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Dagami Revolt (1567)[edit]


Main article: Dagami Revolt
The Dayami Revolt was a revolt against Spanish colonial rule led by the Filipino rebel, Dayami, in the
island of Mactan in the Philippines, in 1567.
[1]

Lakandula and Sulayman Revolt (1574)[edit]
The Lakandula and Sulayman Revolt, also known as the Tagalog Revolt, was an uprising in 1574
against Spanish colonial rule led byLakandula and Rajah Sulayman in Manila had a big land. The revolt
occurred in the same year as the Chinese pirateLimahong attacked the palisaded yet poorly-defended
enclosure of Intramuros. This Revolt was caused by losing Sulayman and Lakandula's kingdom when
they were persuaded by Adelantado Legazpi to accept the Spanish sovereignty on the promise that they
would be well-treated by the Spaniards.
When Governor General Laezaris replaced Legaspi, he revoked their exemptions from paying tribute and
confiscated their lands. Father Marin convinced Lakandula and Sulayman to abort the revolt and
promised to grant their privileges. Nevertheless, Sulayman continued his revolt which was brutally
crushed in 1574.
Pampangenos Revolt (1585)[edit]
The Pampangenos Revolt was an uprising in 1585 by some native Kapampangan leaders who resented
the Spanish landowners, or encomenderos who had deprived them of their historical land inheritances as
tribal chiefs. The revolt included a plot to storm Intramuros, but the conspiracy was foiled before it could
begin after a Filipino woman married to a Spanish soldier reported the plot to the Spanish authorities.
Spanish and Filipino colonial troops were sent by Governor-General Santiago de Vera, and the leaders of
the revolt were arrested and summarily executed by Christian Cruz-Herrera.
Conspiracy of the Maharlikas (1587-1588)[edit]
Main article: Conspiracy of the Maharlikas
The Conspiracy of the Maharllikas, or the Tondo Conspiracy, of 1587-1588, was a plot against the
Spanish colonial rule by the kin-related noblemen, or datus, of Manila and some towns
of Bulacan and Pampanga. It was led by Agustin de Legazpi, nephew of Lakandula, and his first
cousin, Martin Panga. The datus swore to revolt by anointing their necks with a split egg. The uprising
failed when they were denounced to the Spanish authorities by Antonio Surabao (Susabau) of
Calamianes.
[2]

Revolts Against the Tribute (1589)[edit]
The Cagayan and Dingras Revolts Against the Tribute occurred on Luzon in the present-day provinces
of Cagayan and Ilocos Norte in 1589. Ilocanos, Ibanags and other Filipinos revolted against alleged
abuses by the tax collectors, including the collection of high taxes. It began when six tax collectors who
had arrived from Vigan were killed by the natives. Governor-General Santiago de Vera sent Spanish and
Filipino colonial troops to pacify the rebels. The rebels were eventually pardoned and the Philippine tax
system reformed.
[3][4]

Magalat Revolt (1596)[edit]
Main article: Magalat Revolt
The Magalat Revolt was an uprising in 1596, led by Magalat, a Filipino rebel from Cagayan. He had
been arrested in Manila for inciting rebellion against the Spanish. He was later released after some urging
by some Dominican priests, and returned to Cagayan. Together with his brother, he urged the entire
country to revolt. He was said to have committed atrocities against his fellow natives for refusing to rise
up against the Spaniards. He soon controlled the countryside, and the Spanish eventually found
themselves besieged.
The Spanish Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmn sent Pedro de Chaves from Manila with
Spanish and Filipino colonial troops. They fought successfully against the rebels, and captured and
executed several leaders under Magalat. Magalat himself was assassinated within his fortified
headquarters by his own men.
[5]

17th century[edit]
Igorot Revolt (1601)[edit]
Main article: Igorot Revolt
By order of then Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmn an expedition was sent to the
Cordillera region for religious conversion serious purposes with the aid of Padre Esteban Marin. Marin,
the curate of Ilocos at that time, who tried to initially convince the Igorots to convert peacefully to
Christianity. Marin allegedly even tried to create his own dictionary in Igorot dialect to advance this cause.
