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Hospitality Industry
Hospitality is the cordial and generous reception and entertainment of guests or
strangers, either socially or commercially. The Hospitality Industry is comprised of those
businesses, which practice the act of being hospitable; those businesses which are
characterized by generosity and friendliness to guests.
A. !ara"t#risti"s o$ Hospitality Industry
a. Inseparability
b. Perishability
c. Labor-intensie
d. !epetitie
e. Intangibility
%. o&pon#nts o$ Hospitality Industry
a. Lodging "perations
-such as hotels, resorts, motels etc.
b. Transportation# Trael $erices
-such as ta%i, train, and cruise ships, etc.
c. &ood and 'eerage "perations
-such as restaurants, bars, etc.
d. !etail $tores
-such as souenir shops, etc.
e. (ctiities
-such as recreations, festials, etc.
. %ri#$ History on t!# D#'#lop&#nt o$ Lod(in( Industry
)an be traced bac* to the ciilizations of $umeria, (ncient +gypt, (ncient
,reece, !ome and 'iblical Times.
Two possible e%planations why people in ancient times felt re-uired to be
hospitable. they felt that hospitality to strangers were necessary to their
religious well-being and haing superstitious belief.
The more logical in our modern thin*ing e%plains that proiding
hospitality was a result of a /gie and ta*e0 philosophy.
The need for a place to stay away from home is as old as the first nomadic
traeler. Trading between two cultures created the need for groups of
people to trael often-great distances.
(long these trade routes, certain stopping points became faored out of
necessity. These stopping points became *nown as 2unction points that
grew into trading centers and eentually eoled into cities.
3ourney segment is the ma%imum reasonable distance traeled in one day
along trade and caraan routes. (t these 2ourney segments, lodging
facilities became a need. They were called relay houses in )hina, *hans in
Persia, and tabernas in !ome.
Innoations began to emerge as the history of lodging unfolds. (t some
point, inn*eepers began to incorporate food and beerage serice in their
(nother deelopment was the !oman networ* of roads that crisscrossed
+urope and parts of (sia and (frica. These roads proided fast and safe
routes for traelers.
The concept of hospitality was changed in 1454 in &lorence, Italy. The
inn*eepers created a guild or associations that formed hospitality into
The industrial reolution of the mid-1677s created new modes of
transportation that further changed the way people traeled.
The emergence of railroads and later the automobile played large roles in
lodging8s history because both dramatically increased the lengths of
2ourney segments for a traeler.
(s the eolution of lodging continued, new facilities began to emerge as
an option for traelers.
The wealthy and landed aristocracy of the world began to iew the many
spare rooms in their castles and estates as sources of reenue. The best
e%ample of this can be traced bac* to the +nglish and colonial inns of the
The significant difference between the two was that colonial inns offered
rooms to anyone who could afford to pay, whereas +nglish inns were most
often resered for the aristocracy.
(nother difference between the two was that +nglish inns rented out
indiidual sleeping rooms, whereas colonial inns regularly offered large
rooms with seeral beds inside. This meant that +nglish inns could offer
priate guest rooms, whereas colonial inns were better suited for
communal accommodations.
The word hotel is the (nglicized ersion of the &rench hotel garni, which
translates into /large, furnished mansion0.
The first lodging facility that can be directly considered a precursor of the
modern hotel was the 69 rooms )ity Hotel built in :ew ;or* in 16<=.
It is a significant milestone in the eolution of lodging because its sole
purpose was to house guests. (ll the preious inns were homes first and
lodging facilities second.
In 154<, Tremont House was built in 'oston. This property was another
milestone in the early reolution of hotels.
It was considered as the first fie-star hotel. Highly trained staff, &rench
)uisine, and lu%urious appointed rooms combined to gie guests the finest
hotel e%perience aailable eer to that point in time.
(menities offered by the Tremont House include in-room water pitchers
and free soap that was considered reolutionary.
D. lassi$i"ation o$ Hot#ls
1. (ccording to $ize.
a. $mall $cale >under 1?7 rooms@
b. Aedium $cale >1?7 to 4<< rooms@
c. Large $cale >977 and aboe@
4. (ccording to Target Aar*et.
a. )ommercial Hotels
b. (irport Hotels
c. $uite Hotels
d. !esidential Hotels
e. !esort Hotels
f. 'ed and 'rea*fast Hotels
g. Time-$hare and )ondominium
h. )asino Hotels
i. )onference )enters
2. )onention Hotels
*. (lternatie Lodging Properties
9. (ccording to Leels of $erice # Price
a. Borld-)lass $erice
b. Aedium-!ange $erice
c. +conomy # Limited $erice
=. (ccording to Type of "wnership and (ffiliation
a. "wner-operated
b. "wner-managed
c. Independent
d. &ranchised
e. Aanagement-contract
?. !easons for Traeling
a. 'usiness Trael
b. Pleasure Trael
c. ,roup Trael
d. 'uying Influences
C. (ccording to Duality !an*ing
a. Eelu%e
b. &irst )lass
c. $tandard
d. +conomy
6. (ccording to Location
a. )enter )ity
b. $uburban
c. !esort
d. (irport
e. Highway
E. Hot#l Or(ani)ation
Mission Statement
Eefines the uni-ue purpose that sets one hotel or Hotel )ompany
apart from others. It e%presses the underlying philosophy that gies
meaning and direction to hotel policies. ( hotel8s mission statement
should address the interests of three dierse groups. guests, management,
and employees.
(re those ends an organization must achiee to effectiely carry out
its mission. (n ob2ectie is more specific than a mission; it calls for leels
of achieement, which can be obsered and measured.
Eefine the purpose of a department or diision; they direct the
actions of managers and employees and the functions of the department or
diision towards fulfilling the hotel8s mission.
(re the methods a department or diision plans to use to achiee
its goals.
Organizational Chart
( schematic representation of the relationships between positions
within the organization. It shows where each position fits in the oerall
organization as well as where diisions of responsibility and lines of
authority lie. $olid lines on the chart indicate direct-line accountability.
Eotted lines indicate relationships that inole a high degree of
cooperation and communication, but not direct reporting relationship.
F. lassi$i"ation o$ Fun"tional Ar#as*
1. !eenue s. $upport )enters
a. !eenue )enters - those that sells goods or serices to guests, thereby
generating reenue for the hotel >front office, food and
beerage outlets, room serice and retail stores@.
b. $upport )enters - these do not generate direct reenue, but proide
important bac*ing for the hotel8s reenue centers
>house*eeping, accounting, engineering and maintenance,
and human resources diision@.
4. &ront-of-the-house s. 'ac*-of-the-house
a. &ront-of-the-house - areas that inoles guest and employee
interaction >front office, restaurants, and lounges@.
b. 'ac*-of-the-house - areas where interaction between guests and
employees is less common >house*eeping, engineering and
maintenance, accounting, and human resources@.
+. Hot#l Di'isions*
&ood and 'eerage Eiision
$ales and Aar*eting Eiision
(ccounting Eiision
+ngineering and Aaintenance
$ecurity Eiision
Human !esource Eiision
!ooms Eiision
&ront "ffice
"ther Eiisions.
!etail "utlets
Hous#.##pin( / refers to the up*eep and maintenance of cleanliness and order in a house
or a lodging establishment. +fficient managed house*eeping department
ensure the cleanliness, maintenance, and aesthetic appeal of lodging
properties. The house*eeping department not only prepares, on a timely
basis, clean guestrooms for arriing guests, it also cleans and maintains
eerything in the hotel so that the property is as fresh and attractie as
the day it opened for business.
Hous#.##p#r F one who is responsible for administering house*eeping maintenance,
insuring that eerything is on order and that all occupants are made
comfortable, safe and protected from disease-causing bacteria.
A. Typ#s o$ Hous#.##pin(*
1. Eomestic House*eeping F refers to house*eeping maintenance in a house. (reas
coered by domestic house*eeping. bedroom,
liing room, entertainment room, *itchen, comfort
room and others that consist of a conenient
4. Institutional House*eeping F applies to house*eeping maintenance in commercial
lodging establishments li*e hotels, resorts, inns, and
Institutional House*eeping usually coers the following areas.
1. ,uest rooms
4. Hallways and corridors
9. Lobby
=. Public rooms and restaurants
?. "ffices
C. $tairways
6. Bindows
5. $tores and concessionaire shops
<. ,rounds
17. Linen and Laundry area
%. S"op# o$ Hous#.##pin( 0aint#nan"#*
1. ,uestroom maintenance.
4. Aaintenance of public areas.
9. Aaintenance of linen and laundry serice.
=. Bashing, issuance, repair and inentory of employee8s uniform.
?. Installation, cleaning and maintenance of fi%tures and facilities.
C. Proision of special serices li*e baby-sitting, polishing shoes, etc.
. O12#"ti'#s o$ Hous#.##pin( D#part&#nt*
1. To proide a clean, safe and comfortable enironment, which gies a feeling of
security and reassurance to guests.
4. To conform to sanitation re-uirements of health laws.
9. To protect and maintain the original beauty of the building finishes, fabrics and
=. To e%tend friendly and courteous serice to all guests and to all staff members of
the hotel.
?. To operate with a conscious and cooperatie effort towards the company.
C. To train staff members of the hotel in house*eeping serices.
D. 0a2or R#sponsi1iliti#s o$ Hous#.##pin( D#part&#nt*
1. Aaintaining of guestrooms on a high standard of cleanliness.
4. !eporting any repairs needed and seeing that these repairs are made as promptly
as possible.
9. 'eing alert to safety hazards and eliminating the condition, which could cause
in2ury to the guest.
=. Practicing sanitation methods, which fulfill health law re-uirements and
furnishing protection for the guests.
?. Eisposing of trash neatly and safely.
C. Geeping all public areas clean and initing.
6. )oordinating pest control serices.
5. &urnishing ade-uate supplies of linens, uniforms, cleaning aids and printed
<. Aa*ing sure that serices and employees areas are *ept clean and orderly.
17. Geeping all corridors clean, safe, and free from obstruction.
11. )leaning light fi%tures and using right wattages.
14. Properly using and maintaining all e-uipment needed.
19. Practicing cleaning methods that help retain the original beauty of the hotel.
1=. Proiding records that are necessary for efficient operation.
1?. Promoting business for the hotel through courteous serice to the guest.
1C. )ontrolling e%penses to assist the hotel in operating profitably.
16. Geeping all office areas neat, clean and initing.
15. $ecuring and *eeping accurate records on lost and found items.
E. 0ain Fun"tions o$ t!# Hous#.##pin( D#part&#nt*
1. )leaning and maintenance.
4. Training of its personnel.
9. !e-uisition and control of necessary supplies and e-uipment.
=. Paperwor*.
Fa'ora1l# Wor.#r3s %#!a'ior*
Team Player
Ta*es )harge
:ot $uperstitious
Eoes not Eiscuss
)ontroersial and Issues
Billing to (ccept )hallenges
Eoes :ot Ta*e Personally
(bility to Aa*e Duic*
(bility to Influence
(bility to Bor* Hnder
For Large Establishments:
For Smaller Establishments:

+%ecutie House*eeper or
House*eeping Aanager
!ooms*eeping $uperisor
Public (rea $uperisor
Pest )ontrol
,ardener# ,rounds
Linen I Laundry $uperisor
Linen (ttendant
Laundry (ttendant
Jalet !unner
$team Presser#
House*eeping $uperisor
(ssistant House*eeping $uperisor
(ttendant or
!oomboy and
Houseman and
Powder ,irl
Linen and
,ardener and
Distribution of Houseee!ing "es!onsibilities:
House*eeping tas*s are distributed to house*eeping personnel who are designated
to perform the following functions and responsibilities.
I. E4#"uti'# Hous#.##p#r or Hous#.##pin( 0ana(#r
%asi" Fun"tion* !esponsible for maintaining a smooth and efficient flow of
operations in the House*eeping Eepartment, sees to it that house*eeping
maintenance is carried out in accordance with prescribed standards and
A. Plannin( and Pro1l#&5Sol'in( Fun"tions*
1. Eetermines the operational re-uirements of his#her department
and coordinates with the Purchasing Eepartment for the
procurement for the said items;
4. &ormulates goals and targets as well as plans and strategies
geared towards goal attainment;
9. Prepares and submits operations budgets and monitors
consumption against budget;
=. (nalyze ariances against targets and deiations from standards
and ta*e correctie action;
?. Ta*e correctie action for any problem affecting the operation in
his department attends to customer complaints coordinates with
department concerned for remedial action;
C. )alls for and presides oer operations meetings with superisors
to discuss and resole operational problems.
%. Or(ani)ational Fun"tions
1. "rganizes the flow of house*eeping operations.
Identifies tas*s to be done and distributes them to his
!eiew#upgrades 2ob description and 2ob procedures
!eiews#upgrades operational policies as needed
4. Eelegates side duties to subordinates.
. L#adin( and Dir#"tin( Fun"tions
1. )onducts 2ob orientation and training of house*eeping personnel;
4. !egularly conducts spot chec*s and routine inspection to ensure
that house*eeping standards are complied with;
9. Prepares and submits reports re-uired by management such as
critical incidents reports, budget ariance report, inentory report
and other documents;
=. 'oost employee morale and motiation through the effectie use
of motiational techni-ues;
?. Proides superision and coaching to section heads;
C. )oordinates periodic inentory of house*eeping items and
supplies, *eeps trac* of losses and brea*down of e-uipment;
6. Aaintains par stoc* re-uirements, initiates re-uisition as needed;
5. )oordinates closely with &ront "ffice on room status and room
boo*ings as well as changes in room assignments and
<. )oordinates with the &acilities and Aaintenance $ection on
matters re-uiring repair or trouble shooting of e-uipment and
room facilities.
D. ontrollin( Fun"tion
1. )ontrols and monitors e%penses against the budget; ta*es
appropriate action against e%cessie consumption;
4. $ees to it that house rules and house*eeping policies are carried
out by the respectie units under him;
9. +aluates subordinates performance and conducts appraisal
=. +nforces disciplinary action against erring employees; conducts
correctie interiew as needed;
?. Loo*s after the wear and tear of e-uipment; loo*s after their
proper use, storage and maintenance.
E. +u#st R#lations
1. )hec*s customer satisfaction, solicits feedbac* and attends to
customer needs;
4. Handles guest complaints and ta*es correctie action;
9. Performs other related functions as maybe assigned by superior.
II. Roo&s 0aint#nan"# Sup#r'isor
%asi" Fun"tion* Eirects and controls rooms *eeping actiities including room
ma*e up, installation of mini-bar and other room amenities, ensures
conformity to prescribed !ooms*eeping standards and policies.
Duti#s and R#sponsi1iliti#s*
1. )onducts routine inspection to chec* the -uality of room ma*e up;
ma*es sure that the rooms are installed with standard room
amenities and that the area is free of safety hazards. (lso chec*s if
there is anything that needs repair or correctie action;
4. )hec*s rooms status during room chec*, prepares and distributes
room status report to &ront Ees* and to room attendants;
9. Loo*s after the proper use, storage and maintenance of linen and
cleaning e-uipments as well as house*eeping tools and supplies;
=. !egularly chec*s the condition and maintenance of house*eeping
e-uipment. Hae them cleaned regularly. Initiates serice re-uest
for defectie items;
?. )hec*s and maintains par stoc*. Aa*es re-uisition wheneer
C. Initiates and superises the wee*ly inentory of room supplies and
other House*eeping items entrusted to his unit. !eports losses and
damages and ta*es correctie action against rec*less use of
6. $ees to it that his superior is informed of all unusual incidents and
accidents in his area of responsibility;
5. Trains, coaches and superises room boys and chambermaids;
<. (ttends to the performance ealuation of his subordinates;
conducts appraisal interiew;
17. Personally attends to JIP guests and their re-uirements;
11. (ttends to guest complaints. In-uiries and re-uests;
14. )oordinates with &ront "ffice regarding changes in room status
and boo*ings; with Aaintenance Hnit regarding re-uests for
repairs or maintenance;
19. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior.
III. H#ad Hous#&an or Pu1li" Ar#a Sup#r'isor
%asi" Fun"tion* Eirects and controls all actiities concerning public area
maintenance and ensures conformity to prescribed house*eeping standards
and policies.
Duti#s and R#sponsi1iliti#s*
1. Aaintain -uality house*eeping in all public areas paying special
attention to cleanliness, orderliness and safety in all coered areas;
4. )onducts regular inspection of the different public areas; chec*s
the -uality of cleaning and maintenance and ensures that the area is
free of safety hazards. (lso chec*s if there is anything that needs
repair or correctie action;
9. )hec*s order in all areas and ma*es sure that fi%tures and
furnitures are installed in the right location;
=. Aonitors and superises the proper use, storage, and maintenance
of cleaning e-uipment as well as house*eeping tools and supplies;
?. )hec*s e-uipment regularly for their condition. Hae then cleaned
regularly and repaired when out of order;
C. )hec*s and maintains par stoc* re-uirements. Aa*es re-uisition to
replenish supplies.
6. Initiates and superises wee*ly inentory of cleaning supplies and
other house*eeping items allocated to his unit. !eports losses and
damages and ta*es correctie action against rec*less use of
5. !eports to management all unusual incidents and accidents in the
public areas, safety hazards and items needing repair or
<. Trains, coaches, and superises his staff;
17. +aluates the performance of his subordinates and conducts
appraisal interiew;
11. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior.
IV. Roo&1oy6 !a&1#r&aid6 or Roo& Att#ndant
%asi" Fun"tion* (ttends to the maintenance and up*eep of all guestrooms
and serice areas assigned to him# her.
Duti#s and R#sponsi1iliti#s*
1. Loo*s after the maintenance of cleanliness, orderliness and
sanitation in his assigned guestrooms.
)lean walls, carpets, fi%tures following standard cleaning
$anitizes toilets and bathrooms using sanitizing chemicals;
)hanges# empties waste bas*ets or garbage cans;
)ollects all used# soiled linen and replenishes them with fresh
Loo*s after the orderly ma*e-up of the room, bed and the
)hec*s the condition of all guestroom facilities and fi%tures
and reports any defect to superisor for correctie action;
Installs and replenishes standard room amenities in their
appropriate location;
4. Performs turn-down serice if scheduled for the second shift;
9. Loo*s after the proper use, maintenance and storage of cleaning
e-uipment. !eports damages to superisor for correctie action;
=. (ttends to the needs and additional re-uests of house guests;
?. !eports all unusual incidents and complaints of house guests,
unauthorized entry of suspicious persons in guestrooms as well
as guests who are sic* or in critical condition;
C. !eports and surrenders all lost and found items to superisor;
6. (ssists in the inentory of guestroom supplies and linens;
5. Prepares and submits daily accomplishment and consumption
report to his# her superisor;
<. (ssists his superisor in conducting room chec*;
17. )onducts fumigation of assigned guestrooms as needed;
11. Performs other related duties as may be assigned by his or her
V. 0ini %ar Runn#r7 0ini %ar Att#ndant
%asi" Fun"tion* !esponsible for performing mini F bar installation, listing,
replenishing, inentory F ta*ing, stoc*ing, re-uisitioning and other related
Duti#s and R#sponsi1iliti#s*
1. Aaintains par stoc* of mini bar items; initiates re-uisition to
replenish used stoc*s;
4. !ecords mini bar consumption per room and prepares a sales
9. (ssists in the promotion of mini bar items;
=. Aonitors sales and moement of stoc*s, informs superisor of
slow moing and non-moing items;
?. )onduct mini-bar inentory;
C. )leans and dusts mini-bar bottles in acant guestrooms;
6. )hec*s and collects mini7bar receipts in all guestrooms;
5. (ssists in the inentory of stoc*s in house*eeping stoc*room
as well as in all acant, occupied and chec*-out rooms;
<. Promptly prepares billing of mini-bar consumption giing
priority to rooms occupied by guests who are about to chec*
out within the day;
17. )oordinates with &ront "ffice )ashiers for the billing of late
11. )oordinates also with other staff li*e 'ell $erice in collecting
bills of guests and hotel s*ipper;
14. +%plores to the incoming attendant all un-replenishment mini-
bars in guestrooms to ma*e sure that all scheduled
replenishments for the day will be accomplished as scheduled.
19. Eetermines aailability and non-aailability of mini-bars
stoc*s and updates accordingly the indiidual receipts
distributed in guestrooms;
1=. )ollects empty or consumed mini-bar bottles, cans, etc., from
different floors#guest areas, pantries, and guestrooms;
1?. )hec*s sales records from time to time to determine accuracy
of records, inentories and billing;
1C. Ta*es note of salable and non-salable items to hae a more
accurate basis for re-uisition and ordering of stoc*s;
16. Eouble chec*s the e%piration dates of items for prompt
15. !eturns spoiled stoc*s before the end of each month and
submits report to superisor or the )ost )ontrol section;
1<. )oordinates closely with &ront "ffice regarding rooms on
cash-basis to be able to pull out mini-bar stoc*s and also to
obtain the chec*-out list for each day;
47. Performs other duties as may be assigned.
VI. Hous#&an
%asi" Fun"tion* !esponsible for the up*eep and maintenance of cleanliness
and orderliness in public areas assigned to him.
Duti#s and R#sponsi1iliti#s*
1. $ecures cleaning supplies, materials and e-uipment and loo*s
after their proper use, storage and maintenance.
4. )hec*s the location, condition and arrangement of fi%tures in
his area of responsibility, sees to it that they are clean and
properly installed;
9. )leans and sanitizes public comfort rooms under his area,
following standard cleaning procedures;
=. !eplenishes guest supplies in public comfort rooms li*e paper
towels, toilet tissues, soap, etc.;
?. )leans and sanitizes all areas assigned to him following
standard cleaning procedures.
a. Jacuums#shampoos carpets and upholstered furniture;
b. $weeps# scrubs# polishes floors and walls;
c. Polishes# dusts of all fi%tures;
d. )leans ceilings, e%haust and glass panels;
e. )ollects and disposes garbage and litters;
f. )hanges# cleans ashtrays;
g. Eisinfects toilet bowls, urinals, etc.
C. !eports all noted damages and out-of-order facilities in his area
of responsibility including defectie cleaning e-uipment,
busted bulbs, torn carpets, crac*s on walls, defectie sin*s, and
toilet bowls, clogged floor drain, ceiling lea*s, defectie loc*s.
6. )onducts fumigation in the absence of a pest control
5. !eports guest complaints to his superisor as well as
suspicious ob2ects or persons; turns-oer to him all lost-and-
found articles;
<. Prepares daily accomplishment report and submits them to
17. Performs other related duties as may be assigned by superior.
VII. Po8d#r +irl
%asi" Fun"tion* !esponsible for the cleaning, care and maintenance of ladies
comfort rooms and loc*er rooms.
Duti#s and R#sponsi1iliti#s*

