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Basic Concepts (copy into exercise book!

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 Molecules are free to move in:
 Liquids/aqueous solutions
 Gases
Topic 3.1
 Molecules are in constant random
Diffusion, Osmosis
3 processes of transporting materials in & out of cells
motion due to their kinetic energy
 More molecules in a region (higher
Active transport conc): More chances of molecules
moving to another region
--> Net movement: DIFFUSION

Diffusion Diffusion
 The net movement of molecules or
ions from a region where they are in
higher concentration to a region
where they are in lower
concentration, down a
concentration gradient
 Concentration gradient:
 Difference in concentration between two
regions

Diffusion What happens after some time?
 Diffusion eventually stops when the
particles (in constant motion) are
uniformly distributed between the
2 regions
 Concentration Gradient = 0
 In Dynamic Equilibrium = no net
movement of molecules or ions

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(2) Diffusion of Solutes (through (2) Diffusion of Solutes (through a fully permeable membrane) a fully permeable membrane)  Ifthere is more than one substance dissolved in the same liquid. then the dissolved particles of one substance diffuse independently of the other. 2 .Concentration Gradient Dynamic equilibrium Region of high concentration All regions are of the same concentrations Concentration (Equilibrium) gradient Diffusion occurs down a concentration/ diffusion gradient No net diffusion when equilibrium is reached Region of low concentration (1) Diffusion of Solutes (1) Diffusion of Solutes (without membrane) (without membrane)  The dissolved solid particles (solutes) diffuse evenly throughout the liquid (solvent).

the faster the diffusion rate Region of high concentration Think about it… What factors would affect Concentration the rate of diffusion? Diffusion occurs down a gradient concentration/ diffusion gradient Region of low concentration Concentration Gradient Rate of diffusion: Factor I  To achieve rapid St ee diffusion: Region of high concentration pe Fresh supply of substance r(  Fa Concentration ste gradient needs to reach surface r)  Substances that have crossed the surface need to be transported away  Example:  Gaseous exchange in the Region of low concentration lungs 3 .(3) Diffusion of Solutes (through Diffusion across cell membranes a partially permeable membrane)  Cell surface membrane is partially Iodine Starch permeable solution solution (i.e allows some substance to pass (yellow) through but not others).  A substance can diffuse in and out of the cell across the cell surface Visking membrane if it is one of the Tubing substances that the membrane allows to pass through. Rate of diffusion: Factor I  Concentration gradient:  The greater the gradient.

ammonia gas across the cell membrane than water- molecules move (ammonium molecules move soluble substances slowly (greater mass) chloride) quickly (smaller mass) •HCl > NH3 •(HCl + NH3 NH4Cl) 4 . the faster the diffusion rate  The larger the surface  To achieve rapid diffusion: area. the faster the  Structure or surface needs to be thin to diffusion rate ensure a short diffusion distance  To achieve rapid  Example: diffusion:  Capillaries  Surface area needs to be large  Example:  Root hair cells Rate of diffusion: Factor IV Rate of diffusion: Factor V  Structure through which diffusion  Size and type of diffusing molecules: occurs:  Smaller molecules diffuse faster than larger molecules  Pores in the physical barrier may enhance the diffusion rate  Molecules that are soluble in the physical barrier diffuse faster through it  To achieve rapid diffusion:  Large number of pores  Larger size of pores  Example:  Stomata Rate of diffusion: Factor V Rate of diffusion: Factor V  Example:  Oxygen diffuses more quickly compared to carbon dioxide  Fat-soluble substance diffuse faster hydrochloric acid white solid. Rate of diffusion: Factor II Rate of diffusion: Factor III  Diffusion distance:  Area across which  The shorter the distance over which diffusion occurs: diffusion occurs.

& particles. digested food molecules into the blood Carbon dioxide produced during respiration diffuses out 5 . Why is diffusion important? Why is diffusion important?  Absorption of digested soluble food  Excretion of waste products molecules  Nutrient absorption:  The movement of small soluble. the faster the speed of thus the faster the rate of diffusion diffusion (from a region of higher to lower pressure) Potassium Manganate (VII) 25oC 100oC 1 hour Why is diffusion important? Gaseous exchange in the lungs  Gaseous exchange during  How do we maintain a respiration & photosynthesis high concentration CO2  Gaseous exchange: gradient?  The movement of O2 from the lungs  Fresh supply of O2 O2 into the blood & the movement of CO2 (inhalation) into the from the blood into the lungs alveolus  Combination of O2  The movement of O2 & CO2 in and out of the leaf during respiration & with Hb of RBC photosynthesis effectively reduces the Hb concentration of free O2 in the blood.Rate of diffusion: Factor VI Rate of diffusion: Factor VII  Temperature:  Pressure:  The higher the temperature. the greater  The higher the pressure on the diffusing the speed of motion of the particles.