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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, I would like to thank God for guiding me to finish this project
successfully. I would like to thank my beloved Additional Mathematics teacher, Pn. Nadia Bt.
Lani for all the guidance she had provided me during the process of finishing this project
work. I would like to give a thousand thank to my mother and father, Surendran A/L Joseph
and Susila A/P A Apparu, for giving me full support in this project, financially and mentally.
They gave me moral support when I needed it. Who am I without their love and support? I
would also like to offer my thanks to my fellow friends who had helped me in finding
information that I am clueless of, and the time we spent together in study groups to finish this
project work. Last but not least, I would like to express my highest gratitude to all those who
gave me the possibility to complete this coursework. I really appreaciate all the help I got.
Again, thank you very much.



















OBJECTIVES

We students who are taking Additional Mathematics in this oncoming SPM are required to
carry out a project work while we are in Form 5. This project can be done in groups or
individually but each of us is expected to submit an individually written report. Upon
completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Report 2014, we are able to:
* apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve problems whether it is
routine or non-routine.
* use the given technology such as ICT effectively and appropriately.
* improve thinking skills in mathematics.
* develop positive attitude towards mathematics.
* promote effective mathematical communication through oral and writing.
* develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases our
interest and confidence.
* prepare ourselves for the demand of our future undertakings and in workplace.














INTRODUCTION

The idea of calculus had been developed earlier in Egypt, Greece, China, India, Iraq, Persia
and Japan. The use of calculus began in Europe, during the 17th century, when Isaac Newton
and Gottfried Wilheim Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematics to introduce the basic
principles. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion
and area under a curve.
Calculus, in general, is a mathematical study of change. Calculus comes from the Latin word
"calculus", which means small stones used for counting. Calculus are divided into two major
branches, which are differential calculus and integral calculus. Differential calculus involves
in finding the gradient at the certain point on a curve and to find the very small changes of
volume, length, area and many more. Integral calculus is used for computations involving
area under a curve and volume generated from the curve.
The differentiation and integration process are related to each other such that differentiation
is the reverse process of integration and vice versa. Differentiation involves the decrease of
power of unknown in certain function and integration involves the increase of power of
unknown in certain function.
Application of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration,
the slope of the curve and optimization. Applications of integral calculus include
computations involving area, volume, arc length, centre of mass, work and pressure. Calculus
is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space, time and motion.












PART 1





PART 2

















When t=0, v= 60(0) + 20 v=20
When t=1, v= 60(1) + 20 v=80

(a)(i) The acceleration of the car in the first hour
=80km/h 20km/h
1 hour
=60kmh
-2


(ii) The average speed of the car in the first 2 hours
= Total Distance
Total Time
= 110 km
2 hours
= 55 kmh
-1


(b)(i) The position of the graph above the t-axis shows that the car travels to its destination.
(ii) The position of the graph below the t-axis shows that the car is going in the opposite
direction i.e. travels back to where it came from

(c) First method: area under graph

Area A = x (20+80) x 1
= 50 km
Area B = x (0.5 + 1) x 80
= 60 km
Area C = x (1.5 + 0.5) x 80
= 70 km
Total distance = 50 + 60 + 70
= 190 km
v = -160t
+320
1.0 1.5
2.0
2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
0
v (km/h)
t (h)
P
R
S
Diagram 1
Q
v = 60t
+20

Second method: integration

Since PQ is parallel to RS, the gradient of RS is also -160.
Instead of using y=mx+c, we use V=mt+c.
Substitute R (2.5,0) into V=mt+c
0= -160(2.5) + c
c= 400
Hence, the equation of RS is V= -160t + 400
The gradient of TU is 160.
V=mt+c
V= 160t + c
Substitute u (4,0) into V= 160t + c
0= 160(4) + c
c= -640
Hence, the equation of TU is V= 160t 640

Area of A =


=
( )


= [30(1
2
) + 20(1)] [30(0
2
) + 20(0)]
= 50
Hence, the distance travelled is 50 km.

