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1700 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 60, NO.

4, APRIL 2013
Multiple Distributed Generator Placement in Primary
Distribution Networks for Loss Reduction
Duong Quoc Hung, Student Member, IEEE, and Nadarajah Mithulananthan, Senior Member, IEEE
AbstractThis paper investigates the problem of multiple dis-
tributed generator (DG units) placement to achieve a high loss
reduction in large-scale primary distribution networks. An im-
proved analytical (IA) method is proposed in this paper. This
method is based on IA expressions to calculate the optimal size
of four different DG types and a methodology to identify the best
location for DG allocation. A technique to get the optimal power
factor is presented for DG capable of delivering real and reactive
power. Moreover, loss sensitivity factor (LSF) and exhaustive load
ow(ELF) methods are also introduced. IAmethod was tested and
validated on three distribution test systems with varying sizes and
complexity. Results show that IA method is effective as compared
with LSF and ELF solutions. Some interesting results are also
discussed in this paper.
Index TermsAnalytical expression, loss reduction, loss sensi-
tivity factor (LSF), multiple DG, optimal location, optimal power
factor, optimal size.
I. INTRODUCTION
I
N RECENT YEARS, the penetration of distributed gen-
erator (DG) into distribution systems has been increasing
rapidly in many parts of the world. The main reasons for
the increase in penetration are the liberalization of electricity
markets, constraints on building new transmission and distribu-
tion lines, and environmental concerns [1][3]. Technological
advances in small generators, power electronics, and energy
storage devices for transient backup have also accelerated the
penetration of DG into electric power generation plants [4].
At present, there are several technologies used for DG appli-
cations that range from traditional to nontraditional technolo-
gies. The former is nonrenewable technologies such as internal
combustion engines, combined cycles, combustion turbines,
and microturbines. The latter is renewable technologies such as
solar, photovoltaic, wind, geothermal, ocean, and fuel cell. The
main advantages of using renewable-energy-based DG sources
are the elimination of harmful emissions and inexhaustible
resources of the primary energy. However, the main disadvan-
tages are relative low efciency, high costs, and intermittency
[5], [6].
As the penetration of DG units increases in the distribution
system, it is in the best interest of all players involved to allocate
Manuscript received June 18, 2010; revised November 18, 2010; accepted
December 12, 2010. Date of publication February 4, 2011; date of current
version November 22, 2012.
The authors are with the School of Information Technology and Electrical
Engineering, the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. 4072, Australia
(e-mail: hung.duong@uq.edu.au; mithulan@itee.uq.edu.au).
Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TIE.2011.2112316
them in an optimal way such that it will increase reliability,
reduce system losses, and hence improve the voltage prole
while serving the primary goal of energy injection.
DG units are modeled as synchronous generators for small
hydro, geothermal, and combined cycles; combustion turbines;
and wind turbines with power electronics. Induction genera-
tors are used in wind and small hydropower generation. DG
units are considered as power electronics inverter generators
or static generators for technologies such as photovoltaic (PV)
plants and fuel cells [7], [8]. For instance, DG using a PV
grid-connected converter is controlled on the basis of the
droop-control technique presented in [9][17]. The converter is
capable of providing active power to local loads and injecting
reactive power to stabilize load voltages. Furthermore, the type
of DG technology adopted will have a signicant bearing on
the solution approach. For example, in [18], the installation of
synchronous machine-based DG units that are close to the loads
can lead to a gain in the system voltage stability margin; on the
other hand, in the case with an induction generator, the system
stability margin is reduced. Given the choice, DG units should
be placed in appropriate locations with suitable sizes and types
to enjoy system-wide benet.
It is evident that any loss reduction is benecial to distri-
bution utilities, which is generally the entity responsible to
keep losses at low levels. Loss reduction is, therefore, the
most important factor to be considered in the planning and
operation of DG [19], [20]. For instance, multiobjective index
for performance calculation of distribution systems for single
DG size and location planning has been proposed [19]. For this
