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You may freely distribute this ebook to others without prior permission from the publisher or author, as long as it is NOT altered and this ebook is distributed in its entirety. You may freely give away this ebook, bundle it with other products, give it away as a free bonus product, or make it available as a free download. You may not sell this ebook for money. You can download free cover graphics and updated versions of this ebook at ResearchCopyright.com Visit ResearchCopyright.com to download more FREE products and to download updates.

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SPECIAL THANKS
We thank our sponsors for making this e-book free for educational purposes:

Wizards For Word – Book formatting software and book submission software for writers and authors.
http://www.Wizards4Word.com

StyleWriter Software – World’s largest style and English usage checker.
http://www.StyleWriter-USA.com

White Smoke Software - Enhance your English writing and grammar.
http://www.WhiteSmokeSoftware.com

BookCatcher.com – Free book publicity and self-publishing advice.
http://www.BookCatcher.com

Please see the end of this book for a directory of resources related to copyright, trademarks, patents and legal issues.

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Chapter 1:
How to Find Out if a Work is Copyrighted
There are several ways to investigate whether a work is under copyright protection and, if so, the facts of the copyright. These are the main ones: 1) Examine an actual copy of the work for such elements as a copyright notice, place and date of publication, author and publisher. 2) If the work is a sound recording, examine the disk, tape cartridge, or cassette in which the recorded sound is fixed, or the album cover, sleeve, or container in which the recording is sold. 3) Make a search at the Copyright Office catalogs and other records; or 4) Have the Copyright Office make a search for you. This manual will cover the search for a copyright renewal in the U.S. Copyright Office online database, which you can find online at http://www.copyright,gov . Searching for a copyright usually involves more than one of these methods. Even if you follow all three approaches, you might not get conclusive results. You may encounter other changes such as the Copyright Act of 1976, the Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988, the Copyright Renewal Act of 1992, and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998. All of these Acts have caused

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changes in how U.S. laws affect copyright protection. You will need to consider the influences of these Acts when checking the copyright status of a work. Fortunately, this manual can help. It offers tips and techniques on what to look for if you are searching copyrights for books and/or titles in the online copyright database. It is important to realize that this manual contains only general information. You will encounter many exceptions to the ways and methods outlined here. In many cases, you should still consult with a copyright attorney before reaching any conclusions regarding the copyright status of a work.

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Chapter 2:
How to Search for Copyrights in the Database
Catalog of Copyright Entries
The Copyright Office published the Catalog of Copyright Entries (CCE) in printed format from 1891 through 1978. From 1979 through 1982 the CCE was adapted to microfiche format. The Catalog was divided into parts according to the classes of registered works. Each CCE segment covered registrations made during a particular period of time. You can find renewal registrations, from 1979 through 1982, in Section 8 of the Catalog. Renewals prior to that time were generally listed at the end of the volume. A number of libraries throughout the U.S. will have copies of the Catalog. This is a good starting point if you want to search for copyrights yourself. In some cases, searching the Catalog alone is not sufficient enough to provide you with the needed information. For example:

Because the Catalog does not include entries for assignments or other recorded documents, you cannot use it for searches involving the ownership of rights. The Catalog entry contains the essential facts concerning a registration, but it is not an exact transcript of the registration record. It does not contain the address of the copyright claimant.

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The CCE was discontinued in 1982. The only method of searching outside the Library of Congress is by using the Internet to access the automated catalog. The automated catalog contains entries from 1978 to the present. In the next chapter your will find information on accessing the Catalog via the Internet.