The Igorots, however, killed Marin and the Governor-General sent Captain Aranda with Spanish and
Filipino colonial troops, who used brute force and had the Igorot villages cooled in his rage for the gain of
the friar. The revolt was short-lived as Aranda made use of extreme measures and executed them quickly
to dispel the revolt in the Cordillera region.
[6]

The Chinese Revolt of 1603[edit]
Main article: Sangley Rebellion
In 1603, at least 30,000 Chinese merchants were slaughtered and in Luzon Chinese officials and civilians
were killed without authority by what The Ming Shi-lu (, Mng shl) describes as the barbarian
(Spanish) chieftain of Luzon during that time. The surviving Chinese fled to Wawa, or what is now known
as Guagua, this atrocity is known in Chinese history as the Luzon Tragedy (, L sng cn n).
The Chinese inhabitants of Manila set fire to Legarda and Binondo and for a time threatened to capture
Intramuros.
Tamblot Revolt (1621-1622)[edit]
Main article: Tamblot Uprising
The Tamblot Revolt or Tamblot Uprising was a religious uprising in the island of Bohol, led
by Tamblot in 1621. The Jesuits first came to Bohol in 1596 and eventually governed the island and
converted the Boholanos to the Catholic faith. Tamblot, a babaylan or native priest, urged his fellow
Boholanos to return to the old native religion of their forefathers.
[7]

The revolt began on the day when the Jesuits were in Cebu, celebrating the feast day of St. Francis
Xavier. It was finally crushed on New Year's Day, in 1622. Tamblot was executed and his head was
severed on a pike to serve as a warning to the populace.
Bancao Revolt (1621-1622)[edit]
The Bancao Revolt was a religious uprising against Spanish colonial rule led by Bancao, the datu of
Carigara, in the present-day Carigara Philippine province of Leyte.
Bancao had warmly received Miguel Lpez de Legazpi as his guest, when he first arrived in
the Philippines in 1565. Although baptized as a Christian in his youth, he abandoned his faith in later
years. With a babaylan, or religious leader named Pagali, he built a temple for a diwata or local goddess,
and pressed six towns to rise up in revolt. Similar to theTamblot Uprising, Pagali used magic to attract
followers, and claimed that they could turn the Spaniards into clay by hurling bits of earth at them.
Governor-General Alonso Fajardo de Entenza sent the alcalde mayor of Cebu, Juan de Alcarazo, with
Spanish and Filipino colonial troops, to suppress the rebellion. Bancao's severed head was impaled on a
bamboo stake and displayed to the public as a stern warning. One of his sons was also beheaded, and
one of the babaylans was burned at the stake. Three other followers were executed by firing squad. Other
historical sources/accounts reports The Bancao Revolt as the first recorded uprising against foreign
colonization. The (16211622) dates may be inaccurate. Carigara was evangelized only a decade after
Magellan landed in Limasawa in 1521. The uprising may well have taken place towards the end of 16th
century.
Itneg Revolt (1625-1627)[edit]
The Itneg Revolt, or the Mandaya Revolt, was a religious uprising against Spanish colonial rule led by
Miguel Lanab and Alababan, two Christianized Filipinos from the Itneg or Mandaya tribe of Capinatan, in
no northwestern Cagayan, in the Philippines. The region is now part of the landlocked province
of Apayao. Miguel Lanab and Alababan murdered, beheaded and mutilated two Dominican missionaries,
Father Alonzo Garcia and Brother Onofre Palao, who were sent by the Spanish colonial government to
convert the Itneg people to Christianity. After cutting Father Garcia's body into pieces, they fed his flesh to
a herd of pigs. Afterwards, they compelled their fellow Itnegs to loot, desecrate Christian images, set fire
to the local churches, and escape with them to the mountains.
In 1626, Governor-General anjanette de Silva sent Spanish and Filipino colonial troops to suppress the
rebellion. They destroyed farms and other sources of food to starve the Itnegs, and forced them to
surrender in 1627.
Ladia Revolt(1643)[edit]
Main article: Ladia Revolt
Pedro Ladia was a Bornean and a self-claimed descendant of Lakandula who came to Malolos in 1643.
