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4, APRIL 2013

Multiple Distributed Generator Placement in Primary

Distribution Networks for Loss Reduction

Duong Quoc Hung, Student Member, IEEE, and Nadarajah Mithulananthan, Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractThis paper investigates the problem of multiple dis-

tributed generator (DG units) placement to achieve a high loss

reduction in large-scale primary distribution networks. An im-

proved analytical (IA) method is proposed in this paper. This

method is based on IA expressions to calculate the optimal size

of four different DG types and a methodology to identify the best

location for DG allocation. A technique to get the optimal power

factor is presented for DG capable of delivering real and reactive

power. Moreover, loss sensitivity factor (LSF) and exhaustive load

ow(ELF) methods are also introduced. IAmethod was tested and

validated on three distribution test systems with varying sizes and

complexity. Results show that IA method is effective as compared

with LSF and ELF solutions. Some interesting results are also

discussed in this paper.

Index TermsAnalytical expression, loss reduction, loss sensi-

tivity factor (LSF), multiple DG, optimal location, optimal power

factor, optimal size.

I. INTRODUCTION

I

N RECENT YEARS, the penetration of distributed gen-

erator (DG) into distribution systems has been increasing

rapidly in many parts of the world. The main reasons for

the increase in penetration are the liberalization of electricity

markets, constraints on building new transmission and distribu-

tion lines, and environmental concerns [1][3]. Technological

advances in small generators, power electronics, and energy

storage devices for transient backup have also accelerated the

penetration of DG into electric power generation plants [4].

At present, there are several technologies used for DG appli-

cations that range from traditional to nontraditional technolo-

gies. The former is nonrenewable technologies such as internal

combustion engines, combined cycles, combustion turbines,

and microturbines. The latter is renewable technologies such as

solar, photovoltaic, wind, geothermal, ocean, and fuel cell. The

main advantages of using renewable-energy-based DG sources

are the elimination of harmful emissions and inexhaustible

resources of the primary energy. However, the main disadvan-

tages are relative low efciency, high costs, and intermittency

[5], [6].

As the penetration of DG units increases in the distribution

system, it is in the best interest of all players involved to allocate

Manuscript received June 18, 2010; revised November 18, 2010; accepted

December 12, 2010. Date of publication February 4, 2011; date of current

version November 22, 2012.

The authors are with the School of Information Technology and Electrical

Engineering, the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. 4072, Australia

(e-mail: hung.duong@uq.edu.au; mithulan@itee.uq.edu.au).

Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TIE.2011.2112316

them in an optimal way such that it will increase reliability,

reduce system losses, and hence improve the voltage prole

while serving the primary goal of energy injection.

DG units are modeled as synchronous generators for small

hydro, geothermal, and combined cycles; combustion turbines;

and wind turbines with power electronics. Induction genera-

tors are used in wind and small hydropower generation. DG

units are considered as power electronics inverter generators

or static generators for technologies such as photovoltaic (PV)

plants and fuel cells [7], [8]. For instance, DG using a PV

grid-connected converter is controlled on the basis of the

droop-control technique presented in [9][17]. The converter is

capable of providing active power to local loads and injecting

reactive power to stabilize load voltages. Furthermore, the type

of DG technology adopted will have a signicant bearing on

the solution approach. For example, in [18], the installation of

synchronous machine-based DG units that are close to the loads

can lead to a gain in the system voltage stability margin; on the

other hand, in the case with an induction generator, the system

stability margin is reduced. Given the choice, DG units should

be placed in appropriate locations with suitable sizes and types

to enjoy system-wide benet.

It is evident that any loss reduction is benecial to distri-

bution utilities, which is generally the entity responsible to

keep losses at low levels. Loss reduction is, therefore, the

most important factor to be considered in the planning and

operation of DG [19], [20]. For instance, multiobjective index

for performance calculation of distribution systems for single

DG size and location planning has been proposed [19]. For this

analysis, the active and reactive power losses receive signicant

weights of 0.40 and 0.20, respectively. The current capacity

receives a weight of 0.25, leaving the behavior of voltage prole

at 0.15.

