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American Enterprise I nstitute compilation

S


POLLS ON PATRIOTISM AND
MILITARY SERVICE


Compiled by Karlyn Bowman, Resident Fellow, AEI,
Jennifer Marsico, Senior Research Associate, AEI,
and Heather Sims, Research Assistant, AEI


(Updated June 2014)













Special thanks to intern Morgan Williams for her assistance in compiling this public opinion study.



AEI Public Opinion
Studies

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 2
Table of Contents

PATRIOTISM IN THE U.S. AND ABROAD..3
Self-Professed Patriotism ....................................................................................... 3
Views of Other Americans Patriotism ................................................................18
International Comparisons ....................................................................................21
The U.S. versus Elsewhere ...................................................................................24
September 11th Effects .........................................................................................27
Flying the Flag ......................................................................................................30
WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE A PATRIOT? ................................................31
MILITARY SERVICE ..........................................................................................31
WILLINGNESS TO SERVE AND FIGHT ........................................................31
UNITED OR DIVIDED? .......................................................................................31
Vietnam's Effect in the U.S.................................................................................51
Obama and Divisions..........................................................................................51
ATTITUDES OF YOUNG PEOPLE ...................................................................31






American Enterprise I nstitute compilation

Self-Professed Patriotism

How proud are you to be an American . . . extremely proud, very proud, moderately proud, only a little proud, or not at
all proud?

Extremely Very Moderately Only a little Not at all
proud proud proud proud proud
Jan. 2001 Gallup 55% 32% 9% 1% 1%
Jun. 2002 Gallup/USA Today/CNN 65 25 6 1 2
Sep. 2002 ABC 69 23 5 1 1
Jun. 2003 Gallup/USA Today/CNN 70 20 6 2 1
Jan. 2004 Gallup/USA Today/CNN 69 22 5 3 1
Jan. 2005 Gallup/USA Today/CNN 61 22 12 3 1
Jan. 2006 Gallup 59 26 9 3 1
Jun. 2006 Gallup 57 25 10 3 3
Jan. 2007 Gallup 57 27 14 3 2
Jun. 2008 CNN/ORC 62 27 7 2 1
Jan. 2009 CNN/ORC 57 26 12 3 1
Jan. 2009 Gallup/USA Today 58 24 12 3 2
Nov. 2009 Pew 48 38 11 4 1
Jun. 2010 Pew 52 31 8 4 2
May 2011 CBS/NYT 61 25 12 1 0
Jun. 2013 Gallup 57 28 10 3 1

(Percentage who say Extremely Proud by party)

Republicans Democrats
Jan. 2001 Gallup 62% 52%
Jun. 2002 Gallup/USA Today/CNN 77 58
Sep. 2002 Gallup/USA Today/CNN 80 61
Jun. 2003 Gallup/USA Today/CNN 84 61
Jan. 2004 Gallup/USA Today/CNN 82 57
PATRIOTISM IN THE U.S. and ABROAD: Before September 11
th
, 2001, substantial
majorities consistently told pollsters that they were proud to be Americans. In a Gallup question from
January 2001, for example, 55 percent described themselves as extremely proud of being an
American and 32 percent very proud. Just 2 percent said they were only a little or not at all
proud.
The events of September 11th produced overt displays of patriotism. People said they flew
their flags more than in the past, and they sang the Star Spangled Banner. Those activities have
receded, but patriotic sentiment is still strong. In June 2013, when Gallup repeated the question, 57
percent described themselves as extremely proud and 28 percent very proud. Four percent said they
were only a little or not at all proud.
In the most recent multicountry World Values Survey, the top ranked country for self-
expressed patriotism was Qatar with 98 percent of its citizens reporting to be very proud to be
citizens of that country. Fifty-six percent of Americans said they were very proud to be American
citizens, locating our country more than mid-way down this ranking
American patriotism is not blind patriotism. Polls show that Americans find a lot to criticize
in their society. In June 2014, only 23 percent told Gallup that they satisfied with the way things are
going in the United States at this time. Seventy-four percent were dissatisfied. But they still love their
country, and they are not reluctant to say so.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 4
Jan. 2005 Gallup/USA Today/CNN 71 54
Jun. 2006 Gallup/USA Today 74 47
Jun. 2008 CNN/ORC 79 53
Jan. 2009 CNN/ORC 68 51
Jan. 2009 Gallup/USA Today 78 45
Jun. 2010 Pew 69 43
May 2011 CBS/NYT 76 53
Jun. 2013 Gallup 71 56

How proud are you to be an American...very proud, quite proud, not very proud, or not at all proud?

Very Quite Not very Not at all
proud proud proud proud
Jun. 1981 Gallup 78% 19% 2% 1%
Dec. 1981 Gallup 80 16 2 1
Jun. 1986 Gallup 89 10 1 *
Jun. 1990 Gallup 74 23 2 *
May 1991 Gallup 77 19 3 *
Nov. 2000* Gallup 73 22 4 1

Note: * Question wording was, How proud are you of being an American today . . . ?

How proud are you to be an American extremely proud, very proud, moderately proud, only a little proud or not at all
proud?

Extremely Very Moderately Somewhat Not very
proud proud proud proud proud
Mar. 2002 ABC/Wash Post 74% 18% 5% 2% 1%
Sep. 2002 ABC/Wash Post 69 23 6 1 1
Sep. 2006 ABC/Wash Post 60 24 10 3 2

How proud are you to be an American, are you extremely proud, somewhat proud, or not proud?

Extremely Somewhat Not
proud proud proud
Mar. 1981* Civic Services 78% 13% 2%
Nov. 1981 PIPV 81 16 1
Jun. 1991# AP 87 11 1

NOTE: *Question wording was or not proud at all? #Question wording was Generally speaking, how proud are
you to be an American?

How proud are you to be an American...extremely proud, very proud, somewhat proud, or not very proud?

Extremely Very Somewhat Not very
proud proud proud proud
Nov. 1988 ANES 67% 27% 6% 1%
Jan. 1994 NORC 47 39 13 1

(Percentage who say Extremely Proud, Jan. 1994)

White 49%
Black 35

Republican 56
Democrat 47
Independent 40
College graduate 41

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation
Non-college graduate 49

18-30 37
31-44 40
45-59 53
60-74 66
75+ 54

How much would you agree or disagree with the following statements: I am proud to be an American. Do you strongly
agree, agree, neither agree or disagree, disagree, or disagree strongly?

Strongly Strongly
agree Agree Neither Disagree disagree
Sep.-Oct. 2001* ISR 81% 12% 2% 1% 1%
Mar.-Apr. 2002 ISR 70 24 2 2 1

Note: *Poll conducted September 13-27, 2001.

How proud are you of being American?

Very Somewhat Not very Not at all
proud proud proud proud
Aug. 2004 NORC 79% 16% 2% --

Note: Asked of half sample.

How proud are you of being an American citizen? (CBS)
How proud would you say you are to be an American citizen? (Harris Interactive)

Very Somewhat Not very Not at all
proud proud proud proud
May 1995 CBS 82% 14% 2% 1%
May 2002 Harris Interactive 84 12 2 *
Aug 2009 Harris Interactive 78 18 3 1

How proud are you of the United States?

Very Fairly Not very Not at
Proud proud proud all proud
Aug. 2007 Zogby 69% 20% 9% 2%
Sep. 2007 Zogby 67 21 9 3
Dec. 2007 Zogby 69 21 7 3
May-Jun. 2009 Zogby 60 28 9 2

When you hear the national anthem, the Star Spangled Banner, being played, do you usually feel proud to be an
American?

Yes No
May 2002 Harris Interactive 90% 5%
Aug. 2009 Harris Interactive 87 7









American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 6
How proud are you of America in each of the following...very proud, somewhat proud, or not proud at all?

Very Somewhat Not very Not proud
proud proud proud at all

Its scientific and technological achievements

Feb. 1996 NORC 48% 42% 4% 1%
Sep. 2001 NORC 76 21 2 *
Mar. 2002 NORC 70 28 1 *
Sep. 2002 Wash Post 69 28 2 1
Aug. 2004 NORC 57 36 3 1

Its history

Feb. 1996 NORC 48% 37% 8% 4%
Sep. 2001 NORC 68 26 4 2
Mar. 2002 NORC 56 37 5 1
Sep. 2002 Wash Post 62 33 2 2
Aug. 2004 NORC 61 30 5 2

Americas armed forces

Feb. 1996 NORC 47% 40% 7% 2%
Sep. 2001 NORC 80 17 1 1
Mar. 2002 NORC 84 15 1 *
Sep. 2002 Wash Post 81 16 1 2
Aug. 2004 NORC 74 19 4 2

Its achievements in the arts and literature

Feb. 1996 NORC 29% 54% 8% 2%
Sep. 2001 NORC 56 37 3 1
Mar. 2002 NORC 49 43 4 1
Sep. 2002 Wash Post 46 46 3 2
Aug. 2004 NORC 39 47 6 1

The way democracy works

Feb. 1996 NORC 28% 52% 13% 3%
Sep. 2001 NORC 61 36 2 1
Mar. 2002 NORC 52 44 3 1
Sep. 2002 Wash Post 49 41 5 4
Aug. 2004 NORC 32 52 8 2

Americas economic achievements

Feb. 1996 NORC 28% 51% 15% 3%
Sep. 2001 NORC 60 35 4 *
Mar. 2002 NORC 57 37 4 2
Sep. 2002 Wash Post 40 49 7 3
Aug. 2004 NORC 38 47 10 3

Its political influence in the world

Feb. 1996 NORC 21% 55% 16% 3%
Sep. 2001 NORC 38 51 7 2
Mar. 2002 NORC 34 55 7 3

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 7
Sep. 2002 Wash Post 30 48 13 8
Aug. 2004 NORC 22 52 18 3

Its fair and equal treatment of all groups in society

Feb. 1996 NORC 17% 37% 30% 11%
Sep. 2001 NORC 35 46 14 4
Mar. 2002 NORC 24 52 19 5
Sep. 2002 Wash Post 28 45 15 11
Aug. 2004 NORC 26 47 18 6

Its achievements in sports

Feb. 1996 NORC 36% 48% 8% 3%
Aug. 2004 NORC 42 44 7 2

Its Social Security system

Feb. 1996 NORC 14% 35% 37% 11%
Aug. 2004 NORC 13 41 33 10

Note: Sep. 2001 NORC survey conducted after Sep. 11 terrorist attacks, on Sep. 13-27.

Are you proud or ashamed of this country?

Proud Ashamed
May 2007 Zogby 89% 9%

Which of these describes you well? [Check all that apply]

May 2014 Pew
Applies Not selected/No answer
Compassion and helping others are 74% 26%
my core values
Often feel proud to be American 56 44
Rarely worry what others think of me 52 48
Sports fan 36 64
Skeptical of medical experts recommendations 23 77

Which of these describes you well? [Check all that apply]

May 2014 Pew
Honor and duty are Often feel proud Think of myself as
my core values to be American a typical American
Total 52% 56% 65%

Are you proud or ashamed to have Barack Obama as President?

Proud Ashamed
Oct. 2009 Zogby 52% 35%
Jun. 2009 Zogby 53 34
Jul. 2009 Zogby 52 37
Aug. 2009 (Mid) Zogby 52 38
Aug. 2009 (Late) Zogby 52 35
Sept. 2009 (Mid) Zogby 53 35
Sept. 2009 (Late) Zogby 54 34
Oct. 2009 Zogby 52 35

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 8
Nov. 2009 Zogby 52 35
Dec. 2009 (Mid) Zogby 50 38
Dec. 2009 (Late) Zogby 50 37
Jan. 2010 Zogby 51 35
Feb 2010 (Early) Zogby 53 33
Feb. 2010 (Mid) Zogby 54 34
Feb 2010 (Late) Zogby 49 35
March 2010 Zogby 48 38
April 2010 Zogby 50 39

Are you proud or ashamed that George W. Bush is President of the United States?

Proud Ashamed
Jan. 2002* Zogby 82% 8%
Nov. 2003 Zogby 56 26
Jan. 2005 Zogby 54 31
Jun. 2005 Zogby 51 37
Sep. 2005 (Early) Zogby 49 38
Sep. 2005 (Late) Zogby 50 36
May 2007 Zogby 45 42

Note: * Question wording was Are you proud or ashamed to have George W. Bush as President
of the United States?

Are you proud or ashamed that Bill Clinton is President of the United States?

Proud Ashamed
Jul. 1998 Zogby 46% 31%
Sept. 1998 (Mid) Zogby 29 52
Sept. 1998 (Late) Zogby 35 50
Oct. 1998 (Early) Zogby 32 52
Oct. 1998 (Mid) Zogby 34 48
Jan. 1999 Zogby 40 42
Jan. 2000 Zogby 38 44

How patriotic are you? Would you say extremely patriotic, very patriotic, somewhat patriotic, or not especially
patriotic?

Extremely Very Somewhat Not especially
patriotic patriotic patriotic patriotic
Jun. 1994 Gallup 21% 43% 28% 7%
Jun. 1999 Gallup/
CNN/USA Today 21 44 28 7
Jan. 2002 Gallup/Harwood 24 47 24 4
Aug. 2002 Wash Post/
Kaiser/Harvard 27 43 24 5
Jun. 2005 Gallup/CNN/
USA Today 26 46 22 5
May 2006 AARP/ICR 19 38 28 12
Jun. 2010 Gallup/USA Today 32 42 19 6

Theres been a lot of talk in the last few years about patriotism in America. Do you consider yourself very patriotic,
somewhat patriotic, or not very patriotic?

Very Somewhat Not very
patriotic patriotic patriotic
Jun. 1983 NYT 52% 38% 7%

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 9
Nov. 1983 NYT 53 37 5
Jun. 1991 CBS/NYT 55 37 5
Sept. 2001 CBS/NYT 72 24 3
Aug. 2006 CBS/NYT 62 33 4

How would you describe yourself?

