popular models in this series
are the 4 kW, 24 and 48 volt inverters. Trace SW inverters
may be stacked in series or parallel for increased total capacity
(optional equipment required for stacking). With a peak
power rating up to 2.5 times greater than their continuous
power rating, there is almost nothing that will not start and
run on one (or two) of these inverters.
SINE WAVE
2
We will soon introduce the PS (Power Station)
inverter/charger, our newest sine-wave inverter/
charger. This model was designed to significantly
lower the cost of sine wave power in Off-Grid, Utility
Tie, and Backup Power applications. The PS2512
produces 2.5 kW of power. It includes our fully
automatic three-stage battery charger, and is ready
to connect to utility power, a generator, or a
renewable power system. (North American versions
available Fall 1999).
Powerful, reliable, adjustable and efficient, Trace DR Series
inverters set the standard for midsize inverters. We build
several models of DR Series inverters, ranging in size from 1.5
kW all the way to 3.6 kW. Output power in this series inverter
is a modified sine wave. These inverters can run most common
tools and appliances, including microwaves and refrigerators.
Standard with all DR inverters is our built-in, three-stage
battery-charging system (Bulk, Absorption, and Float) and
automatic AC transfer relay. Easily accessible on the front panel
of the DR inverters are controls for battery type, battery
capacity, maximum charge rate, battery equalization, and low-
voltage disconnect. Once set up, all functions of the inverter/
charger are fully automatic. LED status indicators provide such
vital information as charge mode, high or low battery voltage,
and over temperature or over load.
One of the many reasons why Trace DR Series inverters have
become so popular for alternative energy applications is their
efficiency. They use virtually no power when idling (Search
Mode) and even when the inverter is powered up, DR Series
inverters use less than 8 watts.
Expandability is another unique feature of our DR Series
inverter. Load capacity can be doubled by stacking a second
inverter. A simple stacking cable kit (DRI) is all that is needed
to connect them together. When connected in series, a pair of
DR inverters produces both 120 and 240 VAC power, enabling
it to operate such difficult household loads as deep well pumps
and heavy power tools. A pair of properly sized DRs will power
most tools and appliances. (Only North American versions may
be stacked.)
Many DR inverters are available in export voltages of 230
VAC 50 Hz., 105 VAC 50 Hz., and 105 VAC 60 Hz. These
models are presently not stackable, but multiple inverters
may be connected to a single battery bank to increase the
total amount of AC power available to separate loads. Both
battery charging and power output are increased whenever
two or more inverter/chargers are connected to a single
battery bank. The individual inverters AC outputs should
be connected to separate distribution panels when used in
this manner.
A number of optional features make DR Series inverters
even more versatile. In addition to the stacking cable kit
(DRI), we also offer a battery temperature sensor (BTS) to
ensure more precise battery charging. Trace also makes a
wall-mountable remote control panel (RC8) so that the
inverter can be controlled from a convenient location. For
installations where strict electrical code compliance is an
issue, Trace offers a conduit box (DRCB) that covers the
DC input wires.
The DR Series is ETL listed to UL and CSA specifications
(E models carry CE approval). All AC wiring terminates
inside the chassis, while the DC connections are covered by
color-coded plastic caps.
DR SERIES
Trace DR Series inverters are powerful,
reliable, flexible and efficient.
3
600 to 1400 Watts of Compact Power
Combine easy, automatic operation and enough power to run
electric tools and small microwave ovens and you have the
Trace UX Series inverter. This series ranges in output from
600-1400 watts. They are approved by UL and cUL, and E
models are CE compliant. Even circular saws and small pumps
will run on the 1400 watt model. Like the Tiger, the battery
charger (SB) in this series is optional. When the charger is
installed its automatic mode switching provides true set it
and forget it operation.
A System in a Box
The TS Series (Tiger) inverter is Traces all-new entry-
level inverter. TS inverters range in size from 400-800
watts. Simplicity is a key feature of TS inverters, with
features like built in electric power outlets, and four,
multi-color LED indicators they are very easy to operate.
When used with the optional battery charger/automatic
transfer relay, a TS inverter becomes a complete
electrical system in a box.
The TS Series is a great off-grid inverter where
household current demands are modest. Everyday
appliances such as televisions, lights, even blenders and
other small kitchen appliances, and hand tools will
operate on a Tiger inverter. With the three-stage battery
charger (SB) option installed the TS inverter will
completely recharge your batteries even from a modestly
sized generator.
Coming soon for this inverter is an optional, built-in
PV (solar electric) charge controller. With this option
installed the Tiger becomes a complete, stand-alone
renewable energy system.
TIGER SERIES
UXSERIES
4
Both the TS and UX Series of inverters have a number
of options which, when installed expand the versatility
and convenience of these already great products.
Battery Charger/AC Transfer Switch
The standby option (SB) includes an AC transfer switch,
and a three-stage, constant current/constant voltage
battery charger. Whenever an external source of AC
power is available the inverter automatically transfers
its load to that source and begins to recharge
the batteries.
Remote Control
A remote control panel (RC-8) may be mounted up to
50 feet (15 meters) away for convenient monitoring of
operating status and On/Off activation.
Battery Temperature Sensor (BTS)
This option looks at the temperature of the battery
and adjusts charging voltage to compensate for the
effects of col d temperatures on batteri es. It
automatically provides more precise battery charging.
W
ith all the electricity infrastructure
that exists, one might think that
power security is a non-issue. After all,
how often do large utility grids fail? The answer,
actually, is quite often. In many parts of the world,
power outages are a daily event. Elsewhere,
failures occur often enough to warrant an
independent source of electricity. Over the past
few years unprecedented weather events have
caused power interruptions that have lasted for
days, weeks, and in some cases even months.
We depend upon electricity for virtually every facet
of daily life in our homes. Our computers, door
openers, security systems, furnace fans, and even
gas stoves all require electricity to operate.
Combine our reliance on power with the
increasing unreliability of utility power and it
becomes clear why people around the world are
installing Trace Backup Power Systems in their
homes and businesses.