In a radial feeder, depending on the technology, DG units

can deliver a portion of the total real and/or reactive power to

loads so that the feeder current reduces from the source to the

location of DGunits. However, studies [21][23] have indicated

that if DG units are improperly allocated and sized, the reverse

power ow from larger DG units can lead to higher system

losses. Hence, to minimize losses, it is important to nd the best

location and size given the option of resource availability. A

technique for DG placement using 2/3 rule which is tradition-

ally applied to capacitor allocation in distribution systems with

uniformly distributed loads has been presented [22]. Although

simple and easy to apply, this technique cannot be applied

directly to a feeder with other types of load distribution or to

a meshed distribution system. In [24], an analytical approach

has been presented to identify the location to optimally place

0278-0046/$26.00 2011 IEEE

HUNG AND MITHULANANTHAN: MULTIPLE DG PLACEMENT IN PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS FOR LOSS REDUCTION 1701

single DG with unity power factor in radial as well as meshed

networks to minimize losses. However, in this approach, the

optimal sizing is not considered. The genetic algorithm (GA)-

based method has been presented to determine the size and

location of DG [25], [26]. GA is suitable for multiobjective

problems and can lead to a near optimal solution but demand

higher computational time. An analytical approach based on an

exact loss formula has been presented to nd the optimal size

and location of single DG [21]. In this method, a new methodol-

ogy has been proposed to quickly calculate approximate losses

for identifying the best location; the load ow is required to be

performed only twice. In the rst time, it is applied to calculate

the loss of the base case, and in the second time, it is used

to nd the minimum total loss after DG placement. Although

this method requires less computation, single DG capable of

delivering real power only is considered. A probabilistic-based

planning technique has been proposed for determining the

optimal fuel mix of different types of renewable DG units

(i.e., wind, solar, and biomass) in order to minimize the annual

energy losses in the distribution system [23]; however, DG

units capable of delivering real power only is considered in this

paper. Recently, the authors in [27] have presented an effective

method based on improved analytical (IA) expressions to place

four different types of single DG for loss reduction. However,

multiple DG unit placement has not been addressed in this

paper. To overcome limitations in previous works, this paper

proposes an IA method for allocating four types of multiple

DG units for loss reduction in primary distribution networks.

This method is based on IA expressions in [27] to calculate

the optimal size of four different DG types and a methodology

to identify the best location for multiple DG allocation. The

importance of DG operation (i.e., real and reactive power

dispatch) for loss minimization along with a fast approach

as a simple way to quickly select the power factor of DG

units that is close to the optimal power factor is also presented.

The proposed methodology is computationally less demanding.

Moreover, voltage prole enhancement is also examined.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows:

Section II explains the proposed IA method. Procedure for mul-

tiple DG placement using IA method and loss sensitivity factor

(LSF) method is also elaborated in this section. Section III

portrays the test distribution systems and numerical results

along with some observations and discussions for multiple DG

placement. Finally, the major contributions and conclusions are

summarized in Section IV.

II. METHODOLOGY

This section focuses on a detailed description of IA method.

To check the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed

method, LSF and exhaustive load ow (ELF) methods for

allocating multiple DG units are used. LSF method has been

employed to select the candidate locations for single DG place-

ment to reduce the search space. A brief description of LSF al-

gorithm for multiple DG units is given at the end of this section.

ELF method, known as a repeated load ow solution, demands

excessive computational time since all buses are considered

in calculation; however, it can lead to a completely optimal

solution. Its numerical results are presented in Section III.

A. Power Losses

The total real power loss in a power system is represented by

an exact loss formula [28]

P

L

=

N

i=1

N

j=1

[

ij

(P

i

P

j

+Q

i

Q

j

) +

ij

(Q

i

P

j

P

i

Q

j

)] (1)

where

ij

=

r

ij

V

i

V

j

cos(

i

j

);

ij

=

r

ij

V

i

V

j

sin(

i

j

)

V

i

i

complex voltage at the bus ith;

r

ij

+jx

ij

= Z

ij

ijth element of [Zbus] impedance matrix;

P

i

and P

j

active power injections at the ith and jth

buses, respectively;

Q

i

and Q

j

reactive power injections at the ith and jth

buses, respectively;

N number of buses.

B. IA Method

In this paper, an effective methodology is proposed to nd the

optimal location, size, and power factor of multiple DG units in

distribution networks. A brief description of the IA expressions

and optimal power factors for single DG allocation is presented

as follows [27]:

1) IA Expressions: Type 1 DG (i.e., 0 < PF

DG

< 1) is

capable of injecting both real and reactive power (e.g., syn-

chronous generators). The optimal size of DG at each bus i for

minimizing losses can be given by (2) and (3)

P

DGi

=

ii

(P

Di

+aQ

Di

) X

i

aY

i

a

2

ii

+

ii

(2)

Q

DGi

=aP

DGi

(3)

in which

a = (sign) tan

cos

1

(PF

DG

)

X

i

=

n

j=1

j=i

(

ij

P

j

ij

Q

j

) Y

i

=

n

j=1

j=1

(

ij

Q

j

+

ij

P

j

).

