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classification and classification and

analysis analysis

Frame modelling for Frame modelling for

analysis analysis

Frame components Frame components

Beams Beams

Beam Beam- -columns columns

J oints J oints

Beam

Beam-column

J oint

2

Frame Idealisation Frame Idealisation

Reduction of 3-D framework to plane frames

Frame modelling for Frame modelling for

analysis analysis

Framing and joints Framing and joints

Continuous framing: Continuous framing: rigid joint rigid joint

Simple framing: Simple framing: pinned joint pinned joint

Semi Semi- -continuous framing: continuous framing: semi semi- -rigid joint rigid joint

3

J oint modelling for frame J oint modelling for frame

analysis analysis

The main approaches are: The main approaches are:

the the traditional approach traditional approach in which the in which the

joints are considered as (nominally) pinned joints are considered as (nominally) pinned

or rigid or rigid

the the semi semi- -rigid approach rigid approach in which a in which a

more realistic model representing the joint more realistic model representing the joint

behaviour is used. It is usually introduced behaviour is used. It is usually introduced

as a spiral spring at the extremity of the as a spiral spring at the extremity of the

member it attaches (usually the beam). member it attaches (usually the beam).

J oint modelling for frame analysis J oint modelling for frame analysis

JOINT

MODELLING

BEAM-TO-COLUMN JOINTS

MAJOR AXIS BENDING

BEAM

SPLICES

COLUMN

BASES

SIMPLE

SEMI-

CONTINUOUS

CONTINUOUS

4

Global frame Global frame analysis analysis

Aims of global frame analysis Aims of global frame analysis

Determine the distribution of the internal Determine the distribution of the internal

forces forces

Determine the corresponding deformations Determine the corresponding deformations

Means Means

Adequate models incorporating assumptions Adequate models incorporating assumptions

about the behaviour of the structure and its about the behaviour of the structure and its

component: component:

members and joints members and joints

Requirements for analysis Requirements for analysis

Basic principles to be satisfied: Basic principles to be satisfied:

Equilibrium Equilibrium throughout the structure throughout the structure

Compatibility Compatibility of deformation between the of deformation between the

frame components frame components

Constitutive laws Constitutive laws for the frame for the frame

components components

Frame model Frame model - - element model element model

must satisfy the basic principles must satisfy the basic principles

5

Frame Frame behaviour behaviour

Frame

Displacement

Load

Load parameter

Displacement parameter

Elastic limit

Peak load

Full elastic

response

Actual response of the frame is non linear Actual response of the frame is non linear

Linear behaviour limited Linear behaviour limited

Non Non- -linear behaviour due to: linear behaviour due to:

Geometrical influence of the actual Geometrical influence of the actual

deformed shape (second order effects) deformed shape (second order effects)

J oint behaviour J oint behaviour

Material yielding Material yielding

6

Second order effects Second order effects

P

H

x

M(h) =Hh +P

M(x) =Hx +P

+P x / h

P

H

h

x

M(h) =Hh

M(x) =Hx

Displacement

Frame

Load

Sway

Consideration for second-order

moment

h

Fh +P

P

F

F x h

P

7

Second order effects Second order effects

P P- - effect : effect :

due to floor sway due to floor sway

1st order frame stiffness modified 1st order frame stiffness modified

dominant effect dominant effect

P P- - effect : effect :

due to beam due to beam- -column deflection column deflection

1st order member stiffness modified 1st order member stiffness modified

significant only for relatively slender significant only for relatively slender

members which is rare members which is rare

Imperfections Imperfections

Frame imperfection

L

N

Member Imperfection

e

o,d

P P- - effect effect

P P- - effect effect

8

Imperfections Imperfections

Frame imperfection Frame imperfection

always to be allowed for always to be allowed for

Member imperfection: Member imperfection:

only for slender members (rare) in sway only for slender members (rare) in sway

frames, otherwise it is covered in the frames, otherwise it is covered in the

relevant buckling curve relevant buckling curve

Use of Notional Horizontal Forces

1. NHF +Other loadings: To allow for

frame imperfections such as lack of

verticality

2. NHF Alone: To test for sway

sensitivity

9

Notional horizontal loads

(To allow for frame imperfections such as lack of frame verticality)

0.5% of (D+I))

4

0.5% of (D+I)

3

0.5% of (D+I)

2

0.5% of (D+I)

1`

= 0.005 or 1/200

(D+I)

1

(D+I)

2

(D+I)

3`

(D+I)

4

=

Notional horizontal loads

Notional horizontal forces should NOT:

a) be applied when considering overturning

b) be applied when considering pattern loading

c) be combined with applied horizontal loads

d) be combined with temperature effects

e) be taken to contribute to the net reactions at

the foundations.