5
BACKUP POWER
Sine Wave
Trace SW and PS Series inverters are a great choice for backup
power. The internal transfer speed from charger to inverter is
so fast that most computers will stay running during the change-
over. The sine wave output of these inverters ensures that when
you switch power source from utility to battery, you will notice
no differences from public power. (Actually, many people report
that the power from their inverter is superior to their local power
company.)
With a Trace SW or PS inverter for backup power, you can add
solar modules or another renewable charging source to your
system and sell electricity to your utility company (where
permitted). Imagine full-time, reliable electrical power and
reduced power bills as a side benefit!
This drawing shows how all the components of a Backup electric
system work together to ensure that you will always have a reliable
source of electricity. The main electric panel gets its power from the
utility grid. The loads connected to it are sacrificial and will be
shut down in the event of a power failure. The loads connected to the
sub-electric panel are powered by either the utility or the inverter
and will automatically remain powered even if utility power shuts
down. Both the generator and solar photovoltaic array are optional
sources of battery charging. Generally, if the power failure lasts for
more than a few days, a source of battery charging will be necessary.
6
The UX family of inverters offers powerful performance in a
compact package. Their simplicity and ease of installation
coupled with UL and cUL listing make them a great choice
for small to intermediate Power Security systems. With the
optional three-stage battery charger/AC transfer relay (SB
option) the UX will automatically recharge the batteries
whenever utility or generator power is available. UX inverters
make the most of battery power by operating loads at
efficiencies up to 92%, and by consuming as little as 1/2 watt
under no-load conditions. Our load compensated protection
circuitry ensures that the UX will shut down if your batteries
approach a dangerously low level of charge. Options such as
the Battery Temperature Sensor (BTS) and Remote Control
(RC8) expand the ease of use of this family of inverters.
Trace DR Series inverters were originally designed for
international interruptible power demands. In many of
those areas, utility power is only available for a few hours
a day. So a battery and inverter backup electrical system
are essential for those who require a full-time power
supply for such necessities as lights, computers,
communication equipment, refrigeration devices, and
water pumps .
The Trace DR Series inverter addresses intermittent
power with a built-in AC transfer relay and a high-capacity
battery charger that puts maximum charge current into
batteries for later use. When power is interrupted, the
inverter switches automatically and provides continuous
electrical power to appliances.
DR Series inverters are available in a wide range of
international output voltages, including popular 230 VAC
50 Hz models. The smallest DR inverter produces 1.5
kW of power and the largest produces 3.6 kW. No other
inverter in its class offers so many features as standard
equipment. The DR is known worldwide for its reliability.
Need something smaller? The TS Series (Tiger) inverter,
along with its optional three-stage battery charger/automatic
transfer relay, makes a complete Backup power system in a
box! With output that ranges from 400-800 watts this series
of inverter is perfect for providing power security to
individual loads or even rooms. Connect a Tiger and a sealed
battery to your computer, fax, or phone system, and you will
have power to operate for hours in the event of a power
failure. When the power comes back on the Tiger will
automatically recharge your batteries (SB option). With built-
in battery cables and household power receptacle, the Tiger
is incredibly simple to installno rewiring of your home or
office will be necessary.
The all new Trace PS Series (Power Station) inverter
is a 2.5 kW entry level version of the SW Series
inverter. It is designed specifically to make starting
your own solar electric utility as economical as
possible. The Power
Station will process up to
2.4 kW of solar power.
This model includes our
three-stage battery charger
and provides backup
power along with complete
utility interconnection
abilities.
Traces SW Series inverter is the most versatile Line-
Tie inverter we produce, this is because many models
of this series can be used for both backup power and
utility interconnection. In sell mode, the SW Series
inverters can convert up to 3.5 kW of solar electricity
which you can sell to your power company. Many
people prefer not to have costly batteries as part of their
solar generating system and we build a special SW Series
which interacts only with the utility. While no backup
power is available with these models, system costs are
greatly reduced by eliminating the battery bank. When
batteries are included in the SW Line-Tie system, the
ful l capaci ty of the i nverterup to 5. 5 kW
automatically supplies power to your home or business
when the utility fails.
Designed to meet exacting utility standards, the SW
Series inverter automatically synchronizes with the
utilities power to produce a wave form suitable to feed
into the electrical
grid. Safety is also a
key feature of these
unique inverters.
When a power
outage occurs, the
Trace SW inverter
immediately stops
sending electricity to
the grid in order to
protect service
personnel who may
be working on
the lines.
Options for this
inverter include
remote control
(SWRC), Sine Wave
Communi cati ons
Adaptor (SWCA),
and a weather- proof
inverter enclosure
(SWODE).
I
magine using clean, nonpolluting, renewable energy
to run your electric meter backwards. Trace Utility
InteractiveLine-Tieelectric systems allow you to do
exactly that. Now you can start a small-scale utility of your own,
powered by solar, wind, or micro-hydro, and connect it to your
local power company. (Check with local authorities for any
restrictions.) No matter what the renewable energy source one
thing is certain; a Trace inverter will be the best way to convert
the power for utility connection. With sizes ranging from 100
watts to a megawatt, Trace is sure to have a utility interactive
inverter system which will suit your needs.
Solar electricity is the simplest and most common form of small
scale utility line-tie power. During the day, when the sun is
shinning, energy from sunlight is converted into utility grade
electricity by the Trace inverter, this power is then either used in
the house or sold to the electric company. At night, when solar
power is unavailable, or when load demands exceed the capacity
of your renewable generating system, utility power is
automatically supplied through the Trace inverter. Some people,
who have large solar (PV) systems, actually get monthly checks
instead of bills, from their local utilities, because their systems
consume less power than
they generate.
7
UTILITYINTERACTIVE
Trace Engineering is leading the way once again with our
new miniature utility interactive inverterthe Micro Sine.
Designed to fit on the back of an individual PV solar module,
this totally weatherproof inverter produces utility-grade
power suitable for supply to a power distribution grid. This
tiny powerhouse fits easily into the palm of your hand. This
inverter is designed for utility interconnection only, it does
not use batteries, and will not provide any backup power
capabilities. The Micro Sine automatically stops sending
electricity to the grid in the event of a utility power outage.
