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Chapter 2: 35, 37, 39, 40, 41, 46 (due 9-17)

On testsdisregard crossing over when drawing



Cell Division
Mitosis: 2n4n2n
o Prophase
Chromosomes condense & become visible
Nuclear membrane (envelope) disappears
o Metaphase
Chromosomes assemble at equatorial plate
Become attached to mitotic spindle at centromere
Telomeres hang off
Homologs dont pair
o Anaphase
Chromosomes are pulled towards opposite poles
Depolymerization of microtubules
o Telophase
Chromosomes reach poles
Chromosomes decondense
Nuclear envelope reforms
Cell dividecytokinesis
Meiosis I
o Prophase I
Duplication, condensation
o Metaphase I
Homologs pair
o Anaphase I
Homologs are pulled towards opposite poles
o Telophase I
Homologs reach pole
Chromosomes decondense
Nuclear envelope reforms
Crossing over in Meiosis I
o Physical junctions between chromosome (crossing over)Chiasmata
o Physical swapping of DNA
o Can cross over in any combination
o Crossing over occurs at every homolog to ensure proper separation of
homologs during Meiosis I
o Not too many cross overs happenregulated
o Significant chromosome nondisjunctionpossibly due to limited number of
cross overs
Meiosis: 2n4n2nn

Mendel
Usually recessive gene does not produce functional proteins

PKU (phenylketonuria)
Phenylalaninetyrosine
o Enzyme: PAH: Phenylalanine Hydroxylase
People with PKU lack active PAH
o Phenylalaninephenylpyruvic acid
Build up of phenylpyruvic acid causes problems with neural
developmentmental retardation

Genetics Examples
1. Petal color in plants
a. Alb/alb x +/+
i. F1: alb/+ pigmented
1. Mutation is recessive
b. Self F1 generation (alb/+ x alb/+)
i. 3 pigmented: 1 whitesingle gene inheritance
2. Wing development in flies
a. Short wings/long wings (non true breeding)
b. Short wing x +/+
i. 196 short winged males
ii. 194 short winged females
iii. 197 long winged males
iv. 201 long winged females
1. approximately 1:1 short winged: long winged (50/50 ratio)
2. Sex doesnt matter
v. +/+= recessive
vi. Short wing= heterozygous
vii. Actual cross: Short wing/+ x +/+ (short wing is dominant)
c. Cross SH/+ x SH/+ (male and female)
i. Expected: 1:2:1 genotypic ratio (SH/SH: SH/+: +/+)
ii. Observed: 3 short: 1 long
1. SH/SHshort winged; dominant mutant
d. Single gene inheritance
3. Spore production in fungi

Forward Genetics
Get mutants(1) check dominance/recessivity(2) Single gene? Yes to (2), Find
gene