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Taking in of food
 Gain energy
 Materials needed to
Characteristics of Life make living matter
protoplasm) of the body
Biology: An Introduction

2 Types of Nutrition…
Nutrition… 2 Types of Nutrition…
Autotrophic nutrition Heterotrophic nutrition
 Take in simple inorganic  Feed on organic matter
raw materials to make  Can be:
their own food (organic) • Herbivores
 Requires energy source
• Carnivores
 Photosynthesis:
Photosynthesis Light • Omnivores
energy converted to • Saprophytes
chemical energy in food • Parasites

1. Nutrition 2. Respiration
Includes Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption, Breakdown of food substances by
Assimilation, Egestion oxidation to release energy
Occurs in all living cells
Internal (tissue/cellular) respiration
Glucose + Oxygen

Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

2. Respiration 2. Respiration
External Respiration: Breathing:
 Exchange of gases between  Inhalation: Movement of
the environment & body cells air into the lungs
Gaseous exchange)
exchange  Exhalation: Movement of

air out of the lungs

3. Growth 3. Growth
Result of Nutrition Usually increase in mass
Conversion of and volume of
absorbed food into organism.
protoplasm May increase in
 Repair of worn out cells complexity or change
 Adding to original living in form
matter (increase in size)

4. Excretion 4. Excretion
Waste products are How do plants remove
produced during carbon dioxide?
metabolic reactions in
living cells
 Removal of undigested,
Removal of metabolic unabsorbed matter
waste products  Not the same as
 Useless/harmful excretion!
Specialised organs for the
removal of substances like
urea and carbon dioxide

5. Movement 5. Movement
Locomotion: For plants:
 Whole organism moves  No locomotion as
from one place to they are fixed to the
another in a directed ground
and controlled way
 Slow movements of
For animals:
certain body parts
 Movements usually for
 Example:
obtaining food, finding
mates or escaping from Phototropism

6. Sensitivity (Irritability) 7. Adaptability

Ability to detect and Ability to adjust and
respond to changes in adapt to changes in the
the environment environment
 Detect stimulus Increases chance of
 Produce response survival
 Higher chance of
mating and reproducing
 Leave behind offspring

8. Reproduction 8. Reproduction
Production of offspring of Passing down of genetic information
the same type/species from one generation to the next
Ensure continual survival
of the species

8. Reproduction

Excretion Sensitivity
Nutrition Growth

characteristics of LiFE A Summary

Reproduction Adaptability
Locomotion Respiration