The Micro Sine microprocessor control includes Maximum
Power Point Tracking, a feature used to assure that your
PV module is operating at maximum output under all light
conditions. An optional communications system allows for
full system monitoring and troubleshooting. Features of the
Communications Module include tracking and diagnostics
of each AC PV module in your system. Any module that is
not performing properly can be identified by the
communications system.
Now anyone can contribute to the greening of local utility
power. With a single solar PV module you can begin to
reduce your electricity bill and dependence on utility grid.
As the price of solar modules decreases, or as your finances
permit, you can expand your utility by adding more Micro
Sine inverters and PV modules, thereby further lowering
electricity bills. (Check with your local utility and electrical
inspection authority on how to connect to the grid.)
SOLAR LINE-TIE
8
Innovative engineering and state-of-the-art technology are at the heart of Trace
Technologies grid interactive inverters and hybrid stand-alone power
processing systems. Our custom designed power conversion equipment can
be found at the center of some of the worlds largest photovoltaic (PV) systems,
including the Olympic Natatorium in Atlanta, Ga.
Now we bring this leading-edge technology to our new UL listed 3-phase 10
kW grid interactive inverter. Like its larger cousins, the new PV Series inverter
includes utility islanding protection, maximum peak power tracking of the
array, and user setable parameters via the operator interface. (Operator
interface not shown in photo.) This inverter is designed to make commercial
scale, green power production easier than ever before.
Making It Easy To Install
Weve brought together
a wide range of system
integration equipment and are
proud of our Complete Power
Solutions product line.
9
Our new Power Centers combine the major elements of a
renewable energy system - charge control, circuit
protection, grounding, and AC/DC load breakers into a
single enclosure. The PC250 and PC500 are both fully
certified to UL and CSA standards and may be best
described as the ultimate renewable energy system service
entrance.
This product line totally simplifies the installation of an
inverter/battery/solar PV system. The PV Series offers
unrivaled flexibility; system voltage is field selectable for
12, 24, or 48 Volts, and the capacity of the charge controller
can be expanded as well. Retrofitting a PC250 or PC500
Power Center is a great way to upgrade existing inverter
systems.
Our 250 and 500 amp Power Centers work with a wide
variety of Trace inverters - up to and including a pair of
SW5548s. The PC250 is designed for a single inverter
and its 500 amp cousin is intended for dual inverter
operation. Both models come with our 60 amp Pulse Width
Modulated charge controller built right in. They also
include LED battery status indicators and a 500 amp shunt
which is ready to connect to a Trace Meter. Both Power
Centers have generator start/stop, PV Ground Fault
Interruption, and remote battery temperature sensing
options.
In order that loads can be powered directly from an
external source of electricity, the PC250 is equipped with
a single inverter input/output/bypass breaker on the AC
output side. Dual breakers wired in this configuration are
standard on the PC500. The PC250 comes with a single
250 amp battery main breaker and the PC500 has dual
main breakersone for each inverter.
On the DC input/load side, the PC250 has one 60 amp DC
breaker standard with room to add two more. The PC500
comes with a single breaker as well and has room for an
additional four more breakers.
A
t Trace we recognize that we need to bring
you more than the worlds best and most
reliable inverters and controllers. Weve
brought together a wide range of system integration
equipment and are proud of our Complete Power
Solutions product line. They share a common
threadtheyre all designed to make installing and
operating Trace products safer and easier.
Weve expanded our Complete Power Solutions to
include a new series of Power Centers, which are a
welcome addition to our pre-wired Power Panels,
and our industrial grade Power Modules. All of
these products are fully listed to UL, cUL, and other
international standards and are built especially for
Trace inverters and power conditioning accessories.
Inverters sold separately. Actual conduit
not as illustrated.
Inverter sold separately. Actual conduit
not as illustrated
Inverters included
FLEXIBILITY
FACTORY
POWER
10
Traces revolutionary Power Modules allow our customers
to seamlessly integrate the many diverse components that
make up a renewable energy system. Using our unique
stacking design, all of a systems electrical components
including inverter(s), charge controller(s), wiring, and even
batteries can be configured to meet your unique specifications.
The Power Module is a rainproof enclosure suitable for
installation either indoors or outdoors. Circuit breakers and
disconnect switches are mounted on the outside of the Power
Module and are protected by locking weather-tight plastic
covers. Sealed batteries may be installed in another Power
Module enclosure below the electronic modules. Flooded
electrolyte batteries should be installed next to the electronic
modules in a separate Power Module case.
Power Modules may be ordered in both DR and SW
configurations to accommodate single, dual and in some cases
even triple inverters. One of the most remarkable features
of this product line is its design flexibility. Since their
introduction, Power Modules have been used in off-grid,
utility interconnect, backup power and industrial
three-phase applications.
Inverters and accessories sold separately.
Buying a fully engineered, professionally
assembled alternative energy system is as easy
as calling your Trace dealer and ordering a
Power Panel. You can be assured of NEC
compliance and quality components when its
built and assembled at our factory.
This unique product line combines flexible
system design with the convenience and
reliability of a turn-key project. Standard on all
model s, are al l AC and DC overcurrent
protection and disconnects required by the NEC/
UL. All Power Panels also include single or dual
inverter input/output/bypass breakers which
allow for operation of loads by external AC power
sources.
Depending upon how they are equipped, Power
Panels may be used in Off-Grid, Backup Power,
and Utility Interconnect applications. Power
Panels are built in single and dual SW or DR
configurations and may optionally include single
or dual C40 charge controllers which manage
power generated by PV, wind and/or micro-
hydro.
DR Series Power Panels can be ordered with up
to 7.2 kW of 120/240 VAC output power. They
can regulate up to 2 kW of PV input power with
optional controllers. Standard input voltages
available are 12 and 24 VDC.
SW Series Power Panels may be used in Utility
Interconnect and generator support modes.
They may be used for off-grid and backup power
applications as well and have input voltages of
12, 24 and 48 VDC. SW Series Power Panels will
regulate up to 3.8 kW of input power from
renewable energy sources such as the sun, and
microhydro or wind.
