ProBEC

Programme for Biomass Energy Conservation
in Southern Africa
Energy baseline survey in Ga Maraba and
Ga Mogano in the Northern Province
(South Africa)
FINAL REPORT
JUNE 2001
PREPARE B!
PA"MER E#E"$PME%N C$NS&"%'NG
'N ASS$C'A%'$N ('%)
%)E NG(AABE AN B$C)&M ENERG! C$*$PERA%'#ES
Executive Summary
Biomass still amounts to nearly 80% of total energy demand in SADC countries. Most
of this energy is used for household purposes (cooking !aking lighting heating" !ut
a su!stantial amount goes into small#scale !usinesses like !rick firing fish smoking
processing of agricultural products !eer !re$ing and restaurants. %n addition recent
statistics suggest that !iomass energy use for Africa $ill ha&e dou!led !y the year
'0'0. Main reasons for this are a high population increase lo$ incomes and a
shortage of foreign currency.
An energy !aseline study $as conducted in the northern (ro&ince of South Africa to
pro&ide energy specific household data to assist in the planning and design of further
actions on the dissemination of impro&ed sto&es. )he o!*ecti&e of the !aseline study
$as to o!tain energy specific household data to assist in the planning and design of
further actions on the dissemination of $oodsto&es and solar sto&es in the area.
)he a&erage family si+e in !oth areas is , people. %n !oth areas in the ma*ority of the
households men are considered to !e the heads of the households. )his $ould ha&e
implications in the implementation of specific programmes $hen gender decision#
making processes and po$er relationships regarding purchasing $ould need to !e
considered. Both areas can !e considered fairly $ell off in terms of access to income
sources although -a Mara!a seems to !e slightly less $ell off $ith more pensioners
and less households $ith someone in employment. %n general !oth areas seem !etter
off than rural areas in general $here unemployment is high and reliance on pensions
and remittances &ery high. )he conclusion that -a Mogano is .richer/ or !etter off is
!ased on the fact that more households ha&e someone formally employed in -a
Mogano than in -a Mara!a (,'% &s. 00%" respecti&ely. Also more people farm and
sell produce (120% &s 111%" and lastly only 13'% rely on pensions in -a Mogano
in contract to 403% in -a Mara!a.
5ith regard to appliance o$nership a high le&el of o$nership of electrical appliances
seems to indicate that the areas ha&e !een electrified for some time. %t further
indicates the relati&e $ealth of households since appliances such as refrigerators are
e6pensi&e and normally o$nership in rural areas is not that high. 7$nership of
radio8s tele&isions as $ell as fridges is higher in -a Mara!a (identified as a poorer
area" than in -a Mogano.
)he use of $ood for cooking purposes in -a Mogano is higher in !oth summer and
$inter than in -a Mara!a. 9lectricity use for cooking is high in -a Mara!a (0,,% in
summer and 4,0% in $inter respecti&ely". %t $ould seem that $ood fuel
inter&entions $ould !e more appropriate in -a Mogano due to the higher incidence of
fuel $ood use for cooking purposes. )he use of $ood for cooking purposes in -a
Mogano is higher in !oth summer and $inter than in -a Mara!a. 9lectricity use for
cooking is high in -a Mara!a (0,,% in summer and 4,0% in $inter respecti&ely".
%t $ould seem that $ood fuel inter&entions $ould !e more appropriate in -a Mogano
due to the higher incidence of fuel $ood use for cooking purposes.
%n -a Mara!a 04% of households !uy $ood ($hether they !uy $ood only or $ood
and other fuels" at an a&erage cost of :1,8 per month. %n total households spend
appro6imately :4;0 per month on energy. %n -a Mara!a 04% of households !uy
$ood ($hether they !uy $ood only or $ood and other fuels" at an a&erage cost of
:1,8 per month. %n total households spend appro6imately :4;0 per month on
energy.
)he most popular method of cooking in use is !oiling and that the method of cooking
$ill !e suita!le for energy efficient $ood sto&es. %t can further !e concluded that
enough cooking opportunities e6ist to *ustify the introduction of efficient sto&es i.e.
households cook often (at least t$ice daily" as opposed to areas $here cooking may
only take place once a day due to food scarcities energy shortages or la!our shortages
(someone to actually do the cooking". <astly it is also clear that the type of food
prepared (porridge &egeta!les meat" $ould !e suited to prepare on an energy
efficient $ood sto&e.
Conclusions therefore seem to indicate that !oth study areas are generally $ealthy
$ith a high le&el of appliance o$nership. =o$e&er $ood fuel use especially for
cooking purposes is still high and $ood fuel is considered to !e scarce in !oth areas.
=ouseholds e6perience additional pro!lems associated $ith the use of $ood fuel as an
energy source as $ell as pro!lems $ith the use of con&entional energy sources. )he
com!ination of $ood fuel scarcity continued high le&els of $ood fuel use a$areness
regarding pro!lems associated $ith $ood fuel use and an indication of the potential of
disposa!le income to !e spent on appliances seems to indicate positi&e conditions for
the implementation of an impro&ed sto&e programme.
)a!le of Contents
+,'N%R$&C%'$N,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,+
-,BAC.GR$&N/ PR$GRAMME 0$R B'$MASS ENERG!
C$NSER#A%'$N 'N S$&%)ERN A0R'CA (PR$BEC),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,+
1,ME%)$$"$G!,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,+
2,%)E S%&! AREA 'N C$N%E3%,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,-
4,%)E 0'N'NGS 5 AN $#ER#'E(,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2
5.1Socioeco!omic i!"ormatio!...................................................................................#
5.2A$$%ia!ce o&!er'(i$...............................................................................................)
5.*E!er+y U'e.............................................................................................................11
3.4.1 Daily fuels used per area.................................................................................11
%n -a Mogano more households !uy $ood than in -a Mara!a > ,,,% as opposed
to 04%. )his is consistent $ith a significant higher le&el of $oodfuel use for
cooking purposes in -a Mogano. =ouseholds spend more on paraffin in -a
Mara!a than in -a Mogano !oth areas spend a!out :,0 per month on coal $hile
-a Mogano spends more on electricity than -a Mara!a. )his is strange since the
le&el of electrical appliance o$nership is significantly higher in -a Mara!a than in
-a Mogano and also !ecause electricity is $idely used for cooking purposes in -a
Mara!a. 7ne e6planation could !e that although a high le&el of electrical appliance
o$nership is found it does not necessarily mean that all appliances are al$ays
used. ?rom the a!o&ementioned ta!les it is also apparent that !oth areas spend
similar amounts on $ood although $oodfuel use is lo$er in -a Mara!a than in -a
Mogano. ..................................................................................................................10
?amilies in !oth these areas collect $ood in the natural &eldt !ut there is 10;%
more $ood collection reported in -a Mogano than in -a Mara!a. Most of the
families ha&e trees around their houses !ut it is mostly fruit and ornamental trees
(not used for fire$ood".............................................................................................10
3.4.' Daily diets........................................................................................................10
3.4.4 (ro!lems associated $ith fuel use...................................................................1,
3.4.0A$areness of impro&ed sto&es.........................................................................'0
S'6E $0 P$%S,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,--
)his can !e compared to sto&es used e&ery day.......................................................'4
3.4.3 =ealth issues....................................................................................................'3
7, C$NC"&S'$NS AN REC$MMENA%'$NS,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,-7
B'B"'$GRAP)!,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,-8
9&ES%'$NNA'RE NR,/ AREA/ A%E/,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,1+
NAME $0 'N%ER#'E(ER,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,1+
NAME $0 RESP$NEN%,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,1+
-,)$&SE)$" C)ARAC%ER'S%'CS,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,1-
Tota%.............................................................................................................................*2
Truc,...........................................................................................................................*2
*.E!er+y co!'ume- .y t(e (ou'e(o%-......................................................................*#
)ype of fuel@ energy source used.............................................................................40
/(at i' t(e "ue% or e!er+y 'ource u'e- "or...............................................................*#
#.E!er+y 'u$$%y..........................................................................................................*0
5T(e ,itc(e! ute!'i%' a!- coo,i!+ $ro"i%e'..............................................................*1
)ime of cooking.......................................................................................................48
02o$i!+ &it( "ue%&oo- 'carcity................................................................................*)
1Im$rove- 'tove'........................................................................................................#0
3E!er+y a!- 4ea%t(...................................................................................................#1
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555........#*
(roB9C (age 1
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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1. I!tro-uctio!
(almer De&elopment Consulting $as contracted !y -)C to assist in the completion of
a !aseline study in the -a Mara!a and -a Mogana districts of the Dorthern (ro&ince
in South Africa. )he follo$ing report $ill pro&ide a general o&er&ie$ of the findings.
2. 6ac,+rou!-7 Pro+ramme "or 6ioma'' E!er+y 2o!'ervatio! i!