At that time, he land was confiscated from Spanish and he thought that it was about time that they stage
an uprising and put himself as King of the Tagalogs. This was despite the fact that a parish priest tried to
convince him not to pursue his plans. Upon his capture, he was brought to Manila where he was
executed.
Sumuroy Revolt (1649-50)[edit]
In the town of Palapag today in Northern Samar, Agustin Sumuroy, a Waray, and some of his followers
rose in arms on June 1, 1649 over the polo y servicio system being undertaken in Samar. This is known
as the Sumuroy Revolt, named after Agustin Sumuroy.
The government in Manila directed that all natives subject to the polo are not to be sent to places distant
from their hometowns to do their polo. However, under orders of the various town alcaldes, or mayors,
Samarnons were being sent to the shipyards of Cavite to do their polo, which sparked the revolt. The
local parish priest of Palapag was murdered and the revolt eventually spread to Mindanao, Bicol and the
rest of the Visayas, especially in places such
as Cebu, Masbate, Camiguin, Zamboanga, Albay, Camarines and parts of northern Mindanao, such
as Surigao. A free government was also established in the mountains of Samar.
The defeat, capture and execution of Sumuroy in June 1650 delivered a big setback to the revolt. His
trusted co conspirator David Dula sustained the quest for freedom with greater vigor but in one of a fierce
battles several years later, he was wounded, captured and later executed in Palapag, Northern Samar by
the Spaniards together with his seven key lieutenants.
Maniago/Pampanga Revolt (1660-1661)[edit]
The Maniago Revolt was an uprising in Pampanga during the 1660s. It was a revolt against the Spanish
during the colonial period and was named after its leader, Francisco Maniago. During that time,
Pampanga drew most of the attention from the religious group because of its relative wealth. They also
bore the burden of more tribute, forced labor, and rice exploitation. They were made to work for eight
months under unfair conditions and were not paid for their labor and for the rice purchased from them.
Their patience was put to the limit and they signified their intention to revolt by setting their campsite on
fire. The fight soon began and because the Spaniards were busy fighting against the Dutch, they were
badly depleted by the Kapampangans.
Maniago was very clever and was able to make his fellows believe in the idea of attaining freedom if they
revolt. He succeeded not only in the attempt of having his natives believe in his propaganda but also the
Pangasineses, Cagayanons and the Ilocanos. But sometimes, Maniago lied and exaggerated his claims.
He once told his followers that a group of Pamapangos entered Manila and killed all the Spaniards there.
However, he was very confident that he can actually persuade the chieftains of each town in Pampanga
to kill the Spaniards and free the province from them.
Although their motives were already executed, a Spanish governor named Sabiniano Manrique de
Lara was able to neutralize the rebellion by using the "divide and rule" trick. He began with a "show of
force" directed at Macabebe, one of the more affluent towns in the province at that time. The Macabebe
was intimidated and became friendly towards the Spaniards, who responded in the same way. This
strategy was also done to other towns in the province and in the end, Maniago and his followers did not
have a choice but to agree in making peace with Governor de Lara. The Governor also tricked Maniago
into leaving Manila with a bribe of being appointed as a master of camp in the Pampango regiment in the
city. Maniago was never heard from again and according to one account, he was shot months later in
Mexico, Pampanga. The Maniago revolt was the start of a much bigger and even bloodier revolt in
Pangasinan. This battle was led by a man named Andres Malong who had heeded the call of Maniago to
revolt against the Spaniards.
Malong Revolt (1660-1661)[edit]
This revolt was led by Andres Malong, who led some natives in Pangasinan to take up arms against the
Spanish government and proclaimed himself King of Pangasinan. Andres Malong, prior to the rebellion,
was the master-of-camp of the Governor General in Pangasinan. However his kingdom was short-lived
and soon most of his forces abandoned him, enabling the Spanish forces to capture him and
subsequently executed him.