Power Panels come
ready to produce
powersimply hook up
solar, batteries and AC.
Thats all it takes! With
configurations that
range from 1.5 kW to 11
kW, we are sure to have
a Power Panel to suit
your needs.
11
T
race Engineering has long been an industry leader in the area of solar electric controls.
Our C12 and C40 charge controllers are used worldwide because of the flexibility
and reliability of their design. You can ensure more power to and longer life from
your batteries with our automatic, microprocessor controlled charge management routines.
Our charge controller lineup ranges all the way from our new 8 amp solar PV controller to
our full-featured, TC60 System Controller. Many of our controllers are extremely versatile
and can work as load-diversion controllers for wind and small hydro systems, or as three-
stage charge controllers for solar electric PV systems. No matter what your charging source
is, we have the right controller for you.
Even our most modest charge controllers pack some big system
features including Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) battery charging,
reverse polarity protection and LEDs which show charging and
low battery status. The TC8 and TC12 controllers are field
configurable for sealed or flooded batteries, and have charge and
load control capabilities (low voltage disconnect and reconnect).
This series is perfect for small cabin or RV systems and other similar
low current application.
The Trace C12 Charge/Lighting/Load controller is unique in that
no other small controller offers as much sophistication. As a charge
controller, it offers three-stage charging, user definable voltage
parameters, and automatic equalization. Standard in the load
control circuitry of the C12 are field adjustable low voltage
disconnect and reconnect points, along with a five minute low
battery disconnect warning. The C12 also functions as a lighting
controller. Run time of the lights is adjustable from 2 to 8 hours or
they may be set to run from dusk to dawn.
This controller is used worldwide in a variety of applications,
including remote village lighting systems in Africa, Latin America,
and Asia.
Our new TC25 is the most economical way to get three-stage PWM
charge control in a medium sized controller. This controller is
built in the same enclosure as the C30 and C30A, both of which it
replaces. The TC25 is field selectable for use as a charge or load
controller and can be configured for 12 or 24 Volt operation.
12
Our new TC60 is an outstanding, top-of-the-line, large
system controller. It is UL and cUL listed for 60 amps
of continuous charging . In addition to all the features
of most of our other controllers, this PWM charge
controller has a ten segment LED battery level
indicator, which provides accurate measurement of
battery level, charge and load current. The TC60 is
field selectable for 12, 24 and 48 VDC operation. The
enclosure leaves ample room for large wires and comes
standard with a 60 amp DC rated input breaker built
in. There is an optional remote battery temperature
probe available for this controller (BTC).
The C40 has long been the mainstay of our charge
controller lineup. It is field configurable for 12, 24, and
48 VDC operation, and can be used as a charge or
diversion or load controller. In addition to the standard
multi-color charge status LED, the C40 offers an
optional cumulative amp hour meter (DVM/C40). This
meter can either be installed on the face of the controller
(C40/DVM) or remotely up to 50 feet (15 m.) away with
the C40R/50.
An optional temperature sensor (BTS) for this controller
ensures precise battery charging regardless of outside
temperature fluctuations. The C40 is designed for use
with solar electric, hydro electric, wind generator, PV/
wind hybrid, and telecommunications power systems.
Features include: silent, Pulse Width Modulated (PWM)
microprocessor control (which maximizes battery life),
field-adjustable voltage and battery type set points,
electronic protection against short-circuit, overload, over
temperature and reverse-polarity conditions.
13
Our Ground Fault Protection
breakers disconnect and short
circuit the solar array if a ground
fault occurs in the wiring. GFP
Breakers may be ordered in one
through four pole configuration.
The last digit in the GFP part
number refers to poles (i.e. a
GFP3 is a three pole device).
This accessory also provides a
solar array combining function.
24 amp max per input for 12 and
24 VDC, 16 amp max for 48
VDC. The GFP works with 12,
24 and 48 VDC systems with or
without batteries.
B
uilding the worlds best inverters is not enough for Trace
engineers. After all, theres more to a power system than an
inverter. Trace offers a full line of accessories, like properly
sized cables and disconnects to ensure maximum performance from
your inverter/battery system. With these accessories and your Trace
inverter, you can be assured of reliable and trouble-free performance
for years to come.
Trace Fuse Block has a DC rated class T fuse in a
protective holder with slide-off cover. Available in
400, 300, 200, and 110 amps. We now make two
types of this useful accessoryone with a wire clamp
to accept bare copper wire, the other with a post
type terminal to accept cables with ring terminals.
The new upgraded version of our step-up/step-down
transformerT240now carries a UL Listed continuous
rating of 3900 Watts (3.9 kVa). Its built-in, two pole 25 amp
circuit breaker/disconnect makes installation very simple .
The Trace T240 is a great way to operate 240 VAC power
tools and water pumps from a single Trace inverter. 120 VAC
is supplied to the T240 which steps it up to 240 VAC. This
versatile autoformer can also be used to turn 240 VAC into
120 VAC. This allows the full output of a 240 VAC generator
to be used by our 120 VAC battery chargers. The T240 may
also be used as an isolating transformer.
Connections &Accessories
The Battery Temperature Sensor (BTS) mounts on
your battery and measures its temperature. It sends
information to the inverter/charger or charge
controller, which automatically adjusts charging
voltage to ensure full battery charge regardless of
the ambient temperature of your battery installation.
It is standard equipment on all SW Series inverters
and optional on all other models. It may also be
used with our C12 and C40 charge controllers, and
TS, UX, DR, PS and SW Inverters.
This PV Combiner Box is a new offering from Trace
and is part of our continuing commitment to make
installing inverters and renewable energy
equipment simple and code compliant. These new
Trace Combiner Boxes (TCB) meet the UL
requirement for series fusing of PV modules when
connected in parallel to form larger arrays.
The Combiner Box will accommodate ten PV input
circuits fused at up to 15 amps per circuit. The
maximum total continuous current rating of the
TCB is 80 amps at 12, 24 or 48 VDC. Combiner
Box and fuses are sold separately. Fuses are
available in 5,6,8,10 and 15 amp sizes.