Very Somewhat Not very Not at all
patriotic patriotic patriotic patriotic
Jul. 2009 Economist/YouGov 42% 42% 9% 7%
May 2011 Economist/YouGov 50 36 10 4
Jun. 2011 Economist/YouGov 49 38 9 4




Next, I'm going to read you some words and phrases and ask you to rate how well each describes you. Please use a
scale from 1 to 10, where '10' represents a description that is perfect for you, and '1' represents a description that is
totally wrong for you. On this scale of 1 to 10, how well does ________ describe you?

Feb. 2014 Pew
---------------------Describes very well (Points 8-10 on a 10-point scale)-----------------
A patriotic An A religious A supporter
person environmentalist person of gay rights
National response 65% 39% 49% 39%
Responses of
Millennials 49 32 36 51
Gen Xers 64 42 52 37
Boomers 75 42 55 33
Silent Generation 81 44 61 32

Note: Millennials are 18-33 years old, Gen Xers are 34-49 years old, and the Silent Generation 69-86 years old in this
Pew study.

Now I am going to read you another series of statements on some different topics. For each statement, please tell me if
you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or completely disagree with it. The first one
is...I am very patriotic?

Completely Mostly Mostly Completely
agree agree disagree disagree
May 1987 Pew 43% 46% 7% 1%
May 1988 Pew 51 38 6 2
Feb. 1989 Pew 51 40 6 1
May 1990 Pew 48 40 8 2
Nov. 1991 Pew 58 33 5 2
Jun. 1992 Pew 52 39 5 2
Jul. 1994 Pew 51 40 6 2
Nov. 1997 Pew 48 42 6 2
Sep. 1999 Pew 49 38 8 3
Aug. 2002 Pew 54 38 2 4
Aug. 2003 Pew 56 35 5 2
Dec. 2006-
Jan. 2007 Pew 49 41 6 2
Apr. 2009 Pew 54 34 6 3
Sep. 2011 Pew 54 31 9 4
Apr. 2012 Pew 52 36 6 3


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 10
(Percentage who say Completely Agree by party)

Republicans Democrats
May 1987 Pew 51% 40%
May 1988 Pew 59 48
Nov. 1991 Pew 65 52
Jun. 1992 Pew 58 49
Jul. 1994 Pew 64 45
Nov. 1997 Pew 59 43
Sep. 1999 Pew 64 49
Aug. 2002 Pew 63 50
Aug. 2003 Pew 71 48
Jan. 2007 Pew 61 45
Apr. 2009 Pew 71 46
Sep. 2011 Pew 67 48
Apr. 2012 Pew 65 42

(Percentage who say Completely Agree by race)

White Black
May 1987 Pew 44% 27%
May 1988 Pew 54 32
Feb. 1989 Pew 53 34
May 1990 Pew 50 46
Nov. 1991 Pew 61 44
Jun. 1992 Pew 55 37
Jul. 1994 Pew 53 39
Nov. 1997 Pew 50 33
Sep. 1999 Pew 52 32
Aug. 2002 Pew 57 45
Aug. 2003 Pew 59 38
Jan. 2007 Pew 54 37
Apr. 2009 Pew 61 35
Apr. 2012 Pew 57 33

Given everything that has happened in the United States and around the world, do you personally feel more or less
patriotic today than you did five years ago?

More Less Same
Jun. 2006 Fox 57% 17% 25%

Im going to read a few statements: for each one, please tell me if you agree or disagree with it...Whatever its faults, the
United States still has the best system of government in the world? (ABC)
Please tell me whether you agree or disagree with the following statement. Whatever its faults, the United States still
has the best system of government in the world. Do you agree or disagree? (Kaiser/Harvard/Washington Post)

Agree Disagree
Apr. 1992 ABC 85% 14%
Sep. 1994 ABC 84 13
May 1996 ABC 83 15
Dec. 2000 ABC/Wash Post 89 11
Dec. 2007* ABC/Facebook 81 17
Sep.-Oct. 2010 Kaiser/Harvard/Wash Post 77 21
Aug. 2011 Wash Post 77 21

Note: *Oversample of 18-29 year olds.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 11
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: being an American is a big part of who I am?

Agree Disagree
Mar. 2000 NYT 91% 8%

How important is being an American to you, where 0 is not at all important and 10 is the most important thing in your
life?

0-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10
1996 NORC 4% 3% 15% 24% 55%

How much would you say you love this countryvery much, quite a lot, some, or only a little?
Very much Quite a lot Some A little
Oct. 2010* Fox 87% 11% 2% -
Oct. 2010^ Fox 81 14 3 -

Note: *Asked of likely voters. ^Asked of registered voters.

Generally speaking, would you say things in this country are heading in the right direction, or are they off on the wrong
track?

Right direction Wrong track Not sure
Feb. 2009 Ipsos/McClatchy 42% 50% 8%
Mar. 2009 Ipsos/McClatchy 44 48 8
Apr. 2009 Ipsos/McClatchy 45 48 7
Apr.-May 2009 Ipsos/McClatchy 55 38 7
Jun. 2009 Ipsos/McClatchy 52 42 6
Jul. 2009 Ipsos/McClatchy 40 54 6
Jun.-Aug. 2009 Ipsos/McClatchy 46 48 6
Aug.2009 Ipsos/McClatchy 40 54 6
Oct. 2009 Ipsos/McClatchy 40 56 5
Oct.-Nov. 2009 Ipsos/McClatchy 38 57 4
Dec. 2009 Ipsos/McClatchy 36 60 4
Jan. (Early) 2010 Ipsos/McClatchy 39 55 6
Jan. (Late) 2010 Ipsos/McClatchy 37 57 5
Feb. 2010 Ipsos/McClatchy 34 60 6
Feb.-Mar. 2010 Ipsos/RBC 33 61 6
May 2010 Ipsos/McClatchy 34 60 5
Jul. 2010 Ipsos/Reuters 34 60 6
Aug. 2010 Ipsos/Reuters 31 62 7
Sep. 2010 Ipsos/Reuters 33 61 5
Oct. 2010 Ipsos/Reuters 31 63 6
Dec. 2010 Ipsos/Reuters 29 62 9
Jan. 2011 Ipsos/Reuters 42 50 8
Mar. 2011 Ipsos/Reuters 31 64 5
May 2011 Ipsos/Reuters 38 56 6
Jun. 2011 Ipsos/Reuters 35 60 5
Jul. 2011 Ipsos/Reuters 31 63 6
Aug. 2011 Ipsos/Reuters 21 73 5
Sep. 2011 Ipsos/Reuters 25 68 7
Oct. 2011 Ipsos/Reuters 21 74 5
Oct.-Nov. 2011 Ipsos/Reuters 25 70 5
Dec. 2011 Ipsos/Reuters 27 69 5
Feb. 2012 Ipsos/Reuters 32 62 7
Mar. 2012 Ipsos/Reuters 37 59 4
Apr. 2012 Ipsos/Reuters 35 60 5
May 2012 Ipsos/Reuters 35 57 8

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 12
Jun. 2012 Ipsos/Reuters 32 63 5
Jul. 2012 Ipsos/Reuters 36 58 5
Aug. 2012 Ipsos/Reuters 31 64 5
Sep. 2012 Ipsos/Reuters 39 55 6

Do you feel things in this country are generally going in the right direction or do you feel things have pretty seriously
gotten off on the wrong track?

Dont know/
Right direction Wrong track No answer
Jul. 2012 CBS/NYT 30% 64% 6%
Sep. 2012 CBS/NYT 40 54 6
Oct. 2012 CBS/NYT 39 54 7
Feb. 2013 CBS/NYT 40 54 6
Apr. 2013 CBS/NYT 34 59 7
May 2013 CBS/NYT 31 61 9
Jun. 2013 CBS/NYT 35 59 6
Jul. 2013 CBS/NYT 35 60 4
Sep 2013 CBS/NYT 29 66 5
Oct. 2013 CBS/NYT 23 72 4
Nov.2013 CBS/NYT 27 68 5
Dec. 2013 CBS/NYT 30 63 7
Jan. 2013 CBS/NYT 33 61 6
Feb. 2014 CBS/NYT 32 63 6
Mar. 2014 CBS/NYT 32 61 8

Note: *CBS/NYT poll wording: Do you feel things in this country are generally going in the right direction or do you
feel things have pretty seriously gotten off on the wrong track?

In general, are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the way things are going in the United States at this time?

Satisfied Dissatisfied No opinion
Feb. 1979 Gallup 26% 69% 5%
Jul. 1979 Gallup 12 84 4
Nov. 1979 Gallup 19 77 4
Jan. 1981 Gallup 17 78 5
Jun. 1981 Gallup 33 61 6
Dec. 1981 Gallup 27 67 6
Apr. 1982 Gallup 25 71 4
Sep. 1982 Gallup 24 72 4
Nov. 1982 Gallup 24 72 4
Aug. 1983 Gallup 35 59 6
Feb. 1984 Gallup 50 46 4
Sep.-Oct. 1984 Gallup 48 45 7
Dec. 1984 Gallup 52 40 8
Nov. 1985 Gallup 51 46 3
Mar. 1986 Gallup 66 30 4
Jun. 1986 Gallup 69 26 5
Sep. 1986 Gallup 58 38 4
Dec. 1986 Gallup 47 49 4
Aug.-Sep. 1987 Gallup 45 49 6
May 1988 Gallup 41 54 5
Sep.-Oct. 1988 Gallup 56 40 4
Jan.-Feb. 1989 Gallup 45 50 5
May 1989 Gallup 44 50 6
Feb. 1990 Gallup 55 39 6
Jul. 1990 Gallup 45 51 4

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 13
Aug. 1990 Gallup 43 51 6
Aug. Sep. 1990 Gallup 51 44 5
Sep. 1990 Gallup 37 58 5
Oct. (Mid) 1990 Gallup 29 67 4
Oct. (Late) 1990 Gallup 31 66 3
Nov. 1990 Gallup 32 64 4
Dec. 1990 Gallup 33 64 3
Jan. (Early) 1991 Gallup 32 61 7
Jan. (Mid) 1991 Gallup 62 33 5
Feb. 1991 Gallup 54 40 6
Feb.- Mar. 1991 Gallup 66 31 3
Mar. 1991 Gallup 52 43 5
May 1991 Gallup 49 49 2
Jul. 1991 Gallup 43 50 7
Aug. 1991 Gallup 49 45 6
Oct. 1991 Gallup 39 57 4
Oct.-Nov. 1991 Gallup 35 62 3
Dec. 1991 Gallup 37 60 3
Jan. 1992 Gallup 24 74 2
Jan.-Feb. 1992 Gallup 24 75 1
Feb.- Mar. 1992 Gallup 21 78 1
Mar. 1992 Gallup 19 80 1
Apr. 1992 Gallup 19 80 1
May 1992 Gallup 20 77 3
Jun. 1992 Gallup 14 84 2
Jul.-Aug. 1992 Gallup 17 80 3
Aug.-Sep. 1992 Gallup 22 73 5
Nov. 1992 Gallup 26 68 6
Jan. 1993 Gallup 29 68 3
Feb. 1993 Gallup 25 71 4
May 1993 Gallup 24 73 3
Nov. 1993 Gallup 27 70 3
Dec. 1993 Gallup 34 63 3
Jan. 1994 Gallup 35 62 3
Feb. 1994 Gallup 36 61 3
Mar. 1994 Gallup 35 62 3
Apr. 1994 Gallup 32 65 3
May 1994 Gallup 33 64 3
Jul. 1994 Gallup 33 65 2
Oct. 1994 Gallup 31 66 3
Nov. (Early) 1994 Gallup 30 66 4
Nov. (Late) 1994 Gallup 29 67 4
Mar. 1995 Gallup 30 66 4
Jul. 1995 Gallup 32 65 3
Aug. 1995 Gallup 33 64 3
Jan. 1996 Gallup 24 72 4
Mar. (Early) 1996 Gallup 41 56 2
Mar. (Mid) 1996 Gallup 36 61 3
May 1996 Gallup 37 60 3
Aug. 1996 Gallup 38 57 5
Aug.-Sep. 1996 Gallup 45 50 5
Oct. 1996 Gallup 39 56 5
Nov. 1996 Gallup 47 47 6
Dec. 1996 Gallup 43 55 2
Jan. 1997 Gallup 50 47 3
May 1997 Gallup 46 51 3
Aug. 1997 Gallup 50 48 2
Dec. 1997 Gallup 50 46 4

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 14
Jan.-Feb. 1998 Gallup 63 35 2
Feb. (Mid) 1998 Gallup 39 37 4
Feb. (Late) 1998 Gallup 64 32 4
Apr. 1998 Gallup 58 38 4
May 1998 Gallup 59 36 5
Aug. (Mid) 1998 Gallup 60 36 4
Aug. (Late) 1998 Gallup 63 34 3
Oct.-Nov. 1998 Gallup 60 34 6
Dec. 1998 Gallup 50 48 2
Jan. 1999 Gallup 70 28 2
Feb. 1999 Gallup 71 26 3
Apr. (Mid) 1999 Gallup 58 39 3
Apr. (Late) 1999 Gallup 51 45 4
May 1999 Gallup 51 46 3
Jun. 1999 Gallup 55 43 3
Aug. 1999 Gallup 62 35 3
Sep. 1999 Gallup 52 45 3
Jan. 2000 Gallup 69 28 3
Feb. 2000 Gallup 65 32 3
Apr. 2000 Gallup 59 37 4
May 2000 Gallup 55 42 3
Jun. 2000 Gallup 56 39 5
Jul. 2000 Gallup 61 35 4
Aug. 2000 Gallup 63 33 4
Aug.-Sep. 2000 Gallup 59 38 3
Oct. 2000 Gallup 62 36 2
Nov. 2000 Gallup 58 41 1
Dec. 2000 Gallup 51 46 3
Jan. 2001 Gallup 56 41 3
Feb. 2001 Gallup 51 45 4
Mar. 2001 Gallup 53 44 3
Apr. 2001 Gallup 50 47 3
May 2001 Gallup 46 50 4
Jun. 2001 Gallup 51 46 3
Jul. 2001 Gallup 51 46 3
Aug. 2001 Gallup 48 49 3
Sep. (Mid) 2001 Gallup 43 55 2
Sep. (Late) 2001 Gallup 61 36 4
Oct. 2001 Gallup 67 29 4
Nov. 2001 Gallup 65 33 2
Dec. 2001 Gallup 70 28 2
Jan. 2002 Gallup 65 32 3
Feb. 2002 Gallup 61 37 2
Mar. 2002 Gallup 61 37 2
Apr. 2002 Gallup 61 37 2
May 2002 Gallup 56 40 4
Jun. 2002 Gallup 52 44 4
Jul. (Early) 2002 Gallup 49 48 3
Jul. (Mid) 2002 Gallup 49 47 4
Jul. (Late) 2002 Gallup 48 49 3
Aug. 2002 Gallup 47 50 3
Sep. 2002 Gallup 47 51 2
Oct. 2002 Gallup 47 49 4
Oct.-Nov. 2002 Gallup 48 47 5
Nov. 2002 Gallup 46 51 3
Dec. 2002 Gallup 46 51 3
Jan. 2003 Gallup 42 56 2
Feb. (Early) 2003 Gallup 40 58 2

