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G.K. Purushothama

a

, A.U. Narendranath

a

, D. Thukaram

b

, K Parthasarathy

b,

*

a

Department of Electrical Engineering, Malnad College of Engineering, Hassan, India

b

Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India

Received 8 October 1998; revised 29 May 2000; accepted 17 June 2000

Abstract

Recent developments indicate that Articial Neural Networks (ANNs) may be appropriate for assisting dispatchers in operating electric

power systems. The fault location algorithm being a key element in the digital relay for power transmission line protection, this paper

discusses the potential applicability of ANN techniques for determination of fault location and fault resistance on EHV transmission lines

with remote end in-feed. Most of the applications make use of the conventional Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) model based on back

propagation algorithm. However, this model suffers from the problem of slow learning rate. A modied ANN learning technique for fault

location and fault resistance determination is presented in this paper. A reasonably small NN is built automatically without guessing the size,

depth, and connectivity pattern of the NN in advance. Results of study on a 400 kV transmission line are presented for illustration purposes.

Performance of the modied ANN is compared with the analytical algorithms and conventional MLP algorithm for different combinations of

pre-fault loading condition, fault resistance and fault location. The results are found to be encouraging. q 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All

rights reserved.

Keywords: Neural networks; Fault

1. Introduction

In recent years, many interesting applications of Articial

Neural Networks (ANNs) have been reported in power

system areas [1], such as, load forecasting, unit commit-

ment, security assessment and Fault Analysis [2]. ANNs

have attracted much attention due to their computational

speed and robustness. ANNs have become an alternative

to modeling of physical systems such as a transmission

line. Absence of full information is not as big a problem

in ANNs as it is in the other methodologies. A major advan-

tage of the ANN approach is that the domain knowledge is

distributed in the neurons and information processing is

carried out in a parallel distributed manner. Therefore

ANN reaches the desired solution rather efciently.

It is shown that a multilayer perceptron with a sigmoidal

activation rule and up to two hidden layers has extremely

powerful representational capabilities. However, popularly

used MLP model suffers from slow learning rate and the

need to guess the number of hidden layers and neurons in

each hidden layer. Fahlman et al. [3] suggested an improve-

ment over conventional MLP technique both in the learning

algorithm and ANN architecture. This paper presents a

modied ANN approach for determination of fault location

and fault resistance on a transmission line.

Distance relays for transmission-line protection, though

give an indication of faulty line and type of fault, they may

under-reach/over-reach depending upon pre-fault loading,

fault resistance and remote-end in-feeds. With immediate

knowledge of accurate fault location, and an approximate

value of fault resistance, the cause of the fault can be iden-

tied quickly, facilitating repair and restoration. Even where

helicopters are immediately available for patrol following

unsuccessful reclosing, fault locators perform a valuable

service. Trouble cannot always be found with a routine

patrol with no indication of where the fault occurred. For

example, tree growth could reduce clearances, resulting in a

ash over during severe conductor sagging. By the time the

patrol arrives, the conductors have cooled, increasing the

clearance to the tree. The weak spot is not obvious. The

importance of fault locators is more obvious where foot

patrols are relied upon, particularly on long lines, in rough

terrain. Also locators can help where maintenance jurisdic-

tion is divided between different companies or divisions

Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506

0142-0615/01/$ - see front matter q 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S0142-0615(00)00068-5

www.elsevier.com/locate/ijepes

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 191-080-334441; fax: 191-080-3341683.

E-mail addresses: uttama@ee.iisc.ernet.in (G.K. Purushothama),

narendra@suraksha.ee.iisc.ernet.in (A.U. Narendranath),

dtram@ee.iisc. ernet.in (D. Thukaram),

kp@suraksha.ee.iisc.ernet.in (K. Parthasarathy).

within a company. Fault locators are valuable even where

the line has been restored either automatically or non-auto-

matically. In this category are faults caused by cranes

swinging into the line, brushres, damaged insulators and

vandalism. The locator allows rapid arrival at the site before

the evidence is removed or the trail becomes cold. Also, the

knowledge that repeat faults are occurring in the same area

can be valuable in detecting the cause. Weak spots that are

not obvious, but threaten further trouble, may be found

because a more thorough inspection can be focussed in

the limited area dened by the fault locator [4].

Accuracy in establishing the location of a fault is of parti-

cular importance in improving post-fault procedures linked

with line inspection and maintenance/repair work

programmes. In view of the large number of variables

involved in determination of accurate fault location, at

rst it appears to be hard to deal with. The main factors

inuencing the fault location are:

parallel power corridors;

source impedances;

remote-end in-feed;

magnitude and arguments of current distribution factors,

line charging.

The problem is further complicated by the inuence of

pre-fault load current (exporting and importing cases) and

by the wide range of fault conditions which may arise in

practice [4]. Fault location schemes which use either both

local and remote-end relay signals or local relay signals only

are suggested in literature [410]. Schemes which use only

local relaying signals, enjoy the advantage of not requiring a

data link from the remote-end. However, some of these

schemes leave certain issues unresolved, such as, the

assumption of same arguments for the current distribution

factors of the parts of the network located on either side of

the fault point [6], and excluding the effect of shunt capa-

citance in determining fault point [4]. Schemes which need

both end information [5,10], need same inputs irrespective

of the type of fault. However, variation in source impedance

demands the re-learning of the fault locating function.

Analytical techniques covered in the literature [48,10,11]

need impedance values as inputs. Accuracy of these

measurements (Z

SA

, Z

SB

, etc.) affect the accuracy of compu-

tation. Therefore there is a need to have a method which is

independent of the impedance measurements. This paper

proposes an approach based on a modied ANN learning

algorithm, using

only the local relay signals;

both end information;

which should lead to a better and accurate fault locator

(distance) andfault resistance (R

f

) indicator for EHVtransmis-

sion lines with remote-end in-feed. Indication of fault resis-

tance assists in identifying the fault quickly and facilitates

repair and restoration. The developed ANN models have

been tested on a 400 kV, 300 km transmission line of a 24

bus EHV power network. Performance of proposed ANN

based methods are compared with the conventional analytical

methods. Results are presented for the purpose of illustration.

2. Analytical methods for fault location

The analytical methods used for fault location, reported in

literature, use either steady state phasor approach, the differ-

ential equation approach and the traveling-wave approach.