analysis, the active and reactive power losses receive signicant
weights of 0.40 and 0.20, respectively. The current capacity
receives a weight of 0.25, leaving the behavior of voltage prole
at 0.15.
In a radial feeder, depending on the technology, DG units
can deliver a portion of the total real and/or reactive power to
loads so that the feeder current reduces from the source to the
location of DGunits. However, studies [21][23] have indicated
that if DG units are improperly allocated and sized, the reverse
power ow from larger DG units can lead to higher system
losses. Hence, to minimize losses, it is important to nd the best
location and size given the option of resource availability. A
technique for DG placement using 2/3 rule which is tradition-
ally applied to capacitor allocation in distribution systems with
uniformly distributed loads has been presented [22]. Although
simple and easy to apply, this technique cannot be applied
directly to a feeder with other types of load distribution or to
a meshed distribution system. In [24], an analytical approach
has been presented to identify the location to optimally place
0278-0046/$26.00 2011 IEEE
HUNG AND MITHULANANTHAN: MULTIPLE DG PLACEMENT IN PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS FOR LOSS REDUCTION 1701
single DG with unity power factor in radial as well as meshed
networks to minimize losses. However, in this approach, the
optimal sizing is not considered. The genetic algorithm (GA)-
based method has been presented to determine the size and
location of DG [25], [26]. GA is suitable for multiobjective
problems and can lead to a near optimal solution but demand
higher computational time. An analytical approach based on an
exact loss formula has been presented to nd the optimal size
and location of single DG [21]. In this method, a new methodol-
ogy has been proposed to quickly calculate approximate losses
for identifying the best location; the load ow is required to be
performed only twice. In the rst time, it is applied to calculate
the loss of the base case, and in the second time, it is used
to nd the minimum total loss after DG placement. Although
this method requires less computation, single DG capable of
delivering real power only is considered. A probabilistic-based
planning technique has been proposed for determining the
optimal fuel mix of different types of renewable DG units
(i.e., wind, solar, and biomass) in order to minimize the annual
energy losses in the distribution system [23]; however, DG
units capable of delivering real power only is considered in this
paper. Recently, the authors in [27] have presented an effective
method based on improved analytical (IA) expressions to place
four different types of single DG for loss reduction. However,
multiple DG unit placement has not been addressed in this
paper. To overcome limitations in previous works, this paper
proposes an IA method for allocating four types of multiple
DG units for loss reduction in primary distribution networks.
This method is based on IA expressions in [27] to calculate
the optimal size of four different DG types and a methodology
to identify the best location for multiple DG allocation. The
importance of DG operation (i.e., real and reactive power
dispatch) for loss minimization along with a fast approach
as a simple way to quickly select the power factor of DG
units that is close to the optimal power factor is also presented.
The proposed methodology is computationally less demanding.
Moreover, voltage prole enhancement is also examined.
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows:
Section II explains the proposed IA method. Procedure for mul-
tiple DG placement using IA method and loss sensitivity factor
(LSF) method is also elaborated in this section. Section III
portrays the test distribution systems and numerical results
along with some observations and discussions for multiple DG
placement. Finally, the major contributions and conclusions are
summarized in Section IV.
II. METHODOLOGY
This section focuses on a detailed description of IA method.
To check the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed
method, LSF and exhaustive load ow (ELF) methods for
allocating multiple DG units are used. LSF method has been
employed to select the candidate locations for single DG place-
ment to reduce the search space. A brief description of LSF al-
gorithm for multiple DG units is given at the end of this section.
ELF method, known as a repeated load ow solution, demands
excessive computational time since all buses are considered
in calculation; however, it can lead to a completely optimal
solution. Its numerical results are presented in Section III.
A. Power Losses
The total real power loss in a power system is represented by
an exact loss formula [28]
P
L
=
N