14
DATA ACQUISITION
SWRC
Full-function remote control with
backlit LCD display for all SW and PS
Series inverters. 25 foot (7.5 m.) cable
standard. 50 foot (15 m.) cable
available. W
e build Remote Control Panels and
various types of meters with a single
purpose in mindto make it easier than
ever to operate and understand your Trace powered
electrical system. All Trace RC panels use
telephone cable connections which makes
installation a simple matter.
Our range of choices, particularly in the area of
metering and data acquisition is constantly
expanding. In this catalog we are introducing an
entirely new line of accumulating meters.
Stacking
Sine wave inverters can be connected together in a variety of ways,
this greatly increases operating range of the product line. The SWI
(Sine Wave Interface) is a series stacking interface for twin SW or PS
inverters. It provides twice the power in a 3 wire 120/240 VAC 60 Hz
configuration. This option is available in North American voltages
only. The new SWI/PAR connects twin SW or PS inverters together
in parallel for twice the output power at the same voltage. There is an
E version of this option for export inverters.
Three-Phase Power
We recently released our new Three-Phase Power System configuration
which is available in two output voltages and four power ratings. Sizes
range from 12 kVA to 16.5 kVA and all systems include Traces
revolutionary Phase Monitoring Control System, Power Module
Enclosures, and full SWCA hardware and software.
Sine Wave Configurations
RC8
Remote On/Off control with status
LED indicator for all TS, UX, DR, PS
and SW Series inverters. 50 foot (15
m.) cable standard.
Power Tracer
We now offer sophisticated power
measuring equipment which is
designed to provide accurate data
on system performance and
individual load profiles. The Power
Tracer measures and records volts,
amps, kVa, kW, VARS, PF and
THD. Current transducers which
range in size from 15-150 amps are
sold separately.
Line Logger
This power measurement device is
designed to plug right into a wall socket
and measure a specific load (or combination
of loads) power consumption. The Line
Logger will display Volts and Watts, and
will record cumulative kWh.
TM500
The TM500 is designed to provide
easy to understand information about
battery condition and current, both
produced and used. The fuel gauge
style battery meter makes keeping
track of state-of-charge virtually fool
proof. The TM500 comes with 50 feet
(15 m.) of cable, a Deltek 50mV/500
amp shunt, a prewired cable, and a
plug-in adapter board.
SWCA
Allows remote Setup and
monitoring of all SW and PS
Series inverters.
15
DC DISCONNECTS
No electrical circuit should ever be installed without overcurrent protection, yet finding
fuses, breakers and enclosures suitable for the DC input current of large inverters has long
been problematical. Even systems which do not require all the features of Power Centers
or Power Panels must have NEC/UL approved disconnects and circuit protection between
the batteries and inverter.
Trace makes DC input safety a simple matter with our line of DC Disconnects and Breakers.
A high amperage DC breaker is housed within a powder coated enclosure which has conduit
knockouts placed for SW and DR Series inverter connection. Trace DC disconnects are
simple to install and meet all electrical code requirements for appropriate circuit protection.
Our DC Disconnects are expandable; an additional 175 or 250 amp inverter breaker may
be installed for dual inverter installations. DC input/output breakers for PV, charge
controllers, or DC loads may also be field installed into Trace DC Disconnects. The TM500
shunt may be installed in a DC175 or DC250
No electrical
circuit should ever
be installed without
overcurrent
protection.
DC250
250 amp breaker with enclosure.
DC175
175 amp breaker with enclosure.
GJ250
Additional 250 amp breaker
(field installable).
GJ175
Additional 175 amp breaker
(field installable).
DCBB
Negative/ground bonding block.
Connects up to two 4/0 AWG negative
cables and grounding system.
CD60DC
60 amp circuit breaker for solar array
input disconnect for a C40. Mounts on
side of DC250 or DC175.
CD15
15 amp circuit breaker for small DC
load circuit. Mounts on side of DC250
or DC175.
CD20
20 amp circuit breaker for small DC
load circuit. Mounts on side of DC250
or DC175.
SW and DR have optional conduit boxes
to facilitate wiring practices as dictated
by the NEC.
SWCB
Conduit box for SW Series. Fits on DC
end of inverter. 1/2", 3/4", 2" and 2-1/2"
knockouts.
DRCB
Conduit box for DR Series. Fits on DC
or AC end of inverter. 1/2", 3/4", 2" and
2-1/2" knockouts.
These conduit boxes allow for NEC code
compliant installation of DC input cables.
It hardly matters how good your
circuit protection equipment is if the
wire between components is not of
the appropriate gauge and type. We
make it easy to ensure that your
system has the right cabling by
making a complete line of UL listed
flexible battery and inverter cables.
Check with your Trace reseller to
determine which cable sizes are right
for your system and then insist on
genuine Trace cables.
16
SWSERIES
17
PSSERIES
PV Series
I
magine using clean,
nonpolluting, renewable
energy to run your
electric meter backwards.
Trace Utility Interactive
Line-Tieelectric systems
allow you to do exactly that.
Now you can start a small-
scale utility of your own,
powered by solar, wind, micro-
hydro, fuel cell or even biomass
and connect it to your local
power company. (Check with
local authorities for any
restrictions.)
18
DR Series
MICRO SINE
19
Visit us on the web:
www.traceengineering.com
Get complete and up-to-date specification sheets and
pricing at our Document Depot. In addition to
product literature and brochures, you may download
tech notes, application examples, and frequently
asked questions.
Visit our press room or download the Tracer while
youre at our virtual home and find out the latest
news from Trace. Be sure to check out our Power
Talk Bulletin Board for lively and informative
exchanges about our products and their applications.
UXSERIES
TSSeries
If you have additional
questions regarding
specifications of any
Trace product please call us:
360-435-8826 or
fax: 360-435-2229.
20
To begin with one of the most common questions, Do I need
batteries? The answer is yes, most inverters are installed and
used in conjunction with a battery bank of some sort. (For the
exceptions to this rule see the Utility Interactive section of
this catalog.)
