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Nutrients

Biological
Molecules • Required for:
– Energy source
– Growth & repair
Topic 1.2:
– Health
Carbohydrates,
Lipids, Proteins

Nutrients Macromolecules
• Giant molecule made from many repeating
• Classified as:
units (polymer)
– Inorganic
• Water
• Formed through condensation
• Mineral salts • Broken down through hydrolysis
– Organic
• Carbohydrates
• Proteins
• Lipids
• Vitamins
• Dietary fibre

Macromolecules Carbohydrates
• 90% of dry mass of cell • Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
• 3 important types: • General formula Cx(H2O)y
– Polysaccharides
• 3 main classes:
– Proteins
– Monosaccharide
– Nucleic acids
– Disaccharides
• Important for: – Polysaccharides
– Storage and structures in cells
– Storing information
– Running chemical reactions

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Monosaccharides Monosaccharides
• Single sugar units (simple sugars)
• Hexoses (n= 6
• General formula (CH2O)n
), eg. glucose,
• n may range from 3-7 fructose,
• Pentoses (n= 5), eg. ribose & deoxyribose galactose
• Different
arrangement
• Same chemical
formula

Disaccharides Maltose
• Formed through the condensation of 2 • Mainly a breakdown
monosaccharide molecules (usually product of starch
hexoses) digestion
• Complex sugars, usually of the formula – In animals
C12H22O11 – Germinating seeds
• Eg. Maltose, lactose, sucrose

Lactose Sucrose
 Milk sugar • Cane sugar
 Important energy source for young • Most abundant disaccharide
mammals • Common in plants
• Very soluble
• Relatively unreactive
• Non-reducing sugar

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Hydrolysis Polysaccharides
• Formed through the condensation of
many monosaccharide molecules
• Main functions:
– Food and energy stores (large size, fold into
compact shapes)
– Structural material

Polysaccharides: Cellulose Polysaccharides: Starch


• Straight chains • Fuel store in plants
• Forms 20-40% of the cell walls of plant • Absent in animals
cells • Accumulate to form grains in
chloroplasts & storage organs eg.
potatoes

Polysaccharides: Glycogen Chitin


• Fuel store in animals and many fungi • Related to cellulose in structure and
function, however has nitrogen in its
• Vertebrates store glycogen mainly in the
structure
liver and muscles
• Main functions: Structural function in
fungi and certain animals

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Carbohydrates: Functions Lipids
• Source of energy • Water insoluble (hydrophobic)
• Structural: Cell walls in plants • Organic
• Conversion into other organic compounds • Extraction by organic solvents
• Synthesis of nucleic acids (eg. DNA) • Condensation of fatty acids and alcohol
• Synthesis of lubricants (eg. mucus)
• Production of nectar in flowers
• Dietary fibre required to aid in peristalsis
and prevent constipation

Lipids Lipids: Functions


• Contain: • Energy stores
– Carbon • Insulation
– Hydrogen • Solvent (fat-soluble vitamins)
– Oxygen (Less in • Reduce water loss (sebum)
proportion to H)
• Part of protoplasm
• Unsaturated
(membranes)
• Saturated

Proteins Peptide bonds


• Large, complex, organic • Dipeptide: Condensation of 2 amino acids
• Condensation of amino acids • Bond: Peptide bond
• Contain:
– Carbon
– Hydrogen
– Oxygen
– Nitrogen
– Sulphur
(sometimes)

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Proteins Proteins: Functions
• Polypeptide: Many amino • Synthesis of protoplasm: Growth, repair
acids • Enzymes
• Protein: One or more • Antibodies
polypeptides
• Hormones
• 3-dimensional shape
• Energy source
(hydrogen & ionic bonds)
• Denaturation (heat, acids,
alkalis)

Energy Values
• When 1 gram of carbohydrates is
completely burnt, about 16 kilojoules
(kJ) of energy are released
• Protein: 17 kJ/g
• Fat: 38 kJ/g