The aforementioned equations give the optimum size of DG

for each bus i, for the loss to be minimum. Any size of DG

other than P

DGi

placed at bus i will lead to a higher loss.

This loss, however, is a function of loss coefcients and .

When DG is installed in the system, the values of loss co-

efcients will change, as it depends on voltage and angle.

Updating the values of and again requires another load

ow calculation. However, numerical results showed that the

accuracy gained in the size of DG by updating and is small

and negligible [21]. With this assumption, the optimum size of

1702 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 60, NO. 4, APRIL 2013

Fig. 1. Simple distribution system with single DG.

DG for each bus, given by the aforementioned relations, can be

calculated from the base case load ow (i.e., without DG case).

This methodology requires the load ow to be carried out only

two times for single DG allocation, one for the base case and

another at the end with DG included to obtain the nal solution

[21], [27].

Type 2 DG (i.e., 0 < PF

DG

< 1) is capable of injecting

real power but consuming reactive power (sign = 1) (e.g.,

induction generators). Similar to type 1 DG, the optimal size

of type 2 DG at each bus i for the minimum loss is given by

(2) and (3).

Type 3 DG (i.e., PF

DG

= 1, a = 0) is capable of injecting

real power only (e.g., PV, microturbines, and fuel cells which

are integrated to the main grid with the help of converters/

inverters). The optimal size of DG at each bus i for the mini-

mum loss is given by reduced (4)

P

DGi

= P

Di

ii

N

j=1

j=i

(

ij

P

j

ij

Q

j

). (4)

Type 4 DG (i.e., PF

DG

= 0, a = ) is capable of delivering

reactive power only (e.g., synchronous compensators). The

optimal size of DG at each bus i for the minimum loss is given

by reduced (5)

Q

DGi

= Q

Di

ii

N

j=1

j=i

(

ij

Q

j

+

ij

P

j

). (5)

2) Power Factor Selection: Consider a simple distribution

system with two buses, a source, a load, and a DG connected

through a transmission line as shown in Fig. 1.

The power factor of the single load (PF

D

) is given as

PF

D

=

P

D

P

2

D

+Q

2

D

. (6)

The power factor of the single DG injected (PF

DG

) is

given as

PF

DG

=

P

DG

P

2

DG

+Q

2

DG

. (7)

It is obvious that the minimum loss occurs when the power

factor of the single DG as (6) is equal to that of the single load

as (7).

To nd the optimal power factor of DG units for a radial

complex distribution system, a fast approach is proposed. A

repeated approach is also introduced to check the effectiveness

of the fast approach. It is interesting to note that, in all the three

test systems used in this paper, the optimal power factor of DG

units placed for loss reduction is found to be closer to the power

factor of the combined load of respective systems.

a) Fast Approach: The power factor of the combined load

of the system (PF

D

) can be expressed by (6). The total active

and reactive power of the load demand is expressed as

P

D

=

N

i=1

P

Di

Q

D

=

N

i=1

Q

Di

.

The possible minimum total loss can be achieved if the

power factor of DG (PF

DG

) is selected to be equal to that of

the combined load (PF

D

). That can be expressed as

PF

DG

= PF

D

. (8)

b) Repeated Method: In this method, the optimal power

factor is selected by calculating a few power factors of DG units

(change in a small step of 0.01) that are near to the power factor

of the combined load. The sizes and locations of DG units at

various power factors with respect to losses are identied from

(2) and (3). The losses are compared, and the optimal power

factor of DG units at which the total loss is at minimum is

determined.

3) Optimization Algorithm for Multiple DG Allocation:

This algorithm is made on the basis of the IA expressions [27]

to nd the optimal buses at which the losses are the lowest and

where multiple DG units are best placed. The IA expressions

help reduce the solution space. Fig. 2 illustrates the owchart of

IA method for multiple DG allocation. The descriptions of each

step in detail are given as follows. In this paper, based on an idea

of updating the load data after each time of DG placement, the

algorithm is proposed to solve optimal multiple DG placement.