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 15
Feb. (Mid) 2003 Gallup 39 58 3
Mar. (Early) 2003 Gallup 36 61 3
Mar. (Late) 2003 Gallup 60 38 2
Apr. 2003 Gallup 55 41 4
May 2003 Gallup 54 45 1
Jun. 2003 Gallup 47 51 2
Jul. 2003 Gallup 50 48 2
Aug. 2003 Gallup 46 52 2
Sep. 2003 Gallup 40 58 2
Oct. 2003 Gallup 41 57 2
Nov. 2003 Gallup 44 54 2
Dec. 2003 Gallup 50 48 2
Jan. (Early) 2004 Gallup 55 43 2
Jan. (Mid) 2004 Gallup 46 53 1
Feb. 2004 Gallup 45 54 1
Mar. 2004 Gallup 39 60 1
Apr. 2004 Gallup 41 57 2
May (Early) 2004 Gallup 36 62 2
May (Mid) 2004 Gallup 37 62 1
Jun. 2004 Gallup 39 59 2
Jul. 2004 Gallup 41 57 2
Aug. 2004 Gallup 44 55 1
Sep. 2004 Gallup 41 56 3
Oct. (Mid) 2004 Gallup 41 57 2
Oct. (Late) 2004 Gallup 44 53 3
Nov. 2004 Gallup 44 54 2
Dec. 2004 Gallup 45 53 2
Jan. 2005 Gallup 46 53 1
Feb. (Mid) 2005 Gallup 46 52 2
Feb. (Late) 2005 Gallup 45 52 3
Mar. (Mid) 2005 Gallup 42 36 2
Mar. (Late) 2005 Gallup 38 59 3
Apr. 2005 Gallup 38 59 3
May (Early) 2005 Gallup 39 58 3
May (Late) 2005 Gallup 41 55 4
Jun. (Early) 2005 Gallup 38 60 2
Jun. (Late) 2005 Gallup 42 56 2
Jul. (Mid) 2005 Gallup 42 57 1
Jul. (Late) 2005 Gallup 40 58 2
Aug. (Mid) 2005 Gallup 37 60 3
Aug. (Late) 2005 Gallup 34 62 4
Sep. (Mid) 2005 Gallup 34 65 1
Sep. (Late) 2005 Gallup 39 59 2
Oct. (Mid) 2005 Gallup 31 68 1
Oct. (Late) 2005 Gallup 35 63 2
Nov. (Mid) 2005 Gallup 31 66 3
Nov. (Late) 2005 Gallup 36 62 2
Dec. (Early) 2005 Gallup 35 62 3
Dec. (Mid) 2005 Gallup 36 62 2
Jan. (Early) 2006 Gallup 36 61 3
Jan. (Mid) 2006 Gallup 35 62 3
Feb. 2006 Gallup 35 62 3
Mar. 2006 Gallup 29 68 2
Apr. 2006 Gallup 27 71 2
May 2006 Gallup 25 72 3
Jun. 2006 Gallup 30 67 2
Jul. (Early) 2006 Gallup 32 65 3
Jul. (Late) 2006 Gallup 33 65 2

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 16
Aug. 2006 Gallup 28 69 3
Sep. 2006 Gallup 32 67 2
Oct. 2006 Gallup 30 68 2
Nov. (Early) 2006 Gallup 35 61 4
Nov. (Mid) 2006 Gallup 31 67 2
Dec. 2006 Gallup 30 69 1
Jan. 2007 Gallup 35 63 2
Feb. 2007 Gallup 34 64 2
Mar. 2007 Gallup 30 68 2
Apr. 2007 Gallup 33 65 2
May 2007 Gallup 25 73 2
Jun. 2007 Gallup 24 74 2
Jul. 2007 Gallup 27 71 3
Aug. 2007 Gallup 24 73 3
Sep. 2007 Gallup 28 71 2
Oct. (Early) 2007 Gallup 25 73 2
Oct. (Mid) 2007 Gallup 26 72 2
Nov. 2007 Gallup 20 76 3
Dec. 2007 Gallup 27 70 3
Jan. 2008 Gallup 24 73 3
Feb. 2008 Gallup 20 78 2
Mar. 2008 Gallup 19 80 2
Apr. 2008 Gallup 15 83 1
May 2008 Gallup 14 85 1
Jun. 2008 Gallup 14 84 1
Jul. 2008 Gallup 17 81 2
Aug. (Early) 2008 Gallup 17 80 3
Aug. (Mid) 2008 Gallup 18 81 1
Sep. 2008 Gallup 21 77 2
Oct. (Early) 2008 Gallup 9 90 1
Oct. (Mid) 2008 Gallup 7 91 1
Oct.-Nov. 2008 Gallup 13 85 2
Nov. (Early) 2008 Gallup 13 84 3
Nov. (Mid) 2008 Gallup 11 87 2
Dec. 2008 Gallup 10 88 2
Jan. 2009 Gallup 13 85 3
Feb. 2009 Gallup 15 82 3
Mar. 2009 Gallup 19 77 4
Apr. 2009 Gallup 26 69 6
May 2009 Gallup 35 62 3
Jun. 2009 Gallup 34 63 4
Jul. 2009 Gallup 30 65 5
Aug. 2009 Gallup 36 63 1
Aug.-Sep. 2009 Gallup 29 70 1
Oct. (Early) 2009 Gallup 36 71 3
Oct. (Mid) 2009 Gallup 26 72 2
Nov. 2009 Gallup 24 74 1
Dec. 2009 Gallup 25 73 2
Jan. 2010 Gallup 23 76 2
Feb. 2010 Gallup 21 77 2
Mar. 2010 (early) Gallup 19 79 2
Mar. 2010 (late) Gallup 23 75 2
Apr. 2010 Gallup 27 71 2
May (Early) 2010 Gallup 24 74 2
May (Late) 2010 Gallup 25 73 2
Jun. 2010 Gallup 23 75 1
Jul. 2010 Gallup 21 76 3
Aug. (Early) 2010 Gallup 21 77 2

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 17
Aug. (Late) 2010 Gallup 20 78 2
Sep. 2010 Gallup 19 79 1
Oct. (Early) 2010 Gallup 21 77 2
Oct. (Late) 2010 Gallup 22 75 3
Nov. 2010 Gallup 19 79 2
Dec. 2010 Gallup 17 81 2
Jan. 2011 Gallup 19 78 3
Feb. 2011 Gallup 23 75 2
Mar. 2011 Gallup 18 80 2
Apr. (Mid) 2011 Gallup 19 78 3
Apr. (Late) 2011 Gallup 22 75 3
May 2011 Gallup 26 72 2
Jun. 2011 Gallup 20 78 2
Jul. 2011 Gallup 16 81 2
Aug. 2011 Gallup 11 88 1
Sep. 2011 Gallup 11 88 1
Oct. (Early) 2011 Gallup 13 85 2
Oct. (Late) 2011 Gallup 22 76 2
Nov. 2011 Gallup 12 86 2
Nov.Dec. 2011 Gallup 14 86 *
Dec. 2011 Gallup 15 84 1
Jan. 2012 Gallup 18 80 2
Feb. 2012 Gallup 22 77 1
Mar. 2012 Gallup 26 72 2
Apr. 2012 Gallup 24 74 2
Jun. 2012 Gallup 20 77 2
Jul. 2012 Gallup 28 69 3
Aug. 2012 Gallup 23 75 2
Sep. 2012 Gallup 30 68 2
Oct. 2012 Gallup 30 68 2
Nov. (Early) 2012 Gallup 33 64 2
Nov. (Late) 2012 Gallup 31 68 1
Dec. 2012 Gallup 23 72 6
Jan. 2013 Gallup 25 71 4
Feb. 2013 Gallup 27 72 2
Mar. 2013 Gallup 21 77 2
Apr. 2013 Gallup 30 67 3
May 2013 Gallup 24 74 2
Jun. 2013 Gallup 27 71 2
Jul. 2013 Gallup 28 68 3
Aug. 2013 Gallup 22 75 2
Sep. 2013 Gallup 23 75 1
Oct. 2013 Gallup 16 82 2
Nov. 2013 Gallup 20 78 3
Dec. 2013 Gallup 23 76 1
Jan. 2014 Gallup 23 75 2
Feb. 2014 Gallup 22 77 2
Mar. 2014 Gallup 25 73 2
May 2014 Gallup 25 74 2
Jun. 2014 Gallup 23 74 3

And when you think about the future of the country, would you say that you are mainly hopeful and optimistic, or
mainly worried and pessimistic?

Hopeful Worried Not sure
Nov. 1998 Shell 58% 39% 3%
Sep. 1516 2001 NBC/WSJ 79 18 3

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 18
Jul. 2002 NBC/WSJ 69 28 3
Sep. 2005 NBC/WSJ 53 44 3
Jun. 2011 CNBC 44 50 6

How worried are you about the future of the countryextremely worried, worried, not very worried, or not at all
worried?
Extremely Very Not very Not worried
worried worried worried at all
Oct. 2010 Fox 40% 39% 16% 5%
Oct. 2010 Fox 33 42 19 5

Note: First question asked of likely voters (LV). Second question asked of registered voters (RV).

Views of Other Americans Patriotism
Do you think average Americans are more or less patriotic than they were 25 years ago?

More Less
patriotic patriotic
Jun. 1998 Fox 18% 68%
Jun. 1999 Fox 16 74
Jun.-Jul. 2003 Fox 55 30
Jun 2004 Fox 45 37
Jun. 2005 Fox 43 42
Jun. 2006 Fox 36 50

(Demographic breakdown, Jun. 2006, Party ID)

Democrat 39% 46
Republican 36 54
Independent 30 54

Given everything that has happened in the United States and around the world, do you think Americans generally are
more or less patriotic today than you did five years ago?

More Less Same
Jun. 2006 Fox 56% 31% 9%

Are people today as patriotic as they were when you went to school?

Yes No
Jun. 1983 NYT 27% 68%
Nov. 1983 NYT 31 63

Do you think Americans are becoming more or less patriotic?

More patriotic Less patriotic About the same
Jul. 2009 Economist/YouGov 13% 43% 44%
May 2011 Economist/YouGov 14 33 53
Jun. 2011 Economist/YouGov 11 43 47





American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 19
How patriotic would you say most Americans are? Would you say extremely patriotic, very patriotic, somewhat
patriotic, or not especially patriotic?

Extremely Very Somewhat Not especially
patriotic patriotic patriotic patriotic
Jan. 2002 Gallup/Harwood 8% 47% 41% 3%

How proud do you think most people in this country are to be Americans - extremely proud, very proud, moderately
proud, only a little proud, or not at all?

Extremely Very Moderately Only a little Not at all
proud proud proud proud proud
Jun. 2003 Gallup 42% 35% 20% 2% *

Do you think you are more patriotic, less patriotic, or about as patriotic as most other people in this country?

More patriotic Less patriotic About as patriotic
Mar. 2010 Pew 33% 6% 59%
Jul. 2011 Pew 55 2 41
Sep. 2011 Pew 37 10 49

(Demographic breakdown, Age)

Mar. 2010
18-29 23% 11% 63%
30-49 34 7 59
50-64 34 4 59
65+ 42 3 52
Jul. 2011
18-39 56% 7% 36%
40-59 58 1 41
60 and over 54 2 42
Sep. 2011
18-34 26% 17% 54%
35-44 37 10 49
45-64 44 6 46
65+ 47 3 45

(Education)

Mar. 2010
LT HS grad 27% 6% 61%
HS grad 32 6 60
Some college 36 6 56
College plus 35 6 58
Sep. 2011
LT HS grad 33% 12% 47%
High school grad 41 8 46
Some college 37 12 49
College plus 35 9 54
(Gender)

Mar. 2010
Male 36% 5% 57%
Female 30 7 60
Jul. 2011
Male 56% 2% 41%

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 20
Female 49 7 44
Sep. 2011
Male 39% 9% 48%
Female 36 10 50

(Party ID)

Mar. 2010
Republican 43% 2% 54%
Democrat 26 8 64
Independent 32 8 58

Sep. 2011
Republican 56% 3% 39%
Democrat 30% 11% 55%
Independent 33% 11% 51%

(Race/Ethnicity)

Mar. 2010
White 35% 5% 59%
Black 26 8 60
Hispanic 29 9 60
Jul. 2011
White 57% 2% 39%
Black 36 1 61
Hispanic 60 6 33
Sep. 2011
White 39% 8% 50%
Black 34 8 50
Hispanic 33 17 46

Would you describe yourself as more or less patriotic than the average American? Is that a lot or a little?