A steady state phasor (equivalent system) approach is

shown in Fig. 1. Procedure for designing a fault locator

[11] can be outlined as follows:

A system or line model is chosen which is best suitable

for representing the system conditions under a fault.

A relaying function based on the line model is obtained.

This function will establish the relationship between the

available waveforms measured during the fault and the

fault distance. An appropriate ltering technique is used

to obtain the required waveforms. Both pre-fault wave-

forms and the post-fault transient waveforms can be used.

The calculation of the fault distance using the relaying

function and the line model chosen.

The above procedure should be carried out within a speci-

ed time window for data acquisition, data processing, fault

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 492

L

(1-p)Z p Z

L

Z

SA

Z

SB

E

A

E

B

Z

SA

Z

SB

E

A

E

B

A

B

G

R

f

I

ldA I

ldB

I

A

I

B

V

A

V

B

I

f

Fig. 1. Equivalent faulted network Eriksson's method.

type identication and distance calculation with the required

level of condence. A tradeoff between speed and accuracy

can generally be observed in each algorithm discussed in the

literature. Some of the popularly used methods reported in

literature are reviewed in the following sections.

2.1. Eriksson's method

Eriksson et al. [4] suggested a fault locator for a transmis-

sion line with remote-end in-feed solving the network rigor-

ously using the one terminal data (V

A

, I

A

and I

fA

). The

equivalent source impedances (Z

SA

and Z

SB

) were assumed

to be known.

Computation of fault location using Eriksson's method is

dened as follows (refer Table 1 and Fig. 1):

V

A

, V

B

, terminal voltages (complex) measured at A and B,

respectively.

I

A

, I

B

, line currents (complex) measured at A and B,

respectively.

I

ldA

, I

ldB

, pre-fault currents (complex) measured at A and

B, respectively.

I

fA

, I

fB

, pure fault complex currents (I

A

2I

ldA

and I

B

2

I

ldB

) measured at A and B, respectively.

R, S, T, three phase notations.

R

f

, fault resistance.

p, fraction of the total line length.

Expression for a three phase fault, sending end (node A)

voltage V

A

is the sum of the drop in the line to the fault

point plus the fault point voltage [4]. Neglecting shunt

admittance, expression for the sending end voltage V

A

applicable to any fault is:

V

A

I

A

p p p Z

L

1I

f

p R

f

1

Solving for p

p

2

2p p K

1

1K

2

2K

3

p R

f

0 2

where

K

1

1 1

Z

SB

Z

L

1

V

A

I

A

p Z

L

K

2

V

A

I

A

p Z

L

p 1 1

Z

SB

Z

L

K

3

I

fA

I

A

p Z

L

p 1 1

Z

SB

1Z

SA

Z

L

and I

fA

I

A

p D

A

; D

A

being the distribution factor for the

network under consideration,

D

A

1 2pZ

L

1Z

SB

Z

SA

1Z

L

1Z

SB

The above complex Eq. (2) contains two unknowns p and R

f

.

After separating the above complex equation into real and

imaginary simultaneous equations, R

f

can be eliminated.

Finally, expression for p can be derived solving the

quadratic equation in p.

The Eq. (2) shows the relationship between V

A

, I

A

, I

fA

, Z

SA

and Z

SB

in determining fault location. The absence of line

charging capacitance in the equation for fault location,

introduces error in estimated fault location when applied

for EHV transmission lines. Another limitation of this

method is exclusion of the effect of multiple power corridors

normally present in any power network. This drawback

when coupled with high resistance fault and fault nearer

the receiving end (measurements at the sending end) results

in erroneous solution.

2.2. Takagi's method

Takagi et al. [6] considered long line representation for

transmission line in determining location of fault. In this

method, the assumption of same angles for fault current

and pure fault current contribution from side-A leads to

error during high resistance fault under heavily loaded

pre-fault conditions. This method [6] calculates the distance

to a fault point based on the following equation, which

expresses a fault point voltage V

f

and current in the fault

path I

f

using the one-terminal data.

V

f

V

A

coshgp 2Z

s

I

s

sinhgp 3

I

fA

V

fA

Z

s

sinhgp 2I

fA

coshgp 4

After making two approximations namely, tanhgp gp

and angle of I

f

angle of I

fA

; the distance p is obtained

using the one-terminal data as in the following equation.

p

imagV

A

I

p

fA

imagZ

L

I

A

I

p

fA

5

where

p

represents conjugate of the parameter considered.

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 493

Table 1

Measurements processed for various fault types (Eriksson's method and

Takagi's method) K

N

Z

L0

2Z

L1

=3Z

L1

: Z

L0

, Z

L1

are zero sequence

and positive sequence line impedances. I

NA

3I

0A

: AI

RA

, etc. pure

fault current i.e. during fault currentpre-fault current

Type of

fault

V

A

I

A

I

fA

RN V

RA

I

RA

1K

N

I

NA

3

2

AI

RA

2I

0A

SN V

SA

I

SA

1K

N

I

NA

3

2

AI

SA

2I

0A

TN V

TA

I

TA

1K

N

I

NA

3

2

AI

TA

2I

0A

RST

RS V

RA

2V

SA

I

RA

2I

SA

AI

RSA

RSN

ST

STN V

SA

2V

TA

I

SA

2I

TA

AI

STA

TR

TRN V

TA

2V

RA

I

TA

2I

RA

AI

TRA

2.3. Zamora's method

Zamora et al. [5] proposed a method for locating faults in

two-terminal transmission lines based on fundamental

components of fault and pre-fault voltage at the two ends

of a transmission line. This approach is independent of fault

and pre-fault currents, fault type, fault resistance, synchro-

nization condition of register devices located on line ends,

and unbalanced pre-fault condition. Distance factor K

v

which relates the measurements to the fault location, is

dened for given source impedances.