Sout(er! A"rica 8Pro6E29
Biomass still amounts to nearly 80% of total energy demand in SADC countries. Most
of this energy is used for household purposes (cooking !aking lighting heating" !ut
a su!stantial amount goes into small#scale !usinesses like !rick firing fish smoking
processing of agricultural products !eer !re$ing and restaurants. %n addition recent
statistics suggest that !iomass energy use for Africa $ill ha&e dou!led !y the year
'0'0. Main reasons for this are a high population increase lo$ incomes and a
shortage of foreign currency.
7n the other side the a&aila!le !iomass resources ha&e !een significantly reduced
due to a gro$ing population reEuiring more agricultural land and infrastructure
de&elopment due to periodic droughts and in some countries due to years of ci&il
conflict. Despite these facts energy in&estments in SADC countries ha&e !een
concentrated on the modern energy sector and only less than '% of total energy
!udgets are allocated to !iomass fuels.
)hese $ere some of the reasons to start the (rogramme for Biomass 9nergy
Conser&ation in Southern Africa. (roB9C is a supra#regional (rogramme $hich aims
to enhance capacities and commitments of go&ernments and de&elopment
institutions@organisations to plan and implement integrated !iomass energy
conser&ation programmes. )hus it intends to contri!ute to the impro&ement of Euality
of life for the poor rural and ur!an populations !y ena!ling them to fulfill their energy
needs in a socially and en&ironmentally sustaina!le manner.
(roB9C is a *oint programme !et$een SADC the 9uropean Commission (9C" and
the -erman -o&ernment. Most of the financial support comes from the ?orestry
Sector of the 9C. )he -erman Agency for )echnical Cooperation (-)C" is
commissioned to implement (roB9C. -)C has a long and $orld#$ide e6perience in
planning implementing and monitoring integrated household energy pro*ects and
programmes.
%n a first phase (1228#'001" (roB9C acti&ities are restricted to si6 SADC countriesA
<esotho Mala$i Mo+am!iEue Dami!ia South Africa and Cim!a!$e
*. :et(o-o%o+y
)he o!*ecti&e of the !aseline study $as to o!tain energy specific household data to
assist in the planning and design of further actions on the dissemination of
$oodsto&es and solar sto&es in the area. %t $as also en&isaged that specific health
related Euestions $ould !e included pertaining to =%F@A%DS as $ell as indoor air
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
(roB9C (age '
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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pollution. Due to strong resistance from the enumerators the health related Euestions
$ere minimised. )he enumerators felt uncomforta!le asking =%F@A%DS related
Euestions since they are not health $orkers and they feared that the community $ould
!e offended. An alternati&e suggestion $as to contact the Departmetn of =ealth to
o!tain the necessary information if a&aila!le. %t is recommended that (roB9C should
liase $ith the Department of =ealth to formalise the reEuest for information and
clearly state the purpose for $hich the information is reEuired.
(DC8s responsi!ility $as to assist $ith Euestionnaire design training of field
$orkers piloting and finalisation of the Euestionnaire. %n addition (DC also had to
complete the data capturing and analysis originally meant to !e the responsi!ility of
the enumerators.
)he sur&ey $as conducted through a structured inter&ie$ and Euestionnaire. )he
Euestionnaire is attached as Anne6 1. )he sur&ey areas $ere pre#selected !y (roB9C
and households $ere randomly selected. %n total 1;3 inter&ie$s $ere conducted 8;
in -a Mogano and 88 in -a Mara!a. Data capturing $as e6ecuted !y (DC utilising a
specific designed data!ase in Access. )he full data!ase is a&aila!le for further
analyses.
(almer De&elopment Consulting pro&ided training to '0 enumerators during a
training $orkshop held in (ieters!urg 4#8 May '001. )he training session included a
piloting e6ercise to test and adapt the Euestionnaire. Dot all '0 enumerators attended
the training and de!riefing session after completion of the pilot study. %n total 2
enumerators attended the training and 13 attended the de!riefing session. Do
particular reasons $ere gi&en $hy the rest did not attend the training or de!riefing
sessions.
#. T(e 'tu-y area i! co!text
)he Dorthern (ro&ince lies $ithin the great el!o$ of the <impopo :i&er and it shares
!orders $ith Bots$ana Cim!a!$e and Mo+am!iEue. (ieters!urg is the capital city
and lies strategically in the centre of the pro&ince. 7ther important Dorthern (ro&ince
to$ns include the ma*or mining centres of (hala!or$a and )ha!a+im!i and )+aneen
producer of tea forestry products and tropical fruits. A ne$ ma*or road route $ill !e
the Maputo Corridor $hich $ill link the pro&ince directly $ith the Mo+am!iEue port
creating de&elopment and trade opportunities particularly in the south#eastern part of
the pro&ince. )he pro&ince8s link $ith Maputo has !een declared a Gmain8 corridor.
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
(roB9C (age 4
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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%n the Dorthern (ro&ince more than fi&e million people li&e on a!out 1'4 210 kmH of
land. )he main languages spoken are Sepedi (3';%" Iitsonga ('',%" )shi&enda
(133%" and Afrikaans.
Controlled hunting is often com!ined $ith cattle farming. Sunflo$ers cotton mai+e
and peanuts are culti&ated in the 5arm!aths#Dylstroom area. Dylstroom is also
kno$n for its ta!le grape crops. )ropical fruit such as !ananas litchis pineapples
mangoes and pa$pa$s as $ell as a &ariety of nuts are gro$n in the )+aneen and
<ouis )richardt areas. 96tensi&e tea and coffee plantations create many employment
opportunities in the )+aneen area. Ce!ediela one of the largest citrus estates in the
country is situated south of (ieters!urg. )he Dorthern (ro&ince has e6tensi&e forestry
plantations in the <ouis )richardt and )+aneen districts. (lantations of hard $oods for
furniture#manufacturing ha&e also !een esta!lished. Many of the rural people practise
su!sistence agriculture.
)he Dorthern (ro&ince is rich in minerals including copper as!estos coal iron ore
platinum chrome diamonds phosphates and gold. )he pro&ince is a typical
de&eloping area e6porting primary products and importing manufactured goods and
ser&ices.
)he Dational 9lectrification (D9<?" dta!ase recorded a total of 210 ;,2 houses in the
Dorthern (ro&ince of $hich 114% $ere in ur!an areas. A mere 32% of these houses
ha&e tap $ater in the house and ;'% ha&e full $ater!orne sanitation. )he Dational
9lectricity :egulator indicates that 43% of these houses ha&e access to electricity.
9skom8s Matim!a po$er station at 9llisras pro&ides the total electricity generating
capacity of the pro&ince. )here are 1; licensed institutions that distri!ute electricity
in the pro&ince. 9skom pro&ides electricity directly to 8;% of domestic users in the
pro&ince.
Ta.%e 17 Provi!cia% 2(aracteri'tic'. Source7 ;6SA< 1))3
I!-icator' Nort(er! Provi!ce
(opulation 1223 (G000" 0 2402
(opulation gro$th 1280#23 (%" 4,
Density 122; persons@km
'
0'0'4
?unctional Jr!anisation le&el 1220 (%" 4'0
=uman De&elopment %nde6 1221 00;0
(ersonal %ncome per Capita 1220 (:" ' '88
Adult <iteracy :ate (1220" % ;04
(upil@teacher ratio 1223 4,,
<ife e6pectancy 1220 ,'2
%nfant mortality rate 1220 332
=ospital !eds@1000 people 1223 41
<a!our force 1223 (G000" 1 112
Jnemployment rate 1223 (%" 010
Dominal --( 1220 (:m" 14 ;21'
:eal --( 1220 (:m" 2 1'20
:eal --( gro$th 1280#20 (%" 3'
:eal --( per Capita 1220 K 1 ;1'
:eal --( per $orker 1220 (:" 1; 84,
(ersonal %ncome@--( 1220 (%" 810
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
(roB9C (age 0
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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9nergy ser&ices are reEuired !y a &ariety of energy users $ho can !e grouped into the
follo$ing three ma*or energy consumption sectorsA
• )he domestic sector i.e. households reEuiring energy for domestic needs such as
cooking lighting $ater and space heating refrigeration recreation and mediaL
• )he ser&ice sector i.e. community facilities such as clinics $ater supply schools
administration facilities community centers street lighting ser&ice centers
churches police stations etc.L
• )he economic sector i.e. acti&ities such as farming (including su!sistence
farming" trading manufacturing transport etc.
-enerally energy use in rural areas need to !e seen in the conte6t of rural po&erty
neglect and underde&elopment as these conditions ha&e largely determined current
energy use patterns. At present domestic uses of energy account for most of the
energy consumed in poor rural areas.
5. T(e Fi!-i!+' = a! overvie&
1
5.1 Socioeco!omic i!"ormatio!
)he a&erage family si+e in !oth areas is , people. %n -a Mogano and -a Mara!a the
smallest families consists only of one person. %n -a Mogano the largest family
consists of 11 people and in -a Mara!a the largest family consists of 13 people.
