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Cells Topic 2.

Cells Differentiation
Modification/adaptation of
cell structure for
•Differences in size,
shape and structure
•Distinct (specialised
Specialised Cells specialised functions
•Perform different
specific functions

Tissues •Special chemical
reactions in cytoplasm

Organs •Eg. Synthesis of
special kinds of

Systems proteins/enzymes

Why is differentiation important? Division of labour
• Ensures smooth and efficient functioning
of the multi-cellular organism and its survival
• Enables different functions to be carried out
at the same time

Root Hair Cells:
Example 1: Root Hair Cells Adaptation to Function
• Outgrowths of the epidermal • Large • Long &
cells in the root vacuoles narrow
• Function: Absorption of water • Contains • Increases
& dissolved mineral salts from cell sap with surface area
the soil higher conc. to volume
of sugars & ratio of the
salts cell for
• Increases efficient
water absorption
uptake by


older biconcave shape Nucleus absent root hairs die Increases total Allows the cell to surface area for off and newer carry more Hb for ones are diffusion of oxygen absorption of into and out of the formed towards oxygen RBC the root tip. Xylem Vessel: Example 3: Xylem Vessels Adaptation to Function • Narrow cylindrical tube Cell walls thickened Hollow vessel: enclosing a continuous with lignin: •Allows it to be filled space (lumen) •Increases mechanical with water and mineral strength for support salts • Functions: •Absence of cross •Prevents collapse (1) Transport water and walls enable contents dissolved mineral salts to move through easily upwards from roots to the Narrow lumen: leaves Allows water to Long vessel: (2) Provide mechanical move up the stem Allow transport from the roots to the strength to the plant body by capillary action leaves What are tissues? Simple Tissue • A group of cells which have • Similar cells performing a a common origin and a special function similar structure. Root Hair Cells: Red Blood Cells: Adaptation to Function Adaptation to Function • As the root Function: Carry oxygen Flattened grows. Cytoplasm • The root cap . enabling • Epithelial tissue/epithelium them to perform a particular • Epidermis function • Muscle tissue 2 .Hb binds with oxygen (reversibly) into the soil.Has haemoglobin (Hb) protects the root as it grows .

Complex Tissue Organs • Different types of cells • Structure made up of grouped together to different tissues working perform one function together for a specific • Connective tissue function • Bone tissue • Stomach • Leaf Simple Tissue: Cells of the same Organ Systems Cells type grouped together to carry out a specialised function • Several organs working Complex Tissue: together for a single Tissues Different types of cells grouped to perform one function purpose Different tissues working • Digestive system Organs together to perform one function • Respiratory system Systems Systems Different organs working together for one function … mary Organism um AS 3 .