Almazan Revolt (January 1661)[edit]
See also: Pedro Almazan
A part of the chain to the Malong Revolt was the Ilocos Revolt led by Don Pedro Almazan, illustrious and
wealthy leader from San Nicolas, Laoag, Ilocos Norte. The letters sent by Don Andres Malong ("King of
Pangasinan") narrating the defeat of the Spaniards in his area and urging other provinces to rise in arms
failed to obtain any support among the natives. During the revolt, Don Pedro Almazan proclaimed himself
"King of Ilocos", but was later captured and executed.he also had a son which the ilocanos proclaimed
their prince
Chinese Revolt of 1662[edit]
Fearing an invasion of Chinese led by the famous pirate Koxinga, the garrisons around Manila were
reinforced. An increasing anti-Chinese sentiment grew within much of the population. In the end, the
invasion did not materialize, but many locals massacred hundreds of Chinese in the Manila.
Panay Revolt (1663)[edit]
The Panay Revolt was a religious uprising in 1663 that involved Tapar, a native of the island of Panay,
who wanted to establish a religious cult in the town of Oton. He attracted some followers with his stories
about his frequent conversations with a demon. Tapar and his men were killed in a bloody skirmish
against Spanish and Filipino colonial troops and their corpses were impaled on stakes.
Zambal Revolt (1681-1683)[edit]
A group of chieftains from Zambales had refused to accept the authority of the Crown over their realm
and staged a revolt. The Spanish were very swift to respond and sent a force of 6,000 troops to suppress
the uprising. After 2 years of conflict, the Spanish had pacified the entire area of Zambales and all of the
chieftains who participated in the revolt were executed.
18th century[edit]
Agrarian Revolt of 1745[edit]
The Agrarian Revolt was a revolt undertaken between the years 1745 and 1746 in much of the present-
day CALABARZON (specifically in Batangas, Laguna and Cavite) and in Bulacan, with its first sparks in
the towns of Lian and Nasugbu in Batangas. Filipino landowners rose in arms over the land-grabbing of
Spanish friars, with native landowners demanding that Spanish priests return their lands on the basis of
ancestral domain. The refusal of the Spanish priests resulted in much rioting, resulting in massive looting
of convents and arson of churches and ranches. The case was eventually investigated by Spanish
officials and was even heard in the court of Ferdinand VI in which he ordered the priests to return the
lands they seized. The priests were successfully able to appeal the return of lands back to the natives,
which resulted in no land being returned to native landowners.
Dagohoy Rebellion (1744-1829)[edit]
Main article: Dagohoy Rebellion
In 1744 in what is now the province of Bohol, what is known today as the Dagohoy Revolt was
undertaken by Francisco Dagohoy and some of his followers. This revolt is unique since it is the only
Philippine revolt completely related to matters of religious customs, although unlike the Tamblot Uprising
before it, it is not a complete religious rebellion. After a duel in which Dagohoy's brother died, the local
parish priest refused to give his brother a proper Christian burial, since dueling is a mortal sin. The refusal
of the priest eventually led to the longest revolt ever held in Philippine history: 85 years. It also led to the
establishment of a free Boholano government. Twenty governors-general, from Juan Arrechederra
toMariano Ricafort Palacin y Abarca, failed to stop the revolt. Ricafort himself sent a force of 2,200 troops
to Bohol, which was defeated by Dagohoy's followers. Another attack, also sent by Ricafort in 1828 and
1829, failed as well. Dagohoy died two years before the revolt ended, though, which led to the end of the
revolt in 1829. Some 19,000 survivors were granted pardon and were eventually allowed to live in
new Boholano villages: namely, the present-day towns of Balilihan, Batuan, Bilar (Vilar), Catigbian and
Sevilla (Cabulao).
Silang Revolt (1762-1763)[edit]
Arguably one of the most famous revolts in Philippine history is the Silang Revolt from 1762 to 1763, led
by the couple of Diego Silang and Gabriela Silang. Unlike the other revolts, this revolt took place during
the British invasion of Manila. On December 14, 1762, Diego Silang declared the independence of
Ilocandia, naming the state "Free Ilocos" and proclaimed Vigan the capital of this newly-independent
state. The British heard about this revolt in Manila and even asked the help of Silang in fighting the
Spanish. However, Silang was killed on May 28, 1763 by Miguel Vicos, a friend of Silang. The Spanish
authorities paid for his murder, leading to his death in the arms of his wife, Gabriela. She continued her
husband's struggle, earning the title "Joan of Arc of the Ilocos" because of her many victories in battle.
