Approach to IT Strategy and Architecture

Alan McSweeney

The Adaptive Enterprise
Business and IT synchronised to capitalise on change


Information Technology Business benefits: simplicity, agility, value
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Learn to love what you’ve been taught to fear…
Change is constant • Everyday events send ripples throughout the organisation, and the IT that supports it. Change is unexpected • A merger, new market opportunity, sudden shift in competitive landscape, new partner. Change is disruptive • The goal is to minimise the impact of disruptions with an IT environment that is synchronised with the business. Change presents opportunities • The ability to adapt to change is a key advantage in business. To survive, compete and win, enterprises must adapt.
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Darwin Reference Architecture
Business strategy

Brings standardisation to the entire IT environment Eliminates vertical islands Embraces heterogeneity and legacy IT environments Uses automation to scale and reduce complexity Virtualises all IT assets Helps convert fixed costs to variable costs

Business processes


• •



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Adaptive Enterprise Design Principles
• Reduce number of elements


• Eliminate customisation • Automate change

• Use standard technologies and interfaces


• Adopt common architectures • Implement standard processes

Applied consistently across:

• Break down monolithic structures

Business processes Applications Infrastructure


• Create reusable components • Implement logical architectures

• •

• Link business and IT

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• Connect applications and business processes

within & outside the enterprise

How Do We Define Solution Architecture?
Solution architecture is the essential, unifying concept of an information system and its effective deployment into an operational environment to solve a key business problem.
• Benefits

− Aligns business and information contexts with architectural decisions − Ensures the solution that is built matches requirements, and will evolve with changing business needs − Provides a complete, clearly-scoped solution
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CIO Balancing Act
Increase agility:

Maximise return:

Improve business results; grow revenue and earnings, cash flow, and reduced cost of operations

Enable the business organisation and operations to adapt to changing business needs

Improve performance: Mitigate risk:

Ensure security and continuity of internal business operations, while minimising exposure to external risk factors

Improve business operations performance end-to-end across the enterprise • Increase customer and employee satisfaction


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Solution Architecture Bridges the Business and IT Gap
Solution Architecture

Business Problem
Business/IT Alignment

IT Solution

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Architecture Scope

Building architecture

Information system architecture

Discrete (project) Examples: e-procurement, email

Initiative (program) Examples: CRM, KM

Enterprise Example: extended value chain

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Solution Architecture is Not Just…
•A •A

detailed implementation plan set of product standards infrastructure only with technology end in and of itself

• For

• Concerned • An

These are parts of an architecture, but they are not an architecture by themselves.

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• Approach

is a mature, fully supported suite of methodologies that enable the delivery of offerings and services that provides:
− A set of best-in-class methodologies to support for the management and delivery of business − One-stop shop for methods, tools, and techniques − Guides and templates

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Approach to ITSA
− Based on stakeholder participation − Organised as a set of four fundamental views

Business view Functional view


Technical view

Implementation view

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The Four ITSA Views — Building a House Analogy
Business view Why do I want a new house?
• residence, entertainment, business • affordability • location • independence • image

Technical view How will it be built?
• foundation, framing, heat/ac, plumbing, ... • utilities: - electric, water, comms, roads • security systems • controls • materials

Functional view What should the new house give me?
• • • • uses / room layouts peace & quiet, security garden, trees garage, pet needs

Implementation view With what will it be built?
• sourcing - suppliers - specific models • financing • phasing • moving

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Business View
Why are we doing this?
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• Key

o oS o o Q Q Q Q

− What are the internal and external drivers? − What are the business models and processes? − Who participates in the business processes? − What are the project goals? − How will the success of the solution be measured?

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November 26, 2009


Functional View
What should the solution do?
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Key questions:
• What will the completed solution do? • How will it be used and what services will it provide? • What information will it provide? To whom? • What qualities must the solution have?
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Technical View
How should the solution work?
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Key questions:
• How will the system be structured and constructed? • What are the interfaces and other constraints? • What applications and data are needed?
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• What does the infrastructure look like? • What standards will apply? • How will the system qualities be achieved?
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Implementation View
With what will the solution be built?
Key questions:
• What specific products and components, from which vendors, are needed to build the system? • How will the system be developed and deployed? • What validation methods will be used? • How will it be managed? • What is the source of funding?
November 26, 2009

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ITSA Framework and Methodologies

ITSA Methodologies
Solution Architecture Concept Solution Architecture Blueprint

ITSA Framework

November 26, 2009


ITSA Framework
The fundamental architectural elements of the ITSA framework are: •Business drivers, goals, and metrics (closely associated with the business view •Principles, models, and standards (associated with each of the four views)

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In Summary
The approach for creating solution architecture is:
− Based on stakeholder participation − Organised as a set of four fundamental views − Motivated by key business drivers, goals, and metrics − Expressed as a set of principles, models, and standards − Linked to actions to ensure timely progress − Supported by an extensible framework of methods, tools, and techniques
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Business view Functional view Technical view Implementation view


Contrasting Solution Architecture and Project management
Solution Architecture
• Defines engagement scope • Articulates the essential elements of the solution and work to be done • Defines resources needed to complete the work • Defines acceptance criteria for solution iterations and phases • … do t to ha W

Project Management
• Keeps engagement within scope • Ensures the work breakdown structure covers all the essential elements • Ensures staffing, funding, and resources are available to support the work • Defines milestones, and schedule and ensures acceptance criteria are met • … e on it d t ge to w Ho

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Contrasting Solution Architecture and Traditional Engineering
Solution Architecture
• Finds satisfactory system concepts for ill-defined problems • More art than science, heuristic in nature

Traditional Engineering
• Finds optimal solutions to wellunderstood problems • More science than art, algorithmic in nature
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on s sed eed u oc nt n F e cli

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Solution Architecture Concept

rapid review of the key elements of a proposed solution, examining each of the four views
− Focus on business drivers/goals, principles, models, and standards − Determine feasibility of an effective solution based on obstacles and constraints − Purpose: define solution’s conceptual architecture to facilitate well-informed, rapid decisions and get shared stakeholder understanding of, and commitment to, the proposed solution

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Solution Architecture Blueprint


detailed architectural description of a project, initiative, or enterprise architecture. with you to:
− Establish an agreed-to, sufficient solution concept − Define, design, and document all essential features of the solution − Analyse the feasibility of the solution − Plan the implementation of the solution

• Works

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IT Strategy and Architecture Framework
Business drivers Goals

Business view business principles rationales

Functional view functional principles rationales

Technical view technical principles rationales

Implementation view implementation principles rationales





obstacles Actions
November 26, 2009

obstacles Actions

obstacles Actions

obstacles Actions

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Alan McSweeney

November 26, 2009


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