K

v

V

A1

V

B1

6

where V

A1

V

fault

A1

2V

pre fault

A1

positive sequence pure fault

voltage at side A and V

B1

V

fault

B1

2V

pre fault

B1

positive

sequence pure fault voltage at side B

This factor is a function only of the impedances of the

network model and the distance p to the fault point. The

distance to fault point will be determined from the numer-

ical value of K

v

(dening the fault) and the mathematical

function of K

v

(determined for the particular transmission

line under analysis) for a given Z

SA

, Z

SB

and Z

EQ

. If the

source impedances change then the function is to be modi-

ed to accommodate the change in source impedance. For

varying values of source impedances, distance factor, K

v

, is

plotted against fault location in Fig. 2. It can be observed

that for the same value of K

v

, determined fault location is

having a wide variation. Method proposed by Mazon et al.

[10] also suffers from this disadvantage. Another disadvan-

tage of this method is the inability to determine the fault

resistance, because the distance factor is independent of R

f

.

2.4. Measurements required for analytical methods

The complex Eq. (2) contains the unknown p and R

f

.

After separating the above complex equation into real and

imaginary simultaneous equations R

f

can be eliminated.

Finally, expression for p can be derived solving the quad-

ratic equation in p. R

f

can be determined from Eq. (2) by

substituting the value of p.

Eriksson's method and Takagi's method use the terminal

voltage (V

A

) and currents (I

A

) during fault. In addition to

these two values, pure fault current (I

fA

) is also used in order

to compensate for the initial load current, remote-end in-

feed and fault resistance. Zamora's method uses pure fault

positive sequence voltages, V

fA

, V

fB

, on either side the line

under consideration, Thus based on the equations given in

[4] it can be concluded that the measurements indicated in

Table 1 are sufcient to determine fault location and fault

resistance using Eriksson's method and Takagi's method. In

Zamora's method [5], pure-fault positive sequence voltages

(V

fA

, V

fB

) on either sides of the line under consideration are

needed to determine the fault location irrespective of the

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 494

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

0.8

0.9

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

fault location in per unit length

d

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

f

a

c

t

o

r

K

v

zsa=0.0002+j0.025, zsb=0.0003+j0.033

zsa=0.0002+j0.025, zsb=0.0007+j0.067

zsa=0.0005+j0.05, zsb=0.0003+j0.033

zsa=0.0005+j0.05, zsb=0.0007+j0.067

Fig. 2. Effect of source impedance on distance factor (K

v

).

type of fault. The parameters like Z

SA

, Z

SB

, (source impe-

dances of side-A and side-B, respectively) Z

L1

and Z

L0

(posi-

tive and zero sequence line impedances, respectively) are

also used in Eriksson's method and Takagi's method. Lack

of information about network impedances may pose

problem in these analytical methods of fault location.

However, the proposed ANN approach (Section 3) learns

these parameters also while learning the functional relation-

ship between the measurements made at the terminals and

the fault location.

3. Proposed ANN approaches

Two ANN approaches are proposed. ANN approach-1

uses only local measurements, whereas, ANN approach-2

uses both local and remote-end measurements.

The ANN based fault location approaches use the normal-

ized values of pre-fault and fault currents and pre-fault and

fault voltages measured at side-A and side-B of the trans-

mission line system shown in Fig. 3 to determine the

distance to fault. Current and voltage samples are continu-

ously measured. Following a signal from the line protection

at the instant it initiates breaker tripping, current and voltage

samples for six cycles (or till the circuit breaker operates)

are frozen until the completion of the distance-to-fault

computation. Samples are compared for a signicant

change. The required threshold for the current change is

adaptive, depending on the pre-fault current level. The

voltage threshold is xed as generally voltage remains

within a narrow band i.e. around 1 pu. If no change is

found, a one-sample advance occurs and the procedure is

repeated.

3.1. ANN approach 1

This approach uses only local measurements and it is

based on the Eq. (2) derived in the Section 2.1. ANN is

made to learn the relation between pure fault current, during

fault voltage, zero sequence current (if any) and fault loca-

tion p, fault resistance R

f

. The proposed ANN structure is

shown in Fig. 4. It consists of seven ANNs, one ANN each

for different type of fault (totaling six) and one ANN for

identifying the type of fault. The input consists of pre-fault

and post-fault currents and post-fault voltages of three

phases. Various inputs to different fault locator ANNs are

indicated in Table 2.

Depending on type of fault, the number of inputs to

the neural network will vary. Single line- to-ground

fault locator ANNs (RN, SN, TN) have four inputs, viz.

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 495

SA

Z Z

SB

D

Z

SA

Z

SB

Z

E

A

E

B

Z

SA

Z

SB

Z

E

A

E

B

p Z

L

(1-p)Z

L

EQ

A

B

G

pZ

L

(1-p)Z

L

R

f

SA

Z Z

D

Z Z

D

EQ

SB EQ

G

R

f

A B

D = Z + Z + Z

SA SB EQ

where,

I

A

I

I

B

F

Eliminating the Delta ABG;

Fig. 3. Distribution factor determination.

pre-fault current, post-fault current and voltage on the

faulty phase and zero sequence current. Similarly line-

to-line fault, double-line-to-ground fault and three-phase

fault ANNs have six inputs, viz. pre-fault and post-fault

line currents and two post-fault line voltages on faulty

phases (or any two faulty phases for three-phase fault).

In addition to these inputs each ANN receives one more

input from fault type identier. This will enable the ANN

corresponding to that type of fault and disabling other

ANNs.

The fault type indicator enables the corresponding ANN

based on the signal from line protection. There will be two

neurons in the output layer. Output of these neurons indicate

the fraction of the line length (p), where fault has occurred

and fault resistance (R

f

).

3.2. ANN approach-2

This approach is based on both local and remote-end

measurements. Zamora et al. [5] have proposed a method

for locating faults in two-terminal transmission lines. The

procedure is based on the fundamental components of fault

and pre-fault voltage at 50/60 Hz measured at the two ends

of a transmission line. The methodology allows one to

establish a direct calculation procedure that is independent

of fault and pre-fault currents, fault type, fault resistance,

synchronization condition of register devices located on line

ends, and pre-fault condition, either balanced or not. This is

achieved by dening a new concept called distance factor.