First, a single DG is added in the system. After that, the load

data are updated with the rst DG placed and then another DG

is added. Similarly, the algorithm continues to allocate other

DG units until it does not satisfy at least one of the constraints

in step 7 as described as follows.

The computational procedure to allocate multiple DG units

on the basis of the IA expressions is described in detail as

follows.

Step 1) Enter the number of DG units to be installed.

Step 2) Run the load ow for the base case and nd losses

using (1).

Step 3) Calculate the power factor of DG using (8) or enter

the power factor of DG.

Step 4) Find the optimal location of DG using the following

steps.

a) Calculate the optimal size of DG at each bus

using (2) and (3).

b) Place the DG with the optimal size, as mentioned

earlier, at each bus one at a time. Calculate the

approximate loss for each case using (1) with the

values and of the base case.

HUNG AND MITHULANANTHAN: MULTIPLE DG PLACEMENT IN PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS FOR LOSS REDUCTION 1703

Fig. 2. Flow chart of IA method to allocate multiple DG units.

c) Locate the optimal bus at which the loss is at

minimum.

Step 5) Find the optimal size of DG and calculate losses

using the following steps.

a) Place a DG at the optimal bus obtained in step 4,

change this DG size in small step, update the

values and , and calculate the loss for each

case using (1) by running the load ow.

b) Select and store the optimal size of the DG that

gives the minimum loss.

Step 6) Update load data after placing the DG with the

optimal size obtained in step 5 to allocate the

next DG.

Step 7) Stop if either the following occurs:

a) the voltage at a particular bus is over the upper

limit;

b) the total size of DG units is over the total load

plus loss;

c) the maximum number of DG units is unavailable;

d) the new iteration loss is greater than the previous

iteration loss.

The previous iteration loss is retained; otherwise,

repeat steps 2 to 6.

Fig. 3. Flow chart of LSF method to allocate multiple DG units.

C. LSF Method

In this paper, the sensitivity factor of active power loss is em-

ployed to nd the most sensitive buses to place DG units which

are capable of injecting active power only (i.e., type 3 DG).

The sensitivity factor method is based on the principle of lin-

earization of the original nonlinear equation around the initial

operating point, which helps reduce the number of solution

space. The LSF at the ith bus is derived from (1) with respect

to active power injection at that bus, which is given as [21]

i

=

P

L

P

i

= 2

N

j=1

(

ij

P

j

ij

Q

j

). (9)

Fig. 3 shows the ow chart of LSF method for multiple DG

placement. Similar to IA method, the procedure to nd the

optimal locations and sizes of multiple DG units using the LSF

is described in detail as follows.

Step 1) Enter the number of DG units to be installed.

Step 2) Run the load ow for the base case and nd losses

using (1).

Step 3) Find the optimal location of DG using the following

steps.

a) Find LSF using (9). Rank buses in descending

order of the values of their LSFs to form a

priority list.

b) Locate the highest priority bus.

1704 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 60, NO. 4, APRIL 2013

Step 4) Find the optimal size of DG and calculate losses

using the following steps.

a) Place a DG at the bus with the highest priority

obtained in step 3, change this DG size in small

step, update the values and , and calculate the

loss for each case using (1) by running the load

ow.

b) Select and store the optimal size of the DG that

gives the minimum loss.

Step 5) Update load data after placing the DG with the

optimal size obtained in step 4 to allocate the

next DG.

Step 6) Stop if either the following occurs:

a) the voltage at a particular bus is over the upper

limit;

b) the total size of DG units is over the total load

plus loss;

c) the maximum number of DG units is unavailable;

d) the new iteration loss is greater than the previous

iteration loss.

The previous iteration loss is retained; otherwise,

repeat steps 2 to 5.

III. NUMERICAL RESULTS

A. Test Systems

The proposed methodology is tested on three test systems

with varying sizes and complexities. The rst system used in

this paper is a 16-bus test radial distribution system with a

total load of 28.7 MW and 5.9 MVAr [29]. The second one

is a 33-bus test radial distribution system with a total load of

3.7 MW and 2.3 MVAr [30]. The last one is a 69-bus test

radial distribution system with a total load of 3.8 MW and

2.69 MVAr [31].

Based on the proposed methodology, an analytical software

tool has been developed in MATLAB environment to run the

load ow, calculate power losses, and identify the optimal size

and location of multiple DG units. Although the tool can handle

four different DG types and various load levels, the results of

type 3 DG and type 1 DG at the peak load level, respectively,

are presented.