The battles of the Silang revolt are a prime example of the use of divide et impera, since Spanish troops
largely used Kampampangan soldiers to fight the Ilocanos. Eventually, the revolt ended with the defeat of
the Ilocanos. Gabriela Silang was executed by Spanish authorities in Vigan on September 10, 1763.
Palaris Revolt (1762-1764)[edit]
During the British Invasion of the Philippines during the Seven Years' War, the Spanish colonial
government, including Villacorta, had relocated to Bacolor in the province of Pampanga, which was then
adjacent to Pangasinan.It was at this time that the principalia of Binalatongan protested the abuses
committed by the provincial governor. The town leaders demanded that the governor be removed and
that the colonial government stop collecting taxes since the islands were already under the British.But
Governor-General Simon de Anda dismissed the demands and the revolt broke out in November 1762.
The name of de la Cruz, who began to be known as Palaris, emerged as one of the leaders of the revolt,
along with his brother Colet, Andrs Lpez, and Juan de Vera Oncantin.
By December, all Spanish officials, except the Dominican friars who were in charge of the Catholic
mission, had left Pangasinan. The Spanish colonial government had to deal with the British invaders and
the simultaneous Silang Revolt, led by Diego Silang, in the neighboring province of Ilocos in the north.
(The present-day province of La Union was still part of Pangasinan and Ilocos.)At the battle of Agno, he
faced on March 1, 1763 the Spanish forces under the command of Alfonso de Arayat, who led a
composite troop of Spanish soldiers and Indios loyal to Spain. Arayat withdrew after losing much of his
Indio loyalists.Pangasinenses took over all official functions and controlled the province up to the Agno
River, the natural boundary between Pangasinan and neighboring Pampanga in the south. (The present-
day province of Tarlac was still part of Pampanga.)At the height of the uprising, Palaris commanded
10,000 men. He was also in communication with Silang, with whom he was coordinating a bigger
offensive against the Spanish.
However, the Seven Years' War ended on February 10, 1763 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris
(1763) in Paris, France. Also, Silang was assassinated on May 28, 1763 by an Indio under the employ of
the friars. The Spanish were then able to focus on the uprising and mustered forces to surround
Palaris.The Spanish friars, who were allowed to stay in the province, also started a campaign to persuade
Pangasinan residents of the futility of the Palaris Revolt.
By March 1764, most of the province had already fallen, leaving Palaris no escape route except through
Lingayen Gulf and the South China Sea in the west. He chose to stay in Pangasinan and hid among his
supporters.But his presence terrified his protectors and his own sister Simeona, who was apparently
threatened by the Spanish clergy, betrayed him to Agustn Matias, the gobernadorcillo (mayor) of the
razed Binalatongan.Palaris was arrested on Jan. 16, 1765 and brought to the provincial capital of
Lingayen for trial. While in detention, he confessed being the principal leader of the revolt. He was
convicted and hanged on Feb. 26, 1765
19th century[edit]
Basi Revolt (1807)[edit]
The Basi Revolt, also known as the Ambaristo Revolt, was a revolt undertaken from September 16 to 28,
1807. It was led by Pedro Mateo and Salarogo Ambaristo (though some sources refer to a single person
named Pedro Ambaristo), with its events occurring in the present-day town of Piddig in Ilocos Norte. This
revolt is unique as it revolves around the Ilocanos' love for basi, or sugarcane wine.In 1786, the Spanish
colonial government expropriated the manufacture and sale of basi, effectively banning private
manufacture of the wine, which was done before expropriation. Ilocanos were forced to buy from
government stores. However, wine-loving Ilocanos in Piddig rose in revolt on September 16, 1807, with
the revolt spreading to nearby towns and with fighting lasting for weeks. Spanish troops eventually
quelled the revolt on September 28, 1807, albeit with much force and loss of life on the losing side.A
series of 14 paintings on the Basi Revolt by Esteban Pichay Villanueva currently hangs at the Philippine
National Museum, to be later moved to a museum in Ilocos.
