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Solar radiation Solar radiation is more than the light and heat that we perceive from
the sun. The sun is a star and it produces energy in many forms, from perceptible heat, visible
and invisible spectrums of light, radiation, and more. Life on earth would be impossible
without the sun, but our atmosphere also protects us from the more dangerous aspects of solar
radiation. Loosely defined, solar radiation is the total frequency spectrum of electromagnetic
radiation produced by the sun. is radiant energy emitted by the sun, particularly
electromagnetic energy. About half of the radiation is in the visible short-wave part of the
electromagnetic spectrum.The other half is mostly in the near-infrared part, with some in the
ultraviolet part of the spectrum. The portion of this ultraviolet radiation that is not absorbed
by the atmosphere produces a suntan or a sunburn on people who have been in sunlight for
extended periods of time.
The total amount of radiation received at the earths surface depends on four !"#
1. The distance of the sun. Any change in the distance the %arth and the Sun cause the
variation of the acceptance of solar energy.
&. 'ntensitas solar radiation that is the si(e of the angle of incidence of sunlight at the
earths surface. The amount received is directly proportional to the magnitude of the
angle of incidence angles. )eam with oblique incidence angle which gives less energy
on the earths surface caused by the energy spread wide on the surface and also because
the rays have to travel further atmospheric layer than if the beam at an angle
perpendicular to come.
3. The length of day !sun duration#, ie the distance and duration between sunrise and
4. The influence of the atmosphere. )eam through the atmosphere will be partially
adsorbed by the gases, dust and water vapor, is reflected bac*, and the rest is emitted
forwarded to the earths surface.
As human beings, we tend to have a love-hate relationship with the sun on one hand,
sunlight *eeps us warm, creates food and shelter for us via plant life, and gives us light. +n
the other hand, as greenhouse gases trap more heat and the o(one layer allows more
dangerous ,- radiation in, the suns rays can be distinctly dangerous. ,- rays cause s*in
cancer in humans and animals, but can contrastingly improve other s*in conditions li*e
psoriasis. .e need the sun biologically, as well, as it causes our bodies to produce vital
vitamin /.
Solar radiation that falls is usually estimated by using a sunshine recorder is by
0ampbell Sto*es. This tool measures the length or duration of bright sunshine and consists of
a solid sphere made of glass. The suns rays will be focused or concentrated by the glass ball
was on a heavy paper that is sensitive and specific. 1ias scale on the cloc* mounted on a half-
bowl shaped metal concentric with the glass balls. Sunlight is focused on 1'As will burn and
leave mar*s on the pale. Total duration of bright sunshine during the day at get by measuring
the total length of the former on the pias.
Acceptance of solar radiation at the %arths surface varies according to place and time$
2. According place3
At the macro level due to differences in the location of latitude and the
state of the atmosphere !clouds#.
+n the micro level, the amount of radiation received by the specified by
the direction of the slope.
&. According to the time, the difference of radiation received3
4appen in a day !from morning to evening#
Seasonally !from day to day#
1.3. Distance of the Sun to the Earth
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. 't is almost perfectly spherical and
consists of hot plasma interwoven with magnetic fields. 't has a diameter of about
2,56&,78" *m !879,5:" mi#, around 2;6 times that of %arth, and its mass !2.686<2;
*ilograms, approximately 55;,;;; times the mass of %arth# accounts for about 66.87= of the
total mass of the Solar System. 0hemically, about three quarters of the Suns mass consists of
hydrogen, while the rest is mostly helium. The remainder !2.76=, which nonetheless equals
9,7;; times the mass of %arth# consists of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon
and iron, among others.
The Sun formed about ".7 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a region
within a large molecular cloud. >ost of the matter gathered in the center, while the rest
flattened into an orbiting dis* that would become the Solar System. The central mass became
increasingly hot and dense, eventually initiating thermonuclear fusion in its core. 't is thought
that almost all stars form by this process. The Sun is a ?-type main-sequence star !?&-#
based on spectral class and it is informally designated as a yellow dwarf because its visible
radiation is most intense in the yellow-green portion of the spectrum, and although it is
actually white in color, from the surface of the %arth it may appear yellow because of
atmospheric scattering of blue light. 'n the spectral class label, G2 indicates its surface
temperature, of approximately 9::8 @ !99;9 A0#, and V indicates that the Sun, li*e most
stars, is a main-sequence star, and thus generates its energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen
nuclei into helium. 'n its core, the Sun fuses about 7&; million metric tons of hydrogen each
The Sun is currently traveling through the Local 'nterstellar 0loud !near to the ?-
cloud# in the Local )ubble (one, within the inner rim of the +rion Arm of the >il*y .ay. +f
the 9; nearest stellar systems within 2: light-years from %arth !the closest being a red dwarf
named 1roxima 0entauri at approximately ".& light-years away#, the Sun ran*s fourth in
mass. The Sun orbits the center of the >il*y .ay at a distance of approximately &";;;B
&7;;; light-years from the galactic center, completing one cloc*wise orbit, as viewed from
the galactic north pole, in about &&9B&9; million years. Since the >il*y .ay is moving with
respect to the cosmic microwave bac*ground radiation !0>)# in the direction of the
constellation 4ydra with a speed of 99; *mCs, the Suns resultant velocity with respect to the
0>) is about 5:; *mCs in the direction of 0rater or Leo.
The mean distance of the Sun from the %arth is approximately 2 astronomical unit
!29;,;;;,;;; *m3 65,;;;,;;; mi#, though the distance varies as the %arth moves from
perihelion in Danuary to aphelion in Duly. At this average distance, light travels from the Sun
to %arth in about 8 minutes and 26 seconds. The energy of this sunlight supports almost all
on %arth by photosynthesis, and drives %arths climate and weather. The enormous
effect of the Sun on the %arth has been recogni(ed since prehistoric times, and the Sun has
been regarded by some cultures as a deity. An accurate scientific understanding of the Sun
developed slowly, and as recently as the 26th century prominent scientists had little
*nowledge of the Suns physical composition and source of energy. This understanding is still
developing3 there are a number of present day anomalies in the Suns behavior that remain
The sun rotates on its axis for about &: days to reach one round. This rotational
movement was first noticed through observation of sunspots change position. The suns
rotation axis tilted as far as :.&9 A from the axis of %arths orbit so that the north pole of the
Sun will be visible in September while the south pole of the Sun is more visible in >arch.
The sun is not a solid ball, but a ball of gas, so the sun does not rotate with a uniform
velocity. Astronomers suggested that the rotation of the interior of the Sun is not the same as
the surface. The core and the radiative (one rotates simultaneously, while the convective (one
and photosphere also rotate together but at different speeds. %quatorial part !middle# rotation
ta*es about &" days while the poles rotate for about 52 days. Source of the Suns rotation
period difference was observed. The sun and the entire solar system moving in its orbit
around the >il*y .ay. The sun is as far as &8,;;; light-years from the galactic center of the
>il*y .ay. The average speed of this movement is 8&8.;;; *m C h so it is expected to ta*e
&5; million years to reach a perfect lap around the galaxy.