i=1
N

j=1
[
ij
(P
i
P
j
+Q
i
Q
j
) +
ij
(Q
i
P
j
P
i
Q
j
)] (1)
where

ij
=
r
ij
V
i
V
j
cos(
i

j
);
ij
=
r
ij
V
i
V
j
sin(
i

j
)
V
i

i
complex voltage at the bus ith;
r
ij
+jx
ij
= Z
ij
ijth element of [Zbus] impedance matrix;
P
i
and P
j
active power injections at the ith and jth
buses, respectively;
Q
i
and Q
j
reactive power injections at the ith and jth
buses, respectively;
N number of buses.
B. IA Method
In this paper, an effective methodology is proposed to nd the
optimal location, size, and power factor of multiple DG units in
distribution networks. A brief description of the IA expressions
and optimal power factors for single DG allocation is presented
as follows [27]:
1) IA Expressions: Type 1 DG (i.e., 0 < PF
DG
< 1) is
capable of injecting both real and reactive power (e.g., syn-
chronous generators). The optimal size of DG at each bus i for
minimizing losses can be given by (2) and (3)
P
DGi
=

ii
(P
Di
+aQ
Di
) X
i
aY
i
a
2

ii
+
ii
(2)
Q
DGi
=aP
DGi
(3)
in which
a = (sign) tan

cos
1
(PF
DG
)

sign = +1 DG injecting reactive power


X
i
=
n

j=1
j=i
(
ij
P
j

ij
Q
j
) Y
i
=
n

j=1
j=1
(
ij
Q
j
+
ij
P
j
).
The aforementioned equations give the optimum size of DG
for each bus i, for the loss to be minimum. Any size of DG
other than P
DGi
placed at bus i will lead to a higher loss.
This loss, however, is a function of loss coefcients and .
When DG is installed in the system, the values of loss co-
efcients will change, as it depends on voltage and angle.
Updating the values of and again requires another load
ow calculation. However, numerical results showed that the
accuracy gained in the size of DG by updating and is small
and negligible [21]. With this assumption, the optimum size of
1702 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 60, NO. 4, APRIL 2013
Fig. 1. Simple distribution system with single DG.
DG for each bus, given by the aforementioned relations, can be
calculated from the base case load ow (i.e., without DG case).
This methodology requires the load ow to be carried out only
two times for single DG allocation, one for the base case and
another at the end with DG included to obtain the nal solution
[21], [27].
Type 2 DG (i.e., 0 < PF
DG
< 1) is capable of injecting
real power but consuming reactive power (sign = 1) (e.g.,
induction generators). Similar to type 1 DG, the optimal size
of type 2 DG at each bus i for the minimum loss is given by
(2) and (3).
Type 3 DG (i.e., PF
DG
= 1, a = 0) is capable of injecting
real power only (e.g., PV, microturbines, and fuel cells which
are integrated to the main grid with the help of converters/
inverters). The optimal size of DG at each bus i for the mini-
mum loss is given by reduced (4)
P
DGi
= P
Di

ii
N

j=1
j=i
(
ij
P
j

ij
Q
j
). (4)
Type 4 DG (i.e., PF
DG
= 0, a = ) is capable of delivering
reactive power only (e.g., synchronous compensators). The
optimal size of DG at each bus i for the minimum loss is given
by reduced (5)
Q
DGi
= Q
Di

ii
N

j=1
j=i
(
ij
Q
j
+
ij
P
j
). (5)
2) Power Factor Selection: Consider a simple distribution
system with two buses, a source, a load, and a DG connected
through a transmission line as shown in Fig. 1.
The power factor of the single load (PF
D
) is given as
PF
D
=
P
D

P
2
D
+Q
2
D
. (6)
The power factor of the single DG injected (PF
DG
) is
given as
PF
DG
=
P
DG