10

Minimum horizontal forces

Factored dead load

1% of DL4

1% of DL3

1% of DL2

1% of DL1

Wind load or

Wind load or

Wind load or

Wind load or

Greater of DL4

DL3

DL2

DL1

DL 1-4 are the total dead load at each floor level

Resistance to horizontal

forces

Resistance to horizontal forces may be

provided in a number of ways as follows:

a) triangulated bracing members.

b) moment resisting joints and frame action.

c) cantilever columns, shear walls, staircase

and lift shaft enclosures.

d) or a combination of these.

11

(a)

Resistance to horizontal

force is provided by

concrete core

Can a braced frame be a sway frame? Can a braced frame be a sway frame?

Yes, when lateral deflection is large

Especially for high-rise building

12

Classification of frames Classification of frames

Frames may be Frames may be

1. 1. Braced or unbraced Braced or unbraced

depends on how horizontal forces are depends on how horizontal forces are

transmitted to the ground. transmitted to the ground.

2. 2. Sway or non Sway or non- -sway sway - -

depends on significance or otherwise of P depends on significance or otherwise of P- -

effects. effects.

Purpose of classification of braced and Purpose of classification of braced and

unbraced frame unbraced frame

Central Core

Is the bracing

adequate?

13

Braced multi-storey frame

If frame B is braced by frame A

Stabilizing System to resist

all horizontal load

Braced frame

designed to resist gravity load only

B

A

Independently Braced Frames (5.1.4)

a) The stabilizing system has a lateral stiffness

at least 4 times larger than the total lateral

stiffness of all the frames to which it gives

horizontal support (i.e. the supporting system

reduces horizontal displacements by at least

80%).

and

b) The stabilizing system is designed to resist

all the horizontal loads applied including the

notional horizontal forces.

14

Classification of Braced and Unbraced Frame

B

8 . 0 1

B

A

If frame B is not braced by frame A

F F

F F (1 (1- - ) )F F

The lateral force F should be distributed or resisted in accordance with

the relative lateral stiffness of the respective frame. The stiffer frame

will resist higher lateral force.

frame the of stiffness lateral the is K

K K

K

B A

A

;

+

=

15

Example of Simple Braced Example of Simple Braced

Frame Frame

Bracing Frame

(resist all horizontal load)

Simple Frame

K =0

Sway Sway- -sensitive Vs Non sensitive Vs Non- -sway Frame sway Frame

P

If second order effects (P- ) are significant

sway sensitive frame

If second order effects can be ignored in the

calculation non-sway frame

16

Non Non- -sway frame sway frame

Sway sensitive frame Sway sensitive frame

17

Definition of Sway/non sway Frame Definition of Sway/non sway Frame

A frame can be classified as non A frame can be classified as non- -sway if its sway if its

response to in response to in- -plane horizontal forces is plane horizontal forces is

sufficiently stiff for it to be acceptably accurate sufficiently stiff for it to be acceptably accurate

to neglect any additional internal forces or to neglect any additional internal forces or

moments arising from horizontal displacements moments arising from horizontal displacements

of its nodes. of its nodes.

Classification of Sway / Non Classification of Sway / Non- -sway Frame sway Frame

A frame can be deemed to be non A frame can be deemed to be non- -sway if, sway if,

cr cr

10 10

Otherwise it is a sway frame. Otherwise it is a sway frame.

cr cr

can be determined using deflection method in can be determined using deflection method in

Annex F.2 of BS5950:Part1:2000 Annex F.2 of BS5950:Part1:2000

cr cr

= = 1 / (200 1 / (200

max max

) = h / (200 ) = h / (200

max max

) )

18

Annex F.2 How to determine critical load

Ratio

cr

?