%n !oth areas in the ma*ority of the households men are considered to !e the heads of
the households. %n -a Mogano in ; of the ,' male#headed households the male is not
li&ing in the house and in 1 out of the ; the male does make decisions a!out
appliances if it is more than :'00. %n -a Mara!a in only 1 of the 32 male#headed
households the male is not li&ing in the house !ut it is uncertain $hether he makes
any decisions ($ho makes decisions $asn8t reported in this response". %t can
therefore !e concluded that the ma*ority of the reported male#headed households
ha&e males present in the household as opposed to males $ho are a!sent (li&ing a$ay
from the household" !ut still considered to !e the head of the household.
)his $ould ha&e implications in the implementation of specific programmes $hen
gender decision#making processes and po$er relationships regarding appliance
purchasing $ould need to !e considered. %t may !e to the !enefit of the pro*ect if
*oint decision#making is reEuired !efore an appliance such as an energy efficient sto&e
can !e purchased if males are present > it could speed up the decision#making
process and males can !e reached through demonstrations.
Fi+ure 17 >e!-er7 4ea- o" t(e 4ou'e(o%- >a :o+a!o
1
Classification of households > Area 1 refers to -a Mogano and Area ' refers to -a Mara!a
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
(roB9C (age 3
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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Fi+ure 27 >e!-er7 4ea- o" 4ou'e(o%- >a :ara.a
30%
70%
F
M
Both areas ha&e a high pre&alence of male heads of households. )his could indicate
more sta!le household incomes as male headed households are often considered to !e
!etter off than female headed households. ?or e6ample $omen are more likely than
men to !e poor > May et al (as Euoted in )hom 122;A3" found that 32% of $omen in
rural areas are poor compared to 01% of men. )he phenomenon of female#headed
households also indicates that $omen are at greater risk since ;3% of female#headed
households are poor as compared to ,0% of male#headed households. Although
female#headed households tend to !e poorer than male#headed households May et al
found that $omen in certain categories of male#headed households are among the
poorest of the population. %t can therefore not !e concluded that only female#headed
households are poor !ut e&idence do seem to suggest that $omen tend to !e $orse
off $hether in a female#headed or male#headed households. <astly May et al (as
Euoted in )hom 122;A3" found that female#headed households ha&e less access to
ser&ices than male#headed households# they are therefore not only poorer in terms of
income !ut also in terms of access to ser&ices.
Decision making responsi!ility is an important aspect to consider $hen inter&entions
reEuiring purchases such as impro&ed sto&es are !eing considered. )his $ill indicate
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
26%
7%
F
M
(roB9C (age ,
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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$hich groups should !e targeted for specific acti&ities such as demonstrations
information dissemination and credit facilities.
Decision making responsi!ility $ithin households regarding fuels and appliances in
-a Mogano !elongs mainly to $omen sometimes to men and sometimes to !oth. A
3% &ariation occur $hen decisions a!out more e6pensi&e appliances ha&e to !e made
and more men are then in&ol&ed in the process. %n -a Mogano it can ho$e&er !e
concluded that $omen are the main decision#makers $hen it comes to the purchase of
fuels and appliancesA
Ta.%e 27 ;eci'io! ma,i!+ re'$o!'i.i%ity >a :o+a!o
%n -a Mara!a there is a higher pre&alence of men in&ol&ed in decision making a!out
energy as $ell as appliancesA
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
0%
!0%
20%
30%
0%
"0%
60%
70%
#0%
$0%
!00%
Energy A%%&iance '200 an(
un(er
A%%&iance ) '200
Ma&e Fema&e Both
(roB9C (age ;
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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Ta.%e *7 ;eci'io! ma,i!+ re'$o!'i.i%ity7 >a :ara.a
%t can therefore !e concluded that $omen seem to ha&e more decision making po$er
in the area of -a Mogano e&en though there are less female heads of households in
-a Mogano (',%" as opposed to 40% female headed households in -a Mara!a.
5hen taking formal employment in to consideration -a Mara!a seems less $ell off
than -a Mogano. %n -a Mara!a only 004% of households ha&e someone li&ing in
the house $ho is formally employed as opposed to ,'% of -a Mogano. %n -a
Mara!a $here people are poorer and resources scarcer more men are in&ol&ed in
decision making a!out the allocation of scarce resources is reEuired. )his is
supported !y the fact that no distinguisha!le difference could !e o!ser&ed !et$een
decisions o&er more e6pensi&e appliances in comparison to less e6pensi&e appliances
again signalling that it doesn8t matter if an appliance is e6pensi&e or cheap !ut
!ecause resources are limited a larger percentage of men participate in the decision#
making process. )his is in contrast to -a Mogano $here a slight difference !et$een
e6pensi&e and less e6pensi&e appliances can !e o!ser&ed > possi!ly a case of $here
resources are not so scarce men are not so much in&ol&ed in making decisions a!out
day to day e6penses !ut *oint decision#making is reEuired especially if the appliance
is e6pensi&e.
%n -a Mogano ,'% of the households ha&e someone li&ing in the house $ho is
formally employed. 13'% li&e on a pension 120% farm and sell produce '8% ha&e
temporary *o!s and 10% are self#employed. 43,% of the households in this area
recei&e outside contri!utions $hether it is food money or groceries.
%n -a Mara!a only 004% of the households ha&e someone li&ing in the house $ho is
formally employed. 403% li&e on a pension 111% farm and sell produce and one
person is a part time priest. ';4% of the households in this area recei&e outside
contri!utions $hich include food money groceries and in one case clothing. (lease
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
0%
!0%
20%
30%
0%
"0%
60%
70%
#0%
$0%
!00%
Energy A%%&iance '200 an(
un(er
A%%&iance ) '200
Ma&e Fema&e Both
(roB9C (age 8
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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note that total percentages $ill not add up to 100% since households ha&e more than
one source of income i.e people $ho are formally employed also may recei&e outside
contri!utions and farm and sell produce.
?rom the a!o&e it is clear that !oth areas can !e considered fairly $ell off in terms of
access to income sources although -a Mara!a seems to !e slightly less $ell off $ith
more pensioners and less households $ith someone in employment. %n general !oth
areas seem !etter off than rural areas in general $here unemployment is high and
reliance on pensions and remittances &ery high. )he conclusion that -a Mogano is
.richer/ or !etter off is !ased on the fact that more households ha&e someone formally
employed in -a Mogano than in -a Mara!a (,'% &s. 00%" respecti&ely. Also more
people farm and sell produce (120% &s 111%" and lastly only 13'% rely on
pensions in -a Mogano in contract to 403% in -a Mara!a.
%n another attempt to understand household income the assets of households $ere
in&estigated. )he assets o$ned !y a household $ere di&ided into 0 sectionsA
implements appliances houses and farming.
Fi+ure *7 >a :o+a!o Im$%eme!t O&!er'(i$
0
!0
20
30
0
"0
60
70
#0
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Again the conclusion that the area can !e considered fairly $ealthy is supported !y
household o$nership of cars and trucks (al!eit lo$" and 4'% of households !eing in
possession of li&estock and cattle (o6en".
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
(roB9C (age 2
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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Fi+ure #7 >a :ara.a Im$%eme!t O&!er'(i$
0
!0
20
30
0
"0
60
70
#0
$0
!00
P
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)he earlier conclusion that -a Mara!a is less $ell off than -a Mogano is supported
!y the implement o$nership figures in general lo$er than that of -a Mogano.
)he ma*ority of houses in -a Mogano are !uilt of !rick (34" $hile traditional houses
!uilt $ith a mi6ture of !rick +inc and mud can also !e found. 7f the 8; households
inter&ie$ed 34 $ere in&ol&ed in farming acti&itiesA 02 practised su!sistence farming
$hile 0 households indicated that they are commercial farmers. %n -a Mara!a 0'
houses are !uilt of !rick $hile '0 are a mi6ture !et$een !rick an +inc. More
traditional mud houses are also found in -a Mara!a than in -a Mogano. %n -a
Mara!a ;0 households practice su!sistence farming $hile ' households are
commercial farmers.
5.2 A$$%ia!ce o&!er'(i$
%n -a Mogano the ma*ority of households o$n a radio more than 03% o$n a
tele&ision and appro6imately 40% o$n a refrigerator.
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(roB9C (age 10
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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Ta.%e #7 A$$%ia!ce o&!er'(i$7 >a :o+a!o
0
!0
20
30
0
"0
60
70
#0
$0
'a(io .3 Fri(ge
A;;liance
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
%n -a Mara!a more than ,;% of households o$n tele&isions and a &ery high
percentage of more than ,'% of households o$n refrigerators.
Ta.%e 57 A$$%ia!ce o&!er'(i$7 >a :ara.a
0
!0
20
30
0
"0
60
70
#0
$0
'a(io .3 Fri(ge
A;;liance
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
5ith regard to appliance o$nership the high le&el of o$nership of electrical
appliances seems to indicate that the areas ha&e !een electrified for some time.
)his is indeed the caseA -a Mara!a has !een electrified for 8 years $hile -a
Mogano has !een electrified for a!out ; years.