This method is suitable when the fault has been previously

detected. The distance factor establishes a one-to-one rela-

tionship between the pure-fault voltages of positive

sequence and distance to the fault point (p). This relation-

ship is a function only of the impedances of positive

sequence present in the model i.e. on the source strength

and line admittances. However, distance factor is not a

function of fault resistance, which makes this method not

suitable for determining the fault resistance. Another draw-

back of this method is that it needs two end measurements as

inputs. Derivation of distance factor is as follows:

V

Ad

V

Bd

f

1

Z

Ad

; Z

Bd

; Z

Ld

; Y

Ld

; Z

EQd

; pI

Fd

f

2

Z

Ad

; Z

Bd

; Z

Ld

; Y

Ld

; Z

EQd

; pI

Fd

7

where Y

Ld

/Z

Ld

is the pos. seq. line admittance/impedance;

Z

Ad

, Z

Bd

the pos. seq. source impedances; Z

EQd

the Pos. seq.

equiv. parallel line impedance; I

Fd

the pos. seq. pure fault

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 496

INPUT TO

ANN

Fault Type

A N N

R N

S N

T N

R S , R S N

S T, S T N

T R, T R N, R ST

OUTPUT

Fault

Location p

Fault

Resistance R

f

Fig. 4. Proposed ANN structure (ANN approach-1).

Table 2

Inputs for ANN Approach-1

Type of fault Inputs

RN,SN,TN Pre-fault phase current

(SLG fault) During fault phase current

During fault phase voltage

Zero sequence current

RS,RT,ST, Pre-fault phase currents

RSN,RTN,STN During fault phase currents

(LL and LLG fault) During fault phase voltages

(Only phases involved in fault)

RST Pre-fault phase currents

(3 Phase fault) During fault phase currents

During fault phase voltages

(Any two of the phase quantities)

current V

Ad

, V

Bd

the pos. seq. pure fault terminal voltages

p fault location

As the impedances/admittances in the above equation are

either known or can be easily determined from the informa-

tion available on the system condition at the time the fault

occurred, the relationship can be expressed as

V

Ad

V

Bd

f

3

p 8

Distance factor K

v

is dened as the module of the quotient of

the two voltages of positive sequence resulting from the

pure fault on both ends of the line. Therefore this distance

factor is independent from voltage phase difference between

the two ends, and thus from the synchronization of register

devices located on both ends of the line.

K

v

V

Ad

V

Bd

u f

3

u 9

This factor is a function only of the impedances of the line

model (already known) and the distance p to the fault point,

which is the unknown value to be determined. The distance

to fault point will be determined from the numerical value of

K

v

(dening the fault) and the mathematical function of K

v

(determined for the particular transmission line under

analysis).

In the previous paragraphs it is shown that ratio of pure

fault positive sequence voltages of either sides of a trans-

mission line is directly related to fault location. This holds

good for a given line impedance (Z

L

), equivalent parallel

line impedance (Z

EQ

) and more importantly a xed source

strength (Z

SA

, Z

SB

). If there is a variation in source strengths

of either side because of any addition or loss of generation,

the mathematical function has to be re-evaluated. Thus the

use of a ratio may limit the amount of information encom-

passed in pure fault positive sequence voltages. Rather than

taking ratio of the two, if an ANN is made to learn the

relation between pure fault positive sequence voltages

and fault location, the mapping will be better. This is

attempted in the second approach in which, pure fault

positive sequence voltages of either sides of a transmis-

sion line are presented as inputs to the ANN irrespective

of the type of fault, fault resistance, pre-fault condition

etc. However, this set of inputs cannot help in estimating

the fault resistance as positive sequence voltage and

currents alone do not contain any information about

fault resistance (except for a three-phase fault with

balanced pre-fault condition). In order to make the

ANN estimate the fault resistance in case of faults invol-

ving ground (SLG, LLG), both positive and zero sequence

pure fault voltages on either sides are included in the

input set. This approach is shown in Fig. 5. The various

inputs to be presented to ANN in this approach are given

in Table 3.

In effect there are two ANN approaches used in locat-

ing the fault and estimating the fault resistance as shown

in the Table 4. For a LL fault and three-phase fault, R

f

is

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 497

not

Rf indicating

ANN

R

f

(Fault

involving ground)

Pos. Seq.

pure fault V Fault Locating

ANN

Seq. pure fault V

INPUT

TOANN

Pos. and Neg. (if any)

Rf indicating

ANN

Seq. pure fault V

Pos. and Zero

(Fault

involving ground)

p

R

f

Fig. 5. Proposed ANN structure (ANN approach-2).

Table 3

Inputs for ANN Approach-2

Output Inputs

For all types of faults

Fault location, p During fault positive sequence voltage and

Pre-fault positive sequence voltage of either sides

Fault resistance, R

f

SLG and LLG fault LL and 3 phase fault

Inputs needed for

fault location and

Zero seq. voltage

Inputs needed for fault

location and Neg. seq. voltage

(if any)

Table 4

Proposed ANN approaches

Approach 1

(one end measurements)

Approach 2

(two end measurements)

Fault type is necessary Fault type is not necessary

for locating fault

Inputs depend on type of

fault for both p and R

f

Inputs depend on type of

fault for R

f

only

estimated by taking both positive and negative sequence

(if any) pure fault voltages of both ends as inputs.

3.3. Effect of network connectivity on ANN training

For a change in network connectivity, following a contin-

gency such as a line outage or generator outage, ANN has to

be retrained to reect the change in network operating

conditions. The change in network operating conditions

may affect source impedances or equivalent parallel line

impedance or both. For credible set of contingencies, a set

of ANNs can also be trained beforehand so that it can be

directly put into service if the need arises. Each line in the

system requiring fault location facility needs a trained ANN

to locate the fault.

3.4. Formation of phasor values for testing of ANNs

The approaches described for fault location use phasor

values of the line voltages and currents. The simplest

method of forming phasor values from sampled data values

is to use the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) evaluated at

power system frequency. The result from the DFT will be in

terms of real and imaginary parts that can then be readily

converted to phasor form where necessary. Whereas in a

digital relay, the digital ltering function is compromised

with the relay operating time, in fault location there is more

freedom on allowing lter delay. Thus in addition to the

fundamental (50 Hz) phasor extraction, extensive digital

ltering of the sampled values prior to the application of

the DFT may be applied to ensure removal of all non-50 Hz

components.