1. Aaintains a par stoc* of cleaning supplies and ma*es re-uisition
to replenish stoc*s;
4. !egularly cleans ladies comfort rooms and loc*er rooms
following standard cleaning procedures.
Eisinfects toilet bowls;
$crubs, cleans, wipe dry floor and wall tiles;
Polish chrome and metal fi%tures li*e faucets;
&umigate the area as needed;
Eispose garbage, wash and dry garbage bins
9. !eplenish toilet amenities li*e toilet paper, soap, paper towels, etc.
=. )hec*s the condition of fi%tures and toilet facilities, chec*s for
lea*ing faucets, defectie tiles, shower, etc. and reports any
defect to her superisor;
?. !etouches the cleaning of comfort rooms from time to time;
C. !egularly chec*s trash and empties garbage bins from time to
6. (ssists in other cleaning or house*eeping 2ob when not loaded;
5. (ssists in the issuance of linens if aailable;
<. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior.
VIII. +ard#n#r and +rounds 0aint#nan"# r#8
%asi" Fun"tion* !esponsible for maintaining the grounds including the plants
and landscape.
Duti#s and R#sponsi1iliti#s*
1. Performs daily sweeping and cleaning of grounds
following standard cleaning procedures;
4. Aaintains supplies for plants and grounds
maintenance and ma*es re-uisition to replenish stoc*s;
9. Loo*s after the care of plants, prunes leaes, apply
fertilizer, weed out dried leaes, etc.;
=. Aaintains the landscape, insures that eerything is
in order;
?. Performs cultiation of plants through planting and
other techni-ues; scouts for new ornamental plants;
C. Aay perform side duties li*e maintenance of
cleanliness of the pool area, fountains, faKade, gardens,
motorpool and other related areas;
6. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by
I9. P#st ontrol T#"!ni"ian
%asi" Fun"tion* attends to the preention and control of pests through
preentie and correctie techni-ues.
Duti#s and R#sponsi1iliti#s*
1. $earches for areas where pests and insects proliferate and
perform the necessary fumigation;
4. Loo*s for patches or holes and other entry points of insects and
ta*es correctie action;
9. Aaintains stoc*s for pest control and loo*s after their
=. )hec*s possible sources and causes of the proliferation of pests
and insects, ma*es report and recommendations to remedy the
?. Performs fumigation in accordance with prescribed procedures;
C. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior.
1. A"ut# Ha)ard - something that could cause
immediate harm. &or e%ample, a chemical that could cause burns on contact with the
s*in is an acute hazard.
4. A&#nity - a serice or item offered to guests or
placed in guestrooms for conenience and comfort, and that at no e%tra cost.
9. Ar#a R#sponsi1ility Plan- a document that
geographically defines physical areas of a facility and assigns responsibility for
cleaning among the arious departments of a hotel or hospitality organization, usually
deeloped from the diision of wor* document.
=. %#d and %at! Lin#n - items such as sheets,
pillowcases, hand towels, bath towels, washcloths, and cloth bath mats.
?. %#ddin( - all bed linens such as sheets and
pillowcases, and all blan*ets, shams, dust ruffles, pillow -uilts, comforters, coerlets,
mattress pads, and bed spreads.
C. %u$$in( - the act of polishing the surface of a floor
with a low-speed >16?-9?7 rpm@ floor machine.
6. %urnis!in( - the act of polishing the surface of a
floor with a high-speed >9?7L rpm@ floor machine to achiee an e%tremely high gloss
>wet loo*@ surface.
5. !roni" Ha)ard - something that could cause harm
oer along period; for e%ample, a chemical that could cause cancer or organ damage
with repeated use oer a long period.
<. Daily Wor. Assi(n&#nt S!##t - form that indicates
special wor* tas*s re-uired for a gien day and are assigned to a specific wor*er.
17. Da&p 0oppin( - the use of a damp >not wet@ mop
for spot cleaning of spills and oerall cleaning of light dirt from floors. This
techni-ue is not intended to remoe heaily embedded dirt or old floor finish.
11. D##p l#anin( - intensie or specialized cleaning
underta*en in guestrooms or public areas. "ften conducted according to a special
schedule or on a special pro2ect basis. Inoles moing heay furniture, high dusting,
turning mattresses, acuuming draperies and curtains, and other cleaning functions
not normally performed in the day-to-day sericing of a guestroom. $ynonymously
with general cleaning.
14. Dilution Ratio - comparison of the amount of water
that is, or must be, added to a specific cleaning agent that is recommended for a
specific cleaning tas*. &or e%ample, a 47.1 dilution ratio means 47 parts water to a 1
part cleaning agent.
19. Dou1l# / Lo".#d - an occupied room for which the
guest has refused house*eeping serice by loc*ing the room from the inside with a
dead bolt. Eouble-loc*ed rooms cannot be accessed by room attendant using a
standard pass *ey.
1=. Early 0a.#up - a room status term indicating that
the guest has resered an early chec*-in time or has re-uested his#her room to be
cleaned as soon as possible.
1?. E&#r(#n"y ,#y - a *ey which opens all guestroom
doors, een when they are double-loc*ed.
1C. Fa"# Fi1#rs - yarns which form the pile of the carpet.
16. Fa"# W#i(!t - the measure of a carpet8s pile. +-ual
to the weight of the face fibers in one s-uare yard of a carpet.
15. Finis! - a li-uid applied to floors that dries to a
protectie coating and enhances the appearance of the floor. &inishes come in wa%-
based or polymer types.
1<. Floor Par - the -uantity of each type of linen that is
re-uired to out-fit all rooms sericed from a particular floor linen closet.
47. +u#st Ess#ntials - guest supplies that are essential in
guestrooms but that the guest would not normally be e%pected to use up or remoe
upon departure. +%amples include water glasses, ice buc*ets, and cloth hangers.
41. +u#st E4p#nda1l#s - guest supplies that guests
would normally be e%pected to use up or ta*e away upon departure. +%amples include
stationery, toilet tissue and soap.
44. +u#st Loan It#&s - guest supplies not normally
found in a guestroom but aailable upon re-uest. +%amples include hair dryers,
razors, ironing boards, and irons. ,uest signs a receipt and specify a time that the
item may be pic*ed up by the house*eeping department.
49. +u#st R#:u#st - any special re-uest not normally
included in the regular sericing of a guestroom, such as for e%tra towels, hair dryers,
razors roll-away bed or baby crib.
4=. +u#stroo& ,#y- a *ey which opens a single
guestroom door if it is not double-loc*ed.
4?. +u#st Suppli#s - supplies specifically needed
because guests are staying in a hotel.
4C. Hand addy - a portable container for storing,
holding, and transporting cleaning supplies. Typically located on the top shelf of the
room attendant8s cart.
46. Hard Floor - floors made from natural stone or clay.
These floors are among the most durable of all floor surfaces, but also the least
resilient. Types of hard floors include concrete, marble, and terrazzo, ceramic tile,
and other natural stone.
45. HA-O00 Standard ;Ha)ard o&&uni"ation
Standard< - "$H(8s regulation re-uiring all employers to inform employees about
possible hazards related to chemicals they use on the 2ob.
4<. Hous#.##p#r3s R#port - a report made daily to the
front des* by the house*eeping department and signed by a manager indicating the
correct status of all guestrooms. )ompilation of all results obtained from afternoon
room chec*s conducted on the entire guestroom. $pecifies what rooms are ready for
occupancy, occupied by guests, and#or on-change, etc.
97. Hous# Rul# - any published company-wide rule for
which iolation can result in immediate discharge.
91. Hous# S#tup - the total number of each type of linen
that is needed to outfit all guestrooms one time. (lso referred to as one par of linen.
94. Hous#.##pin( Status R#port - a report prepared by
the house*eeping department which indicates the current house*eeping status of each
room, based on a physical chec*.
99. Lin#n Roo& - area in a hospitality operation which is
often considered the head-uarters of the house*eeping department. This is the area
where the employee typically reports to wor*, receies room assignments, room
status reports, and *eys; assembles and organizes cleaning supplies; and chec*s out at
the end of his#her shift.
9=. 0aint#nan"# !#".list - document used as a guide
in the performance of a maintenance inspection.
9?. 0aint#nan"# Wor. R#:u#st For& - a three-part
document used for repairs; is transmitted to the engineering department. &orm allows
for the control and processing of wor* and the recording of man-hours and materials
inoled in the repairs performed.
9C. 0ast#r ,#y - a *ey which opens all guestroom doors
which are not double-loc*ed.
96. 0it#rin( - a method for contouring a sheet or blan*et
to fit the corner of a mattress in a smooth and neat manner. The results are sometimes
referred to as /s-uare corners0 or /hospital corners0.
95. 0SDS ;0at#rial Sa$#ty Data S!##t< - a form
containing information about a chemical that is supplied by the chemical8s
9<. O""upan"y R#port - a report prepared each night by
a front des* agent which lists rooms occupied that night and indicates those guests
e%pected to chec* out the following day.
=7. OSHA ;O""upational Sa$#ty and H#alt! A"t< - a
broad set of rules that pro2ects wor*ers in all trades and professions from a ariety of
unsafe wor*ing conditions.
=1. Paddin( - a layer of material placed under carpet to
increase resiliency. It can be made from a number of natural and synthetic materials.
=4. pH S"al# - a scale that measures the acidity or
al*alinity of a substance to the scale, a pH of 6 is neutral, acids hae alues of less
than 6 to 7, and al*alies hae alues of more than 6 to 1=.
=9. Pil# - the surface of a carpet; consists of fibers or
yarns that form raised loops that can be cut or sheared.
==. Pil# Distortion - face fiber condition such as twisting,
pilling, flaring, or matting caused by heay traffic or improper cleaning methods.
=?. Pr#'#nti'# 0aint#nan"# - a systematic approach to
maintenance in which situations are identified and corrected on a regular basis to
control costs and *eep larger problems from occurring. Preentie maintenance
consists of inspection, minor corrections, and wor* order initiation.
=C. Pri&ary %a".in( - the part of the carpet to which
face fibers are attached and which holds these fibers in place.
=6. R#sili#nt Floors - a type of floor that reduces noise
and is considered easier to stand or wal* on. Types of resilient floors include inyl,
asphalt, rubber, linoleum, and wood.
=5. Roo& Att#ndant3s art - a lightweight, wheeled
ehicle used by room attendants for transporting cleaning supplies, linen, and
e-uipment needed to fulfill a bloc* of cleaning assignments.
=<. Roo& Insp#"tion - a detailed process in which
guestrooms are systematically chec*ed for cleanliness and maintenance needs.
?7. Roo& Status Dis"r#pan"y - a situation in which the
house*eeping department8s description of a room status differs from the room status
information at the front des*.
?1. Roo& Status R#port - a report which allows the
house*eeping department to identify the occupancy condition of the property8s
rooms. ,enerated daily through a two-way communication between house*eeping
and the front des*.
?4. Rotary Floor 0a"!in# - floor care e-uipment that
accommodates both brushes and pads to perform such carpet cleaning tas*s as dry
foaming cleaning, mist pad cleaning, rotary spin pad cleaning, or bonnet and brush
shampoos. "n hard floors, these machines can be used to buff, burnish, scrub, strip,
and refinish.
?9. Routin# 0aint#nan"# F actiities related to the
general up*eep of the property that occur on a regular >daily or wee*ly@ basis, and
re-uire relatiely minimal training or s*ills to perform. These actiities occur outside
of a formal wor* order system and include such tas*s as sweeping carpets, washing
floor, cleaning guestrooms, etc.
?=. S"!#dul#d 0aint#nan"# - actiities related to the
up*eep of the property that are initiated through a formal wor* order or similar
??. S#"ondary %a".in( - the part of a carpet that is
laminated to the primary bac*ing to proide additional stability and more secure
?C. Spray %u$$in( - the application of a finish solution
while polishing a floor8s surface to retouch worn spots and to restore a glossy loo* to
the floor8s surface.
?6. Turndo8n S#r'i"# - a special serice proided by
the house*eeping department which a room attendant enters the guestroom in the
early eening to restoc* supplies, tidy the room, and turn down the guest bed.
,ood house*eeping re-uires high standard of cleanliness or the absence of dirt,
and its sanitation as well, or the absences of disease-causing organisms li*e bacteria. (ll
house*eeping tas*s need the use of the right tool for the right 2ob. &amiliarization on the
following cleaning supplies, tools and e-uipment will help the hospitality proider an
utmost serice to its guests and therefore attaining its goal and ob2ecties.
)leaning supplies and small cleaning e-uipment items are part of the non-
recycled inentory in the house*eeping department. These supplies are consumed or used
up in the course of routine house*eeping operations. )ontrolling inentories of all
cleaning supplies and ensuring their effectie use is an important responsibility of the
e%ecutie house*eeper. The e%ecutie house*eeper must wor* with all members of the
house*eeping department to ensure the correct use of cleaning materials and adherence to
cost-control procedures.
l#anin( 0at#rial* Us#s and "!ara"t#risti"s 8!#n
$oft 'room
$tic* 'room
Push 'room
)orn 'room

The role of a broom is to
remoe large particles of soil
from hard and resilient floors.
,ood push brooms will hae
two rows of bristles. The front
row will hae heay-duty
bristles designed to remoe
stubborn, large particles of dirt
and debris. The second row
will hae fine, split tip, bristles
designed to remoe fine
particles of dirt and debris.
Aany good push brooms hae
a steel brush hood that allows
the operator to change worn
Aop 'uc*ets 'uc*ets are made out of three
basic materials galanized steel,
stainless steel, and structural
foamed plastic. Plastic buc*ets do
not rust and they are the most
ine%pensie to ma*e, but they
scratch, and dirt builds up in the
scratches, ma*ing them
permanently /grungy.0 $tainless
steel buc*ets are the most
e%pensie. Aop buc*ets range in
size from 1C -uarts up to ?7
-uarts. The most popular sizes are
4C -uarts and 9? -uarts. !ound
buc*ets trac* in a straight line
when pushing them down hallways
while oal buc*ets tend to wander.
Bell-designed buc*ets hae three-
inch casters and rubber bumpers to
protect furniture and walls. The
best hae no seams. &or washing
and rinsing a two-buc*et system
saes aluable labor costs.

Bringers Aop wringers s-ueeze in one or
two directions, sideways and
downward. Eownward wringers
are better, but more e%pensie.
Bringers are made out of either
steel or plastic. Plastic is less
e%pensie, but it wears out much
faster than the metal wringers.
Bringers can be purchased by size
or in a /one-size fits all0 size.0
Bet Aops

Aop heads can be made of cotton,
rayon, or a rayon#cotton blend.
)otton is the best for scrubbing
and is the most economical
material. !ayon is best for the
application of floor finishes.
!ayon# cotton blends are an
e%cellent compromises. )hoose
mops that are loop-end rather than
cut-end. Loop-end mops hold
li-uids better, are more durable,
and do not lint. (ll -uality mops
hae a tailband that helps the mop
to spread eenly and retain its
Bash wet mops after each use and
do not apply bleach to the mop;
bleach will speed the
disintegration of the fibers. Bet
mops can be purchased in a ariety
of colors for color-coding
Eust Aops Eust mops are meant to be used
daily to remoe dust and small
particles of soil from the floor.
Eaily dusting helps to protect the
floor8s finish by remoing small
abrasie particles that erode the
finish. Eust mops range in size
from 14-inch to C7-inch widths.
Eust mops can be made of cotton
or synthetic yarns. )otton mops
are normally treated with
chemicals that attract and hold
particles. "il treatments should be
aoided because they can strain
stone and wood floors. Eust mops
should be treated at the end of the
2ob, not the beginning, in order to
allow the treated mop to dry.
$ynthetic yarns do not need to be
treated and may be the best
alteratie in many instances.
Eisposable mops last for
appro%imately 177,777 s-uare feet.