%t further indicates the relati&e $ealth of households since appliances such as
refrigerators are e6pensi&e and normally o$nership in rural areas is not that high.
All appliances in !oth areas $ere !ought the ma*ority on credit.
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(roB9C (age 11
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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%nterestingly o$nership of radio8s tele&isions as $ell as fridges is higher in -a
Mara!a (identified as a poorer area" than in -a Mogano. )his seems to indicate
that the area may not !e as poor initially assumed.
5.* E!er+y U'e
5.*.1 ;ai%y "ue%' u'e- $er area
Lighting
?rom the !reakdo$n of energy sources for lighting in the t$o areas it can !e seen
that significant differences e6ist. %n -a Mara!a the most important fuel for lighting
is electricity $hile in -a Mogano it is candles. 7nce more this refutes the
conclusion that -a Mara!a is less $ell off than -a Mogano. Both areas ha&e !een
electrified for some time 8 and ; years respecti&ely. Despite the long period of
ha&ing access to electricity candles are still the ma*or energy source for lighting. A
possi!le e6planation offered for the phenomenon !y one of the enumerators is that
people prefer candles and they are reluctant to change.
Fi+ure 57 Fue% u'e "or %i+(ti!+7 >a :o+a!o
60%
2%
!"%
!%
Can(&es
Paraffin
E&ectricity
4enerator
Do $ood is reported !eing used for lighting in this area. 7nly one household made
use of a generator.
Fi+ure 07 Fue% u'e %i+(ti!+7 >a :ara.a
3%
"%
#7%
"%
Can(&es
Paraffin
E&ectricity
+oo(
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
(roB9C (age 1'
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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Do generators are reported as !eing used for lighting. -a Mara!a displays energy
consumption characteristics of a richer areaA a high le&el of electricity use for lighting
although the use of $ood for lighting purposes is higher in -a Mogano ('0%" than in
-a Mara!a (3%".
Cooking
)he use of $ood for cooking purposes in -a Mogano is higher in !oth summer and
$inter than in -a Mara!a. 9lectricity use for cooking is high in -a Mara!a (0,,% in
summer and 4,0% in $inter respecti&ely". %t $ould seem that $ood fuel
inter&entions $ould !e more appropriate in -a Mogano due to the higher incidence of
fuel $ood use for cooking purposes.
Ta.%e 07 E!er+y 'ource' u'e- "or coo,i!+ 8>a :o+a!o9
>a :o+a!o /oo- Para""i! E%ectricity 2oa% >a'
Summer ,2 102 113 '4 '4
/i!ter ;14 2' ,2 2' '4
%n summer '01% of the households use only $ood as fuel for cooking and in $inter
'4% of the households use $ood e6clusi&ely.
Ta.%e 17 E!er+y 'ource' u'e- "or coo,i!+ 8>a :ara.a9
>a :ara.a /oo- Para""i! E%ectricity 2oa% >a'
Summer 40; '03 0,, '4 0
/i!ter 401 108 4,0 14, 0
%n summer '4% of the households use only $ood and no other fuel source for cooking
and in $inter '03% of the households use $ood e6clusi&ely.
-a Mogano has a lo$ le&el of <(- (liEuefied petroleum gas" use as opposed to no
gas use in -a Mara!a. %t is possi!le that electricity use has displaced <(- for
cooking purposes in -a Mara!a. Both areas use coal for cooking purposes and !oth
areas display a higher le&el of coal use in $inter consistent $ith increased space
heating reEuirements during the colder period. -a Mara!a displays a more &aried
pattern of fuels used for cooking purposes consistent $ith a lo$er le&el of reliance on
electricity for cooking purposes. As concluded earlier -a Mogano may !e more
appropriate for the dissemination of energy efficient $oodsto&es due the reliance on
$oodfuel for cooking purposes. =o$e&er energy efficient sto&es could also !e
$elcomed in -a Mara!a $here monetary sa&ings may!e more important than direct
$oodfuel sa&ings.
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(roB9C (age 14
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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Monthly fuel expenses
%n -a Mogano ,,,% of households !uy $ood ($hether they !uy $ood only or $ood
and other fuels" at an a&erage cost of :1;3.00 per month. =ouseholds spend on
a&erage :40 per month on paraffin and :,0 on coal.
Ta.%e 07 :o!t(%y "ue% ex$e!'e' i! >a :o+a!o7
Fue% ? o"
(ou'e(o%-'
.uyi!+
-i""ere!t "ue%'
Ex$e!'e' $er
mo!t(
(araffin ,;8 :40
(appro6imately"
-as 113 :;4
(appro6imately"
9lectricity 148 :1,0
Coal 0, :,0
5ood ,2 :1;3
5ood and other fuels 328
Com!ination !et$een
gas paraffin
electricity and coal
113
%n -a Mara!a 04% of households !uy $ood ($hether they !uy $ood only or $ood
and other fuels" at an a&erage cost of :1,8 per month.
Ta.%e 17 :o!t(%y "ue% ex$e!'e' i! >a :ara.a7
Fue% ? o"
(ou'e(o%-'
.uyi!+
-i""ere!t "ue%'
Ex$e!'e' $er
mo!t(
(araffin 30 :00
-as 03 :20
9lectricity ,24 :23
Coal 21 :,0
5ood 03 :1,8
5ood and other fuels 48,
Com!ination !et$een
gas paraffin
electricity and coal
428
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
(roB9C (age 10
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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%n -a Mogano more households !uy $ood than in -a Mara!a > ,,,% as opposed to
04%. )his is consistent $ith a significant higher le&el of $oodfuel use for
cooking purposes in -a Mogano. =ouseholds spend more on paraffin in -a
Mara!a than in -a Mogano !oth areas spend a!out :,0 per month on coal
$hile -a Mogano spends more on electricity than -a Mara!a. )his is strange
since the le&el of electrical appliance o$nership is significantly higher in -a
Mara!a than in -a Mogano and also !ecause electricity is $idely used for
cooking purposes in -a Mara!a. 7ne e6planation could !e that although a
high le&el of electrical appliance o$nership is found it does not necessarily
mean that all appliances are al$ays used. ?rom the a!o&ementioned ta!les it
is also apparent that !oth areas spend similar amounts on $ood although
$oodfuel use is lo$er in -a Mara!a than in -a Mogano.
?amilies in !oth these areas collect $ood in the natural &eldt !ut there is 10;% more
$ood collection reported in -a Mogano than in -a Mara!a. Most of the
families ha&e trees around their houses !ut it is mostly fruit and ornamental
trees (not used for fire$ood".
5.*.2 ;ai%y -iet'
?ood cooked for the morning meal is the follo$ingA
• -a MoganoA (orridge )ea meat morogo &egeta!les or porridge and relish
(in order of importance" others also eaten !ut seldomA !read ca!!age
potatoes and eggs
• -a Mara!aA )ea (orridge. 7ther dishes are also eaten !ut seldomA meat rice
samp and cereal.
?ood cooked for the afternoon mealA
• -a MoganoA (orridge &egeta!les meat. 7thers dishes are also eaten !ut
seldomA tea morrogo soup porridge and relish
• -a Mara!aA porridge tea eggs. 7thers dishes are also eaten !ut seldomA
meat &egeta!les ca!!age and morogo.
?ood cooked for the e&ening mealA
• -a MoganoA (orridge meat porridge and relish &egeta!les. 7thers dishes are
also eaten !ut seldomA Morogo tea ca!!age
• -a Mara!aA (orridge meat &egeta!les rice morogo. 7thers dishes also eaten
!ut seldomA tea !read fish soup
3,,% of households in -a Mogano eat their main meal in the e&ening 124% in the
morning and ';;% in the afternoon. 83% of households in -a Mara!a ha&e their
main meal in the e&ening 8% in the morning and 13% in the afternoon.
Cooking Techniques
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(roB9C (age 13
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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)he percentages $ere calculated !y di&iding !y 8; and 88 su!tracted !y the num!er
of no responses in -a Mogano and -a Mara!a respecti&ely. %t does not take into
account that some do not eat a specific meal or only made tea and did not mention it.
Cooking techniEues used for the morning mealA
• -a MoganoA )he ma*ority !oil their food (;2%" and some steam (0%" or fry
(0%" their food
• -a Mara!aA )he ma*ority !oil their food (3'%" and some fry (0%" their food.
Cooking techniEues used for the afternoon mealA
• -a MoganoA )he ma*ority !oil their food (48%" and &ery little steam (,3%"
fry (3'%" grill (4%" or !ake.
• -a Mara!aA )he ma*ority !oil their food ('8%" and 1'% fry their food some
also steam and grill their food.
Cooking techniEues used for the e&ening mealA
• -a MoganoA )his is the main meal and ,,% of food is !oiled 10% steamed
10% fried and some ste$ or !ake their food for this meal.
• -a Mara!aA )his is the main meal and 8;% of food is !oiled 43% fried and
&ery little steam grill !ake or ste$ their food.
