1

NASA’s Role in Atmospheric Chemistry

Bruce Doddridge

(with thanks to Jay Al-Saadi & Jim Crawford)

Science Directorate

NASA Langley Research Center

bruce.doddridge@nasa.gov

Student Airborne Research Program. June 16, 2014

2
Outline

Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Quality

Observing Air Quality From Space

NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Airborne Field Campaigns

DISCOVER-AQ – An Earth Venture Suborbital Project

The Future:

"

Air Quality From Geo & Chemical Weather

"

The Next Major NASA Airborne Campaign?

Summary

Atmospheric Composition:

Emission, Transformation, Transport, Removal

Credit: CCSP Strategic Plan (illustrated by P. Rekacewicz).

EMISSION

(urban to local scales)

AIR QUALITY

(local to regional

and global

scales)

CLIMATE FORCING

(regional to global

scales)

TRANSPORT

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Deposition

Stratosphere

Troposphere

O
3

O
3

56 7'8. 99 :1231; 123<=> +&?,'(@'% ?A@ B?CD'" :123E=
Deposition

Stratosphere

Troposphere

O
3

O
3

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6
Tropospheric Ozone (O
3
) Significance

Environmentally Important: Ozone is a pollutant adversely

impacting atmospheric chemistry, climate, health and agriculture
!

Chemically Important: Ozone initiates oxidation cycles

responsible for removing most polluting gases from the

atmosphere.

These oxidation cycles also influence ozone itself

Ozone is a key constituent in photochemical smog, and high

near-surface ozone has profound effects on vegetation, human

health and habitability

Climatically Important: Ozone influences climate directly as a

greenhouse gas and is most important in the upper troposphere

where temperatures are cold.

Ozone exerts an indirect influence

through the oxidation of other greenhouse gases

NOT to be confused with stratospheric ozone. Same molecule.

Very different chemistry and effects!

7
Atmospheric Aerosols Significance

Environmentally Important: Aerosols play diverse and key roles

in climate, adversely impact health, reduce visibility, and acidify

precipitation

Chemically Important: Aerosols are critical in atmospheric

removal processes

Climatically Important: Aerosols influence Earth’s energy balance

directly through the scattering and absorption of radiation as

well as indirectly through modification of clouds (e.g.,

distribution and optical properties)

Chemistry, hygroscopicity and morphology are critical

determinants of atmospheric aerosol properties

Emission

Transformation/Oxidation

Removal

(NO
x
, CO, Hydrocarbons,

Aerosol, SO
2
, NH
3
,

VOC, glyoxal)

(O
3
, OH, CH
2
O, HO
2
, RO
2
,

Aerosol, BrO, glyoxal)

(HNO
3
, H
2
O
2
, ROOH,

Aerosol),

Observed from space

routinely or developmentally

The Science Directorate at NASA’s Langley Research Center

Current Earth Observing Satellites: NASA & Partners.

Satellite Orbits Used for Earth Observations.

Low Earth Orbit (LEO)

Global Coverage

Brief viewing time

Relatively Close

Geostationary (GEO)

Hemispheric coverage

Continuous view

Far Away

Ozone (O
3
): Aura-OMI, Aura-MLS, Aura-TES, Suomi NPP-OMPS, Suomi NPP-CrIS

Carbon Monoxide (CO): Terra-MOPITT, Aqua-AIRS, Aura-TES

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO
2
): Aura-OMI

Formaldehyde (CH
2
O): Aura-OMI

Aerosol: Terra-MODIS and MISR, Aqua-MODIS, Aura-OMI, CALIPSO,

Suomi NPP-VIIRS

Global observations approximately once per day

Launch dates: Terra 1999, Aqua 2002, Aura 2004, CALIPSO 2006, Suomi NPP 2011

Current NASA satellite observations relevant to Tropospheric Composition

A legacy of the Earth Observing System (EOS) vision

Terra

Suomi NPP

12
Air Quality From Space

Significant progress has been made over the past ~20 years in satellite

remote sensing of atmospheric composition relevant to air quality

Survey Articles:

Al-Saadi et al.,

“Improving National Air Quality Forecasts with Satellite

Aerosol Observations”

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2005.