Aop Handles Aop handles can be made from
wood, metal, and plastic and come
with a ariety of features. Duic*
change clamps are one welcome
options. Handles are aailable in
?=-inch, C7-inch, and C9-inch
&loor $-ueegee
Bindow $-ueegee
Hsed to remoe e%cessie water
from the surface and corners. It
also speeds up the drying process.
&loor s-ueegees hae a much
heaier rubber than window
ariety. Bindow s-ueegees come
with a number of attractie
features, from telescoping handles
that enable a wor*er to clean a
third story e%terior window
without the aid of scaffolding or a
ladder, to H-2oints that allow a
wor*er to s-ueegee a window at an
Pads, 'onnets and 'rushes &loor machines and burnishes use
floor pads, bonnets, and brushes.
Pads are made from either natural
or synthetic fibers. &loor pads hae
a uniersal color code so that users
can tell at a glance if they are
using the right pad for a particular
application. 'onnets are made of
yarn and are intended to be used
on a floor machine to spray clean
carpets. &loor machine brushes are
used to shampoo carpets. The
fibers are synthetic.

House*eeper8s )art Hsed for stoc*ing cleaning
supplies and chemicals so as to
ma*e cleaning easier and faster.
The house*eeper8s cart is a most
significant piece of e-uipment.
There should be one cart for each
section of rooms.
These cart must be large enough to
carry all of the supplies that the
section house*eeper might readily
be e%pected to use in the wor*day
>repeated trips to the main or
satellite linen room for two e%tra
sheets or three more glasses is
distracting and will decrease wor*
$ince the cart is large and may be
heaily loaded, it must be
maneuerable and capable of
being pushed by some one
weighing less than 177 pounds.
Duality house*eeper8s carts are
maneuerable with fi%ed wheels at
one end and castered wheels at the
opposite end. The solution lies in
-uality caster and ball-bearing
)arts should hae three deep
sheles, facilities to handle soiled
linen sac*s and rubbish sac*s that
are detachable, storage for a
maid8s acuum, and a top that is
partitioned for small items. There
should be a bumper guard that
surrounds the cart that will protect
the corridor walls and door
casings. These bumpers should not
leae unsightly mar*s if they come
in contact with walls.
Jacuum Hsed to eliminate loose dirt and
dust particles from carpet surface,
upholstered furniture and een
hard surfaces.

$ingle-Eis* &loor Aachine This machine can scrub floors,
strip floor finishes, spray buff
floors, sand wood floors, polish
floors, and shampoo carpets.
Aachines are aailable in 16, 15,
1<, 47 and 41-inch models. These
machines will accommodate pads,
brushes, and bonnets.
Bhen selecting a standard single-
dish scrubber, do not select too
small a scrubber. ( large machine
will coer an area faster, thus
reducing labor costs.
( single-dish floor machine will
operate between 16? rpm to 9?7
'urnishers or Hltra-High-$peed 'uffers !esembles li*e a single-dis* floor
machine, but they operate between
9?7 rpm and 4,?77 rpm.
They were deeloped to polish the
new harder floor finishes that had
been recently introduced into the
Hnli*e single-dis* floor machines,
the pad of a HH$ buffer does not
rest entirely upon the floor. "nly
the front part of the pad comes into
contact with the floor; the rest of
the weight is distributed to the
Aany models hae caster wheels
in the front of the machine to
distribute the weight.
HH$ buffers operate in a straight
line, while traditional scrubbers
operate from side to side.
There are battery and propane
models that enable the operator to
coer ast areas without the need
for troublesome electric cords.
Propane models are noisy, they
create no%ious fumes, and they
present a possible fire hazard.

Trash-Handling +-uipment (nother piece of e-uipment used
by the section house*eeping aide is
some sort of coneyor whereby
rubbish and other materials may be
moed from arious sections of the
hotel to a disposal area.
)arpet $weeper Hsed to pic*-up dirt and particles
from the carpet, 2ust press the
handle and push towards the dirt to
acuum sweep the carpet.
)arpet +%tractor It is designed to dry foam shampoo
the carpets. It remoes dirt that
stic*s to or penetrates into the
carpet layers.
$couring Pads )olor coded pads that is used to
scrub >green@ and clean painted
surfaces, mirrors, marbles, and
porcelain >white@.
Eusting )loths &or dusting wooden and painted
parts of the area.
)leaning Towel Hsed for drying bathroom walls
and floor tiles after they are
Polishing )loths &or polishing metal surfaces li*e
bathroom fi%tures.
Hand 'rushes &or brushing away dusts from
rough surfaces such as rattan,
wic*erwor*, etc.
(lso used for cleaning tiles.
Toilet 'owl 'rush &or cleaning toilet bowls.
Tongs &or pic*ing up dirt and cigarette
buffs on ashtrays.
Trash 'ags Hsed to underline garbage
containers so that wet garbage
does not penetrate into the corners
or surfaces, a situation that causes
odor and proliferation of bacteria.
$ponges &or cleaning fine surfaces.
'uc*ets Hsed with mops for cleaning
floors, walls and other parts of the
Bood Polish# &urniture )leaners and
To polish wood surfaces, leather
and imitation leather surfaces.
:ormally wa% or oil-based
products that contain antistatic
The best polishes contain lemon
oil, which seres to replenish the
moisture that is lost from the
Insecticides &or fumigation to eliminate
Aethylated $pirit &or polishing all glass surfaces
such as mirrors, windows, etc.
Eeodorizers # (ir &reshener Hsed to remoe foul odor in
guestrooms, comfort rooms or any
area with foul odor.
)arpet $tain !emoer &or stain or spot remoal on
Eisinfectant Hsed to disinfect toilet bowls,
urinals, sin*, and other areas that
are most ulnerable to bacterial
Aetal )leaners and Polishes &or polishing brush copper and
metal surfaces.
Lac-uer or Paint Thinner Hsed to remoe lac-uer or paint
from hard surfaces.
Auriatic (cid To be used only for remoing
cement or plastic remains from
This is not adisable for toilet
bowls since it is ery strong and it
can damage the tiles.
Eilution will depend on the
thic*ness of cement or plastic

Ba% $tripper &ormulated to brea* up, loosen
and strip off tough old wa%es.
Eegreaser &ormulated to remoe grease, oil,
dirt, carbon, in*, mildews, soils,
and wa%es.
+mulsion Ba% ( buffable wa% used for resilient
floors li*e inyl, linoleum, and
rubber tile and for concrete floors
and marble.
Polymer $ealer ( non-buffable wa% that is highly
recommended for wooden floors.
$olent Ba% ( *erosene base wa% used for
wooden floors.
Paste Ba% &or polishing stone floors, wood
and resilient floors.
Erain )leaners To e%pedite draining of clogs.
Eetergents Hsed to remoe soil from a surface
through a chemical action.
(ll-Purpose )leaners ( multi-purpose agent designed
for seeral different cleaning tas*s
depending upon the dilution ratio
(brasie )leaners :ormally contain a detergent
combined with bleach and an
abrasie >usually silica, a -uartz
dust that can scratch glass@.
$olent )leaners Hsed to clean surfaces that are
badly soiled by grease, tar, or oil.
$olents are made from pine oils,
*erosene, and alcohols.
(l*alies (l*alies in cleaning agents boost
the cleaning ability of detergents.
They also hae disinfecting
(l*alies in all-purpose cleaners
typically hae a pH between 5 and
Eelimers Hsed to remoe mineral deposits
that can dull, scale, and#or discolor
>. l#anlin#ss
(ll areas are immaculately clean, corner-to-corner, top to bottom, including
)losets, cabinets and storage areas are also *ept clean.
&urnitures and fi%tures are properly dusted; door*nobs and metal fi%tures are
polished with the right metal polishing chemical.
Bindows and glass panels are dusted and polished.
&loors are acuumed, polished or shampooed when necessary.
,rounds are free of liters and dirt.
?. Ord#rlin#ss
&acilities and fi%tures are properly arranged and installed in appropriate
!oom amenities are properly installed in appropriate location.
Linens are neatly folded.
'eds are made up properly, linen are mitred and wrin*le free.
@. Sanitation
The whole area is free from all sources of bacterial contamination such as un-
disposed garbage and left-oer, stagnant water, etc.;
Bet garbage is properly underlined with plastic, coered and disposed
(ll items for personal use of guest and which come in contact with the body
li*e linen, cutleries, glasses, etc. are sanitized with sanitizing detergents to
protect guests from possible bacterial contamination;
,lasses and water 2ug that are installed in guestrooms are coered;
(rea is protected from pest infestation, regularly fumigated to eliminate pests.
A. +u#sts3 o&$ort
!ooms are properly entilated and lighted;
,uests are not disturbed by noise and other forms of distractions;
There are sufficient amenities for the comfort of guests li*e linen, toiletries,
drin*ing glass, etc.
B. Ey# App#al
(mbiance is soothing to the eyes, not dim or dull;
$uitable interior design is proided for; there is proper blending of colors;
:o eyesore can be found in guest-contact areas;
Ball decors and TJ sets are posted at eye leel.
C. Sa$#ty
The rooms, function rooms and public areas are free from any safety hazards
li*e open electrical outlet, dangling wires, damaged tiles, slippery floors,
bro*en chairs, etc.;
'uilding is proided with all re-uired safety facilities li*e entilated fire e%its,
emergency alarm, fire e%tinguishers#hoses; luminous safety signs, etc. safety
standards prescribed for building maintenance by the goernment are strictly
$afety instructions during emergencies are aailable in all rooms;
The hotel is prepared for any emergency, has a well organized safety or
emergency procedures and emergency brigade;
(ll staff are trained on emergency procedures, including the use of safety
Trained roing guards are aailable to chec* moements in guestrooms and to
insure the protection of guests.
D. 0at#rials ontrol and Pr#'#nti'# 0aint#nan"#
There is a designated budget for supplies and materials;
)onsumption of supplies is always monitored and e%cessie consumption is
determined and reported;
Par stoc* re-uirements are always maintained; regular re-uisitions are made;
(ll tools and e-uipment are stored safely in appropriate storage compartments
right after use;
)hemicals are diluted properly and used sparingly;
$upplies and materials are consumed within the limits of the budget;
(ll appliances and e-uipment are regularly chec*ed for any damage and
maintained in safe wor*ing condition to aoid accidents;
Losses, damages and e-uipment brea*down are properly reported,
documented and accounted for, gien appropriate action;
There is regular inentory of supplies and materials;
+ffectie control measures are designed and enforced to preent losses and
!egular cleaning and chec*-up of e-uipment is underta*en;
$taffs are trained on the proper use and maintenance of e-uipment.
E. +u#st R#lations
,uest re-uests and concerns are gien prompt and proper attention;
$taff e%hibit a warm and pleasant disposition in dealing with guests;
Tact and diplomacy is obsered in dealing with complaints and difficult
)ustomer feedbac* is solicited to determine guests8 satisfaction;
)ustomer feedbac* and concerns are logged down and discussed for
correctie action during meetings;
$taff e%presses warm appreciation and gratitude for guest patronage;
)ustomer needs and concerns are anticipated and attended to immediately;
In-uiries of guests are gien accurate and appropriate response;
$taff do out of their way to render e%tra serice to guests;
,uests with special problems li*e the sic*, into%icated pones, etc, are gien
the necessary assistance and support by the House*eeping staff.
Cleaning Stan#ar#s:
(ll swept floors do not hae dust strea*s nor does show mar* where dirt was
pic*ed up.
:o dirt left on corners, behind doors, under carpets or furnitures.
Bater is used sparingly.
)leaning solutions are rinsed -uic*ly and the floor is dried at once.
Floor l#anin(
$wept or acuumed, carpet is shampooed as necessary.
)emented or inyl floor is scrubbed or polished.
&loors are free of obstructions.
(ll floors, after thorough stripping# scrubbing are applied with a thin, smooth and
een finish.
Floor Finis!in(
&loor finishes are not allowed to build up in corners, baseboards, or underneath
$tripping and remoal of old floor finish is done wheneer necessary to aoid
yellowing and build-up in corners, baseboards, or under furniture.
Wall Was!in(
$trea*s and lap mar*s are not isible.
)orners and areas difficult to reach are cleaned with soft cloth to remoe
Balls are spot free. Bater does not run on floors and fi%tures.
(ll carpeted areas# upholsteries are *ept clean, free of dust.
(ll spots are remoed upon discoery.
(ll surfaces are dust-free.
)orners are acuumed.
Windo8 l#anin(
Bindow glasses do not hae smudges or watermar*s.
Bindow frames and channels are free of dust.
l#anin( +lass Pan#ls6 0irrors
Thoroughly cleaned, no isible strea*s, scratches or spots.
Wast# Disposal6 +ar1a(# ontain#rs
+mptied of trash, garbage, and dirt; disposed daily.
)leaned as often as necessary.
)ontainers are underlined with plastic.
l#anin( o$ As!trays
+mptied of soil and cigarette butts, washed and wiped dry.
l#anin( o$ Fountain
Gept clean and sanitary.
&i%tures are wiped dry to aoid retention of water that causes watermar*s.
%at!roo& and Was!roo& l#anin(
Toilet bowls, urinals are sanitized with sanitizing chemicals.
'owls are clean inside and out. !efuse is totally remoed.
'athroom walls are properly scrubbed, free of watermar*s and spots, wiped dry.
:o soap film is allowed to remain on fi%tures.
&loor is mopped, sanitized and dried.
There is no sign of mar*s or strea*s on walls, fi%tures, doors, door handles and
other surfaces.
(ll metal fi%tures and hardwares are cleaned and polished with metal polish.
'athroom mirror is well polished and wiped dry, no mar*s.
$in*s are clean and sanitized with sanitizing chemical; free of foul odor.
'athroom supplies are replenished and installed according to standard
$hower curtains are properly brushed and wiped dry.
Dustin(7 l#anin( o$ Furnitur#s and Fi4tur#s
Thoroughly dusted, all surfaces are free of dirt and spots.
(ppliances are properly arranged and installed in their appropriate location.
Hpholstered chairs are shampooed or acuumed.
&urnitures hae no damages or defects.

#ilin( l#anin(
)eiling is free of cobwebs and dirt.
)eiling fan and fluorescent are thoroughly dusted.
+rounds 0aint#nan"#
(ll wal*ways, par*ing spaces, planted areas are clean, free of littered ob2ects.
)emented#concrete paements are free from spots, scrubbed regularly and dust
Plants are watered regularly, pruned, trimmed periodically and as necessary.
$oil is regularly cultiated, fertilized periodically, planted to preent eroding.
Plant pests are eradicated; fumigation is conducted on regular schedule or upon
detection of presence of pests in the area.
Pool flooring is cleaned, scrubbed as scheduled and wheneer necessary to
preent the growth of algae.
Plants >in bo%es@ are maintained and replaced as needed.
$afety and security are two responsibilities of hotel managers. ,uests e%pect to
sleep, meet, dine, and entertain in a facility that is safe and secure F and are entitled to
reasonable care under law. House*eeping personnel can help meet this guest e%pectation
and, in some cases, ma*e the difference in the property8s safety and security system.
( term that pertains to discussing disaster preparedness, fire preention and
protection, protection deices, and conditions that proide for freedom from in2ury and
damage to property.
The two hotel departments most li*ely to hae the largest number of accidents
and in2uries are maintenance and house*eeping.
"ne basis for this fre-uency is the sheer labor-intensity of these two departments.
In many operations, house*eeping and maintenance employ more people than any other
(nother reason lies in the fact that wor*ing in house*eeping or maintenance
inoles physical actiities and e-uipment use F both of which increase the ris*s of
accident and in2ury.
To reduce safety ris*s, the e%ecutie house*eeper must be aware of potential
safety hazards and deelop procedures to preent accidents.
$afety should be a top priority. "ngoing safety training programs help ensures
that safe conditions are maintained in all wor* areas.
To deelop programs, management must be aware of the laws that regulate the
wor* enironment F and more specifically, how those laws affect house*eeping
Em!lo$ee Morale an# Management Concerns
Hnsafe wor*ing conditions hae a negatie effect on employee morale. If
employees are preoccupied with hazardous conditions in the wor* place, they will not be
able to perform the best of their ability.
&or most part, it is difficult to motiate employees until unsafe conditions are
"ne of management8s top concerns should be for the health and welfare of
+mployees are one of the most important assets a hotel has. If managers want
employees to proide -uality serice, they must treat employees fairly and with respect.
!espect for an employee8s right to wor* in a safe and hazard free enironment is a good
place to begin.
%otentiall$ Hazar#ous Con#itions
(ccidents and in2uries do not hae to occur. 'y following three simple rules,
employees can contribute to a safe, accident-free wor* enironment.
Ta*e ade-uate time
)orrect unsafe conditions immediately
Eo it safely the first time
House*eeping tas*s often inole lifting heay ob2ects. +mployees may also be
re-uired to moe furniture in order to complete a thorough cleaning tas*.
Incorrectly lifting heay ob2ects such as bags, bo%es, and containers may result in
strained or pulled muscles and bac* in2ury. In turn, these in2uries can result in loss of
wor* and long-term pain and suffering.
+mployees can also incur cuts and scratches when lifting items such as trash or
dirty linens which contain pointy ob2ects or bro*en glasses. In all instances, employees
should *now what conditions to loo* for and the special precautions to ta*e.