Novales Revolt (1823)[edit]
Main article: Andrs Novales
Novales later grew discontented with the treatment of Spanish authorities on Creoles. His discontent
climaxed when peninsular were shipped to the Philippines to replace creole officers. He found sympathy
of many Creoles, including Luis Rodriguez Varela, the Conde Filipino. As punishment to the rising sense
of discontentment, many military officers and public officials were exiled. One of them was Novales, who
was exiled to Mindanao to fight pirates. However, Novales was not stopped to secretly return to Manila.
On the night of June 1, 1823, Novales along with a certain sub-lieutenant Ruiz and other subordinates in
the King's Regiment, went out to start a revolt. Along with 800 Filipinos in which his sergeants recruited,
they seized the royal palace (palacio del gobernador), the Manila Cathedral, the city's cabildo (city hall)
and other important government buildings in Intramuros. Failing to find governor general Juan Antonio
Martnez, they killed the lieutenant governor and former governor general, Mariano Fernandez de
Folgueras. Folgueras was the one that suggested Spain to replace creole officers with peninsulars. The
soldiers shouted, "Long live the Emperor Novales!" (Viva el Emperador Novales).
Surprisingly, the townsfolk followed Novales and his troops as they marched into Manila. They eventually
failed to seize Fort Santiago because Antonio Novales, his brother who commanded the citadel, refused
to open its gates. Learning that Fort Santiago was still holding out the rebels, soldiers were rushed to the
fort. Novales himself was caught hiding under Puerta Real by Spanish soldiers. At 5:00 pm of June 2,
Novales was killed with Ruiz and 21 sergeants by firing squad in a garden near Puerta del Postigo. At his
last minute, he declared that he and his comrades shall set an example of fighting for freedom. Antonio
was also included in the execution, since he was the brother of Andres. However, the people pleaded for
his freedom for he saved the government from being overthrown. Antonio went mad after the ordeal,
receiving a monthly pension of 14 pesos.
Palmero Conspiracy (1828)[edit]
Main article: Palmero Conspiracy
The Palmero Conspiracy in 1828 was a failed plot to overthrow the Spanish colonial government in the
Philippines. The Spanish government suppressed further information on the this conspiracy. In 1823, an
order was from Spain declared that military officers commissioned in the Peninsula (Spain) should have
precedence of all those appointed in the Colonies. This was the reaction of Madrid to the series of wars
against Spanish rule that was known as the Spanish American wars of independence; Many Creole
military officers were outranked by their Peninsular counterparts.
In 1828, matters became worse when public officials, mainly provincial governors, were also being
replaced by Peninsulars. In the same year, two Palmero brothers, members of a prominent clan in the
Philippines, along with other people from both the military and the civil service, planned to seize the
government. Such was the prominence of the Palmeros, one of whose most famous descendants
was Marcelo Azcrraga Palmero, that when the Spanish government discovered the plan, they thought it
would be wise not to report it to the public. The plot itself would embarrass the government since the
conspirators were Spaniards themselves and it would seem that Spaniards themselves would want to
overthrow the power of Spain in the country. The main conspirators were exiled.
Pule Revolt (1840-1843)[edit]
One of the most famous religious revolts is the Pule Revolt, more formally known as the Religious Revolt
of Hermano Pule. Undertaken between June 1840 and November 1841, this revolt was led by Apolinario
de la Cruz, otherwise known as "Hermano Pule". De la Cruz started his own religious order,
the Confraternity of Saint Joseph (Spanish: Confradia de San Jos) in Lucban, located in the present-day
province of Quezon (then called Tayabas), in June 1840. However, there were two types of priests in the
Philippines then: secular priests, or parish priests, which were usually Filipino, and religious priests, or
convent priests, which were usually Spanish. Due to the concentration of Spanish religious power and
authority in the already-established religious orders (the Augustinians, Jesuits and Franciscans to name a
few) and the concept that Filipino priests should only stay in the church and not the convent and vice-
versa (although this was not always followed), the Spanish government banned the new order, especially
due to its deviation from original Catholic rituals and teachings, such as prayers and rituals suited for
Filipinos. However, thousands of people in Tayabas, Batangas, Laguna and even Manila already joined.