The Fourier transform allows conversion from time to

frequency domain. The need to have knowledge on the

frequency spectrum of some time domain waveforms,

such as power system voltage and current, demands the

use of Fourier transforms. The Fourier transform can be

adapted for use on discrete time signals as such it is

referred to as the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). In

this case, DFT is used to analyze the time domain waveform

and hence calculate the frequency spectrum together with

the associated phase information. This is of particular rele-

vance to protection where it is clearly advantageous to esti-

mate the 50 Hz component of a power system waveform

corrupted by noise.

DFT, for transforming from time to frequency domains, is

implemented as two equations:

ReXm

X

N 21

k0

xn 2k cos

2pmk

N

10

ImXm

X

N 21

k0

xn 2k sin

2pmk

N

11

where N is the number of samples in the discrete time

sequence xn; m is called the harmonic index, (it species

which frequency the DFT will evaluate) and Xm is the

frequency component. Since sampling produces discrete

time signals, so the DFT produces discrete frequencies.

Taking a sampling frequency of 2 kHz, there will be a 40-

sample window (40 points in the impulse response), and the

DFT delay will be 20 ms. Frequency response of this lter

has a pass band centered on 50 Hz and excellent rejection of

harmonics. Though it is unable to give ultra-high-speed

performance due to a minimum of one cycle delay, for

fault location purpose it gives accurate results.

The Electro Magnetic Transient Programme (EMTP) is

run to simulate ten types of faults viz. RN, SN, TN, RS,

RSN, ST, STN, TR, TRN and RST (Fig. 6). Discrete values

of currents and voltages at a sampling rate of 2 kHz (40 per

cycle) are presented as input to DFT. The output of DFT

contains phasor values of currents and voltages of all three

phases. This output is stored in a cyclical buffer (B

c

). When

a fault is detected, the present fundamental values of

currents and voltages are frozen for six cycles (or till the

circuit breaker operates) in another buffer (B

f

). Now pre-

fault information is available from cyclical buffer (B

c

) and

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 498

Input

to

Proposed

Method

E M T P

Digital Data

D F T

Phasor Values

Fault

Detected ?

No

Yes

B

f

During

fault data

Pre-fault

Data

Bc

Fig. 6. Test Data Generation.

during fault information is available from other buffer (B

f

).

The phasor quantities of current and voltage extracted in this

way are presented to the ANN for testing purpose, after due

processing like computation of sequence components.

4. ANN Models

Two ANN models have been developed based on conven-

tional MLP technique and Fahlman's [3] Cascade Correla-

tion technique, for locating fault on an EHV transmission

line. Back propagation and quick propagation have been

used for training the conventional MLP model and Fahl-

man's model respectively. Both the models are trained

using the simulated results of steady state fault analysis

program for various,

values of fault resistance;

distance of fault;

pre-fault load and generation conditions.

In approach-1, for each type of fault a separate ANN model

is built, whereas in approach-2 fault locating ANN does not

depend on type of fault. However, R

f

estimating ANN

depends on type of fault, i.e. whether the fault involves

ground or not. Thus two ANNs models are built for estimat-

ing R

f

in approach-2, one for faults involving ground (SLG,

LLG) and another for faults not involving ground (LL,

three-phase). In addition to this, an additional ANN is

needed to determine the type of fault in approach-1.

4.1. Conventional multi layer perceptron model (ANN-

CMLP)

Conventional MLP network [12] consists of nonlinear

differentiable transfer functions. The back-propagation

learning rules are used to adjust the weights and biases of

networks so as to minimize the sum squared error of the

network. This is achieved by continually changing the

values of the network weights and biases in the direction

of steepest descent with respect to error. The back-propaga-

tion training may lead to a local rather than a global mini-

mum. The local minimum that has been found may be

satisfactory, but if it is not, a network with more layers

and neurons may do a better job. However, the number of

neurons or layers to add may not be obvious. Conventional

MLP architecture (Fig. 7), is generally decided by trying

varied combinations of number of hidden layers, number

of nodes in a hidden layer etc. and selecting the architecture

which has a better generalizing ability amongst the tried

combinations [13]. The details of the developed conven-

tional MLP model is given in the Results section. NN

Tool-box of MATLAB [13] is used for developing this

model.

4.2. Cascade correlation model (ANN-CC)

S.E. Fahlman et al. developed a CascadeCorrelation

algorithm [3] which automatically builds a NN for a set of

inputoutput patterns. The two ideas suggested by them are:

cascade architecture;

learning algorithm.

This algorithm uses the quick-prop algorithm [3] instead of

simple, linear gradient descent to update the weights in the

network. Quick-prop uses information about the second

derivative of the error to speed up convergence.

CascadeCorrelation [3] is a supervised learning archi-

tecture that builds a near-minimal multi-layer network

topology in the course of training. Initially the network

contains only inputs, output units, and the connections

between them. This single layer of connections is trained,

using the quick-prop algorithm, to minimize the error. When

no further improvement is seen in the level of error, the

network's performance is evaluated. If the error is small

enough, network building is halted. Otherwise a new hidden

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 499

INPUTS

OUTPUT

Hidden

Layer 1

Hidden

Layer 2

Input

Layer

Output

Layer

Fig. 7. Topology of conventional MLP model.

unit is added to the network in an attempt to reduce the

residual error. Fig. 8 shows the cascade correlation archi-

tecture after two hidden units have been added. The vertical

lines sum all incoming activation: (A) connections are

frozen and ( ) connections are trained repeatedly.

This algorithm eliminates the need for the user to guess in

advance the network's size, depth, and topology. A reason-

ably small (though not necessarily minimal) network is built

automatically. Because a hidden-unit feature detector, once

built, is never altered or cannibalized, the network can be

trained incrementally. A large data set can be broken up into

smaller lessons and feature-building will be cumulative.

The arithmetic operations that occur during learning are

as follows:

E

1

2

X

o;p

y

op

2t

op

2

12

where y

op

is the observed value of output o for training

pattern p, and t

op

is the desired or target output.

E is minimized by gradient using,

e

op

y

op

2t

op

f

0

p

13

2E

2w

oi

X

p

e

op

I

ip

14

where f

0

p

is the derivative of the sigmoid activation function

of the output unit for pattern p, I

ip

is the value of the input (or

hidden unit) i, and w

oi

is the weight connecting input i to

output unit o.