Some gui#elines for safe moving an# lifting:
Inspect the ob2ect before lifting. Eo not lift any item that you cannot get your
arms around or that you cannot see oer when carrying. ,et help if it is too
Loo* for any protrusions, especially when lifting trash or bundles of linen.
Duite often, these items contain pointy ob2ects or bro*en glass. +%ercise
special care to aoid in2ury.
Bhen lifting, place one foot near the ob2ect and the other slightly bac* and
apart. Geep well balanced.
Geep the bac* and head of your body straight. 'ecause the bac* muscles are
generally wea*er than the leg muscles, do not use the bac* muscle to lift the
'end slightly at the *nees and hips but do not stoop.
Hse both hands and grasp the ob2ects using the entire hand.
Lift with the leg muscles.
Geep the ob2ect close to the body. (oid twisting your body.
Bhen setting an ob2ect down, do not use your bac* muscles. Hse the leg
muscles and follow the procedures used to lift ob2ects.
Bhen tuc*ing in sheets, pic*ing up a laundry or cleaning a tub, bend with the
*nee and not on the bac*, nor on the waist to preent bac* in2ury.
Hse your body weight in pushing and pulling the acuum, not 2ust your arms
and shoulder. To aoid slipping and tripping, hold the cord and coil as you go.
Bear the right shoes. Bor*ing shoes should be slip resistant, with a closed toe
and fit to gie you the best comfort.
Batch where you are going to preent slips and fall.
Hse door stopper and not linens or ob2ects that could cause a slip or fall.
Turn on lights and loo* all sides before entering any room. There may be
spills or bro*en glasses on the floor that need to be cleared.
If a bro*en glass is found, sweep the floor and place the glass in a container
separate from the trash.
To push the room attendant8s cart easily, chec* if it has stic*ing wheels.
Bithout it, it will be harder to push and could in2ure the user. !emoe stic*ing
thread on the wheels.
'e careful with loose screw or sharp edges as they could catch on one8s
clothing and cause cuts.
Bhen pushing the cart, lean forward into the cart, rely on one8s legs and feel
not unto one8s bac* or across the body.
Geep the cart close, use feet and legs and not arms and shoulders.
In case a cart falls down, do not try to stop or stand it up by alone. It is heaier
than you thin* and can cause accidents. (s* for help.
Eo not oerload laundry cart to ma*e it easier to pull.
Bhen reaching for something, especially in the tub, neer stand on the edge of
a toilet bowl. ;ou might loose your balance and fall.
Ladders can be used when cleaning areas on or near the ceiling or for such tas*s
as changing light bulbs. Bhen selecting a ladder for a particular cleaning 2ob, its
condition, height and footing should be inspected.
)hec* the ladder for stability and e%amine crosspieces for sturdiness. If the ladder
is bro*en or defectie, do not use it. !ather, tag the ladder, place it out of serice, and
report it to the appropriate house*eeping superisor or the maintenance department
(n aluminum or metal ladder should neer be used when wor*ing near or on
electrical e-uipment. Ladders with rubber footings should be used on tile floors or in
*itchen areas to preent slipping. In all instances, the floor should be dry and clean. (
ladder must be high enough so that an attendant can stand on it and do the 2ob without
oerreaching. :eer stand on the top step of a ladder. If the area cannot be reached while
standing on the step below the top step, the ladder is too short for he 2ob.
Ladders should be placed so footing is at least one fourth of the ladder length
away from the wall. :eer place a ladder against window or an uneen surface.
'efore climbing, test the ladder for stability; it should be well balanced and secure
against the wall and floor. (lways be sure to face a ladder when climbing and hae a
clean and dry hands and feet. Eo not hold any items or tools that may preent the use of
one or both hands. Aar* the area underneath the ladder with caution signs so that guests
or employees do not wal* under the ladder.
+mployees should be authorized and trained in the use of machinery and
e-uipment before operating such deices. Aost e-uipment, machineries, and power tools
come with instructions.
$ome employees may need additional training and superised practice before
operating e-uipment and machinery on the 2ob by themseles. Aany power tools and
other machineries are e-uipped with protectie guards or shields. These safety guards
should neer be remoed.
+mployees may also be re-uired to wear protectie eye goggles or gloes. (ll
protectie gear should be worn per instructions. +-uipment and machineries should neer
be left unattended while in use. Bhen not in use, all tools and e-uipment should be
turned off and stored in the proper place. :eer use a piece of e-uipment or machinery
that is not operating correctly. )ontact the appropriate superisor or the maintenance
department to hae it repaired as soon as possible.
Electrical E&ui!ment:
+%tra care must be ta*en when operating electrical e-uipment. +en one of the
most common house*eeping appliances li*e a acuum cleaner can be harmful or deadly
if operated improperly or in unsafe conditions. (n employee should neer operate
electrical e-uipment when standing in water or when hands or clothing are wet. It is also
unsafe to operate electrical e-uipment near flammable li-uids, chemicals, or apors.
$par*s from electrical e-uipment could start a fire.
+-uipment that spar*s, smo*es, or flames should be turned off immediately. If it
is possible and safe to do so, the e-uipment should be unplugged.
In no instance should an attendant attempt to restart the e-uipment. The malfunction
should be reported to the appropriate house*eeping superisor or the maintenance
+-uipment wires and connections should be chec*ed periodically. +-uipment
with loose connections or e%posed wires should not be used. (n appliance should neer
be unplugged by pulling or yan*ing the cord. This will loosen the connection between the
cord and the plug and cause spar*s and shorts. +-uipments should be unplugged by
grasping the plug and pulling it gently away from the outlet.
Bhen using electrical e-uipment, the cord should be *ept out of traffic areas such
as the center of hallways or cross doorways. This is not always possible, particularly with
such tas*s as acuuming corridors. In such situations, *eep the cord close to the wall and
post caution signs in the wor* area. If the appliance will be stationary and in use for a
lengthy period, tape the cord to the floor and place caution signs oer the taped cord.
+%tension cords are sometimes re-uired F particularly when an electric outlet is not
located near the wor* areas. +%tension cords should be inspected for e%posed wire before
use 2ust li*e any other electrical cord.
There are many types of e%tension cords; not all are acceptable for use in a
hospitality operation. The local fire department can pinpoint which types of cords meet
the local fire codes and regulations.
Bhen cleaning guestrooms, room attendants should chec* electric lamps,
appliances, and other fi%tures for frayed wires, loose connections and loose plugs.
+%posed electrical wire may result in shoc*, in2ury, or een death when touched. "utlet
and switch coers should be chec*ed to ensure that they are coered properly and not
crac*ed or bro*en. If any of these conditions are found, the room attendant should not
attempt to fi% them, rather, potential problems should be reported to the appropriate
house*eeping superisor or to the maintenance.
Aany house*eeping employees are e%posed to dangerous chemicals in their daily
wor* routines. These chemicals are powerful cleaners, and, when used properly with
proper protectie gear, are relatiely harmless. Howeer, when used improperly, these
same helpful chemicals can cause nausea, omiting, s*in rashes, cancer, blindness, and
een death.
)hemicals are used to clean all areas of a lodging property including bathrooms,
*itchens and floors. Potentially hazardous chemicals are also used to *ill insects and
rodents. $ome house*eeping situations re-uire employees to handle to%ic substances to
unstop clogs in toilets and other plumbing fi%tures. "ften the use of such hazardous and
to%ic chemicals cannot be aoided.
)ontinual training in chemical safety is necessary for two reasons. &irst, misused
chemicals can cause serious in2ury in a short period. $econd, new employees F especially
in properties with high employee turnoer F need to be trained immediately.
Han#ling Chemicals Safel$:
!ead the labels and the material safety data sheet.
Bear personal protectie e-uipment li*e goggles and hand gloes for
protection from spills and splashes.
To use the chemical correctly, follow the direction of the label.
Hse only one chemical for its intended purpose.
'e sure the correct chemical goes in a properly labeled container when
refilling spray bottles.
)ap of bottles# containers should be tight and the bro*en nozzles must be
replaced to preent drips.
:eer mi% chemicals the result can be potentially deadly li*e fumes created
by mi%ing bleach with ammonia.
Hse the right amount of chemicals. +%cessie amount may damage surfaces.
If a chemical spills, bloc* the surface. ( minor spill can be cleaned up. If not
sure of how to clean up a spill, as* the superisor.
If a chemical spill bloc*s your s*in, rinse as directed in the material safety
data sheet
If your eyes are e%posed and contaminated by a spill, rinse it with a clean
water and get immediate medical assistance.
Handle potentially contaminated items as little as possible.
Hse proper container for disposal of items.
)lean contaminated areas.
Thoroughly wash hands after using chemicals.
$ecurity refers to the freedom from fear, an%iety, and doubt inoling ourseles,
as well as to the protection and defense against the loss or theft of guest, employee, and
company property and preention of other emergencies.
Securit$ Committees:
$ecurity committee should consist of *ey management personnel F including
departmental heads. $uperisors and selected hourly employees can also contribute
important security information and add to the committee8s effectieness.
Committee "es!onsibilities:
Eeelopment of security handboo* and the design of training and awareness
Aonitoring, analyzing, and suggesting solutions for returning security
Aaintaining records on such incidents as theft, andalism, and on-site
)onducting spot security audits and property inspections.
Inestigating security incidents.
Aaintain open lines of communication with the local police department.
Guest theft: most hotels assume that guests will ta*e items such as matches,
pens, shampoo, ashtrays, and sewing *it. &or most part, these items are proided for the
guest8s conenience and are actually a form of adertising used by the hotel. Howeer,
towels, bathrobes, trash bins, and pictures are not part of the mar*eting strategy and are
not meant to be ta*en by guests. Bhen these items turn up missing, it can add up to a
large e%pense for a hospitality operation.
To reduce the theft of these items, some properties *eep count of the number of
amenities inside the room. Bhen the guest re-uest for additional item, it is noted at the
front des*. The room attendant, too, notes how many items are in the room, when
cleaning the ne%t day. The room attendant8s ability to spot missing item may allow the
hotel time to charge the guest for items that hae been ta*en.
(nother strategy, some hotels place items such as towels, bathrobes, and leather
stationery folders and the li*e are on sale in their gift shops. This may reduce the
li*elihood of theft since guests hae the option of purchasing these items. (lso, haing
these items on sale helps set a standard price that can be leied against guests for a
missing item.
Other hel!ful i#eas to re#uce guest theft:
Hse as few monogrammed items as possible.
Geep storage rooms closed and loc*ed
(ffi% or bolt guestroom items and fi%tures to appropriate surfaces.
$ecure windows.
Em!lo$ee theft: it is up to the management to set the standards for reducing
employee theft F and to act as a good e%ample. ( manager who ta*es hotel stea*s home
to barbe-ue will not be effectie when as*ing employees not to steal food, linen, and
other hotel property. Aanagement should also detail e%plicit rules and regulations
concerning employee theft. The employee handboo* should spell out the conse-uences of
stealing hotel property.
Aanagers should screen applicants before ma*ing a 2ob offer. ( through
bac*ground chec* should be conducted, including a chec* for any criminal conictions.
'efore as*ing any -uestions or ma*ing in-uiries, chec* local laws to ensure that the
selected screening techni-ues are not illegal or prohibited.
,ood inentory control procedures can also help control theft. Eetailed records
that note any unusual or une%plained fluctuations should be *ept of all items in stoc*.
It is a good practice to conduct a monthly inentory of all house*eeping supplies
including toilet paper, amenities, and linens. If the items in storage do not match the
usage rate, or if too little stoc* is on the sheles, it may be an indication of employee
theft. +mployees should be aware of the results of monthly inentories F especially when
shortages are discoered.
In addition to *eeping records of items in stoc*, records should be *ept of stolen
or missing items- including those from guestrooms. The record should include the name
of the room attendant and any other hotel employees who had access to the room.
Geep all storeroom doors loc*ed. $torerooms should be e-uipped with automatic closing
and loc*ing deices. Loc*s on storerooms should be changed periodically to reduce the
opportunity of theft.
Aanagement should designate employee entrances and e%its. These entrances
should be well-lighted, ade-uately secured, and proided with round-the-cloc* security.
+mployee entrance may include a security staff office which monitors arriing and
departing employees.
+mployees should *now what items they may bring onto or remoe from the
property. Aanagement may establish a claim-chec*ing system for bringing items onto the
premises and a parcel-pass system for ta*ing items off the premises. If an employee has
permission to remoe hotel property, he#she should be issued a signed permit from the
superisor or an appropriate manager before doing so.
!estricting employee par*ing to a carefully selected area can also help control
losses. Geeping the area well-lighted reduces the temptation to steal and also ma*es the
lot safer for employees who leae wor* after dar*. The employee par*ing area should not
be so close to the building that it allows employees to easily and -uic*ly transfer stolen
property to their cars.
If the hotel is large or has a ery high turnoer rate, employee are less li*ely to
*now their fellow wor*ers. In such cases, identification badges may be re-uired to
preent strangers who pose as employees to gain admittance to the property.
(omb 'reats:
House*eeping procedures for handling bomb treats should be part of the
property8s security manual. House*eeping8s role usually consists of helping in the search
for any suspicious ob2ects that could be bombs.
Bhere and how the search is conducted will depend on the way the property
receied the bomb threat. Information from the caller or letter may gie clues on where
personnel should search and on what type of bomb or ob2ect to loo* for.
$earches often include stairways, closets, ashtrays, trash containers, eleators, e%it
areas, and window sills. It may be helpful to ta*e a flashlight to inspect areas with little
$earch team employees loo* for ob2ects that are normally not found in an area.
House*eeping personnel hae an adantage since their daily routines promote familiarity
with many hotel areas. If a suspicious loo*ing ob2ect is found, it should not be touched or
moed; notify the person in charge of the search team or an appropriate superisor
:otification is best done face-to-face or oer the telephone. (oid using radios,
wal*ie- tal*ies, or beepers. $ome bomb deices are sensitie to these sound waes and
may go off.
If nothing is found after completing the search, all teams should regroup in a
designated area. (n all-clear sign should be gien after all search procedures hae been
performed and management is satisfied that the guests, employees, and property are not
under by real threat.
Duite often, guests are not notified when bomb threats are receied. This is
because many bomb threats are 2ust that F threats. Howeer, bomb threat emergency
procedures should still be followed 2ust in case it is a real emergency. ,enerally, these
procedures do not include notifying guests until a search is completed. If a guest does as*
an employee what he#she is doing during a search, the employee should respond in a way
that does not arouse unnecessary suspicion or fear.
The safety and security manual should include eacuation plans in case a bomb
should actually be found or e%plode on the premises. It should also include proisions for
emergency medical serices. In these instances, house*eeping employees should follow
procedures to assist in rescue efforts. The local police should be notified of all bomb
threats. If police respond to such calls, the hotel should follow the directions laid out by
police personnel.
&ires are grouped into four classifications based on the different products of
combustion. Aany hotel fires are fueled by a combination of combustibles. It is ery
li*ely that a fire started by )lass ( combustibles could grow to include )lass ' and )
&ires start for many reasons. $ome fires may be caused by an accident or
mechanical malfunction. "thers may be the result of arson.
/To sae lies and property0
Fire (ehavior:
'urning, also called combustion, is a simple chemical reaction. It is described as a
rapid, persistent chemical change that releases heat and light and is accompanied
by flame, especially the e%othermic o%idation of a combustible substance.
)cci#ent %revention:
(n accident can be defined as the result of a series of eents and conditions that
lead to an unsafe situation resulting in in2ury and#or property damage.
(ccident chain, a series of eents and conditions that can lead to an accident.
Human factors
Included here are physical surroundings such as weather, surface conditions, access,
lighting, and physical barriers.
Human Factors:
This includes human and social behaiors, training >lac* of training@, fatigue,
fitness, and attitudes.
Included here are apparatus, maintenance, and sericeability, proper application,
and e-uipment limitations.
The eent is the intersection of the foregoing components. $omething or someone
had to bring those components together in such a way to create the unsafe situation.
Eeals with the actual in2ury >or property damage@ associated with the accident. (
/near miss0 or /close call0 is an accident without in2ury or physical damage.
Fire Safet$ "ules an# %rinci!les:
Bhen you discoer a fire, call out your discoery, sound the fire alarm and
summon help.
:eer pass the fire to get an e%tinguisher. ( dead-end passageway could trap
If you must enter a room to combat the fire, *eep an escape path open. :eer
let the fire to get between you and the door.
If you enter a room and your attac* with a portable e%tinguisher fails, get out
immediately. )lose the door to confine the fire. ;our *nowledge of the
situation will aid those responding.
&ight the fire with the wind or the wind coming from your bac*.
:eer use and direct a solid stream of water on li-uid fire as it will cause
splashes and ma*e the fire more difficult to handle.
:eer use foam and water on electrical fire, as this will cause electrocution.
Bhen entering an enclosed space, see to it that the space is gas-free and with
sufficient o%ygen.
!egular training and drills are ery necessary so that each member learns his
duties and the order in which they must perform.
To be successful in firefighting, ade-uate preparation is ery much re-uired.
Bell-planned actions for eery emergency will surely achiee firefighting
operations safely, efficiently and effectiely.
"ne of the priorities that should be gien due attention is the escape route. 'e
curious enough to *now all the shortest possible ways to escape from a fire
zone to a safe place in order not to be trapped.
$mo*e is a isible product of fire that aids to the problem of breathing. !ooms
filled with thic* smo*e, there will be great possibility of suffocation because
o%ygen content of the room will be reduced to a minimum.
Safe %ractices:
$mo*e only at the designated area.
!aise the fire alarm promptly upon discoery of a fire.
Gnow how to e%tinguish fire correctly with the use of portable e%tinguishers and
other methods.
Gnow how to recognize fire hazards and to ta*e the necessary steps to preent fire.
Fire 'riangle an# 'etrahe#ron:
The combustion process was once depicted as a triangle with three sides. +ach side
represented as essential ingredient for fire.
(s researched, it became eident that a fourth ingredient was necessary. That fourth
element was the actual chemical combustion. Thus the name fire tetrahedron
'he (urning %rocess:
The process of burning occurs in clearly defined stages.
&ully deeloped
Gro+th Stage:
&rom the point of ignition, fire begins to grow.
$tarting out as a spar* or a small flame, other combustibles heat up, liberate
flammable gases, and ignite, spreading the chain reaction to other flammables and
resulting in an increase in size.
Several factors in the gro+th of fire:

O,$gen su!!l$ F the amount of o%ygen will hae a direct effect on the speed of
growth and the size of the fire.
Fuel F size of the fire will naturally depend on the amount of fuel aailable to burn.
Container size F in a structure, the container would be the surrounding walls and
obstructions. ( large container would permit dissipation of heat and slow the
growth of fire.
*nsulation F heat that is radiated bac* into unburned areas will accelerate growth.
Full$ Develo!e# Stage:
This stage is recognized as the point in which all contents within the perimeter of
the fire8s boundaries are burning.
Deca$ Stage:
Bhen the point at which all fuel has been consumed is reached, the fire will begin
to diminish in size.
Hltimately, the fire will e%tinguish itself when the fuel supply is e%hausted.
Mo#es of Heat 'ransfer:
Heat is a by-product of combustion that is of significant importance to the fire
The three modes by which heat transfers its energy from one substance to another
are through.
Bhen a hot ob2ect transfer its heat, conduction has ta*en place.
The transfer could be to another ob2ect or to another portion of the same ob2ect.
(ir that is hotter than its surroundings rises, air that is cooler than its surroundings
Bhen combustion occurs, light is produced. Light traels by way of light waes.
These light waes range from ultraiolet to infrared.
&ire produces infrared light waes, and with enough concentration, can permit fire
to 2ump from the source to a distant ob2ect, heat it up again, and if intense enough,
cause it to ignite.
Classes of Fire:
Class ) t$!e F made up of ordinary combustibles such as cellulose, rubber, or
plastic. )ombustibles such as paper, wood, cloth, rubber and other organic solids
including petro-chemical solids >plastics@ ma*e up this class.
Class ( t$!e F are fueled by li-uids, gases, or grease-type fuels. "il, gasoline,
alcohol, and other li-uids are more common types found in this class of fuel.
Class C t$!e F are basically fueled by electricity. In this case, the electricity is
actually the heat source that propagates the fire and often communicates to other
fuels of the class ( or ' type to sustain the burning process.
Class D t$!e F a less common fire type, is fueled by metals. ( particular class of
heay metals, which can be identified on the periodic table of the elements and
found mostly in the al*ali metal group, will burn. Aost metals in the group are
magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, and potassium, thorium, plutonium,
hafnium, lithium, zinc, uranium, and calcium.
Fire E,tinguishment:
Class ) fire, is e%tinguished by cooling the fire. The application of water cools the
fire by absorbing as water is conerted to steam. Bhen enough of the heat is
remoed, the temperature of the fire is lowered below the ignition temperature of
the substance and thereby collapses the fire pyramid.
Class ( fires, the application of smothering agent is used to preent o%ygen from
getting to the fuel and propagating the chain reaction of fire by remoing the
o%ygen leg of the fire pyramid. In this case, the fire collapses due to a lac* of
Class C fires, fueled by electricity, is oercome by remoal of the flow of electric
current. In this case, the remoal of fuel, electricity, is the action ta*en to brea*
down the fire pyramid and put the fire out.
Class D fires, combustible heay metals differ somewhat in their reactions under
fire. In some cases, the mere presence of water will cause a iolent reaction,
releasing heat and brilliant light. In other cases, the mere presence of air will cause
the reaction. +ach metal8s characteristics should be ealuated on its own merits.
Fire e,tinguisher classification s$mbols:
)lasses of fire should be identified primarily to determine the type of fire
e%tinguisher that would be used.
&ire e%tinguisher classification symbols are displayed by shape, color and letter for
fle%ibility of the user for better recognition, identification and utilization.
)lass ( fire e%tinguishers will put out fires in ordinary combustibles such as wood
and paper. The numerical rating for this class of fire e%tinguishers refer to the
amount of water the fire e%tinguisher holds and the amount of fire it will e%tinguish.
)lass ' fire e%tinguishers should be used on fires inoling flammable li-uids such
as grease, gasoline, oil, etc. The numerical rating for this class of fire e%tinguisher
states the appro%imate number of s-uare feet of a flammable li-uid fire that a non-
e%pert person can e%pect to e%tinguish.
)lass ) fire e%tinguishers are suitable for use on electrically energized fires. This
class of fire e%tinguishers does not hae a numerical rating. The presence of the
letter /)0 indicates that the e%tinguishing agent is non-conductie.
)lass E fire e%tinguishers are designed for use on flammable metals and are often
specific for the type of metal in -uestion. There is no picture designator for )lass E
fire e%tinguishers. These e%tinguishers generally hae no rating nor are they gien a
multi-purpose rating for use on other types of fires.
Ho+ to use fire e,tinguishers-
P / ull t!# pin
This unloc*s the operating leer and allows you to discharge the e%tinguisher.
A / i& t!# 1as# o$ t!# $la&#
Point the e%tinguisher nozzle of hose at the base of the flame
S / :u##)# t!# l#'#r
This discharge the e%tinguishing agent. !eleasing the leer will stop the discharge
S / 8##p $ro& sid# to sid#
Aoing carefully toward the fire *eep the e%tinguisher aimed at the base of the
flame and sweep bac* and forth until the flames appear to be out.
%ersonal %rotective E&ui!ment:

$)'( >$elf-)ontained 'reathing (pparatus@
)oat and pants
P($$ Eeice >Personal (lert $afety $ystem@
Poc*et tools
Four Main '$!es of )utomatic Fire Detectors:
Smoe #etectors F all fire emits smo*e and gases, often long before open flames
are isible. The smo*e detector can therefore be actiated before the actual
outbrea* of a fire.
Flame #etectors F the flame detector is actiated when it is hit by the arying
infrared or ultraiolet rays from the flames.
Heat #etectors .thermal contact/ F is, as the name implies, affected by heat. The
alarm is usually actiated when the room temperature rises to about 67
Differential #etectors F is actiated by an abnormally rapid rise in room
temperature, e.g. 9
) in 47 seconds.
,#y ontrol
Proper *ey control procedures are important for guest security and priacy. Gey
control also protects the property by reducing the possibility of guest and property theft.
Houseee!ing is !rimaril$ concerne# +ith four categories of e$s:
+mergency *ey
Aaster *ey
$toreroom *ey
,uestroom *ey
Emergenc$ e$s F open all doors in the property F een those that guests hae
double loc*ed. These *eys should be *ept in a secure place. $ome properties also *eep an
emergency *ey off the premises. Eistribution and use should occur only in emergency
situations such as a fire or when a guest or employee is loc*ed in a room and needs
immediate assistance. Aost house*eeping personnel do not use emergency *eys on a day-
to-day basis.
Master e$ F also open more than one guestroom. Aaster *eys are separated into
three leels of access. The highest leel is the gran# master. This *ey opens eery hotel
room and, many times, all house*eeping storage rooms. If the guest has turned the dead
bolt, master *eys will not open the door. Aaster *eys can be used in emergency situations
when it is ital for an employee to enter some or all areas of a hotel. Aaster *eys are *ept
at the front des* for such emergency purposes.
The ne%t leel of master *ey is the section master. This type of master *ey opens
rooms in one area of a hotel. (n inspector may be issued more that one *ey of this type
because he#she may be re-uired to inspect the wor* of more than one room attendant.
The lowest leel of master *ey is the floor e$. ,enerally, a room attendant is
gien this *ey to open the rooms he#she is assigned to clean. If the employee has rooms to
clean on more than one floor or area, he#she may need more than one floor *ey. &loor
*eys typically open the storeroom for that floor F unless the room is specially *eyed or is
accessed by another master *ey.
Guestroom e$ F are those *eys distributed to guests. This type of *ey opens a
single guestroom and, in some cases, other loc*ed areas such as the pool. ,uestroom
*eys are stored at the front des* when not in use.
0e$ Control %roce#ures:
( log can be used to monitor the distribution of master *eys. This log should
include the date, time and the name of the person who signed for a particular *ey. +ery
time an employee receies or returns a master *ey, he#she should be re-uired to initial or
sign the log. The person issuing the *ey should also initial or sign the log for each master
*ey transaction. In large properties, the linen room attendant distributes and secures the
*eys for the room attendants. (t smaller properties, the e%ecutie house*eeper or the
front des* may assume this function.
+mployees issued *eys should *eep the *eys on their person at all times. Gey
belts, wrist bands, or nec* chains are recommended deices for *eeping trac* of master
*eys. Aaster *eys should neer be left on top of a house*eeping cart, in a guestroom or in
an unsecured area. (n employee should neer loan the *ey to a guest or to another
The room attendant who signed for the master *ey is the employee who is
responsible for it and should neer leae the property.
&inally, a room attendant should neer use a master *ey to open a room for a
guest. If a guest as*s an employee to unloc* a room, the employee should politely e%plain
the hotel8s policy and direct the guest to the front des*.
!oom attendants are also responsible for retrieing guestroom *eys if the guest
leaes the *ey in the room. Aany hotels proide *ey loc* bo%es on the room attendant8s
cart to store guestroom *eys. If no loc* bo% is aailable, room *eys should be *ept in a
secured area F not on top of the cart F until returned to the front des*. If a room attendant
finds a room *ey in the hallway or public area, the front des* should be notified
immediately. The *ey should be returned to the front des* or placed in the loc* bo%.
Lost an# Foun#:

Aany times, the house*eeping department handles the lost and found function.
Lost and found items should be stored in an area that is secure and has limited access.
"ne employee per shift should be assigned to handle the lost and found as part of his#her
In large hotels, the linen room cler* may handle the lost and found procedures. In
smaller properties, the tas* may be delegated to the e%ecutie house*eeper or front des*
personnel. Bhen an employee finds an item left behind by a guest, he# she should
immediately turn it oer to the lost and found. In no instance should lost and found items
be left in an unsecured spot such as on top of a room attendant8s cart.
Items should be tagged, logged, and secured after they hae been turned oer to
the lost and found. Tags may be numbered or used to identify the item. ( log should be
used to record the date, time, where the item was found, and by whom. The log should
also hae space to record if and when the item was recoered by it owner.
(ll lost ad found property should be *ept for at least <7 days. If items are not
claimed after <7 days, it is up to the management to decide how to dispose of the items
properly. Aany hotels donate unclaimed lost and found items to local charities. It is
important to ensure that the lost and found policy of the hotel complies with local laws.
Guestroom Cleaning:
$ecurity in guestroom areas is important to maintain for the safety of the guests
and employees. !oom attendants should respect guest property and should not open guest
luggage or pac*ages, snoop in dresser drawers or closets. $ome hotels een hae a policy
that forbids room attendants to moe guest property. In these instances, room attendants
are instructed to clean around guest ob2ects.
$ince guests sometimes hide aluables and belongings in pillowcases or between
mattresses, room attendants must be e%tra careful when remoing linens. "ther faorite
hiding places for guest aluables include the top of closets and under lamps. If room
attendants notice any of the following while cleaning, they should immediately contact
their superisor, security, or the front des*.
,uns or weapons of any *ind
)ontrolled substances or drugs
Hnauthorized coo*ing or unsafe electrical appliances
&oul odors
Hnauthorized pets
Ill guests
Large amounts of cash or aluable 2ewelry
Bhen cleaning, the room attendant should always *eep the door open and the cart
rolled in front of the entrance to bloc* access from the outside. If a guest wants to enter
the room while the attendant is cleaning, the attendant should politely as* the guest
his#her name and as* to see a room *ey. This ensures that the room being cleaned is that
the guest8s room. If the guest does not hae a *ey, the attendant should tell him#her to
contact the front des*. ( guest should neer be allowed to enter a room 2ust to loo*
around. (gain, the attendant should e%plain that this if the hotel8s policy and is enforced
for the guest8s safety and security.
( room should neer be left unattended with the door open. If an employee must
leae the room while cleaning, he#she should loc* the door on the way out. This
procedure should be followed een if the employee is out of the room for only a few

(fter cleaning the room, all windows and sliding glass doors should be loc*ed.
The guestroom door should also be chec*ed to see that it is loc*ed.
Hnfortunately, guests often point the finger at the room attendant if an item comes
up missing from the guestroom.
This is 2ust one more reason for room attendants to be considerate of guest
property and to protect the guest8s room for many possible thefts. &or most part, an
employee who is alert and careful can contribute to the oerall guest8s safe and trouble-
free stay.
Hous#.##pin( Roo& Status R#port ;>CD<
The house*eeping room status report is used in con2unction with the &ront "ffice
!oom $tatus Information to chec* and confirm the most current status of all hotel guest
rooms. The fundamental ob2ecties in erifying actual room status are.
a. To insure ade-uate guest serice, aoid double boo*ing and assigning of out
of order rooms.
b. Aa%imize room8s reenue by being able to monitor aailability of rooms.
The report is completed twice each day, once in the morning and once in the
afternoon. 'asically, it consists of the status of each room as reported from actual
inspection and is compiled and sent to the &ront "ffice where it is compared to their own
room status information. (ny discrepancy is inestigated and corrected by both
The (A report is most useful in assuring proper room cleaning assignments and
cleaning acant and ready rooms for e%pected guest arrials. The PA report is important
in determining e%actly which rooms are aailable for guests chec*ing into the hotel,
especially when the house is full.
A""o&plis!&#nt R#port ;AB<
(fter accomplishing cleaning assignments, housemen assigned in public areas are
supposed to prepare and submit an accomplishment and productiity report. Hsing a
prescribed accomplishment form, they will record their daily accomplishment in their
assigned area.
(fter accomplishing the report, head houseman or head of the unit shall
ac*nowledge F sign the report, certifying that the tas*s are indeed accomplished as stated
in the report.
Bith this system, housemen are more inclined to gie serious attention to their
cleaning assignments because they *now that their accomplishments are being monitored.
These reports shall be submitted to the House*eeping superisor who will use the same I
monitoring productiity of housemen and for giing constructie feedbac* on
unaccomplished responsibilities. It will also sere as basis for performance ealuation
during the annual performance reiew.
Produ"ti'ity and onsu&ption R#port ;>FB<
Preparing and submitting productiity report is part of the routine tas*s of room
attendants. It shall be done at the end of their shift before timing out. Through this report,
the superisor can monitor room attendant8s productiity and at the same time able to
chec* rooms that hae not been made up, deficiency in room amenities, laundry cost,
actual consumption as compared to budget, etc. so the proper action can be underta*en.
Loss#s and Da&a(# R#port ;>CE<
Hsed to report losses and damages to room amenities in guestrooms. The cost of
said losses are billed to the account of guest. This report should reach the &ront des*
cler*#)ashier upon chec* out of guest. If possible no guest will be allowed to go out of
the hotel until he is cleared of possible losses in the room.
0aint#nan"# Ord#r or S#r'i"# R#:u#st ;>CG<
This is accomplished for the purpose of re-uesting the +ngineering or 'uilding
Aaintenance Hnit to do repair or trouble shooting of defectie facilities or amenities li*e
TJ, aircon, lea*ing faucet, etc. The shift engineer shall assign a technician to chec* and
alidate the report and then submit status report to House*eeping.
This form shall be accomplished by the superisor once he receies complaints or
reports of defectie in guestrooms and in other parts of his assigned area.
The report should be ac*nowledged-receied and signed by the secretary or
whoeer receies it at the +ngineering "ffice.
If the +ngineering section cannot immediately attend to the serice re-uest, the
!e-uesting superisor should be informed immediately so that he should ta*e appropriate
action. If the defect is somewhat serious, the best action is to transfer the guest to another
room. If the defect is minor, the guest is adised to wait.
,#y Endors#&#nt For& ;>CG<
&or control purposes, this form is used to record the turnoer and return of *eys
from one shift to another.
ontrol For& $or %orro8#d It#&s ;>FC<
0ini5%ar R#:uisition ;>FG<
0ini5%ar Sal#s Vou"!#r ;>FG<
Daily Sal#s Su&&ary R#port ;>>?<
0ini5%ar Spoila(# R#port ;>>@<
0ini5%ar Loss#s and Da&a(#s R#port ;>>@<
In'#ntory ount S!##t ;>EG<
Stor#roo& %in ard ;>GF<
Sto". In'#ntory Varian"# R#port ;>G><
Laundry Vou"!#r ;>?C<
Insp#"tion !#".list ;>DB<
Hous#.##pin( Audit For& ;>DG<
Sto". R#:uisition and Issuan"# For& ;>ED<
Laundry D#part&#nt Da&a(# Ad'i"# For& ;>?A<

A. A""ordin( to Nu&1#r o$ %#ds*
1. $ingle room F a room with a single bed, and is sold to only one person.
4. Twin room F a room with two single beds, good for two persons.
9. Eouble room F a room occupied by two persons with one double bed.
=. Eouble-double >also twin double@ F a room with two double beds or two
-ueen beds, occupied by two or more persons.
?. Triple room F a room that can accommodate three people either in one
double bed and one roll away bed or two single beds and one roll away
C. Duadruple room F a room that can be occupied by four people. It may
hae two twin beds or two double beds.
6. &amily room F a room with at least one double bed, and one or more
single beds, designed to accommodate one small family.
5. Ging room F a room with a *ing-sized bed, maybe occupied by one or two
people or one small family.
%. A""ordin( to pri"#6 layout and $a"iliti#s*
1. +conomy F a room for an economical rate, usually short of standard
facilities li*e air con, teleision and other amenities.
4. $tandard F a room sold at moderate rate, e-uipped with standard facilities
and amenities li*e air con, toiletries, TJ, bed, night table etc.
9. Eelu%e F a more lu%urious and spacious with amenities of superior
-uality, sold a much higher price than standard rooms.
=. $tudio F a room with a studio bed, which can be conerted into a bed. It
may also be called an e%ecutie room.
?. )onnecting room F two or more rooms with entrance doors from the
outside door between them through which guests can get through each
bedroom without going out of their rooms.
C. (d2acent or ad2oining rooms F rooms located side by side that do not
necessarily hae a connecting door.
6. $uite F a room with a parlor or liing room connected to one or more full
sized bedrooms, e-uipped with lu%ury amenities.
Typ#s o$ Suit#s*
a. 3unior suite F a room with a bed and a sitting area >usually a
small lounge@. There maybe a small, separate bed connected to
the liing room or parlor. It is also called a mini suite.
b. Penthouse suite F a suite usually located on top floor of the
c. +%ecutie suite F a suite designed for a top e%ecutie, with
facilities and amenities of superior -uality.
d. Hospitality suite F a suite used for entertaining isitors; sering
as function room or a parlor. Intended to be more than a sleeping
room. Hospitality suites >for /hospos0 as they are often called@
are intended to entertain groups of people. They may include a
*itchen and#or bar area. Large tables ma*e them conducie for
small group meals or meetings. The rooms themseles may ta*e
up the s-uare footage of three or more standard rooms.
e. )orner suite F a suite that is located in the corner of the hotel
building itself. This suite often ta*es up the same area that two
standard rooms would.
f. 'i-leel suite F also ta*es up more s-uare footage than standard
rooms. Instead of ta*ing the horizontal s-uare footage of the
corner suite, they ta*e up the ertical area of two rooms. These
suites span two floors or more to create ery high ceilings.
g. Presidential suite F sometimes called the /)hairman suite0 or the
/!oyal suite.0 This suite is understood to be the best room in the
hotel. It must be the largest room and typically has all the best
amenities and serices the hotel can offer. It will always carry
the highest room rate in the hotel as well, but this suite is a ery
effectie upgrade.
Typ# o$ 1#ds*
a. $ingle bed F a bed appro%imately 9C inches by 6? inches.
b. Eouble bed F a bed that can accommodate a couple or two
indiiduals. It is appro%imately ?= inches by 6? inches in size.
c. Dueen bed F an e%tra long, e%tra wide bed, about C7 inches by 57
inches in size.
d. Ging bed F an e%tra long, e%tra wide bed, about 65 inches by 57
inches in size.
e. !oll-away bed F a portable bed with or without wheels also
called e%tra bed.

Various Typ#s o$ +u#sts*
a. Jery Important Person >JIP@ F a well renowned gust li*e high-
ran*ing officials, e%ecuties, etc., who warrants a special
b. Jery, Jery Important Person >JJIP@ F a highly renowned
person who deseres special treatment li*e dignitaries,
ambassadors, etc.
c. &ree Independent Traelers or &oreign Indiidual Tourist
>&IT@@ F tourists or traelers traeling alone not 2oining any tour
d. 3oiner F person 2oining another guest in the same room.
List o$ Roo& A&#niti#s*
A. %#droo& A&#niti#s*
E:E $ign
Aa*e Hp $ign
)loset with at least C hangers
$ingle bed 9C0 % 6?0
Eouble bed ?=0 % 6?0
Dueen bed C70 % 570
Ging bed 650 % 570
'ed linen
'ed s*irting or flounch
'ed pad
'ed sheet
$ize. allocate an allowance of 47-4? inches oer bed size >on all
sides@. This depends on the mattress.
'ed coer
Pillow with a pillow slip and a pillow case one per occupant two for
double and matrimonial beds
$hoehorn and shoe cloth
Luggage rac*
Eresser table with anity mirror and dresser lamp
TJ set
:ight table with night table lamp. "n top of the table is a telephone, in-house
telephone directory, room serice menu, under the table is a safety and
security boo*let and bible
,uest folder or compendium. )ontains enelope, stationery, ball pen, post
card, directory of hotel serices, guest comment surey, and small note pad.
Eresser chair
)offee table and two easy chairs, ashtray and match on top of the table
&loor lamp
$erice tray with thermo 2ug filled with cold water; two coered glasses
$ide table
!oom serice menu
House rules
Telephone with in-house telephone directory
$afety handboo* containing safety tips during emergencies
&ire e%it directional signs
%. %at!roo& A&#niti#s*
'athroom linen >two towels per room for one set, one towel per occupant@
'ath towel 4?0 % ?=0 ?77 gm
Hand towel 150 % 990 1?7 gm
&ace towel 190 % 190 C7 gm
'ath mat 470 % 970 =?7 gm
Hair shampoo and conditioner
$hower cap
$oap >must be sealed@ one soap per occupant
Toilet tissue
&acial tissue
,arbage can, underlined with plastic liner
Laundry bag
Pressing# Laundry List
Aorning *it >small pac*age of toothbrush and toothpaste@
$haing *it >contains shaer and shaing cream@
$anitary bag
). Lu4ury A&#niti#s ;$or d#lu4# roo&s<*
'ubble bath gel >if tub is installed@
'ath robe
$ewing *it
Bater heater with two cups and saucer and sachet of coffee, tea, creamer and
Hand and body lotion and cologne
'ody scrub
&ruit bas*et
Hair dryer
A. Roo& Status od#s*
Euring room chec*ing, the house*eeper chec*s the status of each room using the
following codes, then prepares the house*eeping room status report and endorses it in
triplicate copy. "ne for the &ront des*, as their reference in assigning rooms, one for the
linen room and another copy left on the floor for easy mapping.
")) F "ccupied HL FHeay Luggage
J) F Jacant and )leaned LL F Light Luggage
JE F Jacant and Eirty :L F :o Luggage
"! F "ccupied and !eady EL FEouble Loc*
") F "ccupied and )lean )L F )hain Loc*
"E F "ccupied and Eirty HH F House Hse
)" F )hec*-out :)I F :ewly )hec*ed-In
""" F "ut of "rder :$ F :o $how
E:E F Eo :ot Eisturb $" F $lept "ut
J# " or "# J F $tatus unclear 'L" F 'loc*ed
L" F loc* "ut J - Jacant
E" F Eue "ut AH! F Aa*e Hp !oom
E:)" F Eid not chec*ed out J! F Jacant and !eady
J)I F Jacant, )leaned and Inspected
Pr#parin( to l#an
In most properties, the room attendant8s wor*day begins in the linen room. The
linen room is often considered the head-uarters of the house*eeping department. It is
here that the employee reports for wor*; receies room assignments, room status reports,
and *eys; and chec*s out at the end of his# her shift. Here too, the room attendant
prepares for the wor*day by assembling and organizing the supplies that are necessary
for cleaning.