Relationship between fuel used, food cooked and the cooking technique used
Morning MealA
• -a MoganoA Fue%&oo- is !eing used ,13% of the time to prepare porridge
(80% " $hich is !eing !oiled (20% of the time" as opposed to steaming
follo$ed !y &egeta!les (0'3%" $hich is al$ays !oiled. )he ne6t most often
used fuel is $ara""i! ('2'%"$hich is !eing used for porridge (,4'% of the
time" and $hich is al$ays !oiled follo$ed !y tea (3',%" $hich is also
al$ays !oiled.
• -a Mara!aA E%ectricity is !eing used 4,% of the time for tea (,11%" $hich
is al$ays !oiled follo$ed !y porridge (';8%" $hich is also al$ays !oiled.
)he ne6t most often used fuel is !oth "ue%&oo- or $ara""i! at 40% of the
time. ?uel$ood is used for tea (,,;%" $hich is al$ays !oiled or porridge
(',,%" $hich is also al$ays !oiled. (araffin is used for porridge (,0%"
$hich is al$ays !oiled or tea (00%" $hich is also al$ays !oiled.
Afternoon MealA
• -a MoganoA Fue%&oo- is !eing used ,,,% of the time for porridge (202%"
$hich is al$ays !oiled follo$ed !y &egeta!les (30%" $hich is also al$ays
!oiled". )he ne6t mostly used fuel is $ara""i! (13'%" $hich is !eing used
for tea (,0%" $hich is al$ays !oiled or soup (00%" $hich is al$ays !oiled.
• -a Mara!aA Fue%&oo- a!- e%ectricity are !oth !eing used 444% of the time.
?uel$ood and electricity are used for porridge (303%" $hich is al$ays
!oiled $hen fuel$ood is used and 844% !oiled as opposed to steaming in the
case of electricity. )he ne6t most often used fuel is $ara""i! ('0'%" $hich
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(roB9C (age 1,
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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is !eing used for &egeta!les (8;3%" $hich are !oiled (;10%" as opposed to
steamed or porridge (30%" $hich is al$ays !oiled.
9&ening MealA
• -a MoganoA Fue%&oo- is !eing used ,04% of the time for porridge (88,%"
$hich is !oiled (204%" opposed to steamed follo$ed !y &egeta!les (404%"
$hich is !oiled (844%" opposed to ste$ed or fried. Fegeta!les are closely
follo$ed !y meat (410%" $hich is !oiled (818%" opposed to ste$ed. )he
ne6t most often used fuel is $ara""i! (12%" $hich is !eing used for porridge
(202%" $hich is al$ays !oiled or &egeta!les (303%" $hich is also al$ays
!oiled.
• -a Mara!aA E%ectricity is used 012% of the time for porridge (80,%" $hich
is !eing al$ays !oiled or &egeta!les (482%" $hich is !eing !oiled (3;1%"
opposed to fried. )he ne6t mostly used fuel is "ue%&oo- (480%" $hich is
used for porridge (2;%" $hich is mostly !oiled or &egeta!les or meat !oth at
';4%. Fegeta!les are mostly !oiled some fried and meat is ,,;% fried
opposed to ste$ed or !oiled.
%t can therefore !e concluded that the o&er$helming cooking method in use is !oiling
and that the method of cooking $ill !e suita!le for energy efficient $ood sto&es. %t
can further !e concluded that enough cooking opportunities e6ist to *ustify the
introduction of efficient sto&es i.e. households cook often (at least t$ice daily" as
opposed to areas $here cooking may only take place once a day due to food
scarcities energy shortages or la!our shortages (someone to actually do the cooking".
<astly it is also clear that the type of food prepared (porridge &egeta!les meat"
$ould !e suited to prepare on an energy efficient $ood sto&e.
5.*.* Pro.%em' a''ociate- &it( "ue% u'e
)he responses in )a!le 8 represent the opinions of community mem!ers regarding the
ad&antages and disad&antages of &arious fuels. A summary of ad&antages and
disad&antages associated $ith the use of alternati&e fuels $hen fuel $ood is scarce is
pro&ided !elo$A
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(roB9C (age 1;
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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Ta.%e 37 A-va!ta+e' a!- -i'a-va!ta+e' o" a%ter!ative "ue%' "or .ot( area'
Fue% A-va!ta+e ;i'a-va!ta+e
E%ectricity Do smoke 96pensi&e
9asy to cook $ith (o$er failure
Muick Dangerous to children
Cheaper
Con&enient
9fficient
:eadily a&aila!le
Sa&es time
=ealthy
Para""i! Done Done
Sa&es time 96pensi&e
9asy to o!tain Smelling
<ess e6pensi&e Slo$
Con&enient Smoke
Can use if it rains Dot safe for children
?lama!le
%tch eyes
Cause headache
>a' ?ast Difficult to o!tain
Con&enient 96pensi&e
Smokeless C7' is dangerous
Sa&es time
=ot
6ioma'' 8mea%y
core@co&-u!+9
9asy to o!tain Burns Euickly
?ree 7nly a&aila!le after har&est
=ot Smoke
9fficient Smelling
Dot enough
Short lifespan
2oa% 5arm house Smoke
<ess e6pensi&e 96pensi&e
Burns slo$ly Difficult to o!tain
9fficient Messy
MultipurposeA iron !ake
cook $arm house
C7' is dangerous
?rom )a!le 8 it can !e seen that electricity is regarded as ha&ing more ad&antages
as disad&antages. %t is regarded as clean (no smoke" Euick to use con&enient
efficient and readily a&aila!le. (araffin is regarded as less e6pensi&e easier to
o!tain and con&enient !ut $ith the disad&antages of !eing smelly causing itchy
eyes headaches and not !eing safe for children. )he lo$ le&el of gas use could
!e e6plained !y the responses that it is difficult to o!tain and e6pensi&e. Coal
seems to !e popular !ecause it is a multi#purpose fuel !ecause you can iron !ake
cook and $arm the house $ith it. %t is ho$e&er also difficult to o!tain messy and
the C7
'
emissions can !e dangerous.
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(roB9C (age 18
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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%t is interesting to o!ser&e that communities seem fairly $ell informed a!out the
associated dangers and dra$ !acks of the &arious fuels in use. )his can form an
e6cellent !ase from $hich to raise further a$areness regarding health and safety
issues associated $ith fuel use as $ell information dissemination regarding the
use of fuel#efficient sto&es.
Fi+ure 17 ? 4ou'e(o%-' i!-icati!+ t(at "ue% &oo- i' 'carce7 >a :o+a!o
#"%
!"%
5es
6o
%n -a Mogano of the 83% of the households $ho feel that fuel $ood is scarce
40% think that fuel $ood $ill also !e scarce in the future $hile only 8% of those
saying that fuel $ood is not scarce currently think that it $ill !e scarce in the
future. %n -a Mogano people use paraffin and !uy $ood in order to cope $ith the
fuel $ood scarcity although the use of gas and !iomass i.e. co$ dung are other
alternati&es. %t is interesting to note that fuel $ood scarcity is associated more
$ith difficulties in accessing fuel $ood i.e. to $alk '#4 hours to collect $ood
e&ery second day. )o address this .scarcity/ people !uy $ood and therefore
eliminate the need to $alk and collect $ood there!y eliminating the .scarcity/.
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Ta.%e )7 Strate+ie' u'e- .y maAority 835?9 o" (ou'e(o%-' i! >a :o+a!o to co$e &it( "ue% &oo-
'carcity
Strate+y Num.er o" re'$o!'e'
Do nothing 4 N 8 no responses gi&en
Jse electricity 3
Alternati&e fuels (response recei&ed" 1
Buy more $ood 2
(lant trees '
Jse gas 3
Jse coal 0
Jse paraffin 40
Jse !iomass (mealy cores co$ dung" ,
Collect $ood far 4
7ther (use $ood $hen necessary ne$
technologies cook less use green
$ood"
0
DB. Some of the respondents ga&e more than one strategy to cope $ith fuel$ood
scarcity. Alternati&e fuels is the response gi&en !y the respondents and could
imply using any other fuel e6cept $ood. Because $ood is not so a&aila!le to
collect !uying $ood is percei&ed !y the respondents as a $ay of coping $ith
fuel$ood scarcity.
Fi+ure 37 ? 4ou'e(o%-' i!-icati!+ "ue% &oo- i' 'carce7 >a :ara.a
6"%
3"%
5es
6o
%n -a Mara!a '4% of the ,3% of the households $ho feel that fuel$ood is scarce
currently think that it $ill also !e scarce in the future $hile '1% of those saying that
fuel $ood is not scarce currently think that it $ill !e scarce in the future.