Individual Searches of Copyright Records Offline
The Copyright Office is located in the Library of Congress James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue SE, Washington, DC 20559-6000. Most records at the Copyright Office are open to public searches from 8:30 am to 5:00 pm, Eastern Time, Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The type of records open to the public include an extensive card catalog, an automated catalog containing records from 1978 and forward, record books, and microfilm records of assignments and related documents. Other records, such as correspondence files and deposit copies, are not open to the public for searching, unless requested ahead of time. If you want to search the Copyright Office’s public files, staff will assist you in locating the records as well as help you learn the procedures for searching. If the Copyright Office staff makes the search for you, then they will charge you a fee. In addition, the Copyright Office records are available in machine-readable form cataloged from January 1, 1978, to the present. These include registration and renewal information and recorded documents. You can also access these records online at www.copyright.gov.

Paid Search by the Copyright Office
You can pay the Copyright Office staff to search its records covering the records of registrations and copyright ownership. They will provide you with a written report.

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The Copyright Office can also provide you with certification of a search report for an additional fee. Certified searches provide an extra safety measure to satisfy the evidentiary requirements of litigation.

Information for a Copyright Search
Before you start your online or offline research, you need to know the following information:  the title of the work, with any possible variants;  the names of the authors, including possible pseudonyms;  the name of the probable copyright owner, which may be the publisher or producer;  the approximate year when the work was published or registered;  the type of work involved;  for a work originally published as a part of a periodical or collection, the title of that publication and any other information, such as the volume or issue number, to help identify it;  the registration number or any other copyright data.

Remember:
No Special Lists. The Copyright Office’s Database does not maintain any listings of works by subject or any lists of works in the public domain. Contributions Not Listed Separately in Copyright Office Records. Individual works (such as stories, poems, articles, or musical compositions) published as

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contributions to a copyrighted periodical or collection are usually not listed separately by title. Titles and Names Regarding Copyright. Copyright does not protect names and titles. Records may list many different works identified by the same or similar titles. Some brand names, trade names, slogans, and phrases may be entitled to protection under the general rules of law relating to unfair competition. They may also be entitled to registration under the provisions of the trademark laws.

Searches Are Not Always Final
Searches of the Copyright Office catalogs and records are useful in helping to determine the copyright status of a work, but you shouldn’t assume any search is final. The absence of information about a work in the Copyright Office’s records does not mean the work is unprotected. Here are some examples in which information about a work may be incomplete or absent in the Copyright Office:

Before 1978, unpublished works were entitled to protection under common law without the need of registration. Works published with notice prior to 1978 may be registered at any time within the first 28-year term. Works, copyrighted between January 1, 1964, and December 31, 1977, are affected by the Copyright Renewal Act of 1992, which automatically extends the copyright term and makes renewal registrations optional. For works under copyright protection on or after January 1, 1978, registration may be made at any time during the term of protection. The information in the search request may not have been complete or specific enough to identify the work.

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The work may have been registered under a different title or as part of a larger work.

Protection in Foreign Countries
Even if you assume that a work is in the public domain in the United States, this does not always mean that you are free to use it in other countries. Every nation has its own laws governing the length and scope of copyright protection. The expiration or loss of copyright protection in the United States may still leave the work fully protected against unauthorized use in other countries.

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Chapter 3:
How to Search for a Copyright at Copyright.gov
This manual covers the search for names, titles or registration numbers for books for the USA only. You can find the U.S. Copyright Office’s Online Database at www.copyright.gov . Start your Internet Browser and type into the address bar the following internet address: http://www.copyright.gov and hit the “enter” button on your keyboard. You will see then U.S. Copyright Office’s website similar to this screenshot:

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Click on the “Search Copyright Records” link. You will then be directed to the “Search Copyright Records” site.

Click on the link “Books, Music, etc.”

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You will be directed to a search window with different search options:

Search For Names

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Search For Titles

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The Claimant Search Option

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The Registration Number Search Option

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The Miscellaneous Search Option

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The “Combined Search” Option

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How To Search For An Author’s Name

Select in the search option window the option “Author” and move the cursor to the search box and enter the author’s name in the following format:

Author’s Last Name First, First Name As The Last Name
As an example for the name Robert Pyle, you will enter the name as: Pyle, Robert Click on “search” to start the search.