P
2
DG
+Q
2
DG
. (7)
It is obvious that the minimum loss occurs when the power
factor of the single DG as (6) is equal to that of the single load
as (7).
To nd the optimal power factor of DG units for a radial
complex distribution system, a fast approach is proposed. A
repeated approach is also introduced to check the effectiveness
of the fast approach. It is interesting to note that, in all the three
test systems used in this paper, the optimal power factor of DG
units placed for loss reduction is found to be closer to the power
factor of the combined load of respective systems.
a) Fast Approach: The power factor of the combined load
of the system (PF
D
) can be expressed by (6). The total active
and reactive power of the load demand is expressed as
P
D
=
N

i=1
P
Di
Q
D
=
N

i=1
Q
Di
.
The possible minimum total loss can be achieved if the
power factor of DG (PF
DG
) is selected to be equal to that of
the combined load (PF
D
). That can be expressed as
PF
DG
= PF
D
. (8)
b) Repeated Method: In this method, the optimal power
factor is selected by calculating a few power factors of DG units
(change in a small step of 0.01) that are near to the power factor
of the combined load. The sizes and locations of DG units at
various power factors with respect to losses are identied from
(2) and (3). The losses are compared, and the optimal power
factor of DG units at which the total loss is at minimum is
determined.
3) Optimization Algorithm for Multiple DG Allocation:
This algorithm is made on the basis of the IA expressions [27]
to nd the optimal buses at which the losses are the lowest and
where multiple DG units are best placed. The IA expressions
help reduce the solution space. Fig. 2 illustrates the owchart of
IA method for multiple DG allocation. The descriptions of each
step in detail are given as follows. In this paper, based on an idea
of updating the load data after each time of DG placement, the
algorithm is proposed to solve optimal multiple DG placement.
First, a single DG is added in the system. After that, the load
data are updated with the rst DG placed and then another DG
is added. Similarly, the algorithm continues to allocate other
DG units until it does not satisfy at least one of the constraints
in step 7 as described as follows.
The computational procedure to allocate multiple DG units
on the basis of the IA expressions is described in detail as
follows.
Step 1) Enter the number of DG units to be installed.
Step 2) Run the load ow for the base case and nd losses
using (1).
Step 3) Calculate the power factor of DG using (8) or enter
the power factor of DG.
Step 4) Find the optimal location of DG using the following
steps.
a) Calculate the optimal size of DG at each bus
using (2) and (3).
b) Place the DG with the optimal size, as mentioned
earlier, at each bus one at a time. Calculate the
approximate loss for each case using (1) with the
values and of the base case.
HUNG AND MITHULANANTHAN: MULTIPLE DG PLACEMENT IN PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS FOR LOSS REDUCTION 1703
Fig. 2. Flow chart of IA method to allocate multiple DG units.
c) Locate the optimal bus at which the loss is at
minimum.
Step 5) Find the optimal size of DG and calculate losses
using the following steps.
a) Place a DG at the optimal bus obtained in step 4,
change this DG size in small step, update the
values and , and calculate the loss for each
case using (1) by running the load ow.
b) Select and store the optimal size of the DG that
gives the minimum loss.
Step 6) Update load data after placing the DG with the
optimal size obtained in step 5 to allocate the
next DG.
Step 7) Stop if either the following occurs:
a) the voltage at a particular bus is over the upper
limit;
b) the total size of DG units is over the total load
plus loss;
c) the maximum number of DG units is unavailable;
d) the new iteration loss is greater than the previous
iteration loss.
The previous iteration loss is retained; otherwise,
repeat steps 2 to 6.
Fig. 3. Flow chart of LSF method to allocate multiple DG units.
C. LSF Method
In this paper, the sensitivity factor of active power loss is em-
ployed to nd the most sensitive buses to place DG units which
are capable of injecting active power only (i.e., type 3 DG).
The sensitivity factor method is based on the principle of lin-
earization of the original nonlinear equation around the initial
operating point, which helps reduce the number of solution
space. The LSF at the ith bus is derived from (1) with respect
to active power injection at that bus, which is given as [21]