Candidate units are trained to maximize C, the correlation

between the candidate unit's output y and the residual errors

e

o

still observed a outputs of the active network. This corre-

lation is computed over all the training patterns p. C is

dened as

C

X

o

X

p

y

p

2 ye

op

2 e

o

15

where y and e

o

are averages of y and e

o

all patterns p. The

maximization of C proceeds by gradient ascent using,

d

p

X

o

s

o

e

op

2 e

o

f

0

p

16

2C

2w

i

X

p

d

p

I

ip

17

where s

o

is the sign of the correlation between the candidate

unit's value and the residual error at output o. Each candidate

unit in the pool starts froma different set of initial weights and

independently tries to maximize its own C value.

Given the gradient values computed above, E can be

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 500

Hidden

Unit

Hidden

Unit

1

2

Inputs

+1

Output

Unit 1

Output

Unit 2

Outputs

Fig. 8. Cascade correlation architecture after two hidden units have been added.

minimized and C can be maximized by simple gradient

descent (or ascent). Instead to get good convergence in a

reasonable number of cycles, quick-prop algorithm is used to

compute the updates. The weight change Dw is computed by

where 2E=2w and 22C=2w are represented by S(t) and s(t),

respectively.

Fahlman's algorithm is particularly well suited for imple-

mentation on parallel hardware with limited inter-processor

communication. During the candidate-training phase (where

the most time is spent for problems of any complexity), each

of the candidate units receives the same set of inputs and the

same error signal. Each candidate hill-climbs independently

to maximize the correlation between its output and the resi-

dual error. These units do not need to communicate with one

another except to pick a winning unit for installation into the

active net.

Cascade architecture is developed by adding hidden units

to the network one at a time and not changing the coupling

weights once they have been added. Learning algorithm

creates and installs the new hidden units. For each hidden

unit an attempt is made to maximize the magnitude of the

correlation between the new units output and the residual

error signal which is to be minimized.

5. Simulation studies

5.1. Simulation using ANN approach

5.1.1. Generation of training patterns

Training patterns are generated from simulated fault

results of a typical 400 kV, 300 km double circuit transmis-

sion line, between nodes 12 (node A) and 17 (node B), of 24

bus EHV system shown in Fig. 9. The parameters consid-

ered for training are given in Table 5. Training patterns are

generated for various combinations of R

f

, Z

SA

, Z

SB

, p and

initial load at bus B (A node 12, B node 17). Combi-

nations of training data in Table 5 result in 5 3 3 10

3 1350 training patterns. The transmission line is repre-

sented by ten p sections of equal lengths (p varying from 0.1

to 0.9). The system load is assumed to vary from 1.5 to 4 pu.

The training is carried out for each of the fault type:

Single line to ground fault;

Line to line fault;

Double line to ground fault;

Three phase fault.

The variables are normalized so as to provide acceptable

input values for the NN. The order in which the training

examples are presented to the network are randomized

(shufed) from one epoch to the next. This form of rando-

mization is critical for improving the speed of convergence.

The ANN approach-1, proposed for the given fault loca-

tion problem, both Conventional Multi Layer Perceptron

(CMLP) and Cascade Correlation (CC), have current and

voltage during fault, current during pre-fault condition as

inputs and actual fault location as a percentage of the total

line length (p) and fault resistance (R

f

) as outputs (refer

Table 2). The ANN Approach-2, both CMLP and CC,

proposed for the problem has two models; one for fault

location and another for fault resistance determination.

Fault locating ANN model has pure fault positive sequence

voltages at the two ends of the transmission line as inputs

and fault location (p) as output. Second model of ANN

approach 2, which determines the fault resistance, has posi-

tive and zero sequence pure fault voltages of both ends of

the line as inputs, in case of faults involving ground (SLG

and LLG). For a LL fault and 3 phase fault, R

f

is estimated

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 501

Fig. 9. Single line diagram of 24 bus EHV system.

Dw

t

eSt; if Dw

t21

0

st

st 21 2st

Dw

t21;

if Dw

t21

0: and

st

st 21 2st

, m

mDwt 21; otherwise:

8

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

:

Table 5

Training and test input generation data

Parameter Training Testing

R

f

in V 10,30,50,70,90 20,40,60,80,100

Z

SA

in pu j0.02, j0.04, j0.06 j0.03, j0.05, j0.07

Z

SB

in pu j0.02, j0.04, j0.06 j0.03, j0.05, j0.07

p in pu 0.05,,0.95 0.1,,0.9

Initial load

at B in p.u.

1.5, 2.5, 3.5 2.0, 3.0, 4.0

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 502

Table 6

Comparison of ANN models: SLG fault

Trial no. Hidden nodes Epochs

CMLP CC CMLP CC

Approach 1 (both p and R

f

)

Based on local measurements

1 76 56 76 755 64 980

2 76 66 64 567 61 077

3 76 69 68 654 59 901

4 76 58 61 487 60 876

5 76 57 60 867 63 356

Av 76 61 66 466 62 038

Approach 2 (fault location)

Based on both end measurements

1 42 40 36 755 35 980

2 42 42 36 568 34 479

3 42 42 37 651 36 968

4 42 39 38 443 38 678

5 42 38 37 459 36 139

Av 42 40 37 375 36 449

Fault resistance (R

f

)

1 48 34 47 686 44 980

2 48 41 45 546 41 077

3 48 42 48 344 46 601

4 48 38 41 584 40 876

5 48 43 40 841 44 056

Av 48 40 44 800 43 518

Table 7

Comparison of ANN models: LL fault

Trial no. Hidden nodes Epochs

CMLP CC CMLP CC

Approach 1 (both p and R

f

)

Based on local measurements

1 88 66 76 835 68 940

2 88 68 73 557 63 687

3 88 71 68 634 65 305

4 88 75 69 437 66 497

5 88 69 70 465 61 205

Av 88 70 71 786 65 127

Approach 2 (fault location)

Based on both end measurements

1 48 43 38 849 36 204

2 48 45 39 406 37 423

3 48 47 37 950 37 411

4 48 43 39 295 36 541

5 48 48 39 269 37 941

Av 48 45 38 954 37 104

Fault resistance (R

f

)

1 52 34 49 686 47 091

2 52 41 51 546 46 843

3 52 42 50 344 47 306

4 52 38 51 584 50 962

5 52 45 52 841 51 014

Av 52 40 51 200 48 643

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

20

15

10

5

0

5

fault location in percentage of line length

p

e

r

c

e

n

t

a

g

e

e

r

r

o

r

i

n

f

a

u

l

t

l

o

c

a

t

i

o

n

fault type SLG, initial power flow (200 MW)

Proposed Analytical method

Erikssons method

Takagis method

ANN method

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

4

3

2

1

0

1

fault location in percentage of line length

p

e

r

c

e

n

t

a

g

e

e

r

r

o

r

i

n

f

a

u

l

t

r

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

Proposed Analytical method

Erikssons method

Takagis method

ANN method

Fig. 10. SLG fault approach 1.

by taking positive and negative sequence (if any) pure fault

voltages of both sides as inputs (refer Table 2).

