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# JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 2, JUNE 2014

1

Comparison of the Upper Bounds of the Link

Efficiency of Selective-Repeat ARQ in Burst

Error Channels Considering Unreliable

Acknowledgements

K. D. R. Jagath Kumara

Abstract—Recent research on high efficiency data links includes a variety of hybrid-ARQ protocols, which almost always rely

on the principles of selective-repeat ARQ (SR-ARQ) protocol. In evaluating the efficiency of such protocols, it is often assumed

that the acknowledgement channel is perfect and therefore the acknowledgements, positive or negative, are not lost. However,

this paper illustrates the inaccuracy caused by making this assumption. It compares the upper bound of the efficiency that would

result if the acknowledgements are reliable to that if the acknowledgements are unreliable considering burst error channels, in

particular. For this purpose, the paper first uses a statistical model of a burst error channel to derive the frame error probability

and the corresponding efficiency theoretically. It also generates such bursty bit sequences, according to the model, in the

computer and estimates the quantities of interest for validation. This paper then simulates a data transmission scheme over a

multipath Rayleigh fading channel and estimates the parameters of the burst model in order to evaluate the same. In most

cases, it makes comparisons to random error channels.

Index Terms—ARQ, Efficiency, Burst Errors, Unreliable Acknowledgements.

——————————

——————————

1 INTRODUCTION

n exchanging data between two transceivers, a certain

link protocol is overlaid for error control and flow con-

trol. With some of these protocols known as Automatic

Repeat reQuest (ARQ) [1], [2], [3], a data frame consisting

of a certain number of data bits, is transmitted after ap-

pending error detection parity bits. If errors are detected

in a certain frame at the receiver, the transmitter is in-

structed to retransmit the corresponding frame. There-

fore, with this kind of a procedure, an error-free sequence

of data frames can be exchanged. In addition, because the

two transceivers are connected by bi-directional channels,

issues related to flow control and other transmission

problems can be managed in real time by using certain

control frames. Out of the basic variants, the Selective-

Repeat ARQ (SR-ARQ) [1], [2], [3] is known to support

continuous transmission of data resulting in highest link

efficiency. In order to increase the efficiency further, in

hybrid-ARQ, error correction too is incorporated into the

protocol. The receiver is provided with the error correc-

tion parity bits which are generated using either a block

code or a convolutional code, in different ways [4], [5],

[6], [7], [8], [9], [10], so that the efficiency and the average

time delay experienced by a frame is minimized. More

gains have been obtained by combining the codewords

constructed at the receiver after two or more retransmis-

sions as reported in [11], [12], [13], [14]. However, all of

these more efficient versions of hybrid-ARQ are almost

always based on the principles of SR-ARQ. Therefore, it is

worthwhile to establish the performance bounds of SR-

ARQ clearly through further research.

In SR-ARQ, both transceivers can transmit multiple

data frames in sequence. Each such frame carries a se-

quence number (SeqNr) so that a given receiver can issue

explicit positive acknowledgements (Acks) and negative

acknowledgements (NAcks) to indicate if the correspond-

ing frames are error-free or erroneous respectively. A giv-

en transmitter keeps copies of all the frames sent until the

corresponding Acks arrive, and retransmits all the frames

for which NAcks arrive. Further, if the acknowledgement

is erroneous and unreadable or if the transmitter does not

receive any acknowledgement for a certain frame, it re-

transmits the same after a time-out period. For this pur-

pose, the transmitter starts a timer for each frame it

transmits. The time-out period includes the two way

propagation delay, processing delays at the transceivers

and a safety margin. Ideally, the receiver must acknowl-

edge each frame individually as they arrive by including

Acks or NAcks in the data frames sent back in the other

direction. In addition, the receiver buffers all those frames

that arrive after an error in a certain frame and re-

sequences them once it obtains an error-free copy of the

same.

The main topic of this paper is to quantify the effect of

unreliable acknowledgements in burst error channels. It

allows both the data channel and the acknowledgement

channel to be equally noisy, bursty and busy. Unreliable

acknowledgements include erroneous Ack or NAck

frames, Acks converted to NAcks or vice versa due to an

————————————————

- K. D. R. Jagath Kumara is with the department of Electrical and Electronic

Engineering, The University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka.