Martin, Invited Review Article,

“Satellite Remote Sensing of Surface Air Quality”

Atmospheric Environment, 2008.

Fishman et al.,

“Remote Sensing of Tropospheric Pollution from Space”

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2008.

Hoff and Christopher, 2009 Critical Review of the Air

and Waste Management Association,

“Remote Sensing of Particulate Pollution from Space:

Have We Reached the Promised Land?”

J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 2009.

Burrows, Platt, and Borrell, eds.,

The Remote Sensing of Tropospheric Composition From

Space, Springer-Verlag, 2011.

NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Field Campaigns (1983-2008)

Airborne field campaigns provide

critical calibration/validation of orbiting

Earth-observing satellites and their data

Chemical Instrument Testing and

Evaluation (CITE) missions in the

beginning of the NASA TCP airborne

program developed measurement

techniques that are being used to this

day

NASA airborne studies have propelled

advances in tropospheric chemistry in

terms of understanding of global

sources, sinks, transport and chemical

transformation

NASA Tropospheric Airborne Measurements

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G

NASA airborne campaigns have generated a 30 year record of

tropospheric ozone, O
3
, and its key precursors (NO, NO
2

and CO)

Hydrocarbon data records available over the past 25 years

Expanded species list in more recent field studies (OH, peroxy radicals, OVOCs)

Particle composition measurements extend over 25 years.

Observations

made in past 15+ years provide more complete data of particle loading,

number size distribution, optical properties, and chemical compositions

Airborne Field Campaign Strategy: Maximize the

value of satellite data for improving models of

atmospheric composition and climate

Satellite/Instruments:

MLS, CALIPSO, MODIS, MISR, OMI, MOPITT,

AIRS, VIIRS, CrIS,...

Aircraft:

ER-2, DC-8, P-3B,

C-130, Global

Hawk, B-200/UC-12,...

Global and Regional Models:

GCMs

CTMs

Model error evaluation

Data assimilation

Emissions inversion

Diagnostic studies

Calibration and Validation

Retrieval development

Correlative information

Small scale structure, processes

Ground-Based Networks:

AERONET, MPLNET, SHADOZ,

AQS, TOLNet,…

Understanding

Attribution

Prediction

17
Scientific Value of Airborne Observations

Most effective way to obtain wide-ranging yet detailed

atmospheric surveys: “Discovery”

Comprehensive investigations of specific atmospheric

processes: “Understanding”

"

Wide range of measurements for atmospheric parameters and trace

species in gas and particulate phase critical to our understanding of

air quality and climate change related issues

"

High spatial (Horizontal: 0.2 – 12 km; Vertical: 10 – 300 m) and

temporal (1 s – minutes) resolutions

Validate and provide context for longer term satellite and

ground observations: “Monitoring”

Evaluate and improve models: “Prediction”

"

Wish to avoid “! getting the right answer for the wrong reason.”

Ideal Case: Measure everything, everywhere, all the time

DISCOVER-AQ

Improving the View of Air

Quality From Space

19

Near-surface pollution is one of the most challenging problems for

Earth observations from space!

The Problem

Near-surface information must be inferred from column-integrated quantities obtained by

passive remote sensing from downward-looking satellite instruments

Some constituents have large relative concentrations in the stratosphere and/or free

troposphere (e.g., O
3

and NO
2
) making it difficult to distinguish

the near-surface

contribution to the total column

Boundary layer

depth influences

the volume over

which surface

pollution is mixed

It also matters

how well the

pollution is mixed

From space,

the size of the

measurement

pixel matters

(as does grid

size for models)