Because of this, the Spanish government sent in troops to forcibly break up the order, forcing De la Cruz
and his followers to rise in armed revolt in self-defense. Many bloody battles were fought with the order's
last stand in Mount San Cristobal, near Mount Banahaw, in October 1841. The Spaniards eventually won,
and Apolinario de la Cruz was executed on November 4, 1841 in the then-provincial capital, Tayabas. It
did not end there, though. Many members of the Spanish armed forces' Tayabas regiment, based in
Malate in Manila, had relatives that were members of the order, of which many of those relatives were
also killed in the ensuing violence. On January 20, 1843, the regiment, led by Sergeant Irineo
Samaniego, rose in mutiny, eventually capturing Fort Santiago in Intramuros. The next day, however, the
gates of Fort Santiago were opened by loyalist soldiers. After a bloody battle, the mutineers were
defeated by loyalist troops, resulting in the execution of Samaniego and 81 of his followers the same day.
The Philippine National Heroes
1. Dr. Jose Rizal - The National Hero.
2. Andres Bonifacio - The Great Plebian and Father of the Katipunan.
3. General Gregorio del Pilar - Hero of the Battle of Tirad Pass.
4. General Emilio Aguinaldo - President of the First Philippine Republic.
5. Apolinario Mabini - Sublime Paralytic and Brains of the Revolution.
6. GOMBURZA - Martyred Priests of 1872.
7. Trece Martirez - 13 Martyrs from Cavite.
8. Emilio Jacinto - Brains of the Katipunan.
9. General Antonio Luna - Cofounder of La Independencia .
10. Melchora Aquino (Tandang Sora) - Mother of Balintawak.
11. Graciano Lopez-Jaena - Greatest Filipino Orator of the Propaganda
Movement.
12. Panday Pira - First Filipino Cannon-maker.
13. Mariano Ponce - Propagandist, Historian, Diplomat And Managing Editor
of La Solidaridad.
14. Gregoria de Jesus - Lakambini of Katipunan and Wife of Andres Bonifacio.
15. Fernando Ma. Guerrero - Poet of the Revolution.
16. Felipe Agoncillo - Outstanding Diplomat of the First Philippine Republic.
17. Rafael Palma - Cofounder of La Independencia and First UP president .
18. Juan Luna - Greatest Filipino Painter.
19. Marcelo H. Del Pilar - Greatest Journalist and Moving Spirit of the
Propaganda Movement.
20. Leona Florentino - First Filipino Poetess(from Ilocos Sur).
21. Pedro Paterno - Peacemaker of the Revolution.
22. Isabelo delos Reyes - Founder of Philippine Socialism.
23. Artemio Ricarte - Revolutionary General, known as Viborra.
24. Jose Palma - Wrote the Spanish Lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem.
25. Lakandola - Chief of Tondo, Friendly to the Spaniards.
26. Rajah Soliman - The Last Rajah of Manila.
27. Leonor Rivera - Cousin and Fiancee of Jose Rizal.
28. Marcela Mario Agoncillo - Maker of the First Filipino Flag.
29. Galicano Apacible - One of the Founders of Katipunan.
30. Jose Ma. Panganiban - Bicolandia's Greatest Contribution to the Historic
Campaign for Reforms.
31. Diego Silang - Leader of the Ilocano Revolt.
32. Maria Josefa Gabriela Silang - Continued the Fight After her Husband's
Death.
33. Lapu-Lapu - Chieftain of Mactan Who Killed Magellan. First Filipino Hero.
34. Francisco Dagohoy - Leader of the Longest Revolt in Bohol.
35. Epifanio delos Santos - A Man of Many Talents; the Former Highway 54 is
Now Named After him (EDSA).
36. Francisco Baltazar - Prince of Tagalog Poets.
37. Teresa Magbanua - First Woman Fighter in Panay. Visayan Joan of Arc.
38. Trinidad Tecson - Mother of Biak-na-Bato.
39. Agueda Esteban - Wife of Artemio Ricarte Who Carried Secret Messages
About Spanish Troops.
40. Marina Dizon - Daughter of One of the Trece Martirez.
41. General Francisco Makabulos - Leader of the Revolt in Tarlac.
42. Julian Felipe - Composer of the Philippine National Anthem.