i
=
P
L
P
i
= 2
N

j=1
(
ij
P
j

ij
Q
j
). (9)
Fig. 3 shows the ow chart of LSF method for multiple DG
placement. Similar to IA method, the procedure to nd the
optimal locations and sizes of multiple DG units using the LSF
is described in detail as follows.
Step 1) Enter the number of DG units to be installed.
Step 2) Run the load ow for the base case and nd losses
using (1).
Step 3) Find the optimal location of DG using the following
steps.
a) Find LSF using (9). Rank buses in descending
order of the values of their LSFs to form a
priority list.
b) Locate the highest priority bus.
1704 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 60, NO. 4, APRIL 2013
Step 4) Find the optimal size of DG and calculate losses
using the following steps.
a) Place a DG at the bus with the highest priority
obtained in step 3, change this DG size in small
step, update the values and , and calculate the
loss for each case using (1) by running the load
ow.
b) Select and store the optimal size of the DG that
gives the minimum loss.
Step 5) Update load data after placing the DG with the
optimal size obtained in step 4 to allocate the
next DG.
Step 6) Stop if either the following occurs:
a) the voltage at a particular bus is over the upper
limit;
b) the total size of DG units is over the total load
plus loss;
c) the maximum number of DG units is unavailable;
d) the new iteration loss is greater than the previous
iteration loss.
The previous iteration loss is retained; otherwise,
repeat steps 2 to 5.
III. NUMERICAL RESULTS
A. Test Systems
The proposed methodology is tested on three test systems
with varying sizes and complexities. The rst system used in
this paper is a 16-bus test radial distribution system with a
total load of 28.7 MW and 5.9 MVAr [29]. The second one
is a 33-bus test radial distribution system with a total load of
3.7 MW and 2.3 MVAr [30]. The last one is a 69-bus test
radial distribution system with a total load of 3.8 MW and
2.69 MVAr [31].
Based on the proposed methodology, an analytical software
tool has been developed in MATLAB environment to run the
load ow, calculate power losses, and identify the optimal size
and location of multiple DG units. Although the tool can handle
four different DG types and various load levels, the results of
type 3 DG and type 1 DG at the peak load level, respectively,
are presented.
B. Assumptions and Constraints
The following are the assumptions and constraints for this
paper:
1) The lower and upper voltage thresholds are set at 0.90 and
1.05 pu, respectively.
2) The maximum number of DG units is three, with the size
each from 250 kW to the total load plus loss, and the
maximum DG penetration is 100%.
C. Type 3 DG Placement
1) 16-Bus Test System: Table I presents the simulation re-
sults of placing DG units by various techniques. The results
TABLE I
DG PLACEMENT BY VARIOUS TECHNIQUES FOR 16-BUS SYSTEM
of the base case and three cases with DG numbers ranging
from one to three are compared. The results include the optimal
sizes and locations of DG units with respect to the total losses
by each technique. The loss reduction, computational time,
and schedule of installed DG units of each technique are also
presented in the table.
For all the cases, IA leads to a completely optimal solution
as compared with ELF, i.e., the optimal locations and sizes of
DG units by IA is the same as those by ELF. Among all the
cases, LSF yields the lowest loss reduction due to poor choice
of locations. For instance, placing single DG by IA, ELF, and
LSF yields loss reductions of 67.06%, 67.06%, and 62.15%,
respectively.
IA demands shorter computational time compared to ELF as
expected. However, LSF is the quickest among all methods.
2) 33-Bus Test System: Similar to 16-bus system, Table II
presents the results of the optimal sizes and locations of DG
units by various techniques.
For single DG, the loss reduction by IA, at 47.39%, is the
same as that by ELF. Among all the cases, LSF produces a loss
reduction of only 30.48%. For two DG units, the loss reduction
by IA, at 56.61%, is slightly lower than that by ELF, at 58.51%.
In contrast, it is higher than the loss reduction by LSF at only
52.32%. For three DG units, IA achieves a loss reduction of
