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Factors affecting

rate of enzyme reactions


Biological Molecules
• Temperature
• pH
• Enzyme Concentration
• Substrate Concentration
Topic 1.2:
Enzymes Part 2

Basic concepts Effect of Temperature


• Rate of enzyme activity depends on kinetic
energy (K.E.) of molecules
Rise in temperature Rise in kinetic energy
of molecules

Increase chance of Rise in collisions between


formation of enzyme enzymes and substrate
substrate complex molecules

Increase in rate of reaction

Effect of Temperature Effect of Temperature


Enzymes have an • At low temperatures
optimum working (<50C), enzymes are
temperature (Temp at inactive
which rate of enzyme
activity is max) • As temperature rises,
*Different enzymes rate of enzyme activity
have different increases
optimum
temperatures.

1
Inactivation Effect of Temperature
• Minimal enzyme activity • As the temp increases beyond
• Due to very low KE of substrate & enzyme optimum temp, rate of enzyme
activity drops
molecules
• Enzyme is completely
• Not permanent denatured by the extreme
heat (>600C), rate of enzyme
activity comes to a complete
stop

Denaturation Effect of pH
• Occurs when 3D protein
structure changes its shape
• Results in the loss/changing of
active sites
• No longer acts as a catalyst
• Caused by acids, alkalis and
extreme heat (boiling)

Effect of pH Changes in pH
• Enzymes are affected by the • Slight changes in pH values above or below
acidity or alkalinity the optimum pH will decrease enzyme activity
• Optimum pH: pH at which the
enzyme activity is greatest • These effects are reversible :
• As medium becomes more – Restoring pH to the optimum pH restores activity
acidic or more alkaline, • However extreme pH conditions will
enzyme activity decreases
irreversibly denature enzymes
• At pH 4 and pH 10, enzyme is
completely denatured

2
Enzyme/substrate concentration Substrate concentration
• Increase substrate
concentration =>
increase enzyme
activity
Condition:fixed
enzyme
concentration
**Increased enzyme
activity only until
saturation point X.

Enzyme concentration Enzyme concentration


• At any instant, all the enzyme molecules are
being made use of (saturated)
Why?
• Amount of products formed per unit time
• At saturation point X, remains the same despite increase in substrate
further increase in concentration
substrate concentration
does not increase the rate
of reaction

Limiting Factors (3) Limiting Factors


• Enzyme concentration is the limiting factor • Any factor that directly affects the rate of
when saturation point X is reached reaction at which a process (such as a chemical
reaction) occurs if its quantity is changed
• The value of this factor has to be increased in
order to increase the rate of the process
• Summary: More = Higher reaction rate

3
Limiting Factors Enzyme Graphs
• When enzyme • Note axes:
concentration is – X axis: Independent
increased, rate of variable (Controlled
by experimenter), OR Quantity
reaction increases Time of
(Shown in graph II) – Y axis: Dependent product
formed
• Point Y: the rate variable (Measured)
remains constant • Must always use
DATA in answer
• Enzyme concentration Time/min
(Read from graph!)
becomes a limiting
factor again

Enzyme Graphs: Pg 12 Enzyme Graphs: Pg 12


• Gradient of • 2 parts of graph
graphs: – Accumulation of
– Y/X product (+ve
Quantity Quantity
gradient)
• Graph on Pg 12: of of
product – When rxn stops product
– Gradient: Product formed formed
(gradient = 0, no
formed/Time more product)
(Rate of rxn)
– Steeper = Faster Time/min Time/min
rate of rxn

Enzyme Graphs: Pg 12 Enzyme Graphs: Pg 12


• When reaction starts: • When reaction starts:
– Rate of rxn fastest for – The higher the
A (most product temperature, the
formed in the same Quantity higher the KE Quantity
amount of time), of – More collisions of
followed by B, then C product
between substrate and product
formed formed
– Fastest for A due to enzymes
highest temperature – Increase chance of
(600C), followed by B formation of enzyme-
(370C), then C Time/min substrate complex Time/min
(250C). – Reaction rate is faster

4
Enzyme Graphs: Pg 12 Enzyme Graphs: Pg 12
• When reaction stops: • When reaction stops:
– No more product is formed – No more product is
after a short period of time formed after a period
(~5 min) for A, as the high of time (~20 min)for Quantity
temperature causes B, as the reaction of
enzymes to denature reaches end point (all product
substrate used up) formed
– Enzymes no longer
catalyse the reaction, and – Max amt of product
the reaction stops formed, more product
– Not all substrate used up, is formed compared Time/min
amount of product formed is to reaction at 600C
lower than in B.

Enzyme Graphs: Pg 12
• Graph C:
– Reaction at 250C is
slower, has not
reached end point Quantity
– Products are still of
product
being formed (+ve
formed
gradient), curve does
not straighten

Time/min