I

2

error in the AckNr field [15] and lost Acks or NAcks due

to frame synchronization errors. However, the parity

check detects the former two cases with a high degree of

accuracy. In the latter case, the receiver is unable to locate

the frame boundaries clearly and discards the corres-

ponding sequence of bits, together with any acknowled-

gement information they carry. However, in all three cas-

es, the transmitter has to retransmit the corresponding

frame after time-out causing the efficiency to be low.

Therefore, this paper describes the effect of unreliable

acknowledgements on the upper bound of the efficiency

of SR-ARQ, conditioned on the accuracy of detecting bit

errors and synchronization errors.

In order to consider the effect of bursts, this paper re-

fers to a comprehensive statistical model described in [16]

and [17]. This model enables evaluating the probability

that a frame is in error (P

fe

) in a burst channel, on which

the link efficiency mainly depends [1], [2], [3], [4]. The

paper first considers a bursty bit sequence generated ac-

cording to the model using a computer and estimates P

fe

by counting. Then, it considers a simulation of a digital

modulation scheme in a three path Rayleigh fading envi-

ronment and estimates model parameters rigorously to

evaluate P

fe

.

Section 2 states the efficiencies of SR-ARQ if the ac-

knowledgements are reliable or unreliable for random

error channels, as described in [18]. Section 3 describes

the burst model in brief and, the simulation methods of

an arbitrary burst distribution and a digital data channel

in a fading environment. This section also presents simu-

lation data and derives the statistical quantities of interest

for the two examples. Section 4 presents results and com-

parisons. Section 5 concludes the paper.

2 EFFECT OF THE UNRELIABLE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ON THE LINK EFFICIENCY

If the average number of times a given frame is transmit-

ted, including the original transmission and the retrans-

missions, in the process of transferring an error-free copy

of it to the destination is n , the efficiency of SR-ARQ, q,

is given by

1/ n q = (1)

This efficiency is for a case where the buffer sizes and

the SeqNr space are large enough to keep the transmis-

sion continuous. It considers whole frames including the

corresponding control fields and the flags. However, if

the transmission is not continuous and the frame over-

head is considered, (1) is modified by a factor correspond-

ing to the stoppage time and another corresponding to

the overhead bits in the frame [1], [2].

Therefore, in general, the derivation of n results in q

which serves the purpose of an upper bound. The frame

transmission is considered successful, only when the

transmitter receives an Ack after transmitting a certain

frame. Before that, several rounds of unsuccessful trans-

missions may have taken place due to frame errors caus-

ing NAcks. In addition, the fact that the acknowledge-

ments too, may arrive at the transmitter with errors mak-

ing the given transmission round unsuccessful increases

the number of retransmissions. Note also that there is no

synchronism between the transmitting and receiving

frames. Hence, the occurrence of errors in a given Ack or

a NAck is not correlated to that in the corresponding

frame which is being acknowledged. Therefore, let the

probability of error in a data frame be P

fe

. Then, if the bi-

directional channels are identical with respect to the oc-

currences of bit errors, the probability of error in a frame

carrying an acknowledgement is also P

fe

.

Otherwise, the

following derivation would simply result in a different

efficiency for each pair of frame error probabilities.

Hence, the probability that a frame carrying an acknowl-

edgement is error-free, P

c

, is the same as the probability

that a data frame is error-free and is given by

(1 )

c fe

P P = ÷ (2)

If the transmission becomes successful after the first

attempt, both the frame and the corresponding Ack must

be error-free. The probability of this event, P

t

(1), is given

by

2

(1) .

t c c c

P P P P = = (3)

Note that in the case where there is a perfect channel for

acknowledgements, P

t

(1) would be just P

c

, because the

acknowledgements would definitely arrive at the trans-

mitter error-free. If the frame carrying the Ack is found to

be erroneous, the transmitter cannot rely on the AckNr

field and makes a retransmission upon time out with a

probability of P

c

P

fe

. Further, a retransmission also results

if the original frame or both the frame and the corres-

ponding NAck are in error with probabilities of P

fe

P

c

or

P

fe

P

fe

respectively. Hence, the total probability that two

transmissions are required for successful completion,

P

t

(2), is given by

2 2 2

(2)

t c fe c fe c c fe fe c

P PP P P PP P P P = + + (4)

Again, if it has been assumed that the acknowledgements

are not vulnerable to errors, P

t

(2) would have been only

P

fe

P

c

.