61.62%, compared with ELF at 64.83%. However, it is better
than LSF that yields a loss reduction of 59.72%. In general,
for this system, IA method can lead to an optimal solution
for single DG and a near optimal solution for two and three
DG units.
IA needs a short computational time. Particularly, for three
DG units, the time by IA is 0.40 s, nearly twice longer than that
HUNG AND MITHULANANTHAN: MULTIPLE DG PLACEMENT IN PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS FOR LOSS REDUCTION 1705
TABLE II
DG PLACEMENT BY VARIOUS TECHNIQUES FOR 33-BUS SYSTEM
TABLE III
DG PLACEMENT BY VARIOUS TECHNIQUES FOR 69-BUS SYSTEM
by LSF at 0.23 s. In contrast, it is approximately eight times
shorter than the time by ELF at 3.06 s.
3) 69-Bus Test System: Table III presents the results of
optimal sizes and locations of DG units by various techniques.
For all the cases, IA leads to a globally optimal solution as
compared with ELF; particularly, the results by IA are the same
as those by ELF in terms of loss reduction, optimal locations,
TABLE IV
DG PLACEMENT AT OPTIMAL AND COMBINED
LOAD POWER FACTORS FOR 16-BUS SYSTEM
and sizes of DG units. However, it is better than ELF in terms of
computational time. Particularly, for three DG units, the time by
IA is 0.71 s, nearly 33 times shorter than that by ELF at 23.16 s.
It is quite longer than the time by LSF at 0.52 s. In addition, IA
achieves better loss reduction than LSF. For instance, for two
DG units, IA reaches a loss reduction of 67.94%, while LSF
obtains that of 54.97%.
D. Type 1 DG Placement
1) 16-Bus Test System: Table IV shows the simulation re-
sults of the optimal sizes, locations, and power factors of DG
units by IA for this system. The results of the base case and
three cases with DG units at the optimal and combined load
power factors are compared. The power factor of the combined
load is 0.98 lagging. The optimal power factor of DG units
is identied at 0.99 lagging. In all the cases, the results of
loss reduction at the optimal power factor are slightly higher
compared to those at the combined load factor power. As a
result, selection of the power factor of DG units can be based
on combined load power factor.
Among the cases, three DG units at the optimal power factor
yield a maximum loss reduction of 86.70%, while one DG at
this power factor obtains a minimum loss reduction of only
68.21%. As the number of DG units is increased, the loss
reduction becomes more effective.
These results are obtained with the help of the proposed
method and veried by ELF solutions.
2) 33-Bus Test System: Table V shows the simulation results
of the optimal sizes, locations, and power factors of DGunits by
IA. The power factor of the combined load is 0.85 lagging. The
optimal power factor of DG units is identied at 0.82 lagging.
In all the cases, the results of loss reduction at the optimal
power factor are slightly higher as compared with those at the
combined load factor power. Therefore, selection of the power
factor of DG units that is equal to that of the combined load is
feasible for this case.
1706 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 60, NO. 4, APRIL 2013
TABLE V
DG PLACEMENT AT OPTIMAL AND COMBINED
LOAD POWER FACTORS FOR 33-BUS SYSTEM
TABLE VI
DG PLACEMENT AT OPTIMAL POWER FACTOR FOR 69-BUS SYSTEM
Similar to 16-bus test system, three DG units at the optimal
power factor produce a maximum loss reduction of 89.45%,
while one DG at this factor obtains a minimum loss reduction
of only 67.85%. The more the number of DG units is installed,
the better the loss reduction increases.
3) 69-Bus Test System: Table VI shows the simulation re-
sults of the optimal sizes, locations, and power factors of DG
units by IA. The results of the base case and three cases
with DG units at the optimal power factor are compared. The
optimal power factor of DG units is determined to be equal to
the combined load power factor at 0.82 lagging. As a result,
selection of the power factor of DG units that is equal to that
of the combined load can lead to an optimal solution for this
system.
Similar to 16-bus and 33-bus test systems, three DG units at
the optimal power factor result in a maximum loss reduction of
97.74%. In contrast, one DG at that factor yields a minimum