Ta.%e 107 Strate+ie' u'e- .y maAority 805?9 o" (ou'e(o%-' i! >a :ara.a to co$e &it( "ue% &oo-
'carcity
Strate+y Num.er o" re'$o!'e'
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
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Do nothing 11 N , no strategies gi&en
Jse electricity 14
Alternati&e fuels 0
Buy more $ood 4
(lant trees 1
Jse gas 1
Jse coal 4
Jse paraffin 1'
Jse !iomass (mealy cores co$ dung" 4
Collect $ood far 1
7ther (use $ood $hen necessary ne$
technologies cook less use green
$ood"
;
DB. Some of the respondents ga&e more than one strategy to cope $ith fuel $ood
scarcity. Alternati&e fuels is the response gi&en !y the respondents and could
imply using any other fuel e6cept $ood. Because $ood is not so a&aila!le to
collect !uying $ood is percei&ed !y the respondents as a $ay of coping $ith
fuel$ood scarcity.
?orm the responses in )a!le 2 and )a!le 10 it is clear that the most important
strategy for people to cope $ith fuel $ood shortages is to make use of different fuels
i.e. fuel s$itching. Multiple fuel use or the practice that utilises a range of fuels and
appliances at the same time or interchangea!ly !ecause of their a&aila!ility and
accessi!ility is the norm in most de&eloping households. )he use of multiple fuels or
.fuel s$itching/ is mainly influenced !y sur&i&al concerns. Multiple fuel use is
complicated !y the fact that appliances and fuels operate in systems.
(oor households ha&e to spend limited income o&er a range of necessities of $hich
energy is *ust one indicating specific household e6penditure priorities. %rregular and
unrelia!le sources of income necessitate energy use strategies that can cope $ith
&arying income patterns # $hen income allo$s more money can !e spent on paraffin
for e6ample > $hen income is e6hausted poor households re&ert !ack to $ood. All
energy sources are therefore considered in terms of their utility and afforda!ility.
5.*.# A&are!e'' o" im$rove- 'tove'
%n -a Mogano a high le&el of a$areness a!out solar cookers $ere found as opposed
to a lo$er le&el of a$areness regarding other impro&ed sto&es. )he reason for this
may !e that a solar cooker demonstration $as conducted *ust !efore the field $ork
$as completed and solar cookers may therefore still ha&e !een in the forefront of
people8s mindsA
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(roB9C (age '1
9nergy Baseline Sur&eyA -a Mara!a and -a Mogano
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Ta.%e 117 A&are!e'' o" -i""ere!t im$rove- 'tove' 8>a :o+a!o9
Ty$e o" 'tove ? a&are!e''
So%ar coo,er' 04%
Pro.ec 'tove' 0%
Tur.o 0%
:a%i 0%
>e% '%
6raBier '%
DBO (ro!ec sto&es refer to any sto&es associated $ith the pro*ect
%n response to the Euestion $hat an ideal impro&ed sto&e should look like 20% of
households in -a Mogano prefer a sto&e that is made of metal 1'% prefer clay and
1'% prefer cast iron. 7n a&erage households preferred that 4 pots could !e used on
the sto&e. 7ther important characteristics that the households indicated the sto&es
should ha&e $ere the follo$ingA !e a!le to !ake !e dura!le and strong ha&e an
alarm and handles. 7n a&erage households $ill pay :08, for an impro&ed sto&e $ith
some $ho $ant it for free and another $ho $ould pay as much as :;000. )hey
e6pect to !uy the sto&es from (ro!ec solar cooker agents local shops supermarket or
furniture stores.
Fi+ure )7 I-ea% im$rove- 'tove7 >a :o+a!o
0
!0
20
30
0
"0
60
70
#0
$0
!00
M
u
s
t
B
e
P
o
r
t
a
,
&
e
M
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s
t
+
a
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*
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P
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v
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(
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7
i
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t
P
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%
a
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(
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/
1
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t
s
i
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%
a
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/
1
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s
i
(
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P
r
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%
a
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(
M
o
v
e
S
t
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Characteristics
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
)his can !e compared to sto&es used e&ery dayA
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
(almer De&elopment Consulting
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Ta.%e 127 Stove' u'e- -ai%y i! >a :o+a!o
Ty$e o"
StoveC
Ty$e o"
Pot'D
Num.er o" $ot' SiBe o" $ot'
:or!i!+ A"ter!oo! Eve!i!+ :or!i!+ A"ter!oo! Eve!i!+
(araffin
$ick
stro&e
Aluminium
1@' ' ' '@4 '@4 '@4
(rimus Aluminium
4#legged cast
iron pot
7pen fire 4#legged cast
iron pot
Coal Aluminium
=ot (late Aluminium
9lectrical Alumium
-as Aluminium
4#legged cast
iron pot
P%n order of pots used most (responses such as saucepans aluminium hart stainless steel metal are all categori+ed
under aluminium pots"
Q%n order of sto&es used most
%n -a Mara!a a$areness a!out impro&ed sto&es@solar cookers $as as follo$sA
Ta.%e 1*7 A&are!e'' a.out -i""ere!t im$rove- 'tove' 8>a :ara.a9
Ty$e o" 'tove ? a&are!e''
So%ar coo,er' ,'3%
Pro.ec 'tove' 0%
Tur.o 1'3%
:a%i 4;3%
>e% 0%
6raBier 0%
/oo-'tove 1,,%
%n -a Mara!a ;0% of households prefer metal sto&es 02% prefer clay and 1'%
prefer cast iron sto&es. 7n a&erage households prefer that the sto&e must !e a!le to
use 0 pots. 7ther important characteristics that the households think the sto&es should
ha&e is !e a!le to !ake dura!le ha&e handles and it should !e light. 7n a&erage the
households $ill pay :'8' for an impro&ed sto&es $ith some $ho $ant it for free and
one person $ill pay up to :1'00 for an impro&ed sto&e or solar cooker. )hey e6pect
to !uy the sto&es from local shops (ieters!urg a factory supermarkets a dealer in
Rohannes!urg the pension fund points or any$here.
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
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Fi+ure 107 I-ea% im$rove- 'tove7 >a :ara.a
0
!0
20
30
0
"0
60
70
#0
$0
!00
M
u
s
t
B
e
P
o
r
t
a
,
&
e
M
u
s
t
+
a
r
m
*
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P
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7
i
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%
a
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1
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%
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%
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1
u
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s
i
(
e
Characteristics
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
)his can !e compared to sto&es used e&ery day
Ta.%e 1#7 Stove' u'e- -ai%y i! >a :ara.a
Ty$e o"
StoveC
Ty$e o" Pot'D Num.er o" $ot' SiBe o" $ot'
:or!i!+ A"ter!oo
!
Eve!i!+ :or!i!+ A"ter!oo
!
Eve!i!+
=ot (late Aluminium
9namel
' 1 ' '@4 ' 1@'
9lectrical Aluminium
9namel -lass
Cast %ron
(rimus Aluminium
9namel
(araffin Aluminium
9namel
7pen fire 4#legged cast
iron pot Cast
%ron
Aluminium
9namel
Coal Aluminium
9namel
-as Aluminium
9namel
P%n order of pots used most (responses such as saucepans aluminium hart stainless steel metal are all categori+ed
under aluminium pots"
Q%n order of sto&es used most
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5ith regard to risks associated $ith impro&ed sto&es the follo$ing summary can !e
pro&idedA
Ta.%e 157 Ri',' a''ociate- &it( im$rove- 'tove' 8>a :o+a!o97
Stove ri', re'$o!'e' ? o" re'$o!'e'
Do response 2'
Do risk 1;'
)ampering 04;
)heft 0;1
7ther ,2
Ta.%e 107 Ri',' a''ociate- &it( im$rove- 'tove' 8>a :ara.a9
Stove ri', re'$o!'e' ? o" re'$o!'e'
Do response 10'%
Do risk 401
)ampering '03
)heft 033
7ther 40
?rom )a!le 13 and )a!le 1, the potential of theft emerges as the !iggest potential
percei&ed risk associated $ith impro&ed sto&es. )he risk could !e addressed during
demonstrations and a$areness raising programmes !y informing people on safe
storage tips as $ell as highlighting the point that often people are at home $hen
cooking takes place and therefore the risk can !e minimised.
(ro!lems associated $ith the use of other sto&es $ere reported as follo$sA
Ta.%e 117 Pro.%em' a''ociate- &it( ot(er 'tove' 8>a :o+a!o97
Stove Pro.%em'
9lectricity )oo e6pensi&e po$er failure
consume more energy
(araffin Smell e6pensi&e smoke flames
-as 96pensi&e
Coal Scarce colouring of chimneys and
!ricks consumes too much $ood
7pen fire Smoke
?lame sto&e Dangerous can !urn
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Ta.%e 137 Pro.%em' a''ociate- &it( ot(er 'tove' 8>a :o+a!o9
Stove Pro.%em'
9lectricity Maintenance e6pensi&e electricity
e6pensi&e hotplate e6pand and not
dura!le po$er failure cracks
(araffin 96pensi&e smell smoke itch eyes
old sto&e e6pand flames
-as C7
'
emissions gas leaks dangerous
7pen fire Smoke itch eyes $ood sometimes
$et $ood far $ood scarce !urn
children smoke damage eyes smell
messy ash
Coal 96pensi&e smoke rust
)a!les 13 and 1, a!o&e pro&ide &alua!le information that can !e used in the
information dissemination campaign. %t is clear that smoke and related health
pro!lems are ma*or issues. )he health !enefits of the impro&ed sto&es should
therefore !e highlighted.