)ssembling Su!!lies:
( room attendant re-uires a special tool to do his#her 2ob. &or the professional
room attendant, these tools come in the form of the arious cleaning supplies and
e-uipment, linens, room accessories, and amenities that are necessary for preparing a
guest8s room.
In a sense, the room attendant cart could be regarded as a giant tool bo% stoc*ed
with eerything necessary to do an effectie 2ob. ( well-organized and well-sto*ed cart is
a *ey to efficiency. It enables the room attendant to aoid wasting time loo*ing for a
cleaning item or ma*ing trips bac* to the linen room for more supplies. The specific
amounts of items loaded onto a cart ary according to the types of rooms being cleaned,
the amenities offered by the property, and, of course, the size of the cart itself. ( room
attendant8s cart is generally spacious enough to carry all supplies needed for a half-day8s
room assignments.
Stocing the cart:
)arts are typically stored in the linen room along with the house*eeping supplies.
In large properties, supplies are often centralized in a particular area and issued to room
attendants each morning. Aost carts hae three sheles F the lower two for linen and the
top for supplies. It is 2ust as important not to oerstoc* a cart, as it is not to understoc*.
"erstoc*ing increase the ris* that some items will be damaged, soiled, or stolen in the
course of cleaning. Items typically found on a room attendant8s cart include.
)lean sheets, pillowcases, and mattress pads
)lean towels and washcloths
)lean bath mats
Toilet and facial tissue
&resh drin*ing glasses
$oap bars
)lean ashtrays and matches
In most cases, all the cleaning supplies for the guestroom and bathroom are
positioned in a hand caddy on top of the cart. This way, the room attendant does not hae
to bring the entire cart into the room in order to hae easy access to supplies. Items
coneniently stoc*ed in the hand caddy include.
(ll-purpose cleaner
$pray window and glass cleaner
'owl brush
Eusting solution
)loths and sponges
!ubber gloes
( laundry bag for dirty linens is usually found at one end of the cart and a trash
bag at the other. ( broom and acuum are also positioned on either end of the cart for
easy access. &or safety and security reasons, personal items and room *eys should not be
stored on the cart.
"oom )ssignments:
(fter assembling supplies, the room attendant is ready to begin cleaning
guestrooms. The order in which he#she cleans rooms will be determined by the room
status report. ( floor or shift superisor uses information from the room status report to
draw up room assignments for house*eeping personnel. !oom assignments are generally
listed according to room number and room status on a standardized form. The number of
rooms assigned for a room attendant is based upon the property8s wor* standards for
specific types of rooms and cleaning tas*s. The room attendant uses the room assignment
sheet to prioritize the wor*day and to report the condition of each assigned room at the
end of the shift. (fter reiewing the assignment sheet, a room attendant will hae a sense
where he#she should begin cleaning.
Cleaning the Guestroom:
+#n#ral S#:u#n"# $or +u#stroo& l#anin(*
$tep 1 . +nter the guestroom
$tep 4 . 'egin cleaning. Tidy and air out the room.
$tep 9 . $trip the bed
$tep = . Aa*e the bed
$tep ? . Eust the guestroom
$tep C . )lean the bathroom
$tep 6 . Jacuum
$tep 5 . Aa*e the final chec*
$tep < . )lose the door and ma*e sure it is loc*ed
$tep 17 . :ote room status on assignment sheet and proceed to ne%t room
Entering the Guestroom:
,uestroom cleaning begins the moment the room attendant approaches the
guestroom door. It is important to follow certain procedures when entering the
guestrooms that show respect for the guest8s priacy.
Bhen approaching a guestroom, first obsere whether the guest has placed a /Eo
:ot Eisturb0 sign on the door *nob. (lso, be sure to chec* that the door is not double-
loc*ed from the inside. If either condition e%ists, respect the guest8s wishes and return
later to clean the room. If this is not the case, *noc* on the door and announce
/House*eeping.0 :eer use a *ey to *noc* since it can damage the surface of the door. If
a guest answers, introduce yourself and as* what time would be conenient to clean the
room. :ote the time on your room status sheet or schedule. If no answer is heard, wait a
moment, *noc* again, and repeat /House*eeping.0 If there is still no answer, open the
door slightly and repeat /House*eeping.0 If the guest does not respond after this third
announcement, you can be fairly certain that the room is empty and can begin to enter.
Howeer, 2ust because a guest doesn8t answer, doesn8t always guarantee that a
guest is not in the room. $ometimes, the guest may be sleeping or in the bathroom. If this
is the case, you should leae -uietly and close the door. $hould the guest be awa*e,
e%cuse yourself, e%plain that you can come bac* later, discreetly close the door, and
proceed to the ne%t room.
Bhen you do finally enter, position your cart in front of the open door with the
open section facing the room. Eoing so seres a triplicate purpose. it gies you easy
access to your supplies, bloc*s the entrance to intruders, and in the case of stayoers,
alerts returning guests of your presence. If the guest does return while you are cleaning,
offer to finish your wor* later. (lso, ma*e sure it is, in fact, the guest8s room, by
chec*ing his.#her room *ey. This is done for security purposes to preent unauthorized
persons from entering the room.
Beginning Tasks:
Aost room attendants begin their system of cleaning by airing out and tidying up
the guestroom. (fter entering the room, turn on all the lights. This ma*es the room more
cheerful, helps you se what you are doing, and allows you to chec* for light bulbs which
need to be replaced. Eraw bac* the draperies and chec* the cords and hoo*s for any
damage. "pen the windows so the air conditioning and heater to ma*e sure they are
wor*ing properly and are set according to property standards.
:e%t ta*e a good loo* at the condition of the room. Aa*e note of any damaged or
missing items such as linens or wastebas*ets. If anything of alue is gone or if something
needs repair, notify your superisor.
!emoe or replace dirty ashtrays and glasses. (lways ma*e sure that cigarettes
are fully e%tinguished before dumping them in the appropriate container. (s you replace
the ashtrays, be sure to replenish matches. )ollect any serice trays, dishes, bottles, or
cans that might be scattered around the room. &ollow your property8s procedures for
ta*ing care of these items properly. $ome properties hae room attendants set these items
neatly in the hallway and call room serice for pic*up. +mpty trash and replace any
wastebas*et liners. In occupied rooms, straighten any newspapers and magazines. :eer
throw out anything in an occupied room unless it is in the wastebas*et. In rooms where
the guest has chec*ed out, isually scan the room and chec* the dresser drawers for
personal items, which may hae been left behind. !eport these items to your superisor,
or hand them in to the lost and found depending on the hotel8s policy.
Making the Bed:
St#p >* $trip the bed
St#p ?* )hec* the mattress pad for stains and damage.
St#p @* )hange the mattress pad if necessary.
Lay a fresh pad on the bed
Hnfold pad right-side up and spread it eenly oer the center of the bed
$mooth out any wrin*les
St#p A* :otify your superisor if you note stains or damage to the mattress.
St#p B* )enter the bottom sheet right side-up on the mattress; there should be e-ual
amounts of sheet hangoer each side of the bed.
St#p C* Aiter the bottom sheet at the upper corner of the bed.
St#p D* Aiter the bottom sheet at the lower corner of the bed.
St#p E* (t the head of the bed, place the second sheet on the bed, wrong side up.
St#p G* Place the blan*et on top of the second sheet about C to 5 inches.
St#p >F* Place the top sheet, two inches oer the blan*et, and then fold the two inches
inside the blan*et to hae a neat loo* appearance.
St#p >>* Turn the second sheet oer the top sheet and blan*et. Tuc* the sheets on the
St#p >?* Aiter the top sheet, second sheet and blan*et at the lower corners of the bed.
St#p >@* Tuc* in top sheet, second sheet and blan*et along the sides of the bed.
St#p >A* Aa*e sure the second sheet; blan*et and top sheet are tuc*ed in neatly along the
sides and foot of the bed.
St#p >B* )enter the bedspread. Aa*e sure the seams and patterns of the spread are
St#p >C* &old the bedspread down from the head, leaing enough room to coer the
St#p >D* $lip the cases oer the pillows.
St#p >E* Place the pillows at the head of the bed and bring the bedspread oer them.
Tuc* in the bedspread beneath the pillows.
St#p >G* Ta*e a moment to chec* the bed for smoothness both up close and from a
distance. $mooth out any wrin*les.
St#p >* Hsing a cloth sprayed with dusting solution, dust items located on walls or high
off the floor. Bor* cloc*wise around the room.
St#p ?* Eust and polish mirrors. $pray glass cleaner on a clean cloth and wipe down the
St#p @* )hec* the windows carefully. )lean with glass cleaner if necessary.
St#p A* Eust the windowsill.
St#p B* Eust and polish the dresser. "pen the drawers and dust the inside surfaces.
St#p C* Eust the nightstand. $tart with the top surface and wor* your way down the sides
to the legs or base.
St#p D* )lean and dust the telephone. )hec* proper operation by pic*ing up the receier
and listening for the dial tone. Hse spray disinfectant on the mouthpiece and earphone
St#p E* Eust the top and sides of the teleision set and the stand it rests on.
St#p G* )lean the front of the teleision set with glass cleaner. Turn on the set to ma*e
sure it wor*s properly, and then turn it off.
St#p >F* Eust any tables, beginning with top surface and wor*ing your way down to the
base and legs.
St#p >>* Eust wood or chrome surfaces on chairs, beginning at the top and wor*ing your
way down the legs.
St#p >?* )lean both sides of the connecting door to an ad2oining guestroom, if
Bipe from top down.
Polish the *nobs and remoe any smudges around the *nob area.
Bhen finished, ma*e sure the door is closed and loc*ed.
St#p >@* )lean the closet.
Eust both the top and underside of the closet shelf. !emoe any smudges on
the surfaces.
Bipe down the closet rod.
Eust hangers and hoo*s.
)lean and dust both sides of the closet door.
St#p >A* Bipe down light switches and clean any smudges on surrounding wall area.
St#p >B* )lean both sides of the guestroom door.
St#p >C* !estoc* the room with guest supplies.
Cleaning the Bathroom:
St#p >* Turn on lights and fan. !eplace any burned out light bulbs. )hec* fan for proper
St#p ?* !emoe used towels, washcloths, and bath mat.
St#p @* +mpty trash and wipe container.
St#p A* &lush the toilet. (pply all-purpose cleaner around and under the lip of the bowl.
Let it stand while you attend to other cleaning tas*s.
St#p B* )lean the shower area.
)hec* the shower head to ma*e sure it is positioned correctly.
Bash the tub or shower walls and soap dishes using a damp cloth and all-
purpose cleaner. )hec* condition of walls as you clean.
!inse the tub or shower walls and soap dishes with sponge.
)lean both sides of the shower curtain or shower door. Pay special attention to
the bottom where mildew may accumulate. Bipe dry.
)lean shower curtain rod or clean the trac*s and frame of the shower door.
$crub the bathtub with all-purpose cleaner. !emoe and clean the drain trap.
)lean bathtub fi%tures. Polish dry to remoe water spots.
Hang clean bath mat oer edge of the tub.
!eposition shower curtain or shower door to the center of the tub.
St#p C* )lean the anity and sin* area.
!un some warm water into the sin*. (dd the correct amount of all-purpose
)lean the countertop area of the anity.
)lean the sin*. !emoe drain trap and clean.
)lean sin* fi%tures. Polish dry to remoe water spots.
Bipe dry the countertop area of the anity.
)lean mirror with glass cleaner.
St#p D* )lean the toilet.
$crub the insides of the toilet and under the lip with the bowl brush. &lush.
Hsing cleaning solution and a cloth, clean the top of the seat, the lid, the tan*,
and the outside of the bowl.
Bipe dry all the outside surfaces.
)lose the lid.
St#p E* )lean bathroom walls and fi%tures.
Eust light fi%tures.
Hsing a clean damp cloth, spot-clean fingerprints and smudges.
Bipe down all electrical outlets and light switches, paying close attention to
the surrounding wall area.
Bipe and polish towel bars.
Eust all e%posed piping.
)lean both sides of the bathroom door.
St#p G* !estoc* bathroom supplies.
!eplenish the towels.
!eplenish guest amenities.
!eplenish toilet and facial tissue supplies.
St#p >F* )lean the floor.
$pray bathroom floor and baseboards with all-purpose cleaning solution.
$tarting with the farthest corner and wor*ing your way toward the door, scrub
the floor and wipe baseboards.
St#p >>* Aa*e the final chec*. Jisually scan all the areas of the bathroom for areas you
may hae oerloo*ed. Turn off the lights and the fan.
Vacuuming and Cleaning Baseboards:
St#p >* )lean the baseboards. 'egin in the closet area and wor* your way around the
room. Bipe all e%posed area of the baseboard to remoe surface dust and dirt.
St#p ?* Ta*e a acuum sweeper or broom to sweep large dirt. $weep also sides of the
room and under furnitures to where acuum cannot reach. This way the dirt that cannot
be reached by the acuum will be pic*ed up immediately and#or center the dirt so to
possibly reach by the acuum.
St#p @. Ta*e the acuum to the farthest corner in the guestroom. 'egin acuuming. Ta*e
care not to bump furnitures or een dragging the acuum oer its cord. Jacuum side to
St#p A* Jacuum your way bac* to the door; coer all e%posed areas of the carpet you can
reach including under tables and chairs, behind the door, and in the closet.
St#p B* )lose windows and turn off lights along the way.
Final Check:
The final chec* is a critical step in guestroom cleaning. It ma*es the difference
between 2ust cleaning the room and doing a professional 2ob.
(fter reloading your acuum and cleaning supplies on your cart, ta*e a few
moments to gie the room a careful loo* from the guest8s perspectie, $tart at one point
from one point in the room and trail your eyes in a circular fashion from one corner to the
ne%t until you hae isually inspected each item. 'y doing so, you may discoer
something you oerloo*ed or that was difficult to spot on the first cleaning.
Aa*e sure that all the furnishings are bac* in their proper places. Loo* for little
things li*e ma*ing sure the lampshades are straight and their seams are turned toward the
bac*. $mell the air for any unusual odors. If you detect any unpleasant smells, report
them to your superisor. $pray air freshener if needed. !emember that your last loo* is
the guest8s first impression. Bhen you are satisfied that the guestroom is neat and
thoroughly cleaned, turn off the lights, close the door, and chec* to see that it is loc*ed.
:ote the condition and status of the room on your assignment sheet, and proceed to the
ne%t room on your schedule.

Turndown Serice:
St#p >* $ee procedure for entering the guestroom. Bhen announcing your presence,
substitute /Turndown $erice0 for /House*eeping.0
St#p ?* !emoe any guest items from the bed. $et neatly aside on the dresser or a chair.
St#p @* Pull bac* the bedspread so 1? to 15 inches hangs oer the foot of the bed. 'ring
this slac* part of the spread bac* oer the fold so the fabric faces right side-up.
St#p A* Pull bac* the sheets.
&or a bed sleeping one guest, turn down the sheets on one side only, usually the
side near the night stand or phone.
&or a bed sleeping two, turn down the sheets on both sides.
St#p B* Place the amenity on the pillow. &or beds sleeping two, be sure to leae amenity
on both pillows.
St#p C* !emoe and replace dirty ashtrays. !eplenish matches.
St#p D* !emoe and replace dirty glasses.
St#p E* )ollect any food serice trays and dishes.
$et items neatly outside the door.
)all room serice for pic*up.
St#p G* +mpty the trash and replace wastebas*et liners.
St#p >F* $traighten newspapers and magazines.
St#p >>* !emoe dirty linen in bathroom. !estoc* with fresh linen.
St#p >?* $traighten and wipe down anity area. Ery and polish fi%tures.
St#p >@* $traighten and wipe down tub area if necessary. Ery and polish fi%tures.
St#p >A* )hec* toilet and facial tissue supply. !eplenish if necessary.
St#p >B* )lose the drapes.
St#p >C* Turn on bedside lamp.
St#p >D* Turn radio to recommended easy listening station. (d2ust to a low olume.
St#p >E* Jisually scan the guestroom, beginning at one point in the room and wor*ing
your way bac* to the beginning point. (ttend to any turndown tas* you may hae
St#p >G* Leae the room and close the door. )hec* to be sure it is loc*ed.
The linen and laundry section is responsible for the processing of all re-uests for
laundry serice, including guest8s laundry and employee uniforms.
The laundry section is usually managed by a Laundry Aanager or superisor and
is manned with the following personnel.
Jalet !unner - pic*s ups and deliers guest laundry.
$orter# mar*er - sorts, classifies and labels laundry items.
Linen attendant - does the recording, storage and issuance of linen.
Basher - responsible for washing and drying laundry items.
&lat Ironer - does the ironing.
$team Presser - performs steam pressing.
Ery )leaner-spotter - assigned to do dry cleaning and spot remoal.
$eamstress - does mending of guest laundry or employees uniforms.
Distribution of Laun#r$ "es!onsibilities:
Lin#n and Laundry Sup#r'isor
Basic Function:
Eirects, leads, monitors and controls all actiities coering linen and laundry
Duties and !es"onsibilities:
)hec*s -uality of laundry serice; ensures that laundry standards are complied
with and that garments are protected from damages.
+nsures the proper use, storage, and maintenance of linen and laundry e-uipment,
tools and supplies.
)hec*s e-uipment regularly for their condition. Loo*s after their preentie
maintenance through periodic cleaning and repair when necessary.
)hec*s and maintains par stoc* re-uirements. Aa*es re-uisition wheneer
Initiates and superises wee*ly inentory of laundry supplies and other items
allocated to his unit. !eports losses and damages and ta*es correctie action
against rec*less use of e-uipment.
$ees to it that laundered items are deliered on time.
Trains, coaches and superises his staff.
)onducts performance ealuation of his subordinates; conducts appraisal
(ttends to complaints regarding linen and laundry serice.
Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior.
Lin#n Att#ndant7 ustodian
Basic Function:
$toc*s, stores and issues employees8 uniforms, linens, cleaning supplies,
guestroom, and public area amenities.
Duties and !es"onsibilities:
!esponsible for the issuance of uniforms as well as guestroom, restaurant and
ban-uet linens, cleaning materials, supplies as well as guestroom amenities;
ensures that all issued items are properly recorded and accounted for.
!eports to the $uperisor missing articles, losses, brea*ages and damaged items
in the linen room.
(ssists the superisor in conducting inentories of linen, general supplies and
!esponsible for the proper arrangement and storage of linen, uniforms and
general supplies in the linen room.
Performs side duties li*e mending, repair of uniforms and baby-sitting.
!eceies all surrendered linen items; chec*s if they are complete and in good
condition; endorses soiled linens to laundry section for laundry.
Performs other related duties as may be assigned by superior.
Val#t Runn#r
Basic Function:
!esponsible for pic* up and deliery of laundry items of guests and those for
house use.
Duties and !es"onsibilities:
Pic*s up guests8 items for laundry and endorses them to sorter#mar*er for proper
)hec*s laundry items for possible damages and immediately informs guests about
it. (lso indicates noted damages in the endorsement record.
Informs the sorter#mar*er about the special instructions of guests regarding the
latter8s laundry items.
Helps in sorting finished laundry items that are ready for deliery.
Eeliers processed guests8 laundry ma*ing reference to tag number and room
number and ma*es sure these items are deliered on time.
)oordinates with the rooms *eeping superisor for the deliery of all processed
items when guests are not in their rooms.
Informs the laundry office of his whereabouts in case there is any call for pic* up
and immediate deliery.
)oordinates with front office#house*eeping regarding information on room
changes to aoid wrong deliery.
Helps in *eeping the laundry area clean.
Performs other related duties as may be assigned by his#her superior.
Flat8or. Iron#r 7 Wran(l#r