loss reduction of only 89.68%. As the number of DG units
becomes larger, the loss reduction increases.
E. Results of Voltages
Tables VIIIX indicate the minimum and maximum voltages
for all the cases of 16, 33, and 69-bus test systems, respectively.
In all the cases, after DG units are added, the total losses can
TABLE VII
VOLTAGES OF CASES FOR 16-BUS TEST SYSTEM
TABLE VIII
VOLTAGES OF CASES FOR 33-BUS TEST SYSTEM
TABLE IX
VOLTAGES OF CASES FOR 69-BUS TEST SYSTEM
reduce signicantly while satisfying all the power and voltage
constraints. This was checked with exhaustive power ow. It is
interesting to note that the voltage prole improves when the
number of DG units installed in the system is increased. Power
factors of DG units too have an inuence on voltage proles as
expected.
IV. CONCLUSION
This paper has presented IA method for multiple DG al-
location for loss reduction in large-scale distribution systems
while fullling the main objective of energy injection. This
method is based on IA expressions for nding the size of four
different DG types and an effective methodology to nd the
HUNG AND MITHULANANTHAN: MULTIPLE DG PLACEMENT IN PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS FOR LOSS REDUCTION 1707
best location for DG allocation. In this method, a fast approach
to obtain an optimal or near optimal power factor has been also
presented for placing DG units capable of delivering real and
reactive power. Moreover, this paper has also introduced the
LSF and ELF methods. The proposed IA method is effective
as corroborated by ELF and LSF solutions in terms of loss
reduction and computational time. LSF method may not lead
to the best choice for DG placement. The number of DG units
with appropriate sizes and locations can reduce the losses to
a considerable amount. Given the choice, DG(s) should be
allocated to enjoy other benets as well such as loss reduction.
Among different DG types, the DG capable of delivering
both real and reactive power reduces losses more than that of
DG capable of delivering real power only in one or two or three
DGcases. For DGcapable of delivering real and reactive power,
their power factors too play a crucial role in loss reduction.
In all the test systems used in this paper, the operating power
factor of DG units for minimizing losses has been found to be
closer to the power factor of combined load of the respective
system. This could be a good guidance for operating DG units
that have the capability to deliver both real and reactive power
for minimizing losses.
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Duong Quoc Hung (S11) received the M.Eng. de-
gree in electric power system management from the
Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand,
in 2008. He is currently working toward the Ph.D.
degree at the School of Information Technol-
ogy and Electrical Engineering, The University of
Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
From 1999 to 2006 and from 2008 to 2010, he
was with the Technical Department, Southern Power
Corporation, Electricity of Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh
City, Vietnam. His research interests are distribution
system design and operations, distributed generation, and application of opti-
mization techniques in distribution systems.
1708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 60, NO. 4, APRIL 2013
Nadarajah Mithulananthan (SM10) received the
Ph.D. degree in electrical and computer engineer-
ing from the University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON,
Canada, in 2002, the B.Sc. (Eng.) degree from the
University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka,
in May 1993, and the M.Eng. degree from the
Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand, in
August 1997.
He was an Electrical Engineer with the Generation
Planning Branch of the Ceylon Electricity Board and
as a Project Leader with Chulalongkorn University,
Bangkok, Thailand. He is currently a Senior Lecturer with the University of
Queensland (UQ), Brisbane, Australia. Prior to joining UQ, he was an Asso-
ciate Professor with the Asian Institute of Technology. His research interests
are the integration of renewable energy in power systems and power system
stability and dynamics.