Studies are conducted on IBM RISC-6000 workstations.

The accuracy of the results were measured by the absolute

value of deviation from the target on the training patterns.

Fifty trials are conducted for training the NN for each type

of fault. Results of the trials are indicated in Tables 6 and 7

for SLG and LL fault respectively.

5.1.1.1. ANN approach 1. The inputs for ANN

approach 1, obtained from local end measurements are

based on proposed analytical method. For an SLG fault,

number of neurons in the hidden layer varied from 56 to

69 in ANN-CC (Cascade Correlation) model. While ANN-

CMLP (Conventional MLP) model fails to converge for less

than a total of 76 neurons in the two hidden layers and

80 000 epochs being set as limit. ANN-CMLP model

resulted in an average number of epochs of 66 466,

whereas ANN-CC model required an average number of

epochs of 62 038 over ve trials. For a line-to-line fault,

number of neurons in the hidden layer were varying from 66

to 75 in ANN-CC. While ANN-CMLP model failed to

converge for less than a total of 88 neurons in the two

hidden layers and 80 000 epochs being set as limit. ANN-

CMLP model resulted in an average number of epochs of

71 786, whereas, ANN-CC model required an average

number of epochs of 65 127 over ve trials. Target sum-

squared error of both the methods is taken as 0.001. The

details of two ANN architectures are given in Tables 6 and 7.

5.1.1.2. ANN approach 2. The inputs for fault locating

model of ANN approach 2, are based on Zamora's

method, whereas, inputs for fault resistance indicating

model of ANN approach 2, are based mainly on

domain knowledge and intuition. However, the inputs are

obtained from both end measurements. For an SLG fault,

and fault locating ANN, number of neurons in the hidden

layer were varying from 38 to 42 in ANN-CC model. While

ANN-CMLP model fails to converge for less than a total of

42 neurons in the two hidden layers and 50 000 epochs

being set as limit. ANN-CMLP model resulted in an

average number of epochs of 37375, whereas ANN-CC

model required an average number of epochs of 36 449

over ve trials. The target sum-squared error is taken as

0.001 in both the methods. Fault resistance recalling ANN

has number of neurons varying from 34 to 43 in ANN-CC

model. While ANN-CMLP model failed to converge for less

than a total of 48 neurons in the two hidden layers and

50 000 epochs being set as limit. For a line-to-line fault,

and fault locating ANN, number of neurons in the hidden

layer were varying from 43 to 48 in ANN-CC model. While

ANN-CMLP model fails to converge for less than a total of

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 503

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

15

10

5

0

5

fault location in percentage of line length

p

e

r

c

e

n

t

a

g

e

e

r

r

o

r

i

n

f

a

u

l

t

l

o

c

a

t

i

o

n

fault type SLG, initial power flow (400 MW)

Proposed Analytical method

Erikssons method

Takagis method

ANN method

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

5

4

3

2

1

0

1

fault location in percentage of line length

p

e

r

c

e

n

t

a

g

e

e

r

r

o

r

i

n

f

a

u

l

t

r

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

Proposed Analytical method

Erikssons method

Takagis method

ANN method

Fig. 11. SLG fault approach 1.

48 neurons in the two hidden layers and 50 000 epochs

being set as limit. ANN-CMLP model resulted in an

average number of epochs of 38 954, whereas ANN-CC

model required an average number of epochs of 37 104

over ve trials. Fault resistance recalling ANN has

number of neurons varying from 34 to 45 in ANN-CC

model. While ANN-CMLP model failed to converge for

less than a total of 52 neurons in the two hidden layers

and 55 000 epochs being set as limit. ANN-CMLP model

resulted in an average number of epochs of 51 200, whereas,

ANN-CC model required an average number of epochs of

48643 over ve trials. The target sum-squared error is taken

as 0.001 in both the methods. The details of two ANN

architectures are given in Tables 6 and 7.

5.1.2. Testing of developed ANNs

The developed ANN models have been tested on the

system with different parameters as shown in Table 5 for

various types of faults. EMTP is run on the system consid-

ered and results are presented as input to DFT. Required

measurements for ANN approach-1, given in Table 2, for

a particular type of fault, are fed to the corresponding ANN.

In approach-2 inputs (3) for the fault location are the pure

fault positive sequence voltages of either sides and remain

the same irrespective of the type of fault. However, inputs

for the fault resistance identication ANN are both positive

and negative/zero sequence (if any) pure fault voltages of

either sides. Unbalanced pre-fault condition may result in

pure-fault negative sequence components differing from

post-fault negative sequence components, however, pure-

fault zero sequence components are same as post-fault

zero sequence components as there will not be any pre-

fault zero sequence components. ANN results were

compared with the results of three analytical methods, viz.

Eriksson's method (Method 1).

Load compensated Takagi's method (Method 2).

Proposed analytical method (Method 3).

The results are also compared with the two ANN

approaches, viz.

ANN Approach-1 based on local measurements

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 504

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

2

fault location in percentage of line length

p

e

r

c

e

n

t

a

g

e

e

r

r

o

r

i

n

f

a

u

l

t

l

o

c

a

t

i

o

n

fault type LL, initial power flow (200 MW)

Proposed Analytical method

Erikssons method

Takagis method

ANN method

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

5

4

3

2

1

0

1

fault location in percentage of line length

p

e

r

c

e

n

t

a

g

e

e

r

r

o

r

i

n

f

a

u

l

t

r

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

Proposed Analytical method

Erikssons method

Takagis method

ANN method

Fig. 12. LL fault approach 1.