Basic Function:
Performs ironing of linen items in the flatwor* machine following the standard
Duties and !es"onsibilities:
$orts all items by classification before running them through the machine.
Performs pressing and ironing, straightens edges and smoothly presses wrin*les;
starts and stops machine according to prescribed procedures.
Inspects and sorts out stains and damaged linens. !efers them to superisor for
proper action.
&olds duly accomplished items; counts and classifies them.
Prepares and *eeps records of accomplishments.
)leans wor* areas and machine.
!eports malfunction of machine to superior.
Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superisor from time to time.
Was!#r ;+u#st It#&s<
Basic Function:
(ttends the washing and e%tracting, drying of all guests laundry and &") >free of
charge@ items.
Duties and !es"onsibilities:
!eceies laundry items of guests from the sorter-mar*er.
$orts and classifies items according to *ind, color, and degree of dirt.
Inspects items for damages and stains and reports any damage to the laundry
Aanually cleans with detergent the badly soiled portion of the guests items prior
to machine washing; informs sorter or superisor regarding irremoable stains for
the latter to bring it to attention of the guest.
Loads guests items into the washing machine and performs washing according to
standard washing procedures. Hnloads washed items and transfer them to the
laundry cart.
Loads the e%tracted items to the drying machine for completion.
Inspects and sorts dried items and forwards them to the pressing section for
pressing or ironing.
)onstantly chec*s the cleanliness and maintenance of the e-uipments and reports
the defects to his superisor.
Performs other duties as may be assigned by his# her superior.
Was!#r ;Lin#ns<
Basic Function:
(ttends to the washing, e%tracting and drying of all house*eeping linens such as
towels, bed sheets, pillow slips and pillow cases, etc., and also linen used for dining and
ban-uet functions.
Duties and !es"onsibilities:
$orts all dirty linens and towels brought into the laundry section.
$orts all dirty linens li*e tablecloths, nap*ins and coc*tail nap*ins receied from
different food outlets.
Loads items into the washing machine and performs washing in accordance with
standard washing procedures.
Hnloads e%tracted items and forwards them either mangling or pressing section.
Performs daily cleaning of his area and the machine he is operating.
Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by his#her superior.
Basic Function:
Performs sewing or mending of guest room linens as well as those used for
ban-uet and food serice operations.
Duties and !es"onsibilities:
!esponse for mending and repair of guest garments as well as uniforms and linens
for house use.
Aends and repairs torn or damaged curtains, bed coer, s*irting of guest rooms.
Aaintains the cleanliness and condition of the sewing machine.
!eports to the superisor any malfunctioning of the sewing e-uipment.
Aaintains a stoc* of sewing *it and loo*s after their safe*eeping.
(ssisting linen attendant in the issuance of guest room linens and ban-uet linen
during pea* season.
Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by his# her superior.
Se&uence of Guest Laun#r$ Service:
,uest shall fill up the laundry list and may re-uest for pic*-up either through the
House*eeping or Laundry office guest phone, through the &ront des* or any room
superisor or room attendant.
If the pic*-up re-uest is coursed through the laundry cler*, the latter logs down the
guest8s instructions for the processing of items and calls the linen attendant, alet
runner or room boy for eh pic*-up of the linen.
The laundry list and laundry items are pic*ed up by concerned staff.
Hpon pic*-up of the laundry items, the attending staff chec*s items on the list in front
of the guest if he is around. If the guest is not around, he chec*s it in the presence of a
floor guard or room boy# superisor who will be sering as witness for damages or
If stains or damage are found in the item, the alet runner or room attendant who
pic*s up the laundry will fill up the guest notification form to notify the guest of noted
damage or any discrepancy. This notification is brought to the guest by the room boy or
bellboy. The guest shall ac*nowledge receipt of said notification by signing his name.
If the item is not suited for the re-uested processing method >dry cleaning,
washing, etc.@, the guest is also notified thru the same notification form, indicating
therein the recommended method in processing the item.
Items for washing are endorsed to washer for processing. Hpon receipt of the
items, the washer shall count and double chec* items against the laundry list; sort
and classify them, then place the appropriate tag.
If the item is for dry cleaning >color code it with blue tag@
If the item is for machine-washing, >color code it with pin* tag@
Hotel has the option to ma*e their own coding system.
If the item is to be hand washed, washer should hand wash with care.
(fter washing the laundry items, the washer endorses the finished items to the other
laundry staff >i.e. ironer or presser@ for further processing.
If the items is for other forms of processing, it is endorsed to other laundry staff,
Presser F for blouse, dresses, trousers and related items.
Hand ironer F for normal shirts.
Htility presser F for trousers, s*irt and long dresses.
The attending staff shall double chec* each items upon receiing them, and ta*es
note of discrepancies in -uantity and damaged parts.
If the item needs no further processing, it is placed inside the pigeon bo% >if any@
according to tag.
If the item is ready for deliery, the linen attendant or alet runner sorts them against
the laundry list, collects altogether laundry items of each guest in a garment bag,
attaches the laundry list to the bag and endorses it to the presser or linen attendant.
If the guest is on cash basis, laundry cler*, prepares a oucher to be attached to the
item for billing. Payment must be made upon deliery of the items.
The processed items will now be deliered to the guest. If the guest is around, he is
as*ed to sign in the deliery logboo* for ac*nowledgement. Then the bill is presented
to him for settlement.
If the guest is not around, the house*eeping superisor ac*nowledges by signing
in the logboo*.
If the room is on /Eo :ot Eisturb0 sign and said item is on special serice, a
notification is placed in the guest8s room through the door, >another copy to the front
office@ notifying him that an attempt to delier his laundry was made while he is on
Hndeliered linens brought bac* to the laundry area to be redeliered upon the
arrial of guest.
Summar$ of the basic +ash ste!s:
&lush F the linen is wet to dissole water-soluble soil and to reduce soil load in the
following suds steps. (lways flush at high-water leel and medium-temperature
Time. 1 to 9 minutes
$uds F inoles actual washing step, where detergent is added to the wheel, low-
water leel and hot water is used.
Time. ?to 5 minutes
'leach F elimination of stains that could be remoed by the detergent. This is done
using chlorinated bleach added to the wheel. Hsually low-water leel and hot water is
Time. ? to 5 minutes
!inse F rids the linen of detergent and soil. Hsually 9 to ? steps are utilized at high-
water leel temperature usually dripping with subse-uent rinses.
Time. 1 to 9 minutes
$our and soft step F is the final conditioning of the linen using fabric softener and
sour >wild acid@. This id performed at low-water leel, medium temperature water.
Time. 9 to ? minutes
+%tract F processing of reducing the moisture content of linen by ?7M >177 lbs. dry
weight@; linen will retail ?7 lbs water after e%traction.
Time. 1 to 14 minutes
'rea* F performed before the suds step. Low-water leel; medium to hot water, with
a highly-al*aline-brea* product is added to brea* loose soils.
Time. 9 to 6 minutes.
Interdictor e%tract F this process spins soil-laden detergent solution out of linen. (
high-speed is used, usually after the first rinse step. This process reduces the re-uired
number of deep-water rinses.
Time. 97 seconds to 4 minutes
A. Hard Floors ;Non5r#sili#nt $loors<
&looring materials that do not /gie0 to any degree underfoot. Their hardness
ensures their durability. Eents are not a problem with these types of floors. Howeer, the
hardness of these types of floors is also a ma2or drawbac*. They are e%tremely tiring to
those who must stand on them for any length of time.
'$!es of Har# Floors .1on2resilient Floors/:
a. 'ric*
b. )eramic and Terra )otta Tiles
c. )oncrete
d. $tone &loors
e. Terrazzo
a. %ri".
'ric* is not commonly used as a flooring material for interiors, e%cept to coney
a rustic theme. 'ric* floors are normally left in their natural unglazed state and color, but
they can be sealed and finished for some interior applications.
Hnglazed bric*s are highly porous material, and they proide a highly durable,
fairly slip-resistant floor, but the mortar between the bric*s can deteriorate rapidly if it is
not properly maintained.
Eeteriorating mortar and loose bric*s can -uic*ly become a serious hazard for
slip-fall accidents.
(nother caution is not to use bric*s where there may be grease spills. $ince an
unglazed bric* is ery porous, spilled grease and oil will be absorbed into the bric* and
will be ery hard to remoe. If the floor then becomes wet, the surface of the bric* will
hae this oil and water mi%ture, ma*ing for a ery slippery surface.
Cleaning %roce#ures:
'ric* floors create special problems in cleaning. If the bric*s are the specially-
made type of slip-resistant bric*, they will cause cotton mop heads to fray. (lso,
unglazed bric*s tend to become ery dusty.
The best approach to cleaning a bric* floor is to acuum it with a brush and, when
mopping, use a bristle brush in combination with a wet#dry acuum.
1. #ra&i" and T#rra otta Til#s
Li*e bric*, ceramic and terra cotta tiles are made from clay that s fired in a *iln.
Howeer, ceramic tile differs from bric* in that a coating is applied to one side of the tile
and the tile is then fired in a *iln, creating a surface that is almost totally imperious to
soil and li-uids.
)eramic tile comes in a multitude of colors and can hae either a matte or glossy
surface. )are must be ta*en when selecting ceramic tile because certain solid colors will
show dirt -uite easily. )eramic tile also appears on walls and countertops, as well as on
interior and e%terior floors.
Terra cotta tiles, typically si% inches s-uare, resemble bric*s because they are left
in their natural color, and they do not hae the glaze coat that is commonly applied to
ceramic tile. The color of terra cotta is traditionally a reddish-brown. "ne ariety of terra
cotta is often used in *itchen floor application because it is mar*ed with a rough surface
that ma*es it slip resistant in greasy conditions.
Cleaning %roce#ures:
The tiles must be cleaned fre-uently to remoe dust and grit that could damage
the glaze on the tile. )leaning procedures might include dust mopping, damp mopping,
and light scrubbing when needed. )otton mop heads should not be used on tiles that
contain slip-resistant surfaces, because these surfaces will -uic*ly shred a traditional mop
head. $crubbing should be done with brushes and the water should be pic*ed up with a
wet# dry acuum.
". on"r#t#
The concrete floor is employed for its utility, not for its attractieness or its
resiliency. ( concrete floor is composed of cement, roc*s, and sand, to which is water is
added to initiate a chemical reaction that changes the ingredients into a stone li*e
Cleaning %roce#ures:
The cleaning procedures that may be used on a concrete floor range from a daily
dust mopping, to a damp mopping, to heay scrubbing to remoe grease and soils. $ince
concrete, and especially unsealed concrete, is so porous, an immediate effort must be
made to clean up spilled li-uids before they are absorbed into the concrete and cause
unsightly stains.
d. Ston# Floors
)ommon types of natural stone flooring includes marbles, traertine, serpentine,
granite, slate, and sandstone.
(ll natural stone products share certain properties that must be ta*en into
consideration by the professional house*eeper to ensure the proper care of this type of
:atural stone flooring may loo* imperious to the elements, but it is decidedly
not as resistant to damage as it loo*s. (cids and moisture can hae disastrous effects on
natural stone. $ome acids are present naturally in the stone, but een the acid from spilled
orange 2uice can hae a deleterious effect on stone floors, causing pitting, crac*ing, and
spalling. These floors need to hae moisture-permeable sealers applied so moisture and
acids do not build up under the sealer and destroy the floor8s surface. "ils and grease can
permanently stain untreated stone floors because these floors are e%tremely porous.
Cleaning %roce#ures:
To preent the staining of stone floors, the dust mops should be free of all oil-
based dusting compounds. Eusting should be carried out on a daily basis because grit,
sand, and other abrasies that are trac*ed onto a stone floor will -uic*ly mar the floor8s
( pH neutral detergent is recommended to clean all natural stone floors. Highly
al*aline cleaners as well as acidic compounds will damage stone floors. Bhen mopping
stone floors do not let water or chemicals remain on the floor. ( final rinse of clean water
should be applied and then immediately pic*ed up with a mop or a wet# dry acuum.
#. T#rra))o
( terrazzo floor is a mosaic flooring composed of Portland cement that has been
embedded with marble and#or granite chips.
The chips used in terrazzo floor can differ both in sizes and color, creating a
ariety of colorful and attractie floors.
Bith proper care, a terrazzo floor will hold its original luster and will last
indefinitely. Bhat destroys most terrazzo is not use, but improper maintenance.
Cleaning %roce#ures:
Terrazzo should be dusted daily to remoe harmful grit and sand that can wear
down the surface, but dust mops should not be treated with oil dressings because oil is the
archenemy of a terrazzo floor. "nce oil or grease penetrates a terrazzo floor, it is irtually
impossible to remoe.
$teel wool should not be used on the surface of a terrazzo because the steel wool
may put rust stains on the marble chips.
Bhen selecting detergents and cleaners for terrazzo floors, stay away from acid
cleaners, abrasies and scrubbing powders, and preparations that hae an al*alinity aboe
pH 17. (lways rinse a freshly scrubbed floor and do not allow water or cleaners to
remain on the floor surface.
%. R#sili#nt Floors
!esilient floors hae arious degrees of /gie0 to their surfaces. Bhen dented, a
resilient floor will eentually rebound wholly or partially to its origin form. They are
called resilient because they are elastic and buoyant underfoot. They are also non porous.
T#"es o$ !esilient Floors:
a. (sphalt Tile
b. )or*
c. Linoleum
d. !ubber
e. Jinyl
f. Bood
g. )arpet
a. Asp!alt Til#
(sphalt tile is one of the lowest-cost resilient floor coerings aailable, and it is
-uite durable under most normal conditions. It will, howeer, become brittle when
e%posed to prolonged periods of low temperature and will also dent when heay ob2ects
are present on its surface, particularly when the ambient temperature is aboe 57
(sphalt tile is also fire resistant, in fact, it is one of the most mar resistant of all
floorings in regard to cigarette burns.
Cleaning %roce#ures:
Eust mopping, damp mopping, and scrubbing will maintain and presere the
asphalt floor. "ne important item to remember, wet mopping is to neer let water stand
for any length of time on an asphalt tile floor. $tanding water will attac* the adhesie
cement and will cause tiles to curl and loosen.
1. or. Til#
)or* tile is made from the outer bar* of cor* oa* trees grown in $pain and
Portugal. The cor* is ground into large granules, mi%ed with synthetic resins, and pressed
into sheets, which are then cut into tiles. )ontemporary cor* tiles for floors usually hae
a top layer of clear inyl applied to them. This inyl layer protects the cor* from staining
and wear.
)or* tiles traditionally hae had limited application in industrial or institutional
settings. "ne reason is that cor* is susceptible to staining because it is one of the most
porous of all floor coerings. (nother limitation is that it is not durable; it is highly
susceptible to abrasion. )inders, sand, and grael trac*ed on to a cor* floor will seerely
shorten its life span. &inally, it is e%pensie. )or* rials ceramic tiles in cost and does not
hae nearly the useful life of ceramic tile.
". Linol#u&
In modern buildings, the use of inyl has replaced linoleum, but on occasion,
linoleum floors can still be found in older facilities. Linoleum was once so perasie that
many still use the term linoleum to indicate any continuous flooring material, such as
solid inyl flooring.
Linoleum was composed of o%idized linseed oil, resins, embedded cor*, and
wood flour with pigments pressed on a bac*ing.
Its properties included in a remar*able degree of resiliency. :e%t to cor* and
rubber, and of course, padded carpeting, linoleum is considered to hae the greatest
degree of resiliency. Linoleum was -uite durable, was resistant to oil and grease, and do
not shrin*.
The negatie aspects of linoleum was that it is highly susceptible to water. The
linoleum would absorb water and would then soften, causing it to lose its abrasion
resistance and become more susceptible to indentation. +en high humidity would hae a
negatie effect upon this material.
Cleaning %roce#ures:
&re-uent dusting is essential to the preseration of linoleum. The flooring can also
be dry mopped using a pH neutral cleaner. Harsh abrasies and scouring powders should
be aoided and water or detergent solutions should not be left in contact with the floor for
any length of time.
Bhen the floor is mopped, it should be allowed to dry completely before foot
traffic is allowed upon it.
d. Ru11#r Floors
(ll modern rubber floors are made from synthetic rubber, such as styrene
butadiene rubber >$'!@. !ubber tiles are cured or ulcanized by the application of heat.
!ubber floors are nonporous, waterproof surfaces. "ne ma2or adantage is that they are
-uite resilient and will remain resilient oer a considerable temperature range.
!ubber flooring is susceptible to al*alines, oils, grease, solents, ultraiolet light,
and ozone in the air. Bhen attac*ed by these components, a rubber floor will often
become tac*y and soft. It will then become brittle and begin to crac* and powder.
!ubber tiles often hae *nobs n the surface or will hae a tread pattern to improe
traction, especially if li-uids are fre-uently spilled on the surface.
Cleaning %roce#ures:
Highly al*aline cleaning solution should be aoided; it is best to use pH neutral
detergents wheneer possible. )leaning solents such as naphtha and turpentine should
neer be used on a rubber floor.
!ubber floors are fairly easy to maintain. Eaily dust mopping and an occasional
damp mopping are all that is needed to maintain the floor.
#. Vinyl Floors
There are seeral types of inyl floorings and tiles. The ma2or arieties include
inyl asbestos tiles, inyl composition tiles, homogeneous or fle%ible inyl tiles, and
laminated inyl flooring.
Jinyl asbestos tiles are no longer made and hae been remoed from numerous
commercial and residential settings because the asbestos in the tile is a *nown
carcinogen. Improper cleaning of inyl asbestos tile can release deadly asbestos fibers
into the air and present a ery real health hazard.
Laminated inyl flooring is less e%pensie to manufacture than inyl composition
or homogeneous inyl floors. The low initial cost may be deceiing, howeer, for once
the top wear layer is worn through, the floor will hae to be replaced. $ome laminated
floorings are only guaranteed for three years with moderate use. The cost of laminated
inyl flooring will ary in proportion to the thic*ness of the top inyl wear layer.
In addition to the inyl resins, inyl composition tiles contain mineral fillers such
as asphalt and pigments. Homogeneous inyl tiles may either be fle%ible or solid, and it
has become the preferred standard for resilient tile flooring. It is practically unaffected by
moisture, oils, and chemical solents.
Cleaning %roce#ures:
Aodern homogeneous inyl needs only to be dusted and damp mopped to restore
its luster. Eaily dusting to remoe sand and grit is e%tremely important to the care of
inyl because most types will scratch under heay foot traffic. $ome tiles are specially
treated with a scratch resistant seat that is applied at the factory.
Aodern inyl is unaffected by al*aline detergents, but pH neutral detergents are
recommended oer heay al*aline products.
$. Wood Floors
There is nothing -uite as attractie as the warmth and richness of wood floors.
Aost hardwood floors are made from oa*, but other popular woods include ash, beech,
birch, hic*ory, maple, tea*, and walnut. In addition to its attractieness, hardwood floors
are e%tremely durable if they are properly finished and maintained.
Hnfinished wood floors will -uic*ly deteriorate under een light use, as wood is
an e%tremely porous material. Hnfinished woods are susceptible to dirt lodging in the
grains, splintering of the wood fibers, abrasions caused by normal foot traffic, and of
course, moisture, the bane of wood floors. Too much moisture will cause a wood floor to
warp, while too little humidity will cause wood floors to shrin* and crac*.
To help forestall damage, most wood floors made today receie factory applied
finish. In some instances the wood is heated to open the pores of the wood. Tung oil and
carnuba wa% are then applied to seal the wood.
$ince there is a degree of resiliency in een the hardest of hardwood floors,
precautions should be ta*en to protect the floor from furniture legs that may dent the
flooring. Bood floors are particularly susceptible to metal or hard plastic rollers and to
those small metal domes that are often found on the legs of office furnitures
Cleaning %roce#ures:
Preentie maintenance is the *ey to attractie and durable wood floors. "ne of
the best preention techni-ues is to use wal*-off mats at e%terior entrances and use rugs
and carpet runners in high-traffic areas.
Bood floors should be dusted, but do not use an oily dust mop on wood floor.
The oil from the mop head may dar*en or stain the floor. Bater is one of the most
deleterious substances to a wood floor, conse-uently, it should not be used to clean most
wood floors. Eusting, acuuming, buffing, and, on limited occasion, a light damp
mopping is all that is necessary to maintain a wood floor on a daily basis.
(. arp#t Floors
)arpet is typically installed wall-to-wall to eliminate the maintenance of hard
flooring surfaces around the edge of a carpet. !ugs, on the other hand, are often used to
accentuate a tile or wood floor. In areas where there is heay foot traffic, rugs can be
used to e-ualize wear and help preent trac*ing onto other floor coerings.
)arpet offers a number of benefits oer hard and resilient flooring materials.
)arpet preents slipping; it proides an additional source of insulation, it has acoustical
properties that can effectiely lower noise leels; and it is the most resilient of all floor
coerings, which is a ma2or benefit to indiiduals who must remain on their feet for
e%tended periods.
)arpet )omponents.
a. Pile
b. Primary 'ac*ing
c. $econdary 'ac*ing
d. Padding
a. Pil#
Pile is the yarn that we see and can readily touch. The fibers can either be
synthetic or natural in composition.