Area of B =


= 80(1.5) 80(1)
= 40
Hence, the distance travelled by the car is 40 km.

Area of C =
( )


= (-320 + 640) (-180 + 480)
= 20
So, the distance travelled is 20 km

Area of D =
( )


= -20
Area = ||
= 20
So, the distance travelled is 20 km

Area of E =
()


= -40
Area = ||
= 40
Hence, the distance travelled is 40 km.

Area of F =
( )


= -1280 (-1260)
= -20
Area = ||
=20
Hence, the distance travelled is 20 km.
Total distance travelled by car is 50 + 40 + 20 + 20 + 40 + 20 = 190 km
(d) Mahmud went his cousins wedding. He started his journey in the morning. During the
first hour to the wedding, Mahmud travelled with an increasing speed, with an acceleration of
60 kmh
-2
. When he reached the speed limit for the highway, which is 80 kmh
-1
, he stopped
accelerating and maintained his speed. Mahmud decelerated his car when nearing the venue
due to the heavy traffic. His deceleration rate was -160 kmh
-1
. He parked his car and spent
thirty minutes in the wedding. After eating lunch and congratulating the couple, he made his
way back to his house. For the first 30 minutes, he accelerated at a rate of 160 kmh
-2
. Once
the speed limit of 80 kmh
-1
is reached, he maintained the speed. Then, once nearing his house,
he decelerated in a rate of 160 kmh
-2
.









































PART 3

(a) Since the parabolic satellite disc is symmetrical at the y-axis, the curve y=f(x) can be
written as y= ax
2
+ c. It can be seen that the curve y = f(x) cuts the y-axis at the point (0,4).
Substitute (0,4) into y = ax
2
+ c and we will get y= ax
2
+ 4.

Substitute the point (4,5) into y= ax
2
+ 4
5= a(4
2
) + 4
a= 1/16
y=f(x) is now written as y= 1/16x
2
+ 4
Hence, f(x) = x
2
/16 + 4


(b) Riemanns sum

(i) Left Riemanns sum using wolfram alpha
Estimated area: 17.0938 m
2


(ii) Right Riemanns sum using wolfram alpha
Estimated area: 17.5938 m
2


(iii) Midpoint Riemanns sum using wolfram alpha
Estimated area: 17.3125 m
2


(c) (i) The area of the curve using integration
Area =


= (


= *

()
+


= [4
3
/48 + 4(4)] (0)
= 17 1/3

(ii) The diagram 3(iii) gives the best approximate area, which is 17.3125 m
2
.

(iii) We can improve the value in c(ii) by having more strips from x=0 to x=4.

(d) y =

+ 4
x
2
= 16(y-4)
x
2
= 16y-64
Volume =


=
( )


= *


= 8 m
3




FURTHER EXPLORATION

f(x) = 1.2 5x
2

Let f(x) = y
Hence, y = 1.2 5x
2


When x = 0.2, y = 1.2 5(0.2)
2

y = 1
y = 1
y
2
= 1
2

y
2
= 1

y = 1.2 5x
2
y
2
= (1.2 5x
2
)
2

y
2
= 1.44 + 25x
4
-12x
2


Volume of gold needed
=
(


= *


= 0.5152 0.4
= 0.36191 cm
3


Gold density is 19.3 gcm
-3
.
Let k be the mass of the gold in g.
1 cm
3
19.3g
0.36191 cm
3
k g
k = 6.9849

The price of 1g of gold x 6.9849 = the cost of the gold ring
RM112.49 x 6.9849 = RM 785.73












REFLECTION
While I was conducting this project, I found a lot of information regarding calculus. I realised
that the differentiation and integration in Additional Mathematics syllabus is just a small part
of the calculus world. For example, I had learned the types of Riemann graphs. This project
had taught me to be responsible on the works that are given to me. This project has also made
me feel more confident to do assignments and not to give up easily when I could not find the
solution for a problem. I also learned to be more discipline in the subject of time, as I was
given three weeks to complete this project. I enjoyed doing this project during my school
holiday as I spent my time wisely. This project has also strengthen the friendship bond
between me and my friends.