Batteries are the heart of an inverter-powered electrical system,
storing power for use on demand. The most basic way to draw
electrical power from a battery is direct current (DC) at the
nominal voltage of the battery. Your car radio, for example,
uses 12 volts DC (12 VDC), the same voltage as your car battery.
Many off-grid electrical systems (those not powered by
electricity from a utility company) use 12 VDC power to run
simple loads such as lights. (Any consumption of electrical
power is called a load.) Such systems are commonly referred
to as low-voltage DC systems. Powered by a 12 VDC system,
you can enjoy the benefits of electric lights, entertainment
systems, laptop computers, and other devices that can be
operated from a car battery. However, you cant run power
tools, kitchen appliances, or office machines, without the help
of some device that generates household electricity. In North
America, 120 volts alternating current (120 VAC) is the
standard. In many countries 230 VAC is the norm.
An engine powered generator is one way to run standard
appliances. Turn it on and as long as it is running (noisily),
you can use your appliances and tools. But as soon as you
turn it off or it runs out of fuel the electricity stops.
A better way to produce 120/240 VAC from batteries is to use
an inverter. An inverter is a device that converts battery power
(DC) into ordinary household electricity. DC-to-AC inverters
have been around for a long time. Energy loss in this
conversion process at first was very high: the average efficiency
of early inverters hovered around 60%. In other words, you
would have to draw 100 watts of battery power to run a 60
watt bulb.
A new way to build inverters was introduced in the early
1980s. These fully solid state inverters boosted efficiency
to 90%. Trace Engineering helped to pioneer this
technology. Our first model, the 1512, was introduced in
1984, and thousands of our firstborn are still going
strong in every corner of the globe.
The key to Trace reliability is the elegance of our design.
We use Field Effect Transistor (FET) circuitry to convert
the batteries DC voltage (usually 12 or 24 VDC) into AC.
The resulting low voltage AC is then transformed into a
higher voltage, usually 120 or 220 VAC. All of the power
shaping conversion to AC and waveform shaping
takes place on the low voltage side of the transformer.
As our product line has evolved and become more
sophisticated, we have introduced microprocessors which
have vastly increased our ability to build state-of-the-art
battery charging, load support, generator start and power
conversion software right into our inverters.
One note of caution: when connected to an electrical grid,
its easy to be casual about electrical consumption. As long
as you can afford it, the thinking goes, the utility company
probably wont run out of power. With a battery, however,
the quantity of electrical power is finite. You need to
calculate and monitor your electrical consumption if you
dont want to run the batteries down. (At the back of this
catalog, we show you a simple way to calculate your
energy needs.)
Q
uestions,
questions,
questions.
We get
hundreds: What is an
inverter? How does it
work? How much can
I get out of my
batteries? How do I
recharge them? The
purpose of this
catalog is to answer
these and many other
questions. We hope
that as you read you
will become familiar
with our product line
and be able to make
well-educated choices
as to how Trace
Engineering products
can work for you.
One note of caution: when connected to an
electrical grid, its easy to be casual
about electrical consumption.
With a battery, however, the quantity of electrical
power is finite. Conservation really pays off.
21
T
race Invert ers of al l si zes
produce and manage cl ean,
reliable, alternating current (AC)
power from a variety of direct current (DC)
sources. They use no fossil fuel and produce
no pollutants. They provide electrical power,
on demand, 24 hours a day, for almost all
normal household requirements except for
electric stoves, heaters and air conditioners.
A Trace i nvert er/ charger coupl ed t o a
generat or and bat t ery bank t ypi cal l y
reduces fuel consumption by 50%, lowering
fuel, maintenance and environmental costs.
Unlike old fashioned fossil fuel-dependent
sources of remote AC power, Trace inverters
are totally silent. In fact, most people cant
even tell whether their inverter is on or off
without listening carefully.
We pride ourselves on producing inverters
that are extremely efficient at converting DC
t o AC. Across our product range our
inverters average better than 90% efficiency
at their mid range output levels.
Instant Power On Demand
24 Hours a Day
Batteries are the heart of
every solar electric system.
We recommend you buy the
best battery you can afford.
Only batteries of the same
type, capacity, and age can
be put together to build a
power bank. Choose your
batteries carefully to give
your system a long and
efficient life. Contact your
Trace re-seller for further
information.
Vacation and weekend
systems can save on PV
modules by adding more
battery storage instead.
While youre away, your
modules make power that
can be stored in your battery
bank.
22
N
early all Trace inverters and accessories are fully
certified to demanding North American standards as
set forth by UL (Underwriters Laboratories) and the
CSA (Canadian Standards Association). Trace inverters also
comply with CE standards for use in Europe Our inverters and
accessories must undergo extensive testing to ensure that they
meet all applicable safety and performance standards.
Many electrical inspection jurisdictions, financing institutions,
and insurance companies require UL or ETL certification before
accepting a product for installation. We have made it simple for
installers and end users by ensuring that our product line
complies with domestic and international regulations.
Battery
Charging
We have made it simple for
installers and end users by ensuring that
our product line complies with domestic
and international regulations.
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER
SYSTEMS ACCESSORY
UL1741
RAINPROOF MODULAR
ENCLOSURE
LISTED
95ML
U
L
Flexibility and independence are among the most
significant benefits of a battery-based electrical system.
Batteries can be recharged in a number of different ways.
Generator and/or utility power, connected to the AC input
of most Trace inverter models, turns them into battery
charging power houses. Our automatic three-stage, built-
in chargers, are designed to ensure fast and complete
battery recharging. Adding a Trace inverter/charger to a
generator powered system will reduce operating costs up
to 75%. And while the generator is charging batteries, it
can also be powering heavy loads such as power tools, a
washing machine, or a water pump.
Renewable power sources can also be harnessed to take
the place of generators or utility companies as a source of
energy. One of the worlds best battery chargers is the
sun. Solar electric charging systems are the essence of
simplicity. Photovoltaic panels (also known as PV modules)
produce DC electricity whenever the sun is shining.
Because electricity is being produced at a molecular level
(photons in light cause a spare electron in the silicon atom
to move and create an electrical charge), there are no
moving parts to wear out in a solar electric generator.