0.5%(D+I)

0.5%(D+I)

0.5%(D+I)

0.5%(D+I)

1

2

3

4

(3) (3) Calculate Sway Index of each storey

s

u L

h

=

(2) (2) Determine inter-storey drift

(4) Compute

cr

=1 / 200

max

For nonsway frame

cr

=1 / (200

max

) >10

or

max

<1/2000

Since

i

=

i

/h

i

I

=inter-storey deflection,

h

i

=storey height

i

< h

i

/2000 for every storey

19

Use Notional Load for Classification of Sway Frame Use Notional Load for Classification of Sway Frame

(2.4.2.6) (2.4.2.6)

Frame is non sway if Frame is non sway if

i i

< h < h

i i

/2000 /2000 for cladded frame for cladded frame

Effect of cladding is not considered in Effect of cladding is not considered in

calculating calculating

i i

4

NHL4

NHL3

NHL2

NHL1

Summary Summary

Notional loads Notional loads are used to allow for frame are used to allow for frame

imperfections such as lack of verticality and to classify imperfections such as lack of verticality and to classify

frames frames

Nonsway frame Nonsway frame: :

cr cr

10 10

Sway frame: Sway frame:

cr cr

< < 10 10

Braced frame: Braced frame: the horizontal supporting system the horizontal supporting system

reduces horizontal displacements by at least 80%. reduces horizontal displacements by at least 80%.

Braced frame needs to be designed for gravity load Braced frame needs to be designed for gravity load

only. The lateral load resisting system will resist all only. The lateral load resisting system will resist all

horizontal forces. horizontal forces.

20

Example: Frame Classification Example: Frame Classification

Unfactored roof and floor loads

Roof:

Dead load W

dr

=3.5 kN/m

2

Imposed load W

ir

=1.0 kN/m

2

Floor:

Dead load W

df

=3.5 kN/m

2

Imposed load W

if

=6.0 kN/m

2

Roof beam 305 x 127 x 37 UB in grade S275

Floor beam 406 x 178 x 60 UB in grade S275

Ground to 2nd floor columns 203 x 203 x 60 UC in grade

S275

2nd floor to roof columns 203 x 203 x 46 UC in grade S275

Bracing 168.3 x 6.3 CHS in grade S275

Factored roof and floor loads

Consider the following three load combinations:

(1) 1.4 dead +1.6 imposed

(2) 1.0 dead +1.4 wind (dead load resisting overturning due to

wind)

(3) 1.2 dead +1.2 imposed +1.2 wind

Gravity loads for load combination 1

Roof: wr' =(3.5 X 1.4) +(1.0 X 1.6) =6.5 kN/m2

Floor: wf' =(3.5 x 1.4) +(6.0 x 1.6) =14.5 kN/m2

Gravity loads for load combination 2

Roof: wr

2

=3.5 X 1.0 =3.5 kN/m2

Floor: wf

2

=3.5 x 1.0 =3.5 kN/m2

Gravity loads for load combination 3

Roof: wr

3

=(3.5 X 1.2) +(1.0 X 1.2) =5.4 kN/m2

Floor: wf

3

=(3.5 x 1.2) +(6.0 x 1.2) =11.4 kN/m2

21

1 Load combination 1 (Dead + Imposed)

Roof level NHF =0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 6.5 =22.3 kN

Floor level NHF =0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 14.5 =49.7 kN

The result of an elastic analysis on one braced bay (bare

frame only) under the action of the notional horizontal

forces is shown in Figure 2.

Ground 1

st

floor

cr

3500

5.15

200 3.4

= =

2

nd

floor 3

rd

floor

cr

3000

5.36

200 2.8

= =

Therefore,

cr

5.15 =

Since

cr

10 <

The frame is classed as "sway"

cr cr

= 1 / (200 = 1 / (200

max max

) )

= h / (200 = h / (200

max max

) )

Roof level NHF = 0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 3.5 = 12 Roof level NHF = 0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 3.5 = 12 kN kN

Floor level NHF = 0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 3.5 = 12 Floor level NHF = 0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 3.5 = 12 kN kN

Ground Ground 1st floor 1st floor

2nd floor 2nd floor 3rd floor 3rd floor

Therefore, Therefore,

Since , Since ,

the frame is classed as "non the frame is classed as "non- -sway sway

cr

3500

17.5

200 1.0

= =

7 . 16

9 . 0 200

3000

cr

=

= 7 . 16

9 . 0 200

3000

cr

=

=

cr

3000

16.7

200 0.9

= =

cr

16.7 =

cr

10 >

,

22

3 Load combination 3 (Dead +Wind +Imposed)

Roof level NHF =0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 5.4 =18.5 kN