A lot A little Same A little A lot
more more patriotic less less
patriotic patriotic (Vol.) patriotic patriotic
Jun. 1998 Fox 27% 33% 25% 9% 2%
Jun. 1999 Fox 27 33 26 9 2
Oct. 2001 Fox 31 28 30 8 1
Jun.-Jul. 2003 Fox 32 29 28 6 1
Jun. 2004 Fox 37 27 24 8 1
Jun. 2005 Fox 31 26 30 8 1
Jun. 2006 Fox 34 32 20 11 2

(Demographic breakdown, Jun. 2006, Party ID)

Democrats 28% 28% 21% 19% 2%
Republicans 44 34 16 4 2
Independents 28 37 23 7 3




American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 21
I nternational Comparisons
How proud are you to be [substitute own nationality]? (1999-2004 World Values Survey; 2005-2009 World Values
Survey; 2010-2014 World Values Survey)

--------Very Proud--------
2010-2014 2005-2009 1999-2004
Qatar 98% NA NA
Ghana 96 93% NA
Puerto Rico NA NA 92%
Ecuador 91 NA NA
Venezuela NA NA 90
Mali NA 88 NA
Guatemala NA 87 NA
Trinidad and Tobago 87 90 NA
Uzbekistan 87 NA NA
Jordan 85 70 66
Philippines 85 NA 87
Mexico 84 83 79
Yemen 82 NA NA
Thailand 82 85 NA
Burkina Faso NA 81 NA
Rwanda 81 78 NA
Tanzania NA NA 81
Colombia 80 90 NA
Vietnam NA 80 77
Pakistan 79 NA 81
Libya 77 NA NA
Kuwait 76 NA NA
Zimbabwe 76 NA 78
Georgia NA 75 NA
Turkey 75 76 65
Saudi Arabia NA NA 74
Bangladesh NA NA 73
Azerbaijan 72 NA NA
Albania NA NA 72
Armenia 71 NA NA
Australia 70 69 NA
Ethiopia NA 70 NA
Canada NA 68 65
India NA 69 67
Nigeria 67 NA 72
Morocco 66 58 91
Uganda NA NA 66
Malaysia 65 69 NA
Palestine 65 NA NA
Egypt 64 73 82
New Zealand 63 66 NA
Iran NA 63 90
Peru 62 NA 76
Kazakhstan 62 NA NA
South Africa 62 78 75
Zambia NA 62 NA
Poland 60 62 NA
Algeria 59 NA 72
Macedonia NA NA 58
Tunisia 57 NA NA
United States 56 62 71

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 22
Indonesia NA 56 48
Finland NA 55 NA
Spain 55 58 60
Israel NA NA 54
Kyrgyzstan 54 NA 43
Norway NA 51 NA
Iraq 50 81 77
Uruguay 50 73 NA
Great Britain NA 50 NA
Argentina 49 61 65
Chile 49 59 72
Cyprus 47 49 NA
Singapore 48 NA 44
Slovenia 49 55 NA
Romania 43 37 NA
Hungary NA 43 NA
Serbia and Montenegro NA 42 **
Italy NA 41 NA
Sweden 40 40 39
Brazil NA 39 NA
Bulgaria NA 39 NA
Andorra NA 37 NA
Lebanon 37 NA NA
Bosnia NA NA 35
Belarus 31 NA NA
Switzerland NA 31 NA
Russia 29 44 NA
France NA 28 NA
Ukraine 26 30 NA
Japan 25 21 21
Germany 24 20 NA
South Korea 24 19 17
China 22 22 25
Estonia 21 NA NA
Netherlands 21 26 NA
Moldova NA 19 23
Taiwan 15 13 NA

Note: NA = Not Asked. **Serbia and Montenegro were two separate countries in this asking. Serbias percentage was
38, and Montenegros percentage was 24.


How much do you agree or disagree with the following statements...I would rather be a citizen of (country) than of any
other country in the world? (2003-2004 World Values Survey)
How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Generally speaking, (country) is a better country
than most other countries? (2003-2004 World Values Survey)

----Rather be a citizen of my---- ---------My country is------
---- country than any other---- -------a better country------
Strongly Strongly
agree Agree agree Agree
Philippines 48% 36% 22% 32%
United States 74 15 40 38
India* NA NA NA NA
Ireland 40 41 10 45
South Africa 42 42 26 44
Mexico* NA NA NA NA

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 23
Poland 41 37 6 25
Turkey* NA NA NA NA
Nigeria* NA NA NA NA
New Zealand 53 28 28 46
Brazil* NA NA NA NA
Canada 58 27 30 49
Chile 44 39 16 40
Iceland* NA NA NA NA
Argentina* NA NA NA NA
Portugal 36 46 9 34
Slovenia 39 31 6 23
Hungary 51 35 7 25
Austria 50 27 24 43
Britain 40 31 13 35
Spain 20 54 10 38
Finland 56 25 20 46
Romania* NA NA NA NA
Norway 45 32 14 47
Bulgaria 54 25 15 29
Denmark 56 27 29 38
Northern Ireland* NA NA NA NA
Italy* 29 34 7 31
Sweden 29 32 9 31
China* NA NA NA NA
France 35 25 11 30
Latvia 12 31 3 24
South Korea 37 33 10 33
Switzerland 20 35 3 22
Slovakia 25 28 3 17
Belarus* NA NA NA NA
Russia 44 33 19 29
Czech Republic 31 38 6 23
Belgium* NA NA NA NA
Japan 61 25 39 37
Lithuania* NA NA NA NA
Estonia* NA NA NA NA
Germany 18 41 3 31
Netherlands* 16 32 8 37

NOTE: NA = Not Asked. * means that the results are from NORCs 1995 data for the second and third question. Question
wording is the same.





American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 24
The U.S. versus Elsewhere: I s America Exceptional?
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: The United States is the greatest country in the history of the
world.

Agree Disagree
Jun. 2007 Fox 80% 16%

Do you believe the United States is the best country in the world to live in or is there another country that is better?

U.S. Another country
Feb. 2007 Fox 86% 7%
Feb. 2009 Fox 90 7
Apr. 2011* Fox 84 12

NOTE: Question asked of registered voters. *Question wording read to live in, or not?

Some people say the United States has a unique character that makes it the greatest country in the world. Others say that
every country is unique, and the United States is no greater than other nations. Which view is closer to your own?

Greatest country No greater than
in the world other nations
2012 Chicago Council on Global Affairs 70% 29%

Im going to read a few statements: for each one, please tell me if you agree or disagree with it...Whatever its faults, the
United States still has the best system of government in the world?

Agree Disagree
Apr. 1992 ABC 85% 14%
Sep. 1994 ABC 84 13
May 1996 ABC 83 15
Dec. 2000 ABC/Wash Post 89 11
Dec. 2007^ ABC/Facebook 81 17
Sept. 2010* Kaiser/Harvard/Wash Post 77 21
Aug. 2011 Wash Post 77 21

NOTE: *Question wording read Please tell me whether you agree or disagree with the following statement. Whatever its
faults, the United States still has the best system of government in the world. Do you agree or disagree? ^ Oversample of
18-29 year olds.

Which of the following statements best describes your opinion about the United States?

The US stands above The US is one of the greatest There are other
all other countries in countries in the world along countries that are
the world with some others better than the US
Mar. 2011 Pew 38% 53% 8%
Sep. 2011 Pew 48 42 8
Mar. 2014 Pew 28 58 12

NOTE: Answer format varies slightly between the two questions.

How much do you agree or disagree with the following statements...agree strongly, agree, neither agree nor disagree,
disagree, or disagree strongly? Generally speaking, America is a better country than most other countries.

Agree Disagree
strongly Agree Neither Disagree strongly
Feb. 1996 NORC 39% 41% 12% 5% 2%
Sept. 2001 NORC 54 31 9 5 1

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 25
Dec. 2001 NORC 53 33 7 6 1
Aug. 2004 NORC 40 39 14 4 1

Note: 2004 Survey asked of half sample.

How much do you agree or disagree with the following statements...agree strongly, agree, neither agree nor disagree,
disagree, or disagree strongly? The world would be a better place if people from other countries were more like
Americans.

Agree Disagree
strongly Agree Neither Disagree strongly
Feb. 1996 NORC 14% 24% 33% 21% 4%
Sept. 2001 NORC 26 23 18 25 6
Dec. 2001 NORC 21 27 21 25 6
Aug. 2004 NORC 16 26 34 18 6

Note: 2004 Survey asked of a half sample.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: the American way of life is superior to that of any other country?
(If Agree) Do you say you agree strongly or would you agree somewhat?

Strongly Somewhat
agree agree Disagree
Jan. 1975 Yankelovich 58% 22% 20%
Jun. 1982 Yankelovich 70 20 10
Jun. 1983 NYT 57 21 17

Do you feel that the quality of life is better in America than in most other advanced industrial countries, about the same,
or do you feel that people are better off in most other advanced industrial countries than they are in the United States?

-------------------Quality of life------------------------
Better in About Better in other
America the same countries
1994 NORC 79% 15% 4%

How much do you agree or disagree with the following statementsagree strongly, agree, neither agree nor disagree,
disagree or disagree strongly? I would rather be a citizen of America than of any other country in the world.

Strongly Strongly
agree Agree Neither Disagree disagree
Feb. 1996^ NORC 70% 20% 7% 2% 1%
Sept. 2001 NORC 89 8 2 1 -
Sep.-Oct. 2001*# ISR 82 12 2 2 1
Dec. 2001 NORC 88 9 2 1 -
Mar.-Apr. 2002# ISR 65 27 4 3 1
Aug. 2004^ NORC 74 15 7 2 1

Note: *Poll conducted September 13-27, 2001. ^Asked of half sample. #Question wording read How much would you
agree or disagree with the following statement: I would rather be a citizen of American than of any other country in the
world? Do you strongly agree, agree neither agree or disagree, disagree, or disagree strongly?

All things being equal, would you prefer to live in the United States or would you prefer to live in some other country?

Other
U.S. country
Mar. 2004 Fox 93% 5%
Jun. 2005 Fox 93 6


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 26
(Demographic breakdown, Jun. 2005, Party ID)

Democrat 89% 10%
Republican 98 1
Independent 92 6

If you could be a citizen of any country in the world, which one would you choose?

U.S. Other
Feb. 2003 ORC 83% 15%

Note: Of those who answered Other, the top countries mentioned were Canada and Australia, both at 3 percent.

If you were free to do so, would you like to go and settle in another country?

Yes No
Mar. 1948 Gallup 3% 93%
Mar. 1949 Gallup 6 93
Feb. 1950 Gallup 5 93
Jan. 1960 Gallup 6 91
Feb. 1971 Gallup 11 86
Apr. 1972 Gallup 13 87
Dec. 1972 Gallup 11 86
Jan. 1974 Gallup 10 87
Jun. 1976 Gallup 9 89
May 1991 Gallup 9 90
Apr. 1995 Gallup 12 87

Note: *Question wording was, Please tell me whether you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or
strongly disagree with the following statement...If I were free to do so, I would like to go and settle in another country?
Results are combined.

If you could double your income by getting a good job in another country, would you take the job even if it meant you
would have to live away from the United States for several years?

Yes No
Jun. 1983 NYT 24% 70%

If you could improve your work or living conditions, how willing or unwilling would you be to move outside
America...very willing, fairly willing, neither willing nor unwilling, fairly unwilling, or very unwilling?

Very Fairly Fairly Very
willing willing Neither unwilling unwilling
Feb. 1996 NORC 6% 9% 11% 16% 55%

If you had the opportunity to leave the United States and permanently live in another country, would you take it?

Yes No
May 2006 Fox 17% 76%

Note: When broken down by party, 8 percent of Republicans and 24 percent of Democrats said they would leave the
United States

Do you think that most people living in other countries would like to live in the United States if they could?

Yes No
Feb. 2007 Fox 74% 13%


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 27
Do you think that most people living in the United States would like to live somewhere else if they could?

Yes No
Feb. 2007 Fox 9% 78%














September 11th Effects
Do you think life in the United States will ever completely return to normal, that is, the way it was before 9/11?

Yes, already Yes, it will
has eventually No
Jun. 2002 Fox 10% 25% 62%

Thinking back to the September 11
th
, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, did you feel at the time
that your life had changed in any way or didnt you feel that way? (If changed, ask:) In general, do you feel your life is
completely back to normal, somewhat back to normal but not completely, or not yet back to normal?) (If changed, but
somewhat back to normal/not yet back to normal, ask:) Do you think your life will ever completely return to normal at
some point in the future, or don't you feel that way?

Back to normal /
Did not change Will be normal Never normal
Aug. 2002 Time/CNN/Harris 42% 24% 32%
Sep. 2003 Time/CNN/Harris 44 28 25
Aug. 2005 Gallup/CNN/ 37 19 42
USA Today

Since 2007, Gallup has asked people around the world if they would like to move to another
country or stay in the country in which they currently live. Of those who would like to move to
another country, Gallup asks which country in which they would prefer living. The United States
consistently ranks as individuals first choice among countries to which they would like to move,
with the United Kingdom as a distant second and Canada as a distant third. In 2009, approximately
24 percent of those who wanted to migrate chose the United States as their desired destination. In
2012, approximately 22 percent did.
When the same question was last asked of people in the U.S. in 2012, 11 percent of
Americans said they would like to leave the country. This response has not changed much since
Gallup first asked Americans this question in 2009. Eleven percent of Americans responded
affirmatively in that first asking. Ten percent did so in the intervening 2 years.

Q: Ideally, if you had the opportunity, would you like to move permanently to another country, or
would you prefer to continue living in this country? To which country would you like to move?

-----Number of adults in millions who would like to move countries-----
United States United Kingdom Canada
2007-2009 165 45 45
2010-2012 138 42 37

Note: Projected numbers based on percentages who would like to move.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 28
Thinking back to the September 11
th
, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, did you feel at the time
that your life had changed in any way or didnt you feel that way? (If Changed, ask:) In general, do you feel your life is
completely back to normal, somewhat back to normal but not completely, or not yet back to normal?) (If Life changed
and is somewhat/not back to normal, ask:) Do you think your life will ever completely return to normal at some point in
the future, or don't you feel that way?