Hundreds of thousands of people worldwidefrom the
South Seas to the High Arcticrely on the sun to keep
their batteries charged. With solar electricity your charging
system can be expanded at any time simply by adding
more PV modules.
The wind is another extremely viable source of electrical
power for battery charging. A well-sited wind generator
(windmill) can provide ample power for remote homes
and other off-grid applications. Because wind is a more
intermittent resource than sunlight, battery banks in wind
powered systems are often larger in order to accommodate
the intervals between windy periods. Wind power is often
used in conjunction with PV modules. Having two sources
of renewable electricity makes for a very reliable and
flexible battery-charging system.
Another common source of battery charging is micro-
hydro (sometimes referred to as run-of-stream hydro).
This method of electricity production directs falling water,
such as a stream, through a small turbine, which in turn
is connected to a generator or alternator. The actual
amount of power generated by most micro-hydro
installations at any one time is relatively small100-2500
watts. Because the power is being generated around the
clock, however, most micro-hydro systems far surpass
similar-sized PV and wind systems in the total amount of
power they generate for storage and use.
New technologies for producing energy are emerging.
Fuel Cells use hydrogensome day made from water
using PVto produce DC electricity. Trace inverters are
used to convert the power from Fuel Cells into ordinary
household electricity. It is hoped by many that Fuel Cells
may replace batteries in inverter based electric systems.
23
Fill out the work
sheet on this page
to determine the
inverter/battery
power package that
fits your
individual needs.
Sizing your system is
elementary math. Power
is measured in watts. A
light bulb, for instance,
may require 40 watts of
power, a blender 400.
Appliance wattage is
usual l y l i sted on the
manufacturers label. If
only amperage is listed,
the formula to determine
watts is as follows: amps
x volts = watts.
The amount of power
you will take out of the
battery will depend upon
the relationship between
the size of your load and
the time it is operating.
Your battery bank
should be big enough to
supply power to your
anticipated electrical
wish list (see right) for
at least a few days
Choosing the right size
inverter is based on a few
major considerations.
First and foremost is the
largest single load which
will be operated by the
inverter. Another factor
to consider is the largest group of loads which may run at
onetime. For example, a system which has a 1 kW electric
motor on a washing machine and 1kW automatic water pump
in the well has the potential to have a 2 kW load operating.
The inverter must be large enough to handle either maximum
load condition.
Finally there is inrush current which is the peak power that
the load will draw at the instant that it starts up. TVs, stereos,
and drills have a surge rating 1 1/2 to 2 times their continuous
ratings. Power-hungry loads with large motors, such as
Basics of Selecting an Inverter
compressors, water pumps, refrigerators and air
conditioners, may surge at start-up 3 to 4 times their run
wattage. Most people have seen the effects of inrush current
when a refrigerator starting up momentarily dims the lights.
We recommend that you add at least 25% to whatever you
come up with to allow room for system growth.
24
Absorption Charge The second stage of three-stage battery charging.
Voltage remains constant and current tapers as internal battery resistance
increases during charging. (Ensures complete charging.)
Alternating Current (AC) The type of electrical power supplied by the
power utility. The unique characteristic of this form of electricity is that it
reverses direction at regular intervals. For example, 120 VAC 60 Hz. power
reverses flow 60 times a second, hence the rating 60 Hz. (cycles).
Amp A measurement of the flow of electrical current. One amp is equal
to the electric force of one volt acting across the resistance of one ohm.
Amp Hour One amp of electrical current flowing for one hour. Expresses
the relationship between current (amps) and time. (OHMS law A =V/R)
Array A group of solar electric modules wired together.
Bulk Charge The first stage of three-stage battery charging. Current is
sent to batteries at the maximum rate they will accept while voltage rises
to full charge level.
Current The rate of flow of electrical charge. The flow of amps is often
expressed as current.
Direct Current (DC) The type of electricity stored in batteries and
generated by solar electric devices. Current flows in a single direction.
Electrolyte A conductive medium in which the flow of electricity takes
place; this is the liquid found inside storage batteries.
Float Charge The third stage of three-stage battery charging. After
batteries reach full charge, charging voltage is reduced to a lower level to
reduce gassing (boiling of electrolyte) and prolong battery life. This is
often referred to as a maintenance charge, since rather than charging a
battery it keeps an already-charged battery from self-discharging.
Grid When used in reference to utility power, it refers to a system of
electrical transmission and distribution lines.
Ground Fault Protection (GFP) A circuit protection device that prevents
the flow of electrical current to earth if a short circuit is present. Usually
required in wet locationse.g. for outdoor, kitchen and bathroom circuits.
Hertz (Hz) The frequency, or number of times per second, that the flow
of AC electricity reverses itself. Also referred to as cycles
(see alternating current).
High Battery Protection A control circuit that disconnects charge current
flowing to battery(s) when voltage reaches a dangerously high threshold.
Prevents damage created by excess gassing (or boiling) of electrolyte.
Hydrometer A simple device that measures the specific gravity of battery
electrolyte. Specific gravity readings express state of charge/discharge
of battery.
Idle Current The amount of electrical power required to keep an inverter
ready to produce electricity on demand.
Inrush Current The peak power that a load will draw at the instant
that it starts up.
Kilowatt (kW) One thousand watts of electricity. Ten 100-watt light
bulbs use one Kilowatt of electrical power.
Kilowatt hour (kW/h) One kW of electrical power used for one hour.
The most common measurement of electrical consumption, most grid
connected electrical meters measure kWh for billing purposes.
Light Emitting Diode (LED) A device used to display various
status functions.
Line Loss A voltage drop caused by resistance in wire during transmission
of electrical power over distance.
Line-tie An electrical system that is connected to a utility distribution grid.
For example, Trace SW line-tie inverters are designed to connect to and interact
with utility power.
Load Any device that consumes electricity in order to operate. Appliances,
tools, and lights are examples of electrical loads.
Low Battery Protection A control circuit that stops the flow of electricity
from batteries to loads when battery voltage drops to dangerously low levels.
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Every PV (solar electric) device
has a point where maximum current is delivered. MPPT electronically adjusts
the output of a PV device to the maximum power point.