Additional important factors include relative humidity

and surface albedo

Stratospheric

Burden

Long-range

transport of

pollution aloft

Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column

and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality
A NASA Earth Venture campaign intended to improve the

interpretation of current and future satellite observations to

diagnose near-surface conditions relating to air quality

Objectives:

1. Relate column observations to surface conditions for

aerosols and key trace gases O
3
, NO
2

and CH
2
O

2. Characterize differences in diurnal variation of surface

and column observations for key trace gases and aerosols

3. Examine horizontal scales of variability affecting satellites

and model calculations

DISCOVER-AQ Investigation Overview

Deployments and key collaborators

Maryland, July 2011 (EPA, MDE, UMd, UMBC, Howard U., MU)

California, January 2013 (EPA, CARB, UC-Davis&Irvine, MU)

Texas, September 2013 (EPA, TCEQ, U. of Houston, MU)

Colorado, July-August 2014 (EPA, NSF, NOAA, CDPHE, MU)

20

NASA P-3B

NASA King Air

NATIVE, EPA AQS,

Balloons, Ground sites

Deployment

Strategy

Systematic and concurrent observation of column-integrated, surface, and

vertically-resolved distributions of aerosols and trace gases relevant to air quality

as they evolve throughout the day. EXAMPLE: Baltimore-Washington Corridor

21

NASA King Air (Remote sensing)

Continuous mapping of aerosols

with HSRL and trace gas columns

with ACAM

NASA P-3B (in situ meas.)

In situ profiling of aerosols and

trace gases over surface

measurement sites

Ground sites

In situ trace gases and aerosols

Remote sensing of trace gas and

aerosol columns

Ozonesondes

Tethered balloons

Aerosol lidar observations

Three major observational

components:

22

DISCOVER-AQ Houston, 25 September

125

ppbv

x: Ozone, O
3

(0-140 ppbv)

y: Altitude

(0-4 km)

23

DISCOVER-AQ California

HSRL-2 on the King Air Maps the Spatial

Distribution of Aerosol between ground

monitors across the valley

Ten science flights documented the

details of two successive PM2.5

episodes in the San Joaquin Valley

Bakersfield PM
2.5

(16 January - 7 February, 2013)

Fresno

Bakersfield

*Orange line (36 ug/m
3
) is the 24hr ave threshold for

violating National Ambient Air Quality Standards

Aerosol Scattering

from the P-3B

shows the build up

of fine particles to

be concentrated in a

shallow layer below

2000 feet.

550 nm Scattering (Mm
-1
)

16 Jan

22 Jan

Bakersfield

Fresno

(Photo taken from ER-2 during PODEX flight on 20 January)

P
M
2
.
5

(
µ
g
/
m
3
)

A
O
D

(
5
0
0

n
m
;

l
e
v
e
l

1
.
5

d
a
t
a
)

PM
2.5

and AOD at Bakersfield, CA

during a build-up (16-24 January, 2013)

DISCOVER-AQ Colorado

July-August 2014

Planned ground sites and flight paths

for the P-3B and King Air on the left

A major collaborator will be the

Front Range Air Pollution and

Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPÉ)

FRAPPÉ is jointly sponsored by the

Colorado Department of Public Health

and Environment (CDPHE) and NSF

FRAPPÉ will contribute

airborne

measurements with the NCAR C-130

reaching upwind and downwind as well

as ground measurements

Other collaborators include EPA, NOAA,

and numerous universities

This region includes diverse emissions

(urban, oil and gas, agriculture) and

unique meteorology associated with the

altitude and mountainous terrain

9
Information and Data Management

https://discover-aq.larc.nasa.gov/

http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/missions/discover-aq/discover-aq.html