Back to normal Will be normal Never normal No change
Aug. 2006 CNN 13% 23% 40% 24%

Note: Asked of half sample.

Do you think Americans are more _______ today than they were before September 11?

Jun. 2002 Fox

Yes No
Patriotic 85% 12%
Caring 77 19
Determined 76 17
Honest 40 46

Which of the following best describes your level of patriotism after September 11? Would you say you feel much more
patriotic, somewhat more patriotic, or do you have about the same level of patriotism?

Much more Somewhat more About the
patriotic patriotic same
Jan. 2002 TIPP/IBD-CSM 36% 24% 39%

Right after September 11, many people noted increased feelings of patriotism and neighborliness. Since then do you think
those feelings have faded a little, some but not a lot, a lot but not completely, or have those feelings completely faded?

Feelings of patriotism Some, but A lot, but not
faded a little not a lot completely Completely All (Vol.)
Mar. 2002 Fox 32% 33% 10% 2% 19%
Jun. 2002 Fox 34 37 13 1 12
Sep. 2002 Fox 34 30 10 3 19

The next questions are about the September 11th terrorist attacks on the United States. As far as you can tell, did each of
the following actually happen, or not? (If Yes) Do you think this will probably last for a long while, for only a few
months or is it already over?

Jan. 2002 Public Agenda/Pew Charitable Trusts

---------------Will last-----------------
Yes, No, did not Long Few Already
happened happen time months over
Some people thought that Americans
would appreciate their country more
in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks. 87% 12% 54% 38% 6%

Some people thought that people would
become more caring and thoughtful
toward one another as a result of the
terrorist attacks 74 24 34 46 18






American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 29
Some people thought that Americas
elected officials would put politics
aside and pay more attention to what
was good for the country as a result
of the terrorist attacks 55 39 30 45 23

Please tell me whether or not you have done each of the following things in response to last weeks events. Have you
displayed an American flag?

Yes No
Sep. 2001 PSRA/Newsweek 79% 21%



Within the past two weeks, have you, personally, done any of the following as a direct result of September 11
th
? How
about display an American flag?

Yes No
Sep. 2001* Gallup/CNN/USA Today 82% 18%
Mar. 2002 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 68 32
Sep. 2002 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 66 34

Note: * Question wording was, As a result of the terrorist attacks this past Tuesday, have you, personally, done or plan
to do any of the following? How about...?

In the past week have you made a special effort to display the flag?

Yes No
Sep. 2001 Fox 80% 20%
Oct. 2001 Fox 79 20
Mar. 2002 Fox 61 39

Have you purchased an American flag in the last 10 months, that is, since September 11, 2001?

Yes No
Jun. 2002 Fox 55% 45%

Since September 11
th
, has there been too much, too little or the right amount of showing the American flag?

Too Right Too
much amount little
Oct. 2001 Pew 8% 73% 17%
Mar. 2002 Pew 16 66 16

Please tell me whether each of these is something you have or have not done as a result of the terrorist attacks...Sang God
Bless America?

Yes No
Sep. 2001 Harris Interactive 70% 30%

Please tell me whether each of these is something you have or have not done as a result of the terrorist attacks...Sang the
Star Spangled Banner?

Yes No
Sep. 2002 Harris Interactive 63% 37%




American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 30
Since September 11, have you been more or less likely to wear red, white, and blue?

More likely Less likely Same
Oct. 2001 Fox 60% 8% 30%

Will you, personally, be doing anything this Fourth of July as a remembrance of the events of September 11
th
, or not?

Yes No
Jun. 2002 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 35% 60%

Thinking back, do each of the following describe or not describe your reactions in the weeks and months following the
September 11
th
terrorist attack? I felt more patriotic.

Yes No
Aug. 2006 Time/SRBI 68% 30%


Does this describe how you feel today, five years after the September 11th attack? I feel more patriotic.

Yes No
Aug. 2006 Time/SRBI 65% 33%

After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, it was said that Americans became more patriotic and united. Do you
think Americans are just as patriotic and united now as they were immediately following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, or are
they more patriotic and united now or less patriotic and united now?

Same More Less
Aug. 2011 CBS/NYT 18% 31% 47%
Flying the Flag
Do you own an American flag?

Yes No
Jun. 2007 Fox 86% 14%

Do you display the flag at your home, in your office, or on your car?

Yes, display the flag No
Aug. 2002 Pew 75% 25%
Jun.-Jul. 2003 Pew 69 29
Mar. 2005 Pew 64 36
Jan. 2007 Pew 62 38
Apr. 2009 Pew 59 40
Mar. 2010 Pew 58 42
Jun. 2010 Pew 59 41
Mar. 2011 Pew 75 25
Apr. 2011 Pew 44 56
Aug. 2012 PRRI* 58 42

Note: *Public Religion Research Institute.

Are you displaying an American flag on a daily basis these days--either at your home, on your car or anywhere else, or
not?

Yes No
Mar. 2002 ABC/Wash Post 65% 35%

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 31
Sep. 2002 ABC 68 32

(If Yes) Did you start displaying the flag on a daily basis after September 11
th
, or were you doing it before then?

Before After
Mar. 2002 ABC/Wash Post 38% 62%
Sep. 2002 ABC 45 55

As result of the beginning of the war in the Persian Gulf, have you...displayed an American flag?

Yes No
Mar. 2003 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 56% 44%

Have you flown an American flag at any time during the past year?

Yes No
Jun. 2007 Fox 68% 32%

And again, thinking about your own community, are there a lot, some, or hardly any displays of patriotism such as flags,
bumper stickers, and signs?
A lot Some Hardly any
Aug. 2002 Pew 78% 18% 4%

Which of the following, if any, do you think you will do this Fourth of July? How about display an American flag?

Yes No
Jun.-Jul. 2001 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 66% 33%
Jun. 2002 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 83 16
May 2006 ICR 68 30




Does someone actually have to do something to be patriotic--or is it enough to love your country?

Do something Enough
Jun. 1983 NYT 33% 61%
Nov. 1983 NYT 34 59





WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE A PATRIOT?: Pollsters dont often ask people what
it means to be a patriot. Around 60 percent told New York Times interviewers in 1983 that it was
enough to love your country to be patriotic. A third said you needed to do something. More than
seven in ten said serving in the military was a demonstration of patriotism.
In August 2008, Greenberg Quinlan Rosner Research asked how patriotic several activities
were. Voting (78 percent), saying the Pledge of Allegiance (70 percent), working hard at your job (62
percent), volunteering in your community (61 percent) and paying your fair share of taxes (61 percent)
ranked at the top as very patriotic activities. Accepting what government officials say without
questioning ranked last, with only 11 percent saying it was very patriotic.
A few other pollsters have explored obligations of citizenship, and their data are reproduced
below.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 32
Here are some things that people think of as patriotic. Other people think that patriotism really doesnt have much to do
with these things. What do you think? Is _______ a sign of patriotism, or doesnt patriotism have much to do with it?

Sign of Not a sign
patriotism of patriotism
Voting
Jun. 1983 NYT 83% 14%
Nov. 1983 NYT 81 16

Serving in the armed forces
Jun. 1983 NYT 72% 21%
Nov. 1983 NYT 63 31

Doing jury duty
Jun. 1983 NYT 67% 28%
Nov. 1983 NYT 63 31

Joining in the singing of the Star Spangled Banner
Jun. 1983 NYT 77% 19%

Paying taxes honestly
Jun. 1983 NYT 61% 33%

Working in the Peace Corps
Jun. 1983 NYT 55% 34%

Buying only American products
Jun. 1983 NYT 52% 43%

Working in a political campaign
Jun. 1983 NYT 49% 44%

We all know that Americans have certain rights, such as the right to free speech and to a free public education. Now Id
like you to consider what obligations or responsibilities, if any, we have towards others. For each of the following, do
you feel it is an absolutely essential obligation for us as Americans, a very important obligation, or is entirely a matter of
personal preference...?

Jan.-Apr. 1996 Gallup/UVA

Absolutely Very Somewhat Personal
essential important important preference
Treating all people equally regardless of
race or ethnic background 57% 33% 6% 4%
Reporting a crime that one has witnessed 54 36 7 4
Taking action to help if you hear someone
screaming or see them being attacked 54 34 7 6
Being able to speak and understand English 53 33 11 4
Voting in elections 53 29 9 9
Working to reduce inequality and injustice 41 42 12 6
Being civil with others with whom we
disagree 35 45 14 6
Keeping fully informed about news and
public issues 30 42 19 10
Donating blood or organs to help with
medical needs 20 37 18 26
Volunteering time to community service 16 42 26 16


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 33
Do you feel the following is a very important obligation, a somewhat important obligation, or not an obligation that a
citizen owes to the country...?

Feb. 1999 Penn/Schoen/Berland (D)

Very Somewhat Not an
important important obligation
Reporting a crime you may have witnessed 90% 7% 2%
Attending parent teacher conferences 89 9 2
Voting in elections 87 10 3
Being able to speak and understand English 85 12 3
Serving in the military if drafted 76 13 10
Keeping fully informed about news and public issues 73 24 2
Serving on a jury if called 73 23 3
Contributing to help the less fortunate 71 22 6
Protesting unjust public policies 61 22 12
Participating in Town Hall community decision
making meetings 59 31 7
Participating in neighborhood organizations 56 38 5
Volunteering some time to community services 55 40 3
Volunteering for the military 48 35 16

Patriotism means many things to many people. I am going to read a number of activities that some people believe are
important parts of patriotism. For each activity, I would like you to say if you agree or disagree that the activity is an
important part of patriotism. How about...?

Jan. 2002 Gallup/Harwood
Agree Disagree
Voting 97% 3%
Volunteering in the community 89 11
Displaying an American flag 86 14
Working for the common good, even when it runs
counter to ones immediate self-interests 85 13
Engaging in conversations with other people about
important political issues our nation faces 84 15
Raising ones voice in opposition to prevailing public
opinion in times of national crisis if one believes
core democratic values at stake 83 16
Donating money to a community organization that helps
those in need 82 17
Questioning the decisions of our nations leaders, even
when they are trying to rally the country 77 21
Demonstrating on behalf of a cause one believes in
strongly even when the cause is unpopular 75 24
Attending a parade celebrating America 74 26

Now Im going to read you some things people do in America. For each one, please rate how patriotic a thing it is with
one hundred meaning that thing is very patriotic, zero meaning very unpatriotic, and fifty meaning neither very patriotic
or very unpatriotic. You can use any number from zero to one hundred, the higher the number the more patriotic you
think that thing is. If you have no opinion please say so

Aug. 2008 Greenberg Quinlan Rosner Research

Very Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Very
patriotic patriotic (50) unpatriotic unpatriotic
(76-100) (51-75) (26-49) (0-25)

Voting 78% 8% 7% 2% 3%

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 34
Saying the Pledge of Allegiance 70 12 11 2 4
Working hard at your job 62 16 12 1 5
Volunteering in your community 61 20 10 1 4
Paying your fair share of taxes 61 13 15 2 6
Wearing an American flag pin 46 19 18 2 11
Prayer 42 7 22 2 18
Protesting bad government decisions 38 22 17 6 11
Agreeing with the president in a time
of war, no matter what 22 14 27 6 27
Accepting what government officials
say without questioning it 11 12 20 9 43

Note: Survey conducted of a half sample.

Is it possible for someone to do the following things and still be considered patriotic?

Economist/YouGov
Yes No
Refuse to serve in a war that they oppose
Jul. 2009 56% 44%
Jun. 2011 59 41

Disobey a law that they think is immoral
Jul. 2009 62% 38%
Jun. 2011 62 38

Criticize our leaders to foreigners
Jun. 2009 53% 47%
Jul. 2011 55 45

Refuse to pay taxes
Jun. 2009 44% 56%
Jul. 2011 36 64

Burn an American flag in protest
Jul. 2009 22% 78%
Jun. 2011 20 80

Some people say the following things are important for being truly American. Others say they are not important. How
important do you think each of the following is...to respect Americas political institutions and laws...very important,
fairly important, not very important or not important at all?

Very Fairly Not very Not important
important important important at all
Feb. 1996 NORC 63% 28% 5% 2%
Aug. 2004 NORC 74 23 2 1

Note: 2004 Survey asked of half sample.

Do you think that Americans should support this county in wartime even if they believe that its actions are wrong?

Yes No
Jun. 1983 NYT 70% 23%
Nov. 1983 NYT 72 21





American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 35
Do you think someone can be patriotic if they dont support the Iraq war?

Yes No
Mar. 2006 CBS 83% 12%


Do you believe it is unpatriotic to protest any actions the U.S. may take in response to the terrorist attacks, or not?

Not unpatriotic Unpatriotic
Sep. 2001 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 50% 47%

Do you think the Americans who are protesting against the war are acting unpatriotic during a time of national crisis, or
acting appropriately by expressing their opinions?

Expressing Acting
opinions unpatriotically
Oct. 2001 Fox 59% 33%

How much do you agree or disagree with the following statements...agree strongly, agree, neither agree nor disagree,
disagree, or disagree strongly? People should support their country even if the country is in the wrong?

Agree Disagree
strongly Agree Neither Disagree strongly
Feb. 1996 NORC 11% 21% 18% 37% 11%
Aug. 2004 NORC 12 24 22 31 9






Have you ever served as a member of the armed forces of the United States?

Yes No
Dec. 1984 Roper GfK-NOP 19% 81%

Are you a current member or veteran of the U.S. Armed Forces?

Current Veteran No
May 1999 Fox 2% 14% 84%
Nov. 2003 Fox 3 16 81
Apr. 2004 Fox 3 12 85
Aug. 2004* Fox 2 14 84
Sept. 2004* Fox 2 13 85

Note: * Question asked of likely voters.