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When the database is done with the search, you will get a results window similar to this screenshot. Select the names (Pyle, Robert). Leave the output format as “Brief,” and click on the “Submit” button.

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You will be led to the next results window, where you can select the titles of the records you want.

After you’re done selecting the records, click on “submit” and you will see the records for the selected names.

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How To Search For A Title (i.e. The Title Of A Book)
Select in the search window the option “Title.”

and type in the search field the title of the book you are looking for. Keep in mind when you enter the title to drop initial articles like “a” or “the.”

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For the search of the book title, “How To Grow Roses,” you will get a result window similar to this screenshot:

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Select the titles of the books, leave the output display on “Brief,” and click on the “Submit” button.

The next you will see is the result windows with the brief description of the selected book titles. Select the titles you want.

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The result window, with all information of the selected records, will look similar to this screenshot.

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The search for a claimant’s name is similar to the search of an author’s name.

In the search option window, select the option “Claimant” and enter the name by Last Name, First Name, separated by a comma. Then click on the “Search” button.

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Select the names (Pyle, Robert), leave the output type on brief and click on the “Submit” button to see the search record results for the selected names.

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The result window with the selected records of the database will look similar to this screenshot.

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Search for a registration number
Select in the search window the option “Registration Number” and enter the registration number in the following format: TX-493-699

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and click on the “search” button. The next window will give you information regarding the registration number if this registration number exists.

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How To Use The “Combined Search” Option
The combined search option is for the search combining the different search methods above in one way. To use this option, select in the search form the option “Combined Search” and enter your search query, for instance a title and the name (here in the sample we use the title “content packs” and the name “Jacob.”.

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Click on “search” and you will be directed to the search record results for the combined search. Here you can select the records you want. Press on submit and you will see the record belonging to your selection.

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What to do if you do not have any results
If you do not get any results, try these different strategies: Names: If you do not get any names, then try the full author’s name, or enter his family name. Also enter his name in the claimant option instead of the author option. Sometimes you can find the author’s name through this method. Titles: Enter fewer words in the title than in your previous search query. Claimant: Enter the name of the claimant into the author box instead of the claimant box. Enter also just the claimant’s family name instead of the full name.

What other reasons can cause No Results or Incorrect Results?
 you entered the name, title or number the wrong way;

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 you used the wrong search option (i.e. if you search for a registered number and still have selected in the search option the “authors” name option;  book was published by someone else;  the record was entered before 1978 and is not in the online database, but in the Copyright Office’s printed catalog;  Record was entered in the wrong way by the Copyright Office;  Other reason. You should use The Copyright Office’s online database as a first step to find out about the copyright status of an object. To be on the safe side, you should order a copyright search by a copyright search service or by the Copyright Office. Both will cost you money in the beginning, but it is still cheaper than to violate someone’s copyright and to pay for this violation. In any case, you should also seek the legal advice of a lawyer specializing in intellectual property/ trademark and copyright regulations before your proceed.

RESOURCES
Here are additional resources to help you with copyright and other legal assistance:
1. FIND LEGAL FORMS offers a comprehensive library of legal documents, legal papers, and business forms prepared by attorneys to provide you with safe, informative, and easy-to-use legal forms. Download any legal form immediately! ( more info. ) 2. ROCKET LAWYER helps you to create your legal documents. All you have to do is answer the questions, review your document, and print it when youre done. Its that easy! Each document comes with a checklist of any additional steps that may be needed to make your

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document legal, like signing, witnesses, or notarization. ( more info. ) 3. Showbiz Film and TV Contracts by Mark Litwak contains over 60 invaluable fill-in-the-blank entertainment contracts for Film & Television. For every level of producing, these sample contracts save time, money, and most of all, legal headaches. ( more info. ) 4. Showbiz MUSIC Contracts contains over 65 fill-in-the-blank entertainment contracts for the Music industry. When you want to quickly and easily protect yourself, get it in writing with Automated Contracts for the Music Industry. ( more info. ) 5. PUBLISHING CONTRACTS is a collection of the 22 most needed legal documents covering every facet of the book publishing business including: An author-publisher contract for a trade book, a publisher-illustrator agreement, a foreign rights agreement and 19 more. ( more info. )