Hourly Atmospheric Pollution

From Geostationary Earth Orbit

PI: Kelly Chance, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

Instrument Development: Ball Aerospace

Project Management: NASA LaRC

Other Institutions: NASA GSFC, NOAA, EPA, NCAR, Harvard,

UC Berkeley, St. Louis U, U Alabama Huntsville, U Nebraska

International collaboration: Korea, Europe, Canada

Selected Nov. 2012 as NASA’s first Earth Venture Instrument

hosting on commercial geostationary communications satellite

with launch expected 2019-2023

Provides hourly daylight observations to capture rapidly

varying emissions & chemistry important for air quality

O
3
, NO
2
, SO
2
, H
2
CO, aerosols and others

Aligned with Earth Science Decadal Survey recommendations

Makes many of the NAS Decadal Survey GEO-CAPE

atmosphere measurements

27

North American component of an international constellation for air quality observations
Why Geostationary? High temporal and spatial resolution

OMI accurately detects column NO
2

- once per day and with varying horizontal resolution

Hourly NO
2

surface

concentration and

integrated column

calculated by CMAQ

air quality model:

Houston, TX, June

22-23, 2005

LEO observations provide limited information on rapidly varying emissions, chemistry, & transport

GEO will provide observations at temporal and spatial scales highly relevant to air quality processes
June 22

June 23

Hour of Day (UTC)

TEMPO footprint, ground sample

distance and field of regard

Each 2 km ! 4.5 km pixel is a 2K element spectrum from 290-750 nm

GEO platform selected by NASA for viewing Greater North America

29

30
Global Pollution Monitoring Constellation:

Tropospheric chemistry missions funded for launch 2016–2021

TEMPO

(hourly)

Sentinel-4

(hourly)

GEMS

(hourly)

Policy-relevant science and environmental services enabled by common observations:

Improved emissions, at common confidence levels, over industrialized Northern Hemisphere

Improved air quality forecasts and assimilation systems

Improved assessment, e.g., Hemispheric scale air pollution

GOME NO
2

Courtesy Jhoon

Kim, Andreas Richter

:3";'&2.<

G%%'AH?CI nASA uC-8 or Þ-38

J#-'AH?CI nSl C-130, Panseo

unlverslLy klng Alr, korean research

vessel

K$H#A?CI small remoLe-sensor

plauorm (e.g., 8-200)

:'50)="3 "1&#&"> 6".0 '-=').< korea

?(3=-30 &0%1')"3 %&'()* .150.

@) A)50&)"=')"3 B''-0&"=C0 B'".5"3 9'&5/D0.5 :"#1E# F103* G5(*4

L#)M% #A N#"'?A J'A(A%MC? ?A@ ?@O?)'A- P?-'"%> QRP''D $'"(#@ P(-&(A S$"(CRTMA' <41Q

G0).'&.<

ALmospherlc Lrace gases and aerosols! #$ %#&' and remoLe senslng

:"&=#1-")5.<

MlnlsLry of LnvlronmenL, korea

nASA (Sclence co-lead)

nauonal lnsuLuLe of LnvlronmenLal 8esearch, korea (Sclence co-lead)

Muluple korean unlverslues (Sclence co-lnvesugaLors)

nCA8 (ÞoLenual sclence co-lead)

uS unlverslues and CCCv

31

32
Summary

Air Quality and Climate Change are different manifestations of

the same issue with respect to human impacts (i.e., resource

management & energy consumption), albeit at different temporal

and spatial scales

Air Quality is fundamentally a surface concern, however it

requires an understanding of the full atmosphere. Observing

near-surface pollution from space is very challenging

NASA airborne and satellite observations are critical to all

aspects of Air Quality and Climate research including emissions,

transformation (photochemical and micro-physical), transport

and deposition

Airborne “calibration/validation” campaigns along with

integrated modeling and simulation evaluate and place satellite

data in a broader context

Geostationary observations of atmospheric composition,

including air quality and “chemical weather,” promise

unprecedented temporal resolution – but also present

challenges

LarLh Sclence lllghL Acuvlues

35
SARP 2014

Thanks for listening!

Hope you have a truly stimulating

and enjoyable experience at

SARP this summer

36
SARP 2014 Career Advice Lecture

Tuesday June 17, 7 PM – Hilton Garden Inn

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