MILITARY SERVICE: In the New York Times poll in the section above, a
substantial majority of Americans said serving in the military was a sign of patriotism. The
tables below provide some idea of how many people have served and are serving in the
military. The military is also one of the most positively viewed institutions in the country. In
Gallups June 2013 survey, 76 percent had a great deal or quite a lot of confidence in the
military. It was the highest ranked institution in the poll.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 36
Have you ever served in the military? (NEP)
Have you ever served in the US (United States) military? (CNN/ORC)

Yes No
Nov. 2004 NEP 18% 82%
Oct. 2010 CNN/ORC 14 86

Note: National Election Pool (NEP) survey of voters leaving polling places

Have you yourself ever served in the U.S. armed forces or the U.S. reserves?

Yes No
Aug. 1990 CBS/NYT 22% 78%
Jan. 1991 CBS/NYT 18 82
Jan. 1991 CBS/NYT 21 79
Feb. 1991 CBS/NYT 19 81
Feb. 1991 CBS 21 79
Feb. 1992 CBS/NYT 18 82
Mar. 1992 CBS/NYT 20 80
Dec. 1992 CBS 20 80
Dec. 1992 CBS/NYT 18 82
Jan. 1993 CBS/NYT 20 80
Feb. 1993 CBS/NYT 20 80
May 1993 CBS 18 82
Sep. 1994 CBS/NYT 19 81
Mar. 1995 CBS/NYT 19 81
Aug. 1996 CBS/NYT 16 84
Aug. 1996 CBS/NYT 18 82
Sep. 1996 CBS/NYT 18 82
Oct. 1996 CBS 19 81
Feb. 1998 CBS/NYT 19 81
Feb. 2000 CBS/NYT 17 83
Apr. 2000 CBS/NYT 18 82
Jul. 2000 CBS/NYT 17 83
Oct. 2000 CBS/NYT 18 82
Mar. 2001 CBS/NYT 19 80
Sep. 2001 CBS/NYT 17 83
Oct. 2001 CBS 16 84
Apr. 2003 CBS 17 83
Apr. 2003 CBS/NYT 15 84
Nov. 2003 CBS 15 85
Mar. 2004 CBS 17 83
Aug. 2004 CBS 16 84
Sep. 2004 CBS 16 84
Sep. 2004 CBS/NYT 16 84
Sep. 2004 CBS 19 81
Oct. 2004 CBS/NYT 17 82
Oct. 2004 CBS 16 84
Oct. 2004 CBS/NYT 16 84
Oct. 2004 CBS/NYT 15 85
Nov. 2004 CBS/NYT 15 85
Dec. 2005 CBS/NYT 16 84
Oct. 2008 CBS 11 89
Nov. 2008 CBS 13 87
Aug. 2010 CBS 19 81
Nov. 2011 CBS 16 84
Jan. 2012 CBS/NYT 15 85
Feb. 2012 CBS 14 86

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 37
Do you or does any member of your immediate family now serve in the U.S. Armed Forces or in the U.S. reserves?

Yes, self Yes, other No
Aug. 1990 CBS/NYT 2% 16% 79%
Jan. 1991+ CBS/NYT 3 23 74
Jan. 1991+ CBS/NYT 2 24 74
Jan. 1991+ CBS 3 21 76
Feb. 1991+ CBS/NYT 2 25 74
Feb. 1991 CBS/NYT 1 27 71
Feb. 1991 CBS 1 24 75
Mar. 1991+ CBS/NYT 3 19 78
Feb. 1992* CBS/NYT NA 21 79
Mar. 1992* CBS/NYT NA 19 81
Sep. 1994* CBS/NYT NA 21 79
Oct. 1994* CBS/NYT NA 15 85
Jan. 1996 CBS/NYT 3 17 79
Feb. 1998 CBS/NYT 3 13 83
Sep. 2001* CBS/NYT NA 14 86
Sep. 2001 CBS/NYT 3 19 77
Oct. 2001 CBS 3 21 76
Sep. 2002 CBS/NYT 2 29 69
Feb. 2003 CBS/NYT 3 20 77
Mar. 2003 CBS/NYT 2 17 81
Apr. 2003 CBS 2 22 76
Apr. 2003+ CBS/NYT 2 21 77
Jul. 2003 CBS/NYT 2 17 80
Mar. 2004 CBS 2 20 77
Sept. 2004 CBS/NYT 2 19 78
Oct. 2004 CBS/NYT 1 18 80
Oct. 2004 CBS/NYT 2 18 80
Oct. 2004 CBS/NYT 1 18 80
Nov. 2004 CBS/NYT 1 18 80
Dec. 2005 CBS/NYT 1 16 81
May 2006^ CBS/NYT 1 26 72
Jul. 2006 CBS/NYT 2 22 76
Oct. 2006 CBS/NYT 1 23 75
Apr. 2007 CBS/NYT 2 20 77
May. 2007 CBS/NYT 2 19 80
Sept. 2007 CBS/NYT 2 20 77
May 2010 CBS 2 21 76
May 2011 CBS/NYT 1 23 74

Note: *Results for Yes, self were not coded. + Results for Yes, self and Yes, self and other are combined.
^ Survey contained an oversample of those 65 and over.

Have you, or has any member of your household ever served in the U.S. military?

Yes, self Yes, other Yes, both No/Neither/
household member None
Jun. 2005 Gallup 15% 21% 3% 60%
Feb. 2008 Gallup/USA Today 13 18 2 65
Apr. 2008* Gallup/USA Today 15 15 2 67

Yes, self, Yes, other member No
or both of household
Feb. 2010 Gallup/USA Today 13% 22% 63%
Mar. 2010 Gallup/USA Today 13 20 65

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 38
May 2010 Gallup 14 24 62
Jun. 2010 Gallup 14 21 63
Jul. 2010 Gallup 14 22 62
Aug. 2010 Gallup 13 27 58
Sep. 2010 Gallup 14 23 63
Nov. 2010 Gallup 20 25 54
Feb. 2011 Gallup 17 21 61
Mar. 2011 Gallup 16 21 62
Jul. 2011* Gallup/USA Today 14 18 67
Aug. 2011* Gallup/USA Today 11 22 66
Oct. 2011 Gallup/USA Today 12 17 71
Nov. 2011 Gallup/USA Today 12 22 65
Dec. 2011* Gallup 10 20 69
Jan. 2012 Gallup 13 22 63
Feb. 2012 Gallup/USA Today 14 20 64
Mar. 2012 Gallup 13 19 65
Apr. 2012 Gallup 13 19 66
May 2012 Gallup 12 19 68
Jun. 2012 Gallup/USA Today 14 20 65
Jul. 2012 Gallup/USA Today 13 20 65
Aug. 2012 Gallup 13 18 68
Sep. 2012 Gallup/USA Today 13 19 67
Oct. 2012 Gallup 13 21 65
Nov. 2012 Gallup 13 20 65
Dec. 2012 Gallup 11 22 66
Jul. 2013 Gallup 14 19 65
Aug. 2013 Gallup 15 18 65
Sep. 2013 Gallup 13 21 63
Oct. 2013 Gallup 15 20 63

(Demographic breakdowns, Mar. 2012)

Republican 19% 23% 56%
Democrat 9 18 72
Independent 14 17 66

Conservative 17% 20% 61%
Liberal 8 14 77
Moderate 12 22 64

18-29 5% 18% 75%
30-49 12 14 73
50-64 13 21 65
65+ 25 28 41

College plus 15% 17% 68%
Some college 16 20 63
HS or less 11 21 66

East 12% 19% 67%
Midwest 10 18 71
South 16 22 60
West 13 17 67

Note: *Asked of half sample.



American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 39
Did you serve in a combat zone during the _____ war?

Not in service/
Yes No No service in wartime
Dec. 1984 Roper GfK-NOP 7% 6% 86%

Note: Asked of those who were in service during wartime.

Did you or did any close relative serve in the United States Armed Forces during World War II? (If Yes) Was that you or
someone else in your family?

Yes, self Yes, other No
Nov. 1991 CBS/NYT 9% 53% 35%
Jan. 1994* CBS NA 66 33
Jul. 1995 CBS/NYT 9 56 34

Note: *Yes responses were not separated into Yes, self and Yes, other.


Do you have any close personal friends or family members who are currently serving in Iraq or elsewhere in the Middle
East as part of U.S. forces there?

Yes No
Apr. 2003 ABC/Wash Post 29% 70%
Jul. 2007* ABC/Wash Post 44 55

Note: * Have you or any of your close personal friends or family members served in the U.S. military in Iraq since the
war began in March 2003? In January and February 2004, the Washington Post/Kaiser Family Foundation/Harvard Unity
poll conducted a survey of military families. The results can be found at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-
srv/politics/polls/vault/stories/poll_militaryfamilies.pdf.

Do you personally know anyone in the Armed Forces or National Guard who has been or is being sent to the Middle East
for military action in Iraq?

Yes No
Nov. 2003 Fox 46% 54%
Aug. 2004* Fox 61 39

Note: * Question asked of likely voters

Is there anyone you yourself know on a personal basis--a family member, friend or acquaintance in the military--who has
served in Iraq since the war began in March 2003?

Yes No
Aug. 2005 ABC/Wash Post 62% 38%

Id like to get your opinion of some groups and organizations in the news. Is your overall opinion of the military very
favorable, mostly favorable, mostly unfavorable, or very unfavorable?

Very Mostly Mostly Very
favorable favorable unfavorable unfavorable
Jun. 1985 Pew 24% 53% 13% 5%
Jul. 1986 Pew 32 53 7 3
Jan. 1987 Pew 19 54 11 5
Apr. 1987 Pew 17 63 12 4
Jan. 1988 Pew 20 57 14 3
May 1990 Pew 18 55 15 6

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 40
Mar. 1991 Pew 60 34 2 2
May 1993 Pew 32 53 8 2
Jul. 1994 Pew 30 57 8 3
Feb. 1996 Pew 33 49 12 4
May 1997 Pew 23 57 11 5
Oct. 1997 Pew 22 56 13 5
Sep. 1998 Pew 29 57 7 3
Jun. 1999 Pew 36 47 11 2
Jan. 2001 Pew 32 50 9 3
Jul. 2001 Pew 29 52 7 4
Sep. 2001 PSRA/Newsweek 58 36 2 2
May 2002 PSRA/Newsweek 59 34 3 2
Jun. 2004 Pew 48 37 7 3
Mar. 2005 Pew 49 38 6 3
Oct. 2005 Pew 44 38 8 4
Dec. 2006-
Jan. 2007 Pew 47 37 8 3
Mar. 2007 Pew 43 34 11 6
Jul. 2007 Pew 47 31 9 6
Apr. 2008 Pew 49 35 8 3
Dec. 2012 Pew 41 42 9 3

Now I am going to read you a list of institutions in American society. Please tell me how much confidence you, yourself,
have in each one a great deal, quite a lot, some, very little, or none at all. The military? (NBC/WSJ) (Gallup)
Now I am going to list some institutions in American society, and Id like you to tell me how much confidence you,
yourself, have in each one a great deal, quite a bit, some, very little, or none at all. The military? (CNBC) (NBC/WSJ)


Great deal/ Very little/
quite a lot Some None
Jun. 1975 NBC/WSJ 58% 25% 12%
Jan. 1977 NBC/WSJ 57 25 12
Nov. 1981 NBC/WSJ 50 29 20
Oct. 1986 NBC/WSJ 63 24 11
Dec. 1988 NBC/WSJ 46 33 15
Dec. 1991 NBC/WSJ 78 15 6
Jan. 1996 NBC/WSJ 70 22 7
May 1996 NBC/WSJ 66 25 7
Jun. 1998 NBC/WSJ 64 25 10
Dec. 2000 NBC/WSJ 63 25 10
Jan. 2002 NBC/WSJ 85 11 3
Jul. 2002 NBC/WSJ 82 14 4
Jul. 2007 NBC/WSJ 67 22 10
Jan. 2009 NBC/WSJ 69 22 7
Dec. 2009*** CNBC 77 16 6
Aug. 2010*** NBC/WSJ 72 21 5
Jan. 2011*** NBC/WSJ 71 23 6
May 2012*** NBC/WSJ 76 17 6
May 2013*** NBC/WSJ 67 27 5
Apr. 2014*** NBC/WSJ 69 24 6
May 1975 Gallup (AIPO) 58% 25% 12%
Jan. 1977 Gallup 57 25 12
Apr. 1978* Gallup 48 30 17
Apr. 1978 Gallup 48 30 17
Apr. 1979 Gallup (AIPO) 54 29 15
Oct. 1980 Gallup (AIPO) 53 28 16
Jul. 1981 ^ Gallup (AIPO) 53 30 17

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 41
Nov. 1981 Gallup (AIPO) 50 29 20
Aug. 1983 Gallup 53 29 13
Oct. 1984 ^ Gallup/Newsweek 58 24 15
May 1985 Gallup 61 28 9
Jul. 1986 Gallup 63 24 11
Jul. 1987 Gallup (AIPO) 61 28 10
Mar. 1988 ^ Gallup 46 33 15
Sept. 1988 Gallup 58 30 10
Sept. 1989** Gallup 63 37
Mar. 1990 ^ Gallup 52 32 14
Aug. 1990 Gallup 68 22 8
Feb. 1991 Gallup 85 11 3
Mar. 1991 Gallup/Newsweek 88 8 4
Oct. 1991 Gallup 69 20 9
Mar. 1993 Gallup 67 23 9
Mar. 1994 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 64 26 8
Apr. 1994 ^ Gallup 49 34 14
Apr. 1995 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 64 27 8
May 1996 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 66 25 7
Jun. 1998 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 64 25 10
Jun. 1999 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 68 26 6
Jun. 2000 Gallup 64 26 8
Dec. 2000 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 72 20 7
Jun. 2001 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 66 24 8
Jun. 2002 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 79 16 5
Jun. 2003 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 82 14 4
May 2004 Gallup 75 19 5
May 2005 Gallup 74 18 8
Jun. 2006 Gallup 73 19 6
Jun. 2007 Gallup 69 21 9
Jun. 2008 Gallup 71 20 8
Jun. 2009 Gallup 82 12 5
Jul. 2010 Gallup 76 18 5
Jun. 2011 Gallup 78 16 3
Jun. 2012 Gallup 75 18 6
Jun. 2013 Gallup 76 17 6

Note: *Gallup Unchurched Americans Survey. ** Gallup Giving and Volunteering in the US Survey. *** Asked of a half
sample. ^ For these surveys, there was no None category. It was not included.

