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Fundamentos de la

teora de
transferencia de
calor




Fundamentos de la teora de
transferencia de calor
Three basic natural laws of physics:

1. El calor siempre se transfiere de un medio caliente a un medio fro,
hasta que se alcanza el equilibrio.


2. Debe haber una diferencia de temperatura entre los dos medios para
que se lleve a cabo la transferencia de calor.


3. El calor perdido por el medio caliente es igual a la cantidad de calor
ganado por el medio fro, con excepcin de las prdidas a los
alrededores.
Q1 = Q2
Modos de transferencia de calor
Conduccin = vibraciones moleculares o atmicas
Conveccion = Transporte de elementos de pequeas masas
Tres modos:
Radiacin = Ondas electromagneticas
Modos de transferencia de calor
Radiation
Convection
Conduction
Un dia soleado con ligera nubosidad en la
playa!
Qu modo de transferencia de calor es
importante en intercambiadores de
calor?
Radiation?
Conduction?

Convection?
- Insignificant
- Interesting!
- The most effective way of heat transfer!
Two heat exchanger types
Direct

Principle: Product and service medium are
in direct contact

Example: Water and air in a cooling tower


Indirect

Principle: Product and service medium are
separated by a wall

Example: Hot water and product in a plate
heat exchanger
Flow Principles: Laminar
Parabolic velocity profile:
friction close to wall -> lower velocity
centre of tube -> higher velocity
Low velocity and low Reynolds number -> low pressure drop
Distinct parallel fluid layers -> no mixing between layers
Only conduction -> poor heat transfer efficiency
Flow profile Velocity profile
Flow principles
Two types of flow
No orderly flow
Random eddy motion mixes the fluid
Always a laminar film closest to the wall
Ex., water at higher velocity

Turbulent
Velocity profile Flow profile
Convection
Conduction
Heat Transfer Equations
Q = m
*
C
p

*
(T
in
- T
out
)

Q
hot
= Q
cold

Q = rate of heat transfer or heat load, W
m

= mass flow rate, kg / s
C
p
= specific heat (amount of heat required to heat
1 kg of the media 1C), J / kg / C
T
in
= inlet temperature, C
T
out
= outlet temperature, C
m
2
, T
2in
, C
p2

m
1
, T
1in
, C
p1

T
2out

T
1out

Calculation Example
m2= 120 kg/s
T
2in
= 20 C
C
p2
= 4.2 kJ/(kg C)
m1 = 100 kg/s
T
1in
= 80 C
C
p1
= 4.0 kJ/(kg C)
T
1out
= 40 C
What is the cold fluid outlet temperature?
T
2 out
= XXC ?
Heat Transfer Equations
Q = A
*
k
*
LMTD
k = overall heat transfer coefficient, W / m
2
,C
A = heat transfer surface area, m
2
LMTD = Log Mean Temperature Difference, C

Temperature difference is driving force for heat transfer!
Q = k * A * LMTD
Heat Transfer
Area
LMTD = Logarithmic mean temperature difference
Depend on counter-current or co-current flow
Area
T
1 in

T
2 in

T
1 out

T
2 out

Counter-Current Flow
A1
A2
Area
T
2 out

T
2 in

T
1 out

T
1 in

Co-Current Flow
A1

A2

|
.
|

\
|
A
A
A A
=
2
1
2 1
LMTD
ln
Q = k * A * LMTD
What is the LMTD for the two cases below?
Area
90C
20 C
45C
40 C
Counter-Current Flow
A1
A2
Area
40 C
20 C
45C
90 C
Co-Current Flow
A1

A2

LMTD = (50-25) / ln(50/25)
= 25 / ln 2 = 36.1C
LMTD = (70-5) / ln(70/5)
= 65 / ln 14 = 24.6C
Counter-current flow gives a higher LMTD
|
.
|

\
|
A
A
A A
=
2
1
2 1
LMTD
ln
Q = k * A * LMTD - calculation
The k-value consists of 3 different heat transfer resistances
Wall
Flow direction
T
1
, Bulk temperature on hot side
T
2
, Bulk temperature on cold side
Hot side
Flow direction
Cold side
Heat transfer (Q) driven by temperature difference
T
4

T
3

Q = k * A * LMTD
Resistance
from the wall
Wall thickness, o
Wall conductivity,
Film heat transfer
coefficient on hot side
Called
o
1
-value
Film heat transfer
coefficient on cold side
Called
o
2
-value
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =

o
o o
2 1
1 1 1
k
Thermal length
Describes how difficult a duty is thermally
Two names for the same thing:
Number of Transfer Units (NTU)
Theta, O (mainly used in Alfa Laval)
We use the Theta concept in several ways:
Thermal duty (high / low theta duties)
Unit (high / low theta PHE models)
Plates (high / low theta plates)
Channels (high / medium / low theta channels)
Thermal length Theta
Theta is calculated for the hot and cold side
LMTD
T1 T1
= NTU
out in
1

=u
1
NTU
T2 T2
LMTD
2
in out
2
= =

u
Area
T
1 in

T
2 in

T
1 out

T
2 out

A1
A2
|
.
|

\
|
A
A
A A
=
2
1
2 1
LMTD
ln
How many times the LMTD that the fluid is cooled/heated
Lower O
Thermal length Theta
What factors decide Theta of a plate?
1. Channel Length
2. Pressing Depth
3. Chevron Angle
Theta Low theta Medium High
Length Short Medium Long
Pressing depth 4.0 mm 2.5 & 4.0 mm 2.5 mm
Cold in
Hot out
Hot in
Cold out
Thermal length Theta
Also possible to make multi-pass design
For very high theta duties
If there is no plate that fits in single pass
Choose best available unit and make it multi-pass
Example, 2 pass hot side / 2 pass cold side
Thermal length - plates & channels
L: Low theta
H: High theta
We have two plate corrugations (L and H)
These form three different channels (L, M and H)
L + L = L channels L + H = M channels H + H = H channels
We choose between L, M and H channels
Tailor-make it for the specific duty
High turbulence
& pressure drop
Medium turbulence
& pressure drop
Low turbulence
& pressure drop
Advantages
Efficient heat transfer
High wall shear stress
Variable thermal length
Strong construction
Benefits
Increased heat recovery
Low fouling
Optimal design
Insensitive to vibration
L + L = L channels
L + H = M channels
H + H = H channels
Thermal length - plates & channels