6. BUSINESS LETTERS FOR PUBLISHERS - Dan Poynter created BUSINESS LETTERS FOR PUBLISHERS for the publishing industry and are designed to be used in small and medium-sized houses. They not only save time for the older firm, but they also enable the newer firm to establish company policy which conforms to current, sometimes peculiar, publishing industry standards. ( more info. ) 7. MOVIE FORMS PRO is a compilation of standard production forms and signage used throughout the Motion Picture, Film and Video industries including the A.I.C.P. & A.I.C.E. Budgeting forms. Movie Forms Pro forms are designed to support all phases of production. ( more info. ) 8. 3,001 BUSINESS AND SALES LETTERS - Never again be at a loss for words! You get all 2,100+ award-winning business, sales and personal letters, plus 901 additional sales letters that will help you sell more with attention-getting messages and persuasive sales copy! ( more info. ) 9. STYLEWRITER - the World's Largest Style and Usage checker - is the world's most powerful editor. It plugs directly into all versions of Microsoft Word, Word Perfect or any Windows application through the Clipboard. StyleWriter searches for thousands of writing faults, including complex words, jargon and abstract words, wordy phrases, hidden verbs, passive verbs, clichés and long sentences. ( more info. ) 10. WHITESMOKE - Write like an English pro using WhiteSmoke's revolutionary writing software. All-in-one writing solution WhiteSmoke's innovative software is the first-ever instant, full-text analysis solution, providing context-related language enrichment. ( more info. ) 11. WIZARDS FOR WORD automatically formats and fixes your manuscript, generates correct headers, footers, footnotes, page layouts, plus more, and helps speed up the writing and editing process, saving you time, money, and big headaches. ( more info. )

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12. TRADEMARK EXPRESS offers expert consultations, comprehensive research and expert analysis of complex trade name searches. Free consultation. Next day trademark filing. ( more info. ) 13. AGREEMENTS ETC. was founded by experts with years of experience in providing legal publishing services to corporations and professionals. Now you can create professional legal documents from your home or office. ( more info. ) 14. LEGAL MATCH is America’s original attorney/client matching service and is not a referral service. When a consumer presents their issue to LegalMatch, its system matches the consumer's case to LegalMatch lawyers in their city or county based on the specifics of the consumers case and the lawyer's location and area of legal practice. ( more info. ) 15. NOLO PRESS is the nation’s leading provider of do-it-yourself legal solutions for consumers and small businesses. Nolo's goal is to help people handle their own everyday legal matters -or learn enough about them to make working with a lawyer a more satisfying experience. ( more info. )

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FEEL FREE TO DISTRIBUTE THIS EBOOK
You may freely distribute this ebook to others without prior permission from the publisher or author, as long as it is NOT altered and this ebook is distributed in its entirety. You may freely give away this ebook, bundle it with other products, give it away as a free bonus product, or make it available as a free download. You may not sell this ebook for money. You can download free cover graphics and updated versions of this ebook at ResearchCopyright.com

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LEGAL NOTICE
We have made every effort to accurately represent this package and its potential. Your results may vary. The author(s), publisher(s) and distributor(s) of this product are not liable or responsible for your use or misuse of this product, and are not responsible for any injury, damage or financial loss you or your business may have as a result of using this product or its contents. We do not give legal advice and this is not a legal document. You are responsible for using the results as you see fit. We have also made every effort to ensure that the information reflected in this document is reliable and correct. However, we are not responsible for any use, misuse or abuse resulting from the usage of this material. We highly suggest that you consult a competent lawyer specializing in copyright law before pursuing any copyright research or registration.

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