B. Assumptions and Constraints

The following are the assumptions and constraints for this

paper:

1) The lower and upper voltage thresholds are set at 0.90 and

1.05 pu, respectively.

2) The maximum number of DG units is three, with the size

each from 250 kW to the total load plus loss, and the

maximum DG penetration is 100%.

C. Type 3 DG Placement

1) 16-Bus Test System: Table I presents the simulation re-

sults of placing DG units by various techniques. The results

TABLE I

DG PLACEMENT BY VARIOUS TECHNIQUES FOR 16-BUS SYSTEM

of the base case and three cases with DG numbers ranging

from one to three are compared. The results include the optimal

sizes and locations of DG units with respect to the total losses

by each technique. The loss reduction, computational time,

and schedule of installed DG units of each technique are also

presented in the table.

For all the cases, IA leads to a completely optimal solution

as compared with ELF, i.e., the optimal locations and sizes of

DG units by IA is the same as those by ELF. Among all the

cases, LSF yields the lowest loss reduction due to poor choice

of locations. For instance, placing single DG by IA, ELF, and

LSF yields loss reductions of 67.06%, 67.06%, and 62.15%,

respectively.

IA demands shorter computational time compared to ELF as

expected. However, LSF is the quickest among all methods.

2) 33-Bus Test System: Similar to 16-bus system, Table II

presents the results of the optimal sizes and locations of DG

units by various techniques.

For single DG, the loss reduction by IA, at 47.39%, is the

same as that by ELF. Among all the cases, LSF produces a loss

reduction of only 30.48%. For two DG units, the loss reduction

by IA, at 56.61%, is slightly lower than that by ELF, at 58.51%.

In contrast, it is higher than the loss reduction by LSF at only

52.32%. For three DG units, IA achieves a loss reduction of

61.62%, compared with ELF at 64.83%. However, it is better

than LSF that yields a loss reduction of 59.72%. In general,

for this system, IA method can lead to an optimal solution

for single DG and a near optimal solution for two and three

DG units.

IA needs a short computational time. Particularly, for three

DG units, the time by IA is 0.40 s, nearly twice longer than that

HUNG AND MITHULANANTHAN: MULTIPLE DG PLACEMENT IN PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS FOR LOSS REDUCTION 1705

TABLE II

DG PLACEMENT BY VARIOUS TECHNIQUES FOR 33-BUS SYSTEM

TABLE III

DG PLACEMENT BY VARIOUS TECHNIQUES FOR 69-BUS SYSTEM

by LSF at 0.23 s. In contrast, it is approximately eight times

shorter than the time by ELF at 3.06 s.

3) 69-Bus Test System: Table III presents the results of

optimal sizes and locations of DG units by various techniques.

For all the cases, IA leads to a globally optimal solution as

compared with ELF; particularly, the results by IA are the same

as those by ELF in terms of loss reduction, optimal locations,

TABLE IV

DG PLACEMENT AT OPTIMAL AND COMBINED

LOAD POWER FACTORS FOR 16-BUS SYSTEM

and sizes of DG units. However, it is better than ELF in terms of

computational time. Particularly, for three DG units, the time by

IA is 0.71 s, nearly 33 times shorter than that by ELF at 23.16 s.

It is quite longer than the time by LSF at 0.52 s. In addition, IA

achieves better loss reduction than LSF. For instance, for two

DG units, IA reaches a loss reduction of 67.94%, while LSF

obtains that of 54.97%.

D. Type 1 DG Placement

1) 16-Bus Test System: Table IV shows the simulation re-

sults of the optimal sizes, locations, and power factors of DG

units by IA for this system. The results of the base case and

three cases with DG units at the optimal and combined load

power factors are compared. The power factor of the combined

load is 0.98 lagging. The optimal power factor of DG units

is identied at 0.99 lagging. In all the cases, the results of

loss reduction at the optimal power factor are slightly higher

compared to those at the combined load factor power. As a

result, selection of the power factor of DG units can be based

on combined load power factor.

Among the cases, three DG units at the optimal power factor

yield a maximum loss reduction of 86.70%, while one DG at

this power factor obtains a minimum loss reduction of only

68.21%. As the number of DG units is increased, the loss

reduction becomes more effective.

These results are obtained with the help of the proposed

method and veried by ELF solutions.