In this way, it is possible to construct the discrete

probability distribution, P

t

(n), of the number of transmis-

sion attempts [18], n, required. As shown in [18], by aver-

aging n over P

t

(n),

2

1/

c

n P = (5)

Thus, the efficiency of SR-ARQ, without assuming that

the acknowledgements are reliable is given by

2

U c

P q = (6)

Note that this would be just

R c

P q = (7)

with the assumption mentioned [1], [2].

If the bit errors in the channel occur randomly with a

bit-error probability of P

be

, it is possible to evaluate P

c

and

then q easily. In this case, the probability that a given

frame of length L bits is error free, is given by simply

( ) 1

L

c be

P P = ÷ (8)

3

However, if the underlying channel is bursty, this expres-

sion is not accurate.

3 FRAME ERRORS IN BURST ERROR CHANNELS

In a burst channel, there are clusters of errors and rela-

tively long periods of error-free bits. For the purpose of

evaluating the frame error probability, it is necessary to

use a model which characterizes a burst channel com-

pletely allowing quantitative analysis. According to [16]

and [17] by the same author, a sequence of b consecutive

bit errors is defined to be a burst of length b where b > 1.

Then, such a burst of length b, where b is also less than a

certain maximum b

max

, is considered to occur randomly

with a certain probability P

b

(b). In this way, burst occur-

rences are characterized through their length, which is a

random variable. Hence, the length of the next error burst

is governed by each occurrence of this random variable, if

b > 1. Not until the end of this b-bit burst will the random

variable for the next burst be drawn. This length (b) may

be zero, in which case the bit is considered to be error-

free.

According to this model, an error burst of length b

1

oc-

curs with the probability P

b

(b

1

) and makes the next b

1

bits

erronous, while the error-free bits always occur singly

with the probability of P

b

(0). Using this model, it is possi-

ble to show that the effective bit error probability [16],

[17],

(0)

eff

b

b

p

P b

=

+

(9)

where the average length of a burst,

max

1

( )

b

b

b

b bP b

=

=

¿

(10)

Further, the frame error probability for a frame of length

L bits,

(0)

1

(0)

L

b

fe

b

P

P

P b

= ÷

+

(11)

Therefore, the probability that a frame is free of errors,

(0)

(0)

L

b

c

b

P

P

P b

=

+

(12)

This formulation allows for arbitrary error lengths, but

it is necessary to either approximate or empirically esti-

mate the distribution P

b

(b). This is because any theoretical

approach which derives P

b

(b) for a given modulation

scheme and a channel type is not available. Hence, this

paper considers two different approaches for quantifying

the frame error probability, one which defines an arbi-

trary burst-length distribution in an attempt to approx-

imate a real burst channel with a high degree of flexibility

and another which estimates the burst-length distribution

by simulating a binary DPSK (differential phase shift key-

ing) modulation over a multipath Rayleigh fading chan-

nel [16], [17].

3.1 An Arbitrary burst-Length Distribution (P

arb

(b))

Noting that according to the burst model, the burst-length

distribution is of the form,

{ }

0 1 2 max max

( ) , , ,.... for 0,1, 2,....

b

P b P P P P b b = = (13)

consider the arbitrary distribution,

( ) [1 ,0.25 ,0.2 ,0.15 ,0.1 ]; 0,1, 2,3, 4

( ) 0.05 ; 5,6,7,8,9,10 ( ) 0; 10

arb

arb arb

P b p p p p p b

P b p b and P b b

= ÷ =

= = = >

(14)

defined in terms of the parameter p, where b

max

= 10. The

significance of p is that it provides the flexibility to vary

the probability of no-error (P

arb

(0)) and the total probabili-

ty of error bursts (sum of P

arb

(b) for (b

max

> b > 1)). In this

way, it is possible to obtain several channels with differ-

ent effective bit error probabilities (p

eff

) but still keeping

the shape of the burst-length distribution for b>1, the

same. For example, Fig. 1 illustrates P

arb

(b) in (14) in a bar

chart for p = 10

-3

.