Opportunities exist for young adults to serve their country, through military or non-military service. Non-military, civilian
service includes tutoring and mentoring disadvantaged youth, improving health services, building affordable housing,
cleaning parks and streams, and helping communities respond to disasters. If both military and non-military service
offered similar educational and health benefits, how much do you agree or disagree with the following statements?

Feb. 2007 ABC/Wash Post
Agree Disagree
I think it is important for young people to serve their country,
but this service should be voluntary 73% 19%
Besides the military and non-military options mentioned above,
there should be another option for young people to serve
their country 63 19
I would support a draft where young adults can choose between
military and non-military service 43 46
I would support a draft, but only for military service 24 64
I would support a draft, but only for non-military service 14 72
I dont think it is important for young people to serve their country 14 77

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 42



Of course, we all hope that there will not be another war, but if it were to come to that, would you be willing to fight for
your country?

Yes No
Jan. 1981 Gallup/CARA 71% 20%
Apr. 1981 Gallup 68 22
Jul. 1989 Gallup 77 14

Of course, we all hope there will not be another war, but if it were to come to that, would you be willing to fight for your
country?

Yes No
------US responses-----
Jun. 1990 World Values Survey 70% 19%
Sep. 1995 World Values Survey 68 20
1999-2004 World Values Survey 65 24
2005-2009 World Values Survey 61 36
2010-2014 World Values Survey 58 41

-------France-------
2005-2009 World Values Survey 52 33
-------Italy-------
2005-2009 World Values Survey 37 48
-------Germany-------
2005-2009 World Values Survey 30 51

If you were twenty years old and our country were at war, would you be willing to fight under any condition, under some
but not all conditions, or under no condition?

Any Some No
condition conditions condition
Apr. 1996 Gallup/UVA 31% 48% 12%

Forgetting any issues of age or health, if it were to become necessary to defend America, would you be willing to fight
and, if need be, die in this war against terrorism?

Yes No
Jun. 1998* Fox 74% 18%
Oct. 2001 Fox 76 15
Jun. 2002 Fox 74 17
WILLINGNESS TO SERVE AND FIGHT: In the 2010-2014 World Values Survey,
58 percent of Americans said they would be willing to fight for their country, down from 70 percent
in 1990. An April 2012 question from Pew that uses a part of Stephen Decaturs formulation my
country right or wrong finds 51 percent completely or mostly agreeing that we all should be willing
to fight for our country whether it is right or wrong. Twenty-five percent mostly disagreed with the
statement and 17 percent completely disagreed.
In October and November 2001, when Fox News asked whether the country should reinstate
the draft if more soldiers were needed in the war against terrorism, about three-quarters favored the
idea. When the question was repeated in April 2004, 41 percent approved of reinstating the draft. In
2007, when Gallup interviewers asked whether the country should return to the draft, only 18 percent
said that it should. In a 2011 Pew update of the question, 20 percent said it should.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 43
Sep. 2002 Fox 74 16

NOTE: * Question wording was, If the United States were under a military threat from a foreign country, would you be
willing to fight and, if need be, die for your country?

If the U.S. went to war with Iraq, would you, yourself, volunteer to serve, or encourage an immediate family member
such as a brother, sister, spouse, child or grandchild, to serve in the armed services?

Yes No
Oct. 2002 TIPP/IBD-CSM 49% 46%
Feb. 2003 TIPP/IBD-CSM 41 54

Im going to read you some pairs of statements that will help us understand how you feel about a number of things. As I
read each pair, tell me whether the first statement or the second statement comes closer to your own viewseven if neither
is exactly right...We should all be willing to fight for our country, whether it is right or wrong (or) its acceptable to refuse
to fight in a war you believe is morally wrong? Do you feel strongly about that or not?

Should be Should be Acceptable Acceptable
willing willing to refuse to refuse
(strongly) (not strongly) (not strongly) (strongly)
Jul. 1994 PSRA/Times Mirror 43% 9% 10% 35%
Apr. 1995 PSRA/Times Mirror 39 10 9 38
Nov. 1995 PSRA/Times Mirror 38 11 10 38
Jul.-Sep. 1999 Pew 39 8 9 38
Aug.-Sep. 2000 Pew 41 7 8 37
Dec. 2004 Pew 39 7 8 38
Feb.-Mar. 2011 Pew 36 9 39 9

For each statement, please tell me whether you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it or
completely disagree with it...We all should be willing to fight for our country whether it is right or wrong?

Completely Mostly Mostly Completely
agree agree disagree disagree
Apr.-May 1987 Gallup/Times Mirror 17% 37% 27% 13%
May 1988 Gallup/Times Mirror 23 34 24 14
Jan.-Feb. 1989 Gallup/Times Mirror 22 35 23 15
May 1990 PSRA/Times Mirror 22 33 24 16
Oct.-Nov. 1991 PSRA/Times Mirror 30 30 21 16
May-Jun. 1992 PSRA/Times Mirror 24 33 25 14
May 1993 PSRA/Times Mirror 21 34 29 13
Jul. 1994 PSRA/Times Mirror 25 28 25 20
Nov. 1997 Pew 21 31 26 19
Sep.-Oct. 1999 Pew 21 28 28 18
Aug. 2002 Pew 22 30 27 16
Aug. 2003 Pew 23 29 25 18
Dec. 2006-
Jan. 2007 Pew 20 30 26 19
Mar. 2008 Pew 28 29 21 16
Oct. 2008 Pew 29 35 19 12
Apr. 2009 Pew 24 29 25 16
Apr. 2012 Pew 27 24 25 17

Note: Sixty percent of those in veteran households agreed while 48 percent in non-veteran households agreed in 2007.





American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 44
People feel differently about how far a government should go. Here is a list of things which some people believe in and
some dont. Lets take them one at a time. Do you think the government should or should not...make every adult male
spend at least two years in the Army?

Should Should not
Mar. 1939 Roper 18% 76%

Do you think we should continue to draft young men for the Army, or should we rely on volunteers for occupation forces?

Draft Volunteer
Aug. 1945 Gallup 43% 47%

The Selective Service Law ends in May. Do you think Congress should or should not vote to continue the Draft Law for
another year?

Should Should not
Apr.-May 1946 Gallup 63% 29%

Do you think Congress should pass a law that would permit the government to draft young men to serve in the Armed
Forces?

Should Should not
Mar. 1948 Gallup 63% 23%

The Selective Service Law ends in June. Do you think Congress should or should not vote to continue the Draft Law for
another three years?

Should Should not
Jan. 1950 Gallup 57% 33%

Do you think the time has come when this country should do away with the draft or not?

Yes No
Oct. 1956 Gallup 11% 75%

Do you think the United States should return to the draft at this time, or not?

Yes No
Feb. 1977* Gallup 36% 54%
Mar. 1979* Gallup 46 46
Jul. 1980 Gallup 58 34
Jul. 1981 Gallup 48 45
Oct. 1981 ABC/Wash Post 43 51
Sep. 1983 ABC/Wash Post 38 57
Mar. 1985 ABC/Wash Post 25 73
Jun. 1998 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 16 81
Jan. 2003 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 27 69
Oct. 2003 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 17 81
Oct. 2004 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 14 85
Aug. 2007 Gallup 18 80
Dec. 2009^ CBS 20 76
Jul. 2011# Pew 30 68
Sep. 2011 Pew 20 74

Note: *Question wording began, As you may know, there is no longer a military draft and those who serve in the
armed forces are volunteers. Recently, however, the armed forces have had trouble in getting enough volunteers to
meet manpower needs... ^Question wording read do you think we should return . . . #Asked of national adult veterans.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 45

Do you favor or oppose the reinstatement of the draft for the Armed Forces?

Favor Oppose
Jan. 1980 NBC/AP 62% 29%
Jan. 1981 NBC/AP 65 28
Jul. 1981 NBC/AP 59 33
Dec. 1981 NBC/AP 52 38
Dec. 1990* NBC/WSJ 58 38
Jan. 2003+ NBC/WSJ 39 52

Note: * Question wording was ...reinstating the draft if the United States goes to war in the Persian Gulf? + Question
wording was reinstating the draft if the United States goes to war against Iraq?

If there were a national emergency, do you think we should return to a military draft or should we continue to rely on
volunteers?

Draft Volunteers
Feb. 1982 NORC 80% 15%
Feb. 1984 NORC 81 17

Do you think we should return to a military draft at this time, or should we continue to rely on volunteers?

Draft Volunteers
Feb. 1983 NORC 29% 67%
Feb. 1984 NORC 23 73
Mar. 2006* NORC 15 83

Note: *Asked of partial sample.

I am going to read a few statements. After each, please tell me if you agree with that statement or disagree with it, or if,
perhaps, you have no opinion about that statement...the military draft should be re-instituted?

Agree Disagree
Jul. 1984 ABC/Wash Post 49% 43%
Jul. 1988 ABC/Wash Post 37 55

Do you favor a volunteer military, or do you think we should reinstate the draft?

Volunteer Draft
Jan. 1991 USA Today 69% 20%

If it becomes clear that more soldiers are needed in the war against terrorism, would you approve or disapprove of
reinstituting the military draft?

Approve Disapprove
Oct. 2001 Fox 76% 16%
Nov. 2001 Fox 74 18
May 2002 Fox 57 34
Jan. 2003 Fox 56 36
Apr. 2004 Fox 41 51







American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 46
If a military invasion of another country using ground troops becomes necessary to punish those responsible for
Tuesdays attack, would you favor or oppose the reinstatement of the draft?

Yes No
Sep. 2001 Harris Interactive/
CNN/Time 66% 28%

If the United States finds itself at war and needing many more active-duty personnel in the armed forces, would you
prefer the re-establishment of the draft or only voluntary recruitment for the military?

Draft Voluntary
Oct. 2002 TIPP/IBD-CSM 26% 69%
Feb. 2003 TIPP/IBD-CSM 26 69

Do you support or oppose reinstituting the draft?

Support Oppose
Jan. 2003 Zogby International 33% 62%

There has not been a military draft in this country since the 1970s. How would you feel about reinstating the draft and
requiring young men to serve in the military at this time? Do you favor reinstating the military draft, or think it should be
considered, or think it should not be considered?

Favor Should be Should not be
draft considered considered
Jan. 2003 PSRA/Newsweek 13% 37% 46%
Sep. 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 7 28 62

Do you favor or oppose reinstating the military draft?

Favor Oppose
Apr. 2004 Quinnipiac 26% 67%
Mar. 2006 CBS News 25 68
Nov. 2011 CBS News 28 65

Do you think we should return to the military draft at this time, or not?

Yes No
1998 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 16% 81%
2003 Early Gallup/CNN/USA Today 27 69
2003 Late Gallup/CNN/USA Today 17 81
2004 Gallup 14 85
2007 Gallup 18 80

The United States has not had a military draft since the 1970s. If more soldiers are needed in Iraq or in other places,
would you favor or oppose reinstating the draft that requires young people to serve in the military?

Favor Oppose
Oct. 2004 SRBI/Time 31% 64%

Note: Sample is registered voters.

Do you favor or oppose re-instatement of the draft?

Favor Oppose
Oct. 2004 Marist 27% 68%


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 47
Would you favor or oppose instating a military draft?

Not Not
Strongly so strongly so strongly Strongly
favor favor oppose oppose
Jan. 2005 Martilla Comm./
Security & Peace Inst 15% 13% 16% 50%

Do you favor or oppose the reinstatement of the military draft in the United States?

Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
approve oppose oppose oppose
Jun. 2005 AP/Ipsos 11% 15% 23% 47%


Do you think it is very likely, likely, not very likely, or not likely at all that the draft will be reinstated in the next year?

Very Not very Not at all
likely Likely likely likely
Oct. 2004 Marist 11% 21% 40% 28%

How likely do you think it is that the United States will reinstate the military draft in the next few years very likely,
somewhat likely, not too likely, or not at all likely?

---------------------------17-29 year olds-------------------------
Very Somewhat Not too Not at
likely likely likely all likely
Jun. 2007 CBS/MTV/NYT 13% 29% 39% 17%

If a military draft is reinstated, do you think young women should be required to serve as well as young men?

Yes No
Jan. 2003 PSRA/Newsweek 49% 46%










American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 48


There is a lot of discussion today about whether Americans are divided or united. Some say that Americans are united
and in agreement about the most important values. Others think that Americans are greatly divided when it comes to the
most important values. What is your view about this?

United Divided
Feb.-Apr.1993 NORC 32% 63%

Which statement comes closer to your own views: Americans are united and in agreement about the most important
values, or Americans are greatly divided when it comes to the most important values?

United Divided
1993* GSS 32% 63%
Aug. 1998 Kaiser/Wash Post/Harvard 31 66
Dec. 1998 Wash Post 34 62
Nov. 2001 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 74 24
Sept. 2002 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 69 30
Jan. 2004 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 45 53
Nov. 2004 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 34 65
Aug. 2011 CNN/ORC 27 73
Nov. 2012 Gallup/USA Today 29 69
Feb--Mar. 2014 Pew 26 71

Note: *The 1993 General Social Survey question asked: There is a lot of discussion today about whether Americans are
divided or united. Some say that Americans are united and in agreement about the most important values. Others think
that Americans are greatly divided when it comes to the most important values. What is your view about this?