Modified Sine Wave An AC wave form (generated by many inverters) that
is a pulse width modified square wave. It consists of a number of very small
on/off steps rather than a fully smooth wave.
National Electric Code The electrical wiring and installation standards used
in the United States.
Off Grid An electrical system that is not connected to a utility
distribution grid.
Oscilloscope A device that displays the wave form created by an electrical
generating device such as a generator, inverter, or utility.
Overload/Overcurrent Protection A control circuit designed to protect an
inverter or similar device from loads exceeding its output capacity. (A fuse,
for example, is an overcurrent protection device.) All Trace inverters have
internal circuitry to protect themselves from overload/overcurrent conditions.
Parallel Wiring A group of electrical devices, such as batteries or PV modules,
wired together to increase ampacity, while voltage remains constant. (Two
100 amp hour 12 VDC batteries wired in parallel will form a 200 amp-hour 12
VDC battery bank.)
Photovoltaic System The components that form a solar electric generating
system, usually consisting of PV modules, charge controller, circuit protectors
(fuses or breakers) and batteries.
Series Wiring A group of electrical devices, such as batteries or PV modules,
wired together to increase voltage, while ampacity remains constant. (Two
100 amp hour 12 VDC batteries wired in series form a 100 amp hour 24 VDC
battery bank.)
Sine Wave The output wave form of an electric generator or utility. A smooth
wave going above and below zero is created.
Surge Capacity The amount of current an inverter can deliver for short
periods of time. Most electric motors draw up to three times their rated current
when starting. An inverter will surge to meet these motor-starting
requirements. Most Trace inverters have surge capacities at least three times
their continuous ratings.
Transfer Switch A switch designed to transfer electricity being supplied to
loads (appliances etc.) from one source of power to another. (A transfer switch
may be used to designate whether power to a distribution panel will come
from a generator or inverter.)
Volts A unit of measure of the pressure in an electrical circuit. Volts are a
measure of electric potential. Voltage is often explained using a liquid analogy
comparing water pressure to voltage: a high pressure hose would be considered
high voltage, while a slow-moving stream could be compared to low voltage.
Watt(s) A quantitative measurement of electrical power. Watts are calculated
by multiplying volts times amps. Using a liquid analogy, watts are similar to
liquid flow such as liters or gallons. (watts = volts x amps)
Watt Hour (W/h) Electrical power measured in terms of time. One watt
hour of electricity is equal to one watt of power being consumed for one hour.
(A one-watt light operated for one hour would consume one watt hour of electricity.)
Glossary
Copyright 1999, Trace Engineering. No part of this publication may be used,
reproduced or copied without the express written permission of Trace Engineering.
W
hen Trace Engineering got its start in 1984, our initial
goal was simple: to build the worlds best
independent power systems and components. Since
that time, we have set the standard for off-grid inverter
performance. Thousands of people worldwide now depend on
Trace equipment in their daily lives. Our inverters are also at
the forefront of utility line-tie and back-up power industries.
Emerging technologies such as fuel cells utilize Trace inverters
to create useful household electricity.
Utility companies are opening up their distribution systems to
independent power producers, thus creating new opportunities
for renewable energy sources. Today we build grid-interactive,
solar and wind powered inverters, ranging in size from a mere
100 watts all the way up to a megawatt (one million watts).
Backup power is increasingly important to those who need a
secure supply of electricity. Aging infrastructure and
increasingly fierce local storms have undermined the old idea
that being connected to a utility automatically guarantees
reliable electric service. Coupled with batteries and generators,
our inverters ensure that electricity is always available, no matter
what happens to the utility grid.
As we enter a new millennium, Trace is proud to have helped
shape important changes in the electric power industry.
Electricity generated from sunshine and wind is becoming
common, and people around the world are using Trace systems
to harness those renewable energy sources.
Weve updated our product line to keep pace with the times,
yet remain true to the original Trace goal - to build the best
inverters, charge controllers and system integration equipment
Introduction
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Accessories ........................................... 13, 14, 15
Backup Power ............................................... 5, 6
Battery Charging............................................. 22
Certifications ................................................... 22
Charge Controllers.................................... 11, 12
Charging Sources............................................ 22
DR Series ................................................. 3, 6, 18
Glossary ........................................................... 24
Inverter Basics..................................... 21, 22, 23
Microsine ..................................................... 7, 18
Power Centers ................................................... 9
Power Inverters................................................. 1
Power Modules................................................ 10
in the world. Weve produced this catalog to make it easy to
find the right equipment for your unique electrical
requirements. For additional information please visit our Web
Site at www.traceengineering.com. Contact your local
authorized Trace reseller with your specific inverter power
needs.
T
he Trace International family of companies make up
the worlds largest supplier of inverters and related
components. Together, Trace Engineering and Trace
Technologies' products address the power conversion and
control requirements of virtually any power system.
Trace Engineering manufactures a complete line-up of Marine,
RV, Utility, and Fleet Truck inverters which, not surprisingly,
lead the way in their respective industries. Look for these
products where the best quality Marine, RV and Truck
equipment is sold.
In addition to manufacturing their all new PV series of utility
interconnect inverter, Trace Technologies continues to build
custom renewable energy conversion equipment of up to
1 megawatt1,000,000 watts. Contact their Livermore, CA
office or visit their Web Site at www.tracetech.com for more
information on custom industrial inverters.
Trace Engineering manufactures inverters and systems up to
16.5 kW at their plants in Arlington, WA and Sacramento, CA.
Trace Technologies has manufacturing facilities in Sacramento, CA.
Power Panels ................................................... 10
PS Series .................................................. 2, 7, 17
PV Series ..................................................... 8, 17
Renewable Energy Sources............................... 1
Selecting an Inverter....................................... 23
SW Series............................................. 2, 5, 7, 16
Technical Specifications ................ 16, 17, 18, 19
Three Phase..................................................... 14
Tiger Series ............................................. 4, 6, 19
Utility Interactive .......................................... 7, 8
UX Series................................................. 4, 6, 19
Wiring Designs ................................................ 21
Rev 8/26/99