Table 8

Samples of extracted phasors from EMTP

Phasor p 0:2 p 0:4

Load current 3.117/19.57 3.117/19.57

I

ra

10.445/236.16 8.700/234.48

i

Sa

3.779/291.65 3.560/294.67

I

ta

2.310/145.24 2.590/143.38

v

b

0.645/231.62 0.679/222.63

ANN-CMLP: Conventional MLP model.

ANN-CC: CascadeCorrelation model.

ANN Approach-2 based on both end measurements.

ANN-CMLP: Conventional MLP model.

ANN-CC: CascadeCorrelation model.

The percentage error of the analytical methods is compared

with ANN based methods. It is observed that performance of

all the ANN methods with respect to accuracy of recalling is

nearly equal. Hence for comparison purpose, percentage error

of ANN-CC, based on local measurements (Approach-1), is

plotted against the analytical methods in Figs. 1013. Fig. 10

shows the percentage error in various methods, for an SLG

fault, and initial power ow of 200 MW in the line, whereas,

Fig. 11 shows the percentage error for an SLG fault, and

initial power ow of 400 MW. Similarly Fig. 12 shows the

percentage error in various methods, for a LL fault, and

initial power ow of 200 MW in the line, whereas, Fig. 13

shows the percentage error for a LL fault, and initial power

ow of 400 MW.

For typical test cases of an SLG fault on R-phase, current,

and voltage output from EMTP corresponding to a fault

resistance of 60 V, pre-fault load of 300 MW, and for a

fault location of 20 and 40% of line length respectively

are considered. Estimated peak values and angles of phasors

from DFT are stored in buffers, B

f

and B

c

. RMS values of the

estimated quantities obtained from these buffers are indi-

cated in Table 8. From the studies it is observed that high

impedance faults with high pre-fault loading conditions,

caused more errors in the analytical methods. However,

proposed ANN methods do not suffer either from variation

in pre-fault load or from high value of fault resistance (R

f

).

Proposed ANN model, ANN-CC, learn fast by taking less

number of epochs. It also has less number of neurons in the

hidden layers compared to the ANN-CMLP model. It is

observed that performance of all the ANN methods with

respect to accuracy of recalling is nearly equal. However,

ANN models can be chosen depending upon the hardware

requirement, availability of measurements, learning speed,

number of neurons in the hidden layers etc.

6. Conclusions

Two ANN approaches are proposed for fault location and

estimation of fault resistance on EHV transmission line. One

approach uses local measurements whereas other approach

uses both end measurements. Performance of proposed

ANN approaches have been compared with conventional

algorithmic schemes. Though both approaches perform

equally good in estimating fault location, approach-1

based on local measurements is preferable because of its

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 505

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

2

fault location in percentage of line length

p

e

r

c

e

n

t

a

g

e

e

r

r

o

r

i

n

l

o

c

a

t

i

o

n

fault type LL, initial power flow (400 MW)

Proposed Analytical method

Erikssons method

Takagis method

ANN method

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

5

4

3

2

1

0

1

fault location in percentage of line length

p

e

r

c

e

n

t

a

g

e

e

r

r

o

r

i

n

f

a

u

l

t

r

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

Proposed Analytical method

Erikssons method

Takagis method

ANN method

Fig. 13. LL fault approach 1.

better recalling ability of fault resistance. Incidentally,

approach-1 needs only one end of the line to be equipped

with measuring instruments, whereas, approach-2 needs

measurements from both ends. It is observed that the

proposed ANN model based on cascade correlation,

(ANN-CC), takes less number of epochs for learning and

less number of neurons in hidden layers compared to

conventional MLP model, (ANN-CMLP). It is also

observed that the proposed ANN approaches give accurate

results even for large variations of pre-fault load and fault

resistance. It is also observed that all the ANN methods are

found to be at least as accurate as the best analytical method

indicated in the gures. However, based on the nature and

type of the inputs needed, speed of learning and number of

hidden neurons needed, ANN-CC with approach-1 (based

on proposed analytical algorithm) can be considered as an

accurate fault locator and fault resistance indicator. For a

change in network conguration, following a contingency,

either the ANN has to be retrained or an ANN trained

beforehand for the contingency has to be put into service.

References

[1] Niebur D. Articial neural networks for power systems: A literature

survey. Engng Int Syst 1993;1(3):13358.

[2] Novosel D, Bachmann B, Hart D, Hu Yi, Saha MM. Algorithms for

locating faults on series compensated lines using neural networks

and deterministic methods. IEEE Trans Power Delivery

1996;11(4):172836.

[3] Fahlman SE. The cascade correlation learning architecture. Adv

Neural Inoration Proc Syst 1990:2.

[4] Eriksson L, Saha MM, Rockefeller GD. An accurate fault locator with

compensation for apparent reactance resulting from remote-end feed.

IEEE Trans PAS 1985;PAS-104(2):42436.

[5] Zamora I, Minambers JF, Mazon AJ, Alvarez-Isasi R, Lazaro J. Fault

location on two-terminal transmission lines based on voltages. IEE

Proc C 1996;143(1):16.

[6] Takagi T, Yamakoshi Y, Kondow R, Matsushima T. Development of

a new type fault locator using the one-terminal voltage and current

data. IEEE Trans PAS 1982;101(8):28928.

[7] Jeyasurya B. Simulation of transmission line fault locators in a

personal computer. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 1991;27(2):299302.

[8] Cook V. Fundamental aspects of fault location algorithms used in

distance protection. IEE Proc C 1986;133(6):35968.

[9] Wiszniewski A. Accurate fault impedance locating algorithm. IEE

Proc C 1983;130(6):3115.

[10] Mazon AJ, Minambres JF, Zorrozua MA, Zamora I, Alvarez-Isasi R.

New method of fault location on double-circuit two-terminal trans-

mission lines. Electric Power Syst Res 1995:2139.

[11] Lian B, Salama MMA. An overview of the digital fault location

algorithms for the power transmission line protection based on the

steady-state phasor approaches. Electric Machines Power Syst

1996;24:83115.

[12] Lippman TP. An introduction to computing with neural networks.

IEEE-ASP Mag 1987:422.

[13] The MathWorks Inc. Neural Network TOOLBOX, User's Guide

For use with MATLAB, April 1993.

G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 506

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