(Demographic breakdowns, Age)
Aug. 2011
18-29 31% 68%
30-49 24 76
50-64 28 71
65+ 26 74
Nov. 2012
18-29 34% 66%
30-49 24 73
50-64 27 71
65 and over 32 65
(Education)
Aug. 2011
LT HS grad -- --
HS grad 30% 69%
UNITED OR DIVIDED?: We have found a small number of questions on national unity
from the past, starting in the Vietnam War. They are displayed below. In November 2004 and
January 2005, large majorities of around 70 percent said the country was more deeply divided than it
had been in the past several years. After President Obamas election, those who said the country was
more deeply divided declined to 57 percent. In May 2013, 47 percent said President Obama was
uniting the country, while a similar 45 percent believed he was dividing it.
A June study from the Pew Research Center examines political polarization in the American
electorate. The researchers argue that the The overall share of Americans who express
consistently conservative or consistently liberal opinions has doubled over the past two
decades from 10% to 21%. And ideological thinking is now much more closely aligned with
partisanship than in the past.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 49
Some college 29 71
College plus 20 79
Nov. 2012
LT HS grad -- --
HS grad 27% 71%
Some college 28 70
College grad 28 69
(Gender)
Aug. 2011
Male 26% 73%
Female 28 72
Nov. 2012
Male 27% 71%
Female 31 67
(Ideology)
Aug. 2011
Liberal 25% 74%
Moderate 27 72
Conservative 28 71
Nov. 2012
Liberal 35% 63%
Moderate 31 67
Conservative 23 75
(Party ID)
Aug. 2011
Democrat 26% 74%
Independent 27 73
Republican 29 71
Nov. 2012
Democrat 36% 63%
Independent 30 67
Republican 18 80

Would you say that America is growing together or growing apart?

Growing Growing
together apart
Jul.-Aug. 1998 Yankelovich/Ford Foundation 33% 58%

Do you think the country isor is notmore deeply divided this year on the major issues facing the country than it has
been in the past several years?
Yes, more No, not
deeply divided divided
Dec. 2000 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 64% 33%
Jan. 2001 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 63 33
Nov. 2004 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 72 26
Jan. 2005 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 70 27
Nov. 2008 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 57 40
Oct. 2009 Gallup/USA Today 68 29

Whats your view? Do you think the country is more politically divided these days than in the past, or not?

More Not more
politically divided divided
Dec. 2004 Pew 66 26
Sep. 2006 Pew 70 24
Jan. 2007 Pew 66 28

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 50
Jan. 2009* Pew 46 45
Mar. 2009* Pew 61 34
Sept/Oct. 2009 Pew 64 30
Dec. 2012 Pew 80 17

Note: January 2009 and March 2009 surveys were asked of half samples.

Thinking about the people you know, are they more divided over politics these days than in the past, or not?

More Not more
divided divided
Dec. 2004 Pew 53% 40%
Jan. 2007 Pew 51 41
Jan. 2009 Pew 47 47
Dec. 2012 Pew 60 35

Do you believe that the country has become more united or more divided in the past four years?

More united More divided
Oct. 2004 Time/SRBI 41% 47%


Today, do you think Americans are more divided overpolitics than they were in the past, less divided, or are they about
the same?

More Less Same
Nov. 2010 PRRI 59% 5% 33%

(Demographic breakdowns, Age)

18-29 -- -- --
30-49 62% 5% 27%
50-64 63 6 30
65+ 61 4 31

(Education)

LT HS grad -- -- --
HS grad 49% 9% 40%
Some college 66 3 29
College plus 63 4 29

(Gender)

Male 63% 5% 30%
Female 54 6 35

(Party ID)

Republican 52% 6% 40%
Democrat 61 8 30
Independent 64 4 31

(Region)

North East 53% 4% 39%
Midwest 59 7 30

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 51
South 64 6 28
West 55 5 37

Which of these statements comes closer to your own view...it is essential that America remains one nation or parts of
America should be allowed to become fully separate nations if they choose to?

Remain Allow to
one nation become separate
Feb. 1996 NORC 86% 5%

We have some questions about where you live: your neighborhood or village, your town or city, your county, and so on.
By neighborhood we mean the part of the town/city you live in. If you live in a village, we take this as your
neighborhood. How close do you feel to America...very close, close, not very close, or not close at all?

Very Not very Not close
close Close close at all
1996 NORC 35% 45% 15% 4%
2004 NORC 51 37 9 2

Note: 2004 Survey asked of a half sample.


Vietnams Effect in the U.S.

Here are some statements which have been made about the war in Vietnam. For each, tell me if you tend to agree or
disagree...The real tragedy of the war in Vietnam is that it has divided us here at home?

Disagree Agree
Oct. 1969 Harris Interactive 29% 64%



Do you think this country remains deeply divided over the Vietnam War, or not? (If Yes) Do you think those divisions
are in the process of healing, or not?

Not Divided/ Divided/ Divided/
divided Healing Not healing Not sure
over Vietnam
Mar. 1995 L.A. Times 38% 34% 15% 6%


Obama and Divisions

Thinking about the following characteristics and qualities, please say whether you think it applies or doesn't apply to
Barack Obama...Will unite the country and not divide it.
Applies Does not apply No opinion
Dec. 2008 CNN/ORC 77% 21% 2%
Oct. 2009 CNN/ORC 51 48 1
Jan. 2010 CNN/ORC 49 50 1
May 2011 CNN/ORC 50 48 2

Note: Question wording changed slightly from Will unite to Can unite, beginning in 2010.




American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 52
So far, do you think Barack Obama's presidency has brought different groups of Americans together, or do you think it
has divided them?
Brought groups together Divided them Dont know/no answer
Jan. 2010 CBS 50% 37% 13%
Dec. 2011 CBS 37 48 15

In the next four years, do you think Barack Obama will do more to--unite the country (or more to) divide the country?

Unite the country Divide the country Dont know Refused
Nov. 2012 Gallup/USA Today 55% 42% 3% 1%

Overall do you think Barack Obama has done more to unite the country, or has done more to divide the country?

Unite Divide No opinion
May 2013 ABC/Wash Post 47% 45% 8%



Now Im going to read you some different goals that young people might have. Using a scale from 1 to 10, please rate
each one in terms of its importance to you personally. If a particular goal is extremely important to you pick a number
closer to 10. If it has average importance, pick a number around 5 or 6. And if a particular goal is not really important to
you pick a number closer to 1. You can select any number between 1 and 10, depending on how strongly you feel. Here
is the first onebeing a good American who cares about the good of the country?

---------------Asked of persons 15 to 24 years of age-----------------

1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10
Nov. 1998 Tarrance/ Lake-Snell/NASS 2% 3% 15% 37% 43%

And using the same scale, with 1 meaning not important at all, and 10 being the most important thing in your lifehow
important is being an American to you personally?

------------------Asked of persons 15 to 24 years of age-----------------

1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10
Nov. 1998 Tarrance/ Lake-Snell/NASS 3% 2% 9% 25% 62%

When it comes to your feelings about being an American, do you consider yourself very patriotic, somewhat patriotic, not
very patriotic, or not at all patriotic?

------------------Asked of college undergraduates------------------
Very Somewhat Not very Not at
patriotic patriotic patriotic all
Oct. 2001 Harvard IOP 48% 44% 6% 1%
Oct. 2002 Harvard IOP 33 57 8 2
ATTITUDES OF YOUNG PEOPLE: In his book Surprise, Security, and the American
Experience, historian John Lewis Gaddis relates a story about a classroom experience after 9/11.
Would it be OK now for us to be patriotic? a student asked the professor. Gaddis replied, Yes, I
think it would. Although we dont have available to us historical data on college students patriotism,
a near majority of them (48 percent) in a poll taken soon after 9/11 described themselves as very
patriotic and another 44 percent as somewhat patriotic. In October 2008, those responses were 33 and
45 percent, respectively.
Young people, like their elders, are not enthusiastic about reinstating the draft, although they
seem receptive to other forms of community and national service.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 53
Apr. 2003 Harvard IOP 43 49 7 1
Oct. 2003 Harvard IOP 39 50 9 2
Mar. 2004 Harvard IOP 32 55 10 2
Oct. 2004 Harvard IOP 39 49 9 2
Oct. 2008 Harvard IOP 33 45 17 5

Note: IOP stands for Institute of Politics.

How patriotic are you? Would you say...extremely patriotic, very patriotic, somewhat patriotic, or not especially
patriotic?

-----------------Asked of persons 18 to 29 years old---------------------

Extremely Very Somewhat Not especially
patriotic patriotic patriotic patriotic
Aug. 2002 Wash Post/Kaiser/Harvard 18% 33% 36% 11%
Jun. 2005 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 21 41 27 12

Note: Among those in the 30-49 age bracket, 71 percent said they were extremely or very patriotic; in the 50-64
age breakdown, 79 percent said they were extremely or very patriotic; in the 65+ age bracket, 76 percent said they
were extremely or very patriotic.

Which of the following do you most agree with...Being a good citizen means having some special obligations or being a
good citizens simply means being a good person?

-----Asked of college undergraduates-----
Special Good
obligations person
Apr. 2003 Harvard IOP 52% 46%

In your opinion, which of the following is the most important kind of activity a citizen can engage in?

Jan. 2002 CIRCLE

------15-25 year olds-----
Getting involved in politics and government 12%
Participating in national organizations trying to change our society 23
Volunteering in local community activities to address local problems 49
Not sure 11

Note: CIRCLE stands for Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement. CIRCLE studies
youth civic and political participation and produces an Annual Youth Survey.

Now I am going to read you some things people have suggested to focus more on citizenship and do more for their
community and country. For each suggestion, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it.

Jan. 2002 CIRCLE
------15-25 year olds-----
Favor Oppose

Requiring all graduating high school students to complete a
certain amount of community service to receive their diploma 43% 55%
Instituting a new kind of draft that gives people the choice between
civilian or military service 61 30
Making classes on civics and government a requirement for high school graduation 66 31
Offering every young person a chance to do a full year of national or community
service and earn money toward college or advanced training 81 17

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 54
Would you favor or oppose requiring all young men/women to give one year of service to the nation, either in the military
services or in non-military work here or abroad, such as work in hospitals or with elderly people?

-----------Asked of persons 13 to 17 years old---------
Young men Young women
favor favor
1977 Gallup 47% 38%
1984 Gallup 62 51
1986 Gallup 62 56
1989 Gallup 49 44
1992 Gallup 52 47

Would you favor or oppose requiring all young Americans to give one year of service to the nation, either in the military
services or in non-military work here or abroad, such as work in hospitals or with elderly people?

-------Asked of persons 13 to 17 years old-------
Favor
2000 Gallup 51%
2004* Gallup 42
Note: * Question wording was Would you favor or oppose requiring all men and women to give one year of service
to the nation, either in the military or in non-military work, such as work in hospitals or with elderly people?

Do you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose a national law that would require one
year of national service from all young Americans, with the option of either military or non-military service?

------------------------Asked of college undergraduates----------------------
Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
support support oppose oppose
Apr. 2003 Harvard IOP 10% 21% 23% 45%

Do you think we should return to the military draft at this time, or not?

------Asked of persons 13 to 17 years of age-----

Yes
1980 Gallup 38%
1985 Gallup 15
1986 Gallup 12
1988 Gallup 12
1989 Gallup 9

Would you support or oppose reinstating the military draft?

---------------------Asked of college undergraduates------------------------
Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
support support oppose oppose
Oct. 2001 Harvard IOP 8% 22% 26% 42%
Oct. 2002 Harvard IOP 6 21 29 38

How likely do you think it is that a draft will be enacted because of the war in Iraq?

---------Respondents between ages 18-29 only-----------
Very Somewhat Somewhat Not at all
likely likely unlikely likely
May 2004 Ipsos/Newsweek 11% 25% 28% 35%
Oct. 2004 Ipsos/Newsweek 8 26 33 32


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 55
Do you favor or oppose reinstating the military draft in the United States?

----17-29 year olds----
Favor Oppose
Jun. 2007 CBS/MTV/NYT 9% 87%

Note: Sample is 17 to 29 year-olds.

If the draft was reinstated and you were selectedwould you eagerly serve, serve with reservation, or would you try to
seek an alternative?

--------Asked of college undergraduates-------
Eagerly Serve with Seek an
serve reservation alternative
Oct. 2001 Harvard IOP 29% 31% 38%
Oct. 2002 Harvard IOP 24 30 43

If another military conflict similar to the Iraq situation arises in the near future, how likely would you be to join the U.S.
military...very likely, somewhat likely, not very likely, or not at all likely?

-------------------Asked of college undergraduates-------------------
Very Somewhat Not very Not at all
likely likely likely likely
Apr. 2003 Harvard IOP 4% 11% 23 60

If it were decided that more troops were necessary to carry on the military campaigns in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other
places in the war on terror and a draft were reinstatedwould you join the military, accept the draft, or avoid the draft?

------Asked of college undergraduates----
Join Accept Avoid
military draft draft
Oct. 2003 Harvard IOP 11% 38% 46%

If you were drafted into the military, would you serve?

---------Respondents between ages 18-29 only-----------
Yes No
May 2004 Ipsos/Newsweek 62% 36%
Oct. 2004 Ipsos/Newsweek 66 29












American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 56
Many pollsters in the United States regularly supply us with their data. This report could not have been
done without their assistance, and we thank them for it. The data in this report come from the archive
of public opinion polls at the American Enterprise Institute and from the Roper GfK-NOP Centers
archive at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut. The Roper GfK-NOP Center is the
oldest and largest archive of public opinion data in the world. To learn more about the Roper GfK-
NOP Center, visit http://roperweb.ropercenter.uconn.edu



For comments or questions
contact Karlyn Bowman at kbowman@aei.org or Jennifer Marsico at jennifer.marsico@aei.org

Compiled by Karlyn Bowman (Senior Fellow)
Jennifer Marsico (Senior Research Associate) and
Heather Sims (Research Assistant)