Floor level NHF =0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 11.4 =39.1 kN

Ground 1st floor

2nd floor 3rd floor

Therefore,

Since ,

The frame is classified as

"sway sensitive" for

load combination 3.

cr

3500

17.5

200 1.0

= =

cr

3000

6.82

200 2.2

= =

cr

6.82 =

cr

10 <

Summary Summary

Consider the following three load combinations:

(1) 1.4 dead +1.6 imposed Sway frame

(2) 1.0 dead +1.4 wind (dead load resisting

overturning due to wind) - nonsway

(3) 1.2 dead +1.2 imposed +1.2 wind sway

frame

23

Methods of structural Methods of structural

analysis analysis

1st 1st- -order elastic analysis order elastic analysis

M

M

Elastic

M

Mj

Elastic M

j

Indefinite linear elastic response of member sections Indefinite linear elastic response of member sections

and of joints and of joints

Equilibrium established for the Equilibrium established for the undeformed undeformed structural structural

configuration configuration

24

2nd order elastic analysis 2nd order elastic analysis

Indefinite linear Indefinite linear- - elastic elastic

response of member response of member

sections and joints sections and joints

Equilibrium established Equilibrium established

for the for the deformed deformed

structure structure

Allows for P Allows for P- - effect effect

and, if necessary, for P and, if necessary, for P- -

effect effect

Load parameter

2nd order elastic analysis

Displacement parameter

cr

M

M

Plastic hinge

Moment rotation characteristics of the member

pl.Rd

Moment rotation characteristics of the jo

Rigid plastic

M

pl.Rd

p

M

pl.Rd

p

M

M

j,Rd

p

Rigid plastic

M

j,Rd

p

j

Plastic hinge

Rigid Rigid- -plastic global analysis plastic global analysis

Rigid Rigid- -plastic member section behaviour plastic member section behaviour

Rigid Rigid- -plastic joint behaviour when plastic hinges are plastic joint behaviour when plastic hinges are

allowed there allowed there

25

Rigid Rigid- -plastic global analysis plastic global analysis

Usually a first order Usually a first order

analysis analysis

Find critical mechanism Find critical mechanism

Easy application for simple Easy application for simple

frames e.g. industrial frames e.g. industrial

portal frames portal frames

Serviceability deflection Serviceability deflection

check check

Load parameter

Displacement parameter

Plastic mechanism

1

3

2

Critical collapse load

LRP3

W

Beam mechanism

1

Sway mechanism

H

2

A

B

C

D

E A

B

D

E

h

H

W

w

W

H

Combined mechanism

3

plastic hinge location

A

B

C

D

E

h

w

Elastic Elastic- -perfectly plastic global perfectly plastic global

frame analysis frame analysis

Elastic Elastic- -perfectly plastic response of member perfectly plastic response of member

sections and joints sections and joints

M

Plastic hinge

M

j.

M

j

M

Plastic hinge

M

p

M

p

26

Elastic Elastic- -perfectly plastic perfectly plastic

analysis analysis

2nd 2nd- -order order

analysis usually analysis usually

used used

Load applied Load applied

in increments in increments

Deterioration Deterioration

of frame stability of frame stability

as plastic hinges as plastic hinges

form form

1st hinge

2nd hinge

maximum load

elastic buckling load of frame

elastic buckling load

Load parameter

Displacement parameter

branch 1

branch 2

branch 3

branch 4

L2EPP

of deteriorated frame

Frame classification and type

of frame analysis

1st order

2nd order 2nd order

1st order

BRACING

BRACED UNBRACED

SWAY

LATERAL

DISPLACEMENT

NON SWAY

27

Summary

The frame has first to be idealised

Then a frame classification is carried

out

sway-non sway / braced-unbraced

On the basis of the frame class, the

type of frame analysis is finally selected.

Sway frame second order analysis

Nonsway frame first order analysis

READING ASSIGNMENT

Chapter 3 Section 3.1

BS5950:Part1 Clause 2.3.2

28

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