Fig. 1: The arbitrary burst length distribution (P

arb

(b)) in

(14) at p = 10

-3

It is possible to generate such bit sequences for a range

of p in a computer using MatLab and estimate the frame

error probability by counting the number of erroneous

frames [16, [17] as

ˆ

fe

fe

tof

N

P

N

= (15)

where N

fe

is the number of frames with any number of

errors and N

tof

is the total number of frames including the

error-free frames. Thus, by comparing

ˆ

fe

P to the frame

error probability obtained through the model parameters

(P

fe

) using (9) – (12) and (14), [16] and [17] validated the

model. To keep the statistical accuracy, N

tof

was more

than 1000 times larger than the reciprocal of the ex-

pected

ˆ

fe

P . The same references further validated the

model against the probability, P

x, L

, that a frame of length

L contains any number of errors, x, in general. Based on

Parb(0): 0.999 (t heory, (14))

Bit Error Probabilit y: 0.003740 (t heory, (9));

0.003531 (est imat ed, (16));

0

0.0001

0.0002

0.0003

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Burst lengt h, b

P

r

o

b

a

b

i

l

i

t

y

o

f

a

b

u

r

s

t

o

f

l

e

n

g

t

h

b

,

P

a

r

b

(

b

)

4

that, it is possible to approximate a burst-length distribu-

tion and evaluate p

eff

, P

fe

, P

c

and P

x, L

using the model ma-

thematically without generating such a bit sequence, each

time. Note that this paper uses both P

fe

obtained theoreti-

cally for P

arb

(b) given in (14) at each p

eff

, and

ˆ

fe

P of the cor-

responding computer generated bit sequence with an

estimated bit error probability of ˆ

eff

p for evaluating the

efficiencies of SR-ARQ (q

U

and q

R

) where

ˆ

be

eff

tob

N

p

N

= (16)

In (16), N

be

is the number of erroneous bits and N

tob

is the

total number of bits, in each bit sequence. For a frame

length of L = 473, Table 1 lists P

arb

(0), b , P

fe

and p

eff

calcu-

lated for a range of values of p in (14). For comparison,

Table 2 lists N

tof

, N

fe

,

ˆ

fe

P and ˆ

eff

p obtained by simulating

each of those bit sequences. These tables show that the

differences between the quantities obtained using the

theory (P

fe

and p

eff

) and the simulation (

ˆ

fe

P and ˆ

eff

p ) are

very small, respectively.

TABLE 1

THEORETICAL PARAMETERS

p P

arb

(0)

b

P

fe

from (11)

p

eff

from (9)

10

-2

0.99 0.0375 0.991612 0.036496

10

-2.5

0.9968377 0.0118585 0.778381 0.011756

10

-3

0.999 0.00375 0.378726 0.003740

10

-3.5

0.9996837 0.0011859 0.139725 0.001185

10

-4

0.9999 0.000375 0.046463 0.000375

10

-4.5

0.9999684 0.0001186 0.014922 0.000119

10

-5

0.99999 0.0000375 0.004746 0.000038

10

-5.5

0.9999968 0.0000119 0.001521 0.000012

10

-6

0.999999 0.0000038 0.000476 0.000004

TABLE 2

ESTIMATED PARAMETERS

N

tof

N

fe

ˆ

fe

P

from (15)

ˆ

eff

p

from (16)

217 216 0.995392 0.036386

213 158 0.741784 0.011620

211 76 0.360190 0.003531

211 28 0.132701 0.001169

2114 75 0.035478 0.000272

2114 21 0.009934 0.000080

21140 104 0.004920 0.000039

211400 328 0.001552 0.000012

211400 102 0.000483 0.000004

3.2 The Burst Length distribution of a Simulated

Digital Channel (P

sim

(b))

A 500 bps, binary DPSK (differential phase shift keying)

transmission scheme with a carrier frequency of 1 kHz

was simulated over a 3-path Rayleigh fading channel us-

ing the SimuLink of MatLab, [16], [17]. The relative path

delays were set to 0.001 s and 0.0012 s. The additive white

Gaussian noise (AWGN) was added at the receiver end.

The burst error pattern of this transmission scheme was

found by comparing the input bit stream with the re-

ceived bit stream. The burst probability distribu-

tion,

ˆ

( )

sim

P b , could be approximated by counting the

number of b-bit error bursts, b>0, and no-errors, b=0, and

dividing them by the total number of events, which is the

sum of the number of no-errors and the number of error

bursts. However, according to [17], a more accurate burst

distribution,

ˆ

ˆ

( )

sim

P b , could be obtained by making correc-

tions for the bursts that are caused by the combination of

two or more lower order bursts. For example, a certain 2-

bit burst might have been caused by the occurrence of

two 1-bit bursts consecutively. In counting, they were

unknowingly considered as just a single 2-bit burst mak-

ing

ˆ

( )