5.*.5 4ea%t( i''ue'
%n -a Mogano 010% of the households did not respond to the health related
Euestions. 7f those $ho did respond ;03% said that smoke in the house is a
pro!lem. )his is mainly !ecause smoke makes the eyes itch red and painful and
further causes headaches and is inhaled (colds and flu8s are also reported". 03% of the
responses indicated that smoke causes illness under $hich eye pro!lems and flu are
the most reported (others include headache coughing and !ronchitis". 43% of the
responses indicated that smoke is a pro!lem and causes illness.
%n -a Mara!a 401% of the households did not respond to the health related
Euestions. 7f those $ho responded 23% said that smoke in the house is a pro!lem.
)he reasons gi&en are mainly !ecause smoke makes the eyes itch red or painful the
smoke smells and causes coughing (other reasons reported are causes headaches and
flu". ;8% of the responses indicated that smoke causes illness under $hich headaches
and eye pro!lems are the most reported (others include coughing !lindness and flu".
;'% of the responses indicated that smoke is a pro!lem and it causes illness.
Again the high le&el of pro!lems associated $ith smoke could !e used to the !enefit
of impro&ed sto&es during the information dissemination stage. %t also illustrates that
households are a$are of the negati&e side effects of dirty and unhealthy fuels and that
they percei&e it as a pro!lem. %mpro&ed cook sto&es should therefore not only !e
offered as an ans$er to fuel $ood shortages !ut also as an ans$er to health related
pro!lems associated $ith the use of other fuels.
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0. 2o!c%u'io!' a!- Recomme!-atio!'
Conclusions and recommendations can !e formulated regarding the follo$ing issuesA
Socio-economic issues
• Both areas seem to !e in some$hat !etter off than rural areas in general in
South AfricaL
• Both areas ha&e a high pre&alence of male headed householdsL
• Decision making responsi!ility is fairly mi6ed !et$een men and $omen
indicating a dissemination approach taking strong cognisance of gender issuesL
• Sources of income in !oth areas are mi6ed and seem to !e more sta!le than in
rural areas in general > a smaller dependence on pensions for e6ample is noted
in !oth areasL
• =igh le&els of formal employment $ere found (,'% and 004% respecti&ely"L
• Both areas are supported !y outside contri!utions ((43,% and ';4%
respecti&ely"L
• =ouseholds in !oth areas reported o$nership of cars and trucks as $ell as
li&estock and cattle supporting the conclusion that !oth areas are fairly !etter
off than rural areas in general in South Africa.
?rom the a!o&ementioned conclusions it can !e recommended that impro&ed sto&es
should !e introduced in !oth areas since !oth areas seem to !e in a position to a!sor!
ne$ technology or inter&entions. )his is opposed to some rural areas $here
households $ere found to !e so poor that they could not a!sor! additional appliances
or inter&entions e&en $hen the inter&entions $ere aimed at impro&ing their situation.
)his lead to the conclusion that households need to !e at a threshold le&el of sur&i&al
those !elo$ the threshold le&el $ill !e una!le to respond to inter&entions and it could
e&en impo&erish them further and place a drain on their already scarce resources. ?or
e6ample $hen solar cookers are introduced into a household the impact $ould !e
limited $hen the household is so poor that they can not afford to !uy food to cook.
%t can further !e recommended that !oth males and females should !e targeted during
a demonstration or a$areness#raising programme since there is s high le&el of males
present in !oth areas as $ell as a high percentage of male#headed households.
?urther it $as clear that $omen and men take decisions a!out fuels and appliances
especially e6pensi&e appliances. Both should therefore !e targeted to recei&e
information regarding impro&ed sto&es.
ppliance owne!ship
• Fery high le&els of o$nership of e6pensi&e electrical appliances $ere found
possi!ly indicating adeEuate disposa!le income to purchase appliances as $ell
as the desire to o$n appliances. )his is a positi&e indicator for the
programme since it could indicate that ne$ appliances such as impro&ed
sto&es could !e $ell accepted and integrated into the householdL
• =igh le&els of o$nership of other cooking appliances $ere also found such as
coal sto&es paraffin sto&es and gas sto&esL
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• )he high incidence of radio o$nership should !e considered $hen designing
an a$areness programmeL
• A high le&el of a$areness $as found regarding the negati&e effects of sto&es
using fuels such as paraffin $ood and coal especially health pro!lems such as
smoke itchy eyes colds and fluL
• A &ery high le&el of a$areness regarding solar cookers $ere foundL
• =ouseholds displayed their $illingness o purchase an impro&ed sto&e and they
$ere $illing to pay :08, and :'8' on a&erage per area.
?rom the a!o&e it can !e concluded that households are $illing to purchase and
use appliances and that impro&ed sto&es $ould !e purchased. %t is recommended
that impro&ed sto&es !e marketed as an additional cooking option i.e. e6tending
the range of cooking appliances already in use !y the household and therefore
e6panding choice. %t is further recommended that the high le&el of a$areness
regarding solar cookers should !e e6panded to also include other impro&ed sto&es.
)he !est $ay to achie&e this $ould !e through e6tensi&e demonstrations of all
impro&ed sto&e types.
"uel use
• Significant differences regarding the use of fuels for lighting purposes $ere
recorded > one area uses mostly candles $hile the other area uses mostly
electricityL
• 5ood is used in !oth areas !ut it is used more e6tensi&ely in -a MoganoL
• 5ood is !oth collected and !oughtL
• Both areas e6perienced fuel $ood as !eing scarceL
• -a Mogano spends more on electricity per month than -a Mogano although
-a Mogano used less electricity for cooking and lighting purposes and o$ned
fe$er electrical appliances. Do adeEuate e6planation could !e found for this.
• Boiling is the most often used method of cookingL
• 9lectricity is regarded as a con&enient fuel to useL
• 7ther fuels are associated $ith health and safety risksL
• =ouseholds cope $ith fuel $ood shortages !y s$itching to other more
a&aila!le and afforda!le fuels such as paraffinL
%t is recommended that impro&ed sto&es !e disseminated $ith the message that it can
also address health issues and not only fuel $ood scarcity. )he high le&el of
a$areness of health pro!lems associated $ith fuel use can form an e6cellent !asis for
further $ork and the dissemination of impro&ed $ood sto&es.
Conclusions therefore seem to indicate that !oth study areas are generally $ealthy
$ith a high le&el of appliance o$nership. =o$e&er $ood fuel use especially for
cooking purposes is still high and $ood fuel is considered to !e scarce in !oth areas.
=ouseholds e6perience additional pro!lems associated $ith the use of $ood fuel as an
energy source as $ell as pro!lems $ith the use of con&entional energy sources. )he
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com!ination of $ood fuel scarcity continued high le&els of $ood fuel use a$areness
regarding pro!lems associated $ith $ood fuel use and an indication of the potential of
disposa!le income to !e spent on appliances seems to indicate positi&e conditions for
the implementation of an impro&ed sto&e programme.
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
6i.%io+ra$(y
1. De&elopment Bank of Southern Africa. 1228. %nfrastructureA a foundation
for de&elopment. De&elopment :eport 1228.
'. May R. 1224. :ural 9nergy Consumption in Datal@S$aCulu. Department of
Minerals and 9nergyA (retoria.
4. )hom C. 122;. :ural 9nergy Jse. 9nergy for De&elopment :esearch
CentreA Cape )o$n.
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
'2
ANNEX 1
Questionnaire
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
40
)$&SE)$" ENERG! S&R#E!