'est of %ile 3ualit$:
a. Pile density; the greater the density of pile, the better the carpet. )arpet
with greater pile density hold their shape longer and are more resistant to
dirt and stains. "ne common test of density is to bend a piece of carpet,
and if the bac*ing can readily be seen, the carpet is of an inferior -uality.
b. &ace weight; is the weight of the carpet8s surface fibers in ounces or grams
per s-uare yard. The greater the face weight, the higher the -uality.
c. Height of the pile; longer fibers are better than shorter fibers.
d. (mount of twist the pile fibers hae receies; the tighter the twist, the
better the carpet.
1. %a".in(
The bac*ing is on the underside of the carpet; it secures the tufts of pile and gies
additional strength and stability to the carpet. Aost carpets hae a double bac*ing, a
primary bac*ing to which the yarn is attached and an outer bac*ing called the secondary
bac*ing. ( layer of late% adhesie is sandwiched between the two layers to seal the pile
tufts to the primary bac*ing.
T#"es o$ Backing:
a. 3ute; a natural fiber imported from India and 'angladesh,
b. Polypropylene; a synthetic thermoplastic resin,
c. &oam rubber.
". Paddin(
Padding can be placed under carpet to proide e%tra insulation, deaden sound, add
comfort, and e%tend the life of the carpet by sering as a /shoc* absorber.0
Types of Padding.
a. &oam rubber
b. Hrethane foam
c. :atural materials such as 2ute and hair blends.
Si)#s o$ arp#ts*
a. 'roadloom carpets F 14 feet in width, but can be ordered up to 1? feet in
b. )arpet runners F 4 feet to < feet in width.
c. )arpet s-uares or tiles F 15 s-uare inches.
arp#t onstru"tion*
a. Tufted carpet F produced by forcing needles, threaded with pile yarn,
through the primary bac*ing >usually polypropylene@ to form tufts.
b. :eedle punched carpets F are produced by a manufacturing method that
punches the fibers into a structural bac*ing and then compresses the fibers
into a felt-li*e fabric. It is used mainly in indoor-outdoor carpets.
c. &loc*ed carpets F are produced by electrostatically embedding short carpet
fibers into a bac*ing, producing a elety-loo* cut pile surface.
d. Gnitted carpets F are produced by a method that uses a specialized *nitting
machine with different sets of needles to loop together the pile, bac*ing,
and the stitching yarns.
e. Beaed F is the traditional way of ma*ing carpet on a loom.
arp#t 0aint#nan"#*
a. Inspection and Preention
b. Interim )leaning Aethod
c. !estoratie )leaning Aethod
d. $pot )leaning
a. Inspection and Preention.
The most fre-uent actiity, which should occur on a continual basis. )arpets need
to be inspected for spills and stains, which are far easier to remoe if they are treated
before they hae a chance to set.
Preention includes the use of mats to absorb dirt and spills around food
preparation areas and the use of grates, trac*-off mats, and carpet runners to absorb dirt
and grit and control wear at entrances and in high-foot-traffic locations.
b. Interim )leaning Aethod.
Interim cleaning methods include carpet sweeping, acuuming, bonnet cleaning,
and spot stain remoal.
Interim carpet care is absolutely necessary to remoe gritty soil and spots before
these elements become embedded in the carpet, causing the pile to wear prematurely.
c. !estoratie )leaning Aethods.
Interim cleaning methods do not remoe the gummy, stic*y residues and the dry
particulates that hae become stuc* to them. Eeep cleaning methods must be employed to
restore the carpet to a near original condition.
&our !estoratie )arpet )leaning $ystems.
a. Bater e%traction
b. Ery foam
c. Ery powder
d. !otary shampoo
d. $pot )leaning
$pot and spills call for immediate action. If allowed to set, many substances can
permanently stain a carpet, especially one that is made of nylon or wool.
)arpet Problems.
a. Pile distortion
b. $hading
c. &ading
d. Bic*ing
e. Aildew
f. $hedding # pilling
a. Pile Eistortion.
( general term for a number of problems with the carpet8s face fibers. &ibers can
become twisted, pilled, crushed, or flared and matted. Pile distortion occurs when the
carpet receies heay foot or e-uipment traffic. Improper cleaning methods can also
cause pile distortion.
b. $hading.
$hading occurs when the pile in a carpet is brushed in two different directions so
that dar* and light areas appear. $hading is normal feature of almost all
carpets#Jacuuming or pile lifting the carpet in one direction can help to reduce a shading
problem, but will probably not eliminate it.
c. &ading.
+ery carpet will fade with time. $unlight, wear, cleaning, and natural aging can
combine to accelerate color loss. Premature fading may occur if the carpet is improperly
cleaned. Improper cleaning or spot remoal can actually do more damage than some
permanent stains. (lways pretests carpets before using aggressie spot-remoal
d. Bic*ing.
Bic*ing >sometimes called browning@ occurs when the bac*ing of the carpet
becomes wet and the face yarns draw or wic* the moisture and color of the bac*ing to the
surface of the carpet. Bic*ing can often be preented by promptly attending to spills and
by following proper cleaning procedures that aoid oer wetting the carpet.
e. Aildew.
Aildew forms when moisture allows molds in the carpet to grow. Aildew can
cause staining, odor, and rotting. :atural fibers are especially prone to mildew, but all
carpets should be *ept dry and#or treated with an antibacterial to preent the problem.
Proper cleaning procedures that aoid oer wetting the carpet can help preent mildew
from forming.
f. $hedding # Pilling.
$hort pieces of face fibers are often trapped in the carpet when it is manufactured.
(s the new carpet is wal*ed upon, these pieces wor* themseles to the surface of the
carpet and can ma*e a new carpet loo* littered and un*empt. $hedding will eentually
top. In the meantime, fre-uent acuuming will preent the carpet from loo*ing littered.
Pilling, often the result of cleaning can be remoed by heay acuuming or by gently
cutting loose fibers from the carpet with scissors.
A. T!# Prin"ipl#s o$ D#si(n*
a. +mphasis
b. 'alance
c. Proportion and $cale
d. !hythm
e. Harmony
f. Hnity
a% +mphasis.
+mphasis is achieed in a floral design by creating an accented area or a focal
point. The focal point is the area of an arrangement that will draw the most attention
and will direct the eye of a iewer to a specific location within the design.
The purpose of the focal flowers is to draw isually all elements of the design to a
single location, the center of interest. (n accent will e%ist wheneer contrast is
present in a design. This contrast may be in the form of flower sizes, colors, te%tures,
or shapes. The most stri*ing contrast in a design is created by use of brightly colored
flowers at the center of interest, with less ibrant tones or tints used as the flowers
approach the perimeter of the design.
The flowers, howeer, should neer be crowded to form a tightened mass of
blossoms. ,enerally, it will not be necessary to allow indiidual blooms to touch each
other; rather, they should appear loose and natural, with some foliage protruding
between the petals. +mphasis can mostly easily be achieed in a design when the
smallest, least-open flowers are placed at the perimeter of the arrangement and the
large, fully deeloped flowers are located at the focal point. &lowers with uni-ue
shapes also attract attention; using arying degrees of flower and foliage te%tures
within an arrangement may create another stri*ing contrast. )oarser te%tures will
appear to hae more isual weight so they will be best used at the focal point. (n
accessory such as ribbons or bow is often used by retail florists to create emphasis in
bou-uets and corsages. The contrast in te%ture or color will place the emphasis at the
lip of the container.
b% 'alance.
( well-designed arrangement will appear to be stable and self-supporting. (n
arrangement should possess both mechanical and isual balance. Aechanical balance
is achieed when the container is the proper size and weight for the size of flowers
being used with it. The design should hae the flowers distributed properly so that the
containers will support them. This is accomplished by the conergence of lines at the
focal point. The flower and foliage stems should appear to arise from a single central
location in the container.
(n arrangement may be composed of symmetrical or asymmetrical balance. (
symmetrical design will appear to be the same on each side of a ertical centerline. (
formal balance is created when the focal point is centered in the container. Aany
floral design styles are arranged with asymmetrical balance. This gies the
appearance of a more natural design and allows the arranger more originality in his or
her wor*. The size relationship of flower stems, distance from the focal point, and
color density must be considered in this type of balance.
&lowers are arranged from the bac* of the container toward the front and sides.
Eepth and isual balance are created in the design when the rear flower stems tip
bac*ward slightly, and the focal flower is placed well in front of the lip of the
container. &lower heights are gradually lowered, as each flower is placed closer to the
front of the arrangement. 'alance is maintained by grading flowers by color, te%ture,
size and spacing. This gies the arrangement a feeling of depth and support.
c% Proportion and $cale.
( floral arrangement appears best when all the component flowers are related in
size, color, te%ture, and shape. The scale of a design is dictated by the size of
arrangement and its relationship to its surroundings. Proportion in an arrangement is
accomplished by scaling flowers toward the focal point. This means that the smallest
buds are placed farthest from the isual center of the design. The flowers are then
graduated in size by the placement of increasingly larger flowers in the arrangement
until the center of interest is reached.
The use of negatie spaces or oids within the arrangement is e-ually as
important as sizes of flowers in creating a pleasing proportion. &lowers are placed at
the same heights within the design will fight for e-ual attention. $paces without
flowers are purposely left to allow each bloom to be iewed singly. ( isual line is
left uncompleted with the oid balanced by flowers to create the cured line of the
design. The absence of flowers in these areas adds interests and proportion within the
,ood proportion in an arrangement is created by establishing a pleasing scale
relationship of the flowers to the container. ( generally accepted rule of floral design
states that for a tall container, plant material should be at least one and one-half to
two times the height of the ase. &or low, flat containers, the height of an
arrangement is at least one and one-half to two times the width. This rule is not
ironclad and may be altered proided that good proportion in the design is
(n arrangement that would e%ceed these height limitations would be one where
ery isually lightweight foliage and flowers are used. 'alance and proportion are
easily maintained in a tall, delicate-appealing design. ( horizontal style design will
hae its primary a%is running along its width. The height of this type of design would
be drastically reduced from the designated rules.
d% !hythm.
!hythm is the apparent flow of lines, te%tures, or colors that e%presses a feeling of
motion rather than confusion in an arrangement. Aotion is created most easily in a
design haing a cured line. Here, the iewer is attracted gently from the top of the
arrangement along the curing elements of line or te%ture or color through to its focal
point, the center of interest. !hythm may be achieed in seeral ways F through
opposition, repetition, or transition.
Bhen flowers haing the same color, te%ture, or form are placed at opposing
points away from the focal point, the center of interest is emphasized. These opposing
flowers create a balance in the design that naturally leads the eye from one point,
through the focal area, and on to the other side of the design. This eye moement is
the result of the isual motion within the design.
The repetition of the same flower types throughout an arrangement ties all the
parts into a single unit. The iewer will see the entire design through a repeated use of
the same colors, te%tures, or flower shapes. Bhen flowers are placed with their stems
originating at the focal point, they will appear to radiate from the center of the design.
This radiation from a single point will create an emphasis at the center of interest and
will proide a isual moement as well.
( transition in color and te%ture or the gradation of scaled flower sizes can also be
used to create motion in a design. The dar*est or brightest color may be placed at the
focal point. &rom the center to the outer edges of the arrangement, the intensity or
tone of the color is graded to be more subdued. ( similar use of te%ture--uality
transition will be effectie in creating motion within the design that leads the eye to
the center of interest in the arrangement.
e. Harmony.
Bhen an arrangement possesses harmony, all the design parts will fit together
into a pleasing composition of flower shapes, colors, te%tures, and sizes. This could
be interpreted to mean that the idea or theme of the design has been successfully
created. In order for harmony to be achieed all the component parts of the design
must be in an appealing relationship.
f. Hnity.
Hnity is created when all the design parts blend together without a noticeable
separation. (lthough each flower or area of the arrangement may be distinctie, all
elements must isually blend together. Hnity is best achieed by repeating related
flower types, colors, and te%tures throughout the design. This helps to pull the
components together with the focal point as the center of interest. Bhen one color or
type of flower is used only at the perimeter of the arrangement and another at the
center, the iewer of the design will feel a lac* of unity.
%. T!# El#&#nts o$ D#si(n*
a. Line
b. &orm
c. Te%ture
d. Pattern
e. )olor
f. $pace
a% Line.
Line in a flower arrangement is the isual path the eye trael as it passes through
the arrangement. The line establishes the s*eleton of the design particularly when
linear flowers or foliages are used. This element produces the underlying framewor*
of the arrangement that holds the composition together.
( ertical line gies the arrangement an appearance of strength. ( cured line
adds gentleness or gracefulness and gies the impression of motion. ( horizontal line
is more rela%ing or informal, so is used most often for table arrangements.
b% &orm.
The flowers, foliages and containers used in flower arrangements hae arious
shapes or forms. &lower and foliage shapes add a isual -uality that is important in
deeloping harmony, creating rhythm and establishing a focal point. &orm is also
e%pressed by the geometric shape that creates the outline of the design.
c4 'e,ture:
Te%ture refers to such tactile or surface -ualities of flowers and foliage as
smoothness glossiness, and roughness, the way something feels. This -uality of
te%ture may be e%pressed either as a physical or a isual characteristic of the plant
material. 'asically it inoles the sense of touch, which is then e%perienced isually.
#4 %attern:
Pattern applies to the contour of a composition and the grouping of materials
within it. Pattern is monotonous if placements are uniform and forms unaried, but it
will be confused if assorted flowers are randomly spotted causing the eye to 2ump
about. Pattern relates to continuity, since the distribution of lines and forms can
proceed either logically or in a dis2ointed way that disrupts unity. The pattern of a
design and that of the indiidual materials influence each other.
Patterns are different *inds F intricate, bold, open, dense, regular, and irregular.
The pattern of the materials often identifies the style, as traditional, modern, oriental,
or naturalistic.
e% )olor:
Probably the most important factor in the compatibility of materials is their color,
because color commands the most attention, causes the strongest reaction, and often
accounts for success or failure.
f4 S!ace:
It is difficult to thin* of space as a positie element of design. Hsually we regard
it as emptiness without limits or definition. In a design, if we mar* off space or
enclose it, or if we cut out sections in a solid and leae them open, then space
assumes shape.
Fa"tors in t!# S#l#"tion o$ ontain#rs*
In flower arrangement, a container has connotation beyond the dictionary
definition of /a thing that contains0; it encompasses more than a ases and bowls, bo%,
can, 2ar or crate. In floral wor*, a container transcends its practical purpose and becomes
an artistic component of design, an integral part of it.
Thus two factors F size and decoratie -ualities F determine the suitability of a
container to a design. (s the first re-uirement is to hold materials, it must hae an
opening ade-uate for a number of stems and a -uantity of flowers and foliage as well as
enough water to sustain them. (rrangement and container must be in proportion, the
container neither so large that it oerpowers the arrangement nor so small that the design
dwarfs the ase. ( container must be sturdy enough to balance the weight and breadth of
a -uantity of material.
Eecoratiely a container may be of little interest or it may ma*e a positie
contribution through color, form, or te%ture. +%cept in modern design where it may be
featured, a container is usually of less importance than plant material. In any case, a
container should share the characteristics of a design, be e-ually formal or casual, and be
related in color but not so intense or aried in hue, highly glazed or patterned that it
)ompatibility also depends on similarity of style and shape, container and design
correspondingly traditional, modern, naturalistic, or oriental. The color, te%ture, and style
of a container should be in *eeping with the setting or mood of an occasion, and hae the
same degree of elegance or informality, the same air of gaiety or restraint.
In collecting containers, be guided also by the dimensions and shape of the area
and furniture that will be use for their display and for the type of arrangements to ma*e.