sim

P b less accurate. Shown in Table 3, are the number

of correct bits, N

0

, burst counts, N

b

for 1 s bs 5, the total

number of bit errors, N

be

, and ˆ

eff

p in a sample of N

tob

=

999984 bits. In this case, different sets of readings were

obtained by varying the power spectral density of

AWGN. Illustrated in Fig. 2, is the empirical burst-length

distribution,

ˆ

ˆ

( )

sim

P b , obtained with corrections, when ˆ

eff

p =

0.003760. Note that by using these burst statistics col-

lected from the simulated digital channel, the accuracy of

the burst model has been again verified in [17]. Therefore,

the efficiencies of SR-ARQ (q

U

and q

R

) can be evaluated

by finding P

fe

and P

c

theoretically for each

ˆ

ˆ

( )

sim

P b . Note that

q

U

and q

R

obtained in this way may be considered as

semi-theoretical because they are based on both the simu-

lation data and the theory.

TABLE 3

BURST COUNTS OF THE SIMULATED CHANNEL

N

0

N

1

N

2

N

3

N

4

N

5

N

be

ˆ

eff

p

990134 4920 2410 30 5 0 9850 0.009850

996224 2032 856 4 1 0 3760 0.003760

999268 374 171 0 0 0 716 0.000716

999543 219 111 0 0 0 441 0.000441

999857 79 24 0 0 0 127 0.000127

999964 14 3 0 0 0 20 0.000020

Fig. 2: The empirical burst distribution (

ˆ

ˆ

( )

sim

P b ) of the

simulated digital channel (in Log scale) at ˆ 0.00376

eff

p =

Psim(0): 0.997104 (est imat ed)

Bit Error Probabilit y: 0.00376 (est imat ed (16))

Channel: Binary DPSK on 3-Pat h Rayleigh Fading

wit h AWGN

0.0000001

0.00001

0.001

0.1

0 1 2 3 4

Burst length, b

P

r

o

b

a

b

i

l

i

t

y

o

f

a

b

u

r

s

t

o

f

l

e

n

g

t

h

b

,

P

s

i

m

(

b

)

^

^

<

<

5

4 RESULTS

In [18], the efficiency of SR-ARQ if the acknowledgements

are unreliable (q

U

) in random error channels is illustrated

for 1000-bit frames. It is compared to the ideal case where

the acknowledgements are reliable (q

R

). According to this

work, if the acknowledgements are not reliable, the link

efficiency of SR-ARQ is considerably inferior, for exam-

ple, by about 60% at a bit error probability of 10

-3

.

This paper illustrates the same for burst error chan-

nels by allowing both the data channel and the acknowl-

edgement channel to be equally bursty. Fig. 3 illustrates

q

U

and q

R

obtained using (11), (2), (6) and (7) for the burst

channels (P

arb

(b)) defined in (14) at different bit error

probabilities (p

eff

) found from (9). It also illustrates q

U

and

q

R

estimated by simulating the same burst channels as

described in Section 3.1 and by using (15), (2), (6) and (7)

for the corresponding bit error probabilities ( ˆ

eff

p ) given

by (16). Fig. 4 compares q

U

and q

R

obtained through si-

mulations for the same burst channels to those for ran-

dom error channels. In this case, Fig. 4 includes the effi-

ciencies of SR-ARQ calculated using (8), (6) and (7) sup-

posing that the bit errors are random at each of those val-

ues of ˆ

eff

p . The frame size (L) for theses cases is 473 bits.

Fig. 5 illustrates q

U

and q

R

obtained semi-theoretically

using (10), (12), (6) and (7) for the empirical burst distri-

butions (

ˆ

ˆ

( )

sim

P b ) as described in Section 3.2 for the frame

size of L= 473 bits. It too contains comparisons to random

error channels. Fig. 6 illustrates the same in Fig. 5 for a

frame length of L=1000 bits.

Fig. 3: q

U

and q

R

for the arbitrary burst channels (P

arb

(b))

obtained using theory (Th.) and simulations (Sim.)

According to Figs. 3, 4 and 5, q

U

is always inferior to

q

R

in any channel, either random or bursty. In the arbi-

trary burst channel, the percentage degradation can

amount to 40 at a bit error probability of about 10

-3

. How-

ever, in the simulated transmission scheme, this percen-

tage is about 25 considering the same frame size of 473

bits. When the frame size increases to 1000 bits, q

U

deteri-

orates further, by about 30%. As Figs. 4, 5 and 6 shows,

the corresponding efficiencies, q

U

or q

R

, are considerably

higher if the errors are bursty rather than random at a

given bit error probability.