2) 33-Bus Test System: Table V shows the simulation results

of the optimal sizes, locations, and power factors of DGunits by

IA. The power factor of the combined load is 0.85 lagging. The

optimal power factor of DG units is identied at 0.82 lagging.

In all the cases, the results of loss reduction at the optimal

power factor are slightly higher as compared with those at the

combined load factor power. Therefore, selection of the power

factor of DG units that is equal to that of the combined load is

feasible for this case.

1706 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 60, NO. 4, APRIL 2013

TABLE V

DG PLACEMENT AT OPTIMAL AND COMBINED

LOAD POWER FACTORS FOR 33-BUS SYSTEM

TABLE VI

DG PLACEMENT AT OPTIMAL POWER FACTOR FOR 69-BUS SYSTEM

Similar to 16-bus test system, three DG units at the optimal

power factor produce a maximum loss reduction of 89.45%,

while one DG at this factor obtains a minimum loss reduction

of only 67.85%. The more the number of DG units is installed,

the better the loss reduction increases.

3) 69-Bus Test System: Table VI shows the simulation re-

sults of the optimal sizes, locations, and power factors of DG

units by IA. The results of the base case and three cases

with DG units at the optimal power factor are compared. The

optimal power factor of DG units is determined to be equal to

the combined load power factor at 0.82 lagging. As a result,

selection of the power factor of DG units that is equal to that

of the combined load can lead to an optimal solution for this

system.

Similar to 16-bus and 33-bus test systems, three DG units at

the optimal power factor result in a maximum loss reduction of

97.74%. In contrast, one DG at that factor yields a minimum

loss reduction of only 89.68%. As the number of DG units

becomes larger, the loss reduction increases.

E. Results of Voltages

Tables VIIIX indicate the minimum and maximum voltages

for all the cases of 16, 33, and 69-bus test systems, respectively.

In all the cases, after DG units are added, the total losses can

TABLE VII

VOLTAGES OF CASES FOR 16-BUS TEST SYSTEM

TABLE VIII

VOLTAGES OF CASES FOR 33-BUS TEST SYSTEM

TABLE IX

VOLTAGES OF CASES FOR 69-BUS TEST SYSTEM

reduce signicantly while satisfying all the power and voltage

constraints. This was checked with exhaustive power ow. It is

interesting to note that the voltage prole improves when the

number of DG units installed in the system is increased. Power

factors of DG units too have an inuence on voltage proles as

expected.

IV. CONCLUSION

This paper has presented IA method for multiple DG al-

location for loss reduction in large-scale distribution systems

while fullling the main objective of energy injection. This

method is based on IA expressions for nding the size of four

different DG types and an effective methodology to nd the

HUNG AND MITHULANANTHAN: MULTIPLE DG PLACEMENT IN PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS FOR LOSS REDUCTION 1707

best location for DG allocation. In this method, a fast approach

to obtain an optimal or near optimal power factor has been also

presented for placing DG units capable of delivering real and

reactive power. Moreover, this paper has also introduced the

LSF and ELF methods. The proposed IA method is effective

as corroborated by ELF and LSF solutions in terms of loss

reduction and computational time. LSF method may not lead

to the best choice for DG placement. The number of DG units

with appropriate sizes and locations can reduce the losses to

a considerable amount. Given the choice, DG(s) should be

allocated to enjoy other benets as well such as loss reduction.

Among different DG types, the DG capable of delivering

both real and reactive power reduces losses more than that of

DG capable of delivering real power only in one or two or three

DGcases. For DGcapable of delivering real and reactive power,

their power factors too play a crucial role in loss reduction.

In all the test systems used in this paper, the operating power

factor of DG units for minimizing losses has been found to be

closer to the power factor of combined load of the respective

system. This could be a good guidance for operating DG units

that have the capability to deliver both real and reactive power

for minimizing losses.

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degree at the School of Information Technol-

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1708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 60, NO. 4, APRIL 2013

Nadarajah Mithulananthan (SM10) received the

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University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka,

in May 1993, and the M.Eng. degree from the

Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand, in

August 1997.

He was an Electrical Engineer with the Generation

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as a Project Leader with Chulalongkorn University,

Bangkok, Thailand. He is currently a Senior Lecturer with the University of

Queensland (UQ), Brisbane, Australia. Prior to joining UQ, he was an Asso-

ciate Professor with the Asian Institute of Technology. His research interests

are the integration of renewable energy in power systems and power system

stability and dynamics.

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