P'E%ERSB&RG REG'$N
Pro+ramme "or 6ioma'' E!er+y 2o!'ervatio! 8Pro.ec9
Eue'tio!!aire !r.7 Area7 ;ate7
>a
:o+a!o
>a:ara.a
I!tervie&er I!'tructio!'7
>oo- -ay 'ir@ma-am. :y !ame i' FFFF.. 8'tate your !ame9< I
re$re'e!t Pro.ec. /e &ou%- %i,e to a''i't you i! -etermi!i!+ &(at
t(e "ue% u'e i' o" (ou'e(o%-' i! t(e Pieter'.ur+ re+io! to im$rove t(e
u'e o" "ue%. T(i' i!"ormatio! &i%% .e treate- &it( t(e 'tricte't
co!"i-e!ce a!- u'e- "or re'earc( $ur$o'e' o!%y. :ay I a', you a "e&
Gue'tio!'H
1. -eneral informationA
Dame of inter&ie$er
Dame of respondent
Address of respondent
-ender of respondent Male ?emale
(osition in household
(grandparent parent child"
1.1 %s there anyone li&ing in your house $ho is formally employedT Ues ( " Do ( "
1.' %f no $hat other source of income do you ha&e (farming selling produce etc."T
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2. 4ou'e(o%- c(aracteri'tic'
'.1 5ould you tell us a!out the si+e and mem!ership of your family li&ing in your
houseT
:em.er Num.er
A-u%t' Men
5omen
2(i%-re! (under 18" Boys
-irls
Tota%
'.' %s there any!ody else not li&ing in the house currently !ut $ho also contri!utes to
the house (contri!ute money food etc." Ues ( " Do ( "
'.'.1 5ho is the person(s" (gender and relationship to the respondent"T
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'.'.' 5hat does the person(s" contri!ute (food soap money"T
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'.4 5ho is the head of the householdT (name gender"
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'.0 5hich of the follo$ing does the respondent ha&eT (inter&ie$er to see for
themsel&es
(lough
=orse Cart
5heel !arro$
)ruck
)ractor
Car
Donkey@=orse car
76en
:adio
)F
?ridge
Brick house (type" cement mud face !rick
Cinc house
)raditional house
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
(almer De&elopment Consulting
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Commercial farming
Su!sistence farming
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
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*. E!er+y co!'ume- .y t(e (ou'e(o%-
4.1 5hat type of fuel do you use the most for cooking lighting space
heating@cooling and $ater heatingT
Ty$e o" "ue%@ e!er+y 'ource u'e-
/(at i' t(e "ue%
or e!er+y 'ource
u'e- "or
Summer 5inter
Most used 7ther fuels Most used 7ther fuels
Cooking
<ighting
Space heating
Space cooling
5ater heating
4.' 5hat else do you use energy for (traditional feasts appliances
entertainment"T
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BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
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4.4 5hat cleaning or other appliances ()F fridge radio" do you ha&e $hich uses fuel@energyT ($ood gas paraffin electricity coal"
4.4.1 Appliance 1 ' 4 0 3 , ;
4.4.' =o$ much did the
appliance costT
4.4.4 5here did you !uy
the applianceT(tpe store
4.4.0 =o$ did you pay
for the applianceT
4.4.3 )ype of
fuel@energy used !y
appliance
4.4., Amount of fuel@
energy (k5 !undle of
$ood litres@!ottle of
paraffin etc." used per
$eek
4.4.; =o$ many times a
day $eek or month do
you use the applianceT
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
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#. E!er+y 'u$$%y
0.1 =o$ much fuel do you !uy (gas paraffin or electricity" for ho$ long does it lastT
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0.' %s $ood collected for any other use than fuel$oodT Ues ( " Do ( " %f yes
0.4 ?or $hat other purposes (other than cooking space#heating@cooling lighting
$ater heating" is $ood collectedT
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BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
0.0 =o$ much of the $ood collected is used for fuel$oodT
Fery little ( " =alf of it ( " Most of the $ood
( "
0.3 5hat $ould !est descri!e the appearance of fuel$ood collected (tick off"
Summer 5inter
<ogs (more than 40cm diameter"
)$igs (shorter than 00 cm"
Seed pods
:oots
Bark of trees
)ree stumps (part of tree left after
has !een chopped"
-reen !ranches of li&e trees
Dead !ranches of li&e trees
7ther
0., =o$ often does someone collect fuel$ood for your house in summer and in
$inter and in $hat EuantitiesT
SummerBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
5interBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
0.; 5ho collects the $oodT ( " Adult ( " Child
0.8 5here do you collect $ood ($oodlot natural &eldt" T =o$ far is itT
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
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0.2 =o$ long does it take to collect the $oodT
( " =alf hour ( " =our ( " =our and a half ( " )$o hours
( " More than t$o hours
0.10 Do you e&er !uy $oodT Ues ( " Do ( "
%f yes ho$ much do you !uy (head load truck load !akkie load $heel!arro$ load"
at $hat price ho$ often (inter&ie$er to standardise ans$er in days per $eek"T
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0.11 5here do you !uy $oodT (type of store". =o$ far is the sourceT Descri!e
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5 T(e ,itc(e! ute!'i%' a!- coo,i!+ $ro"i%e'
3.1 5hat cooking method do you use for most of your food (frying !oiling
steaming"T
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3.' 5hat type of sto&e(s" do you ha&e or do you use open fireT %f more than one
$hich is used the mostTBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
3.4 ?or ho$ long ha&e you had the mostly used sto&eT BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
3.0 =o$ did you get the sto&e(s"T
Stove 4o& -i- you +et itH
3.3 =o$ much did you pay for the sto&e(s"T
Stove Payme!t met(o-
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
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3., 5hat pro!lems ha&e you e6perienced $ith your sto&e(s"T
Stove@O$e! "ire Pro.%em'
3.; Are you satisfied $ith your most used sto&e@open fireT Ues ( " Do ( "
5hyT
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3.8 5hen do you cook your main mealT
Morning ( " Afternoon ( " 9&ening ( "
3.2 =o$ many times do you cook per dayT BBBBBBBBBBBBBB
3.10 =o$ many times do you cook per $eekT BBBBBBBBBBBB
3.11 Time o" coo,i!+
Morning Afternoon 9&ening
)ype of sto&e@ open fire
=o$ many pots used at time of
cooking
5hat si+es are the pots (litres
no."
)ype of food usually cooked
)ype of fuel used
5hat techniEue is used
(!oiling frying !aking
grilling"T
=o$ long does the cooking
take (appro6imate"T
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3.1' 5hat type of pots do you use for the sto&e(s" (material"T
Stove Ty$e o" $ot'
0 2o$i!+ &it( "ue%&oo- 'carcity
,.1 Do you find that fuel$ood is scarceT Ues ( " Do ( " %f no continue
$ith ,.4
,.' %f yes $hat do you do (strategies" to cope $ith the fuel$ood scarcityT
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,.4 Do you plant trees for fuel$oodT
( " Ues ( " Do
5hat type of treesTBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
,.0 Do you plant trees for any other purposes (shading etc"T
( " Ues ( " Do
5hat type of treesT BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
,.3 5hat other fuels do you use to cope $ith the scarcityT
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,., 5hat are the ad&antages and disad&antages of the alternati&e fuelsT
A%ter!ative "ue% A-va!ta+e' ;i'a-va!ta+e'
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
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,.; %f no do you think fuel$ood might !ecome scarce in the futureT Ues ( " Do
( "
(Do not ans$er ,.; and ,.8 if the respondent replied yes at ,.1"
,.8 5hat $ould you do if fuel$ood !ecome scarce in futureT
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,.2 Do you kno$ of any specific cooking techniEues ($ays" that you could apply to
sa&e fuel$oodT ( " Ues ( " Do
%f yes $hat techniEuesT
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
1 Im$rove- 'tove'
;.1 5ho makes decisions a!out !uying fuel@energy sourcesT
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
;.' 5ho makes the decision to !uy ne$ cooking appliances ($hat is the person8s
position in the household"
$hen :'00 or underTBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
$hen a!o&e :'00BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
;.4 %f it is possi!le to ha&e a sto&e that can sa&e on fuel$ood $hat must it look like
and $hat must it !e a!le to doT
;.4.1 =o$ many pots must it !e a!le to useT BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
;.4.' 5hat material should it !e made of (clay metal"TBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
;.4.4 Must you !e a!le to carry it aroundT Ues ( " Do ( "
;.4.0 Must it $arm your houseT Ues ( " Do ( "
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;.4.3 Must it !e a!le to pro&ide lightT Ues ( " Do ( "
;.4., 5ould you !e prepared to cook outsideT Ues ( " Do ( "
;.4.; 5hat $ould the risk !e to lea&e the cooker outside during the dayT
)ampering ( " )heft ( " 7ther ( " Do risk ( "
;.4.8 5hat other characteristics should an impro&ed sto&e ha&eT
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
;.0 Are you a$are of any impro&ed sto&es or solar cookers in your &illage or district
if so $hich onesT ( " Ues ( " Do
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
;.3 =o$ much are you prepared to pay for an impro&ed cook sto&eT
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BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
;., 5here do you e6pect to !uy an impro&ed sto&eT
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;.; 5ould there !e enough space to cook outsideT Ues ( " Do( "
;.8 5ould you !e prepared to mo&e the cooker sometimes during the cooking
processT Ues ( " Do ( "
3 E!er+y a!- 4ea%t(
8.1 5hat are the common diseases or ailments attacking people in your &illage or
districtT
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
(almer De&elopment Consulting
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BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
(almer De&elopment Consulting
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8.' %s smoke in the kitchen a pro!lemT Ues ( " Do ( "
%f yes or $hyT
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BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
8.4 Do people !ecome ill !ecause of smoke in the kitchenT ( " Ues ( " Do
Descri!e their symptoms.
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBB
8.0 Do you attempt to reduce smokeT ( " Ues Do
%f yes ho$T
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
8.3 =a&e the people in your house had any illnesses in the last si6 monthsT
( " Ues ( " Do %f yes descri!e the symptoms
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
8., Did you ha&e to use more energy to care for ill people at homeT (any special
meals cook more often put on more lights more !oiling of $ater"
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
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(almer De&elopment Consulting
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