Fig. 4: q

U

and q

R

for the arbitrary burst channels (P

arb

(b))

and random error channels (L=473 bits)

Fig. 5: q

U

and q

R

for the simulated digital channels

(

ˆ

ˆ

( )

sim

P b ) and random error channels (L=473 bits)

Fig. 6: q

U

and q

R

for the simulated digital channels

(

ˆ

ˆ

( )

sim

P b ) and random error channels (L=1000 bits)

5 CONCLUSIONS

It has been shown that if the acknowledgements are not

reliable, the link efficiency of SR-ARQ reduces to

2

c

P , in-

stead of P

c

in an ideal case with fully reliable acknowled-

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1 2 3 4 5 6

- Log(bit error probability)

E

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

c

y

(Th.) (Th.)

(Sim.) (Sim.)

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1 2 3 4 5

- Log(bit error probability)

E

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

c

y

(Th.)-Random Errors (Th.)-Random Errors

(Sim.,Th.)-Burst Errors (Sim.,Th.)-Burst Errors

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1 2 3 4 5 6

- Log(bit error prbability)

E

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

c

y

(Th.)- Random Errors (Th.)- Random Errors

(Sim.)- Burst Errors (Sim.)- Burst Errors

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1 2 3 4 5

- Log(bit error probability)

E

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

c

y

(Th.)-Random Errors (Th.)-Random Errors

(Sim.,Th.)-Burst Errors (Sim.,Th.)-Burst Errors

6

gements. This reduction amounts to 60% when P

be

=10

-3

in

bi-directional channels with random bit errors. Note

that

2

c

P is an upper bound for the efficiency of SR-ARQ

overlaid on a full duplex channel, both of which are

prone to errors. This efficiency is only to reduce due to

the frame overhead, discontinuous transmission and the

undetectable error probability.

It is interesting to quantify the same for burst-error

channels, which has been pursued in this paper. The

burst model used in here can describe occurrences of er-

ror bursts with a good accuracy and can aid in the theo-

retical evaluation or the estimation of the protocol effi-

ciency. The burst channels contain clusters of errors and

long sequences of error free bits. For this reason, relative-

ly more frames are likely to be error-free causing lower

P

fe

. This is in contrast to random channels in which errors

occur rather regularly and long error free sequences are

unlikely causing higher P

fe

. As a result, the efficiency of

SR-ARQ is higher for burst channels when compared to

random channels. However, in burst channels, imperfect

acknowledgements can degrade the efficiency (q

U

) up to

40%, particularly at moderate bit error probabilities

around 10

-3

. An increase in the frame size results in de-

creasing both efficiencies, q

U

and q

R

, and in increasing the

relative degradation of q

U

with respect to q

R

.

In order to make acknowledgements more reliable, the

receiver can include several copies of them in different

frames so that at least one of them reaches the transmitter

error-free [14]. Further, header error correction and head-

er repetition increases the reliability of acknowledge-

ments.

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K.D.R. Jagath Kumara received the BSc (Honours) degree specializing in

electrical and electronic engineering from the

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka in 1985 and

the MEngSc degree from the University of New

South Wales, Sydney, Australia in 1992. He

received the PhD degree from the University of

South Australia in 1997. Jagath-Kumara was

employed as an engineer from 1986-87 in the

Ceylon Electricity Board and from 1987-89 in

the Airports and Aviation Services (Sri Lanka)

Ltd. He held research fellow positions at the

University of South Australia from 1996-97 and at the University of Tech-

nology, Sydney, Australia in 1998. He was a lecturer in the Massey univer-

sity, New Zealand from 2000-06. From 2006, he has been a senior lecturer

in the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. He was either, a member, co-

chair or the chair of the TPC for many national and international confe-

rences and has reviewed close to 100 conference and journal papers. Jagath

Kumara has obtained 4 research grants and 6 conference travel grants and,

won a PhD scholarship based on the outstanding academic qualifications

offered by the University of South Australia in 1992. In 2007, he received

the 140

th

anniversary medal and honours from the St Annes College, Sri

Lanka for the contributions made to his academic discipline since 1980.He

has published 26 conference and journal articles since 1994 and given 7

seminars at international venues. His research interests are on the statistical

signal processing, hybrid-ARQ and energy systems. He is currently a cor-

porate member of the Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka.