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Bio Lab Final

Ex. 7- Hermit Crab/Animal Behavior

Animal behavior: Physiological response of animals. The actions and responses of animals to
their environment, either living or non-living.
Taxis: directed movement ith respect to a stim!l!s, ex: a animal moving aay from s!nlight
"inesis: !ndirected movement from one location to another in an effort to achieve a more
favorable environment. #x: a flea gets exposed to too m!ch s!nlight
$echanistic: hy does the animal behave this ay%
Adaptive: habitat preference or predator avoidance
&nderstand ho to interpret a 'p-val!e,( and ho sample si)e *+, affects the statistical analysis.
Ex.8- Plant Evolution
-rigin of land plants- Plants evolve from green algae *.harophytes, from live in shallo ater
and sloly transitioned to land. A pop!lation of .harophytes lived on ater/s edge 0
acc!m!lated a set of adaptations for s!rvival in extended dry periods1..#mbryophytes
Land plants and alga traits
2. !se of chlorophyll A and B
3. !se of starch as storage
4. cell alls consist of cell!lose
Ancestral characters of all #mbryophytes *those shared ith .hara,%
2. m!lticell!lar, photosynthetic a!totroph
3. chlorophyll a and b to harvest light
- ---7 gl!cose 5 -
4. 8tarch for gl!cose storage
9. .ell!lose: rigid component of cell all, allos s!rvival in fresh ater to prevent cell lysis
:. 8poropollenin: protect spores from desiccation
8tarch is !se to store gl!cose, hen stained ith idione, the ones that are blac; contain starch
#mbryophytes derived traits
2. apical meristem: embryonic groth tiss!e in tips of roots and shoots< contains actively
dividing cells hich allo for o!tard groth -7 Access reso!rces by groing toard them
3. alternation of generation: Life cycle that incl!des m!lticell!lar haploid *gametophyte, and
m!lticell!lar diploid *sporophyte, stages -7 the female gametophyte protects v!lnerable embryo
.hallenges d!ring transition to land
2. =esiccation
3. 8imming sperm
-apical meristem, axy c!ticle, vasc!lar system, cell!lose
-reliant on ater
-no vasc!lar tiss!e no axy c!ticle
-rely on ater for fertili)ation
-gametophyte dominant
-close to the gro!nd
-no c!ticle or vasc!lar tiss!e
-no leaves, roots, or stems, have flat thalli
-possess gemmae for asex!al reprod!ction
-!sally small liverorts
-poltrichum can gro taller
-possess r!dimentary vasc!lar tiss!e
#arly vasc!lar plants derived traits
2. vascular tissue
-xylem: transport ater and minerals from roots to top of plant
-phloem: transport s!gar and n!trients from so!rce to sin;s
advantage: no longer rely on diff!sion across body, can gro aay from gro!nd, can
cover in axy c!ticle to prevent ater loss
3. tr!e leaves, roots, stems
4. axy c!ticle: ax covering stems and leaves
9. stomata: pores in leaves for gas exchange
-8!n leaves
:. sporophyte dominant
8eedless vasc!lar plants *ferns, horsetails,
-possess all derived traits of vasc!lar plants
-reliant on ater for simming sperm
-sporophyte dominant
8eed plants *gymnosperms 5 angiosperms,
!ee": plant>s embryo pac;aged ith a store of food and protective coat
- ell protected from desiccation and predator
-can remain dormant !ntil conditions are favorable
-dispersal thro!gh larger area
Pollen: male gametophyte enclosed in a protective all, for seed dispersal, no longer need ater
-advantage: no need of ater to fertili)e
Pollination: process of fertili)ation thro!gh ind
a. gymnosperm !ndergo ind pollination hile angiosperm gets pollinated by seeds
b. =escribe similarities and differences beteen seed in gymnosperms v.
8tomata hypothesis: less stomata density in s!n-leaves, more in shaded leaves
8tomata density: n!mber of stomata?area mm
Phyl!m chordata traits
2. post anal tail
3. pharyngeal gill slits
4. notocord
9. dorsal hollo nerve cord
8!bphyl!m vertebrata
2. increase cephali)ation ith crani!m
-enlarged brain protected by crani!m
-ell developed sensory str!ct!re to increase motility
3. @ertabral col!mn
-series of stiff segments made of bone connected by cartilagino!s Aoints call intervetebral dis;s
Lampreys *Aaless fish,
-no mo!th or Aa cannot close
-endos;eleton is cartilageno!s
-ectoparasite: ros of teeth and sharp tong!e to feed on fishs> fl!ids
#vol!tion of Aa
-formed from gill arches *bones beteen gill slits,
-!pper gill s!pport f!sed to s;!ll allo opening and closing
-riginal f!nction: increase respiration and open?close
8econdary f!nction: diverse feeding modes -7 increase h!nting
-example of exaptation or preadaptation
.lass .ondrichtyes
-possess cartilagino!s s;eleton
Buoanc: !pard force exerted by a fl!id hich or;s against gravity
-oily liver: lipid B less dense than ater B ca!se to flo !pard to co!nter gravity
-cartilagino!s s;eleton B less dense than bones
-constantly simming !pard
Paire" fins: stabili)e body, prevent roll and large ca!dal fins
Placoi" scales: red!ce drag to help increase simming speed
+o gills covering, need to sim or !se spiracle to dra oxygenated ater in
3 chambered heart ith one loop r!nning at lo press!re
$ateral line: sense vibration in ater
Cay finned fish !se sim bladder for b!oyancy
-open B float
-close B sin;
Precise movement control and energy inexpensive
Atri!m: collects deoxygenated blood
@entricle: p!mps oxygenated blood
Fins: mane!vering, brea;, move bac;ard, each contract independently
.tenoid scale: secrete m!c!s to red!ce drag and increase speed
-steichtyes respiration
-perc!l!m: bony plate covering gills, protect gills, dra ater in mo!th,
3 chambered heart ith single circ!it flos thro!gh lo press!re
#vol!tion: tetrapods evolved from lobbed fin fishes, fin is anchored to pelvic girdle by single
bone -7 give rise to fishapod
Acanthostega: earliest tetrapod living in ater
-f!lly aD!atic, operc!l!m, gills, ;eeled tail, 9 limbs ith digits, nec;
.lass Amphibia
-dependent on moist area for c!taneo!s respiration
-simming sperm, relies on ater median
-hindlimbs for escaping predators
Frog respiration: inflate l!ngs ith air by ta;ing breath -7 close nostrils -7 open glottis -7 elevate
floor of mo!th to sD!ee)e air in throat
.irc!lation in frogs
-4 chambered heart *CA, LA, ventricle,
-3 circ!it
p!lmoc!taneo!s: ta;es blood from the l!ngs and s;in
systemic: to and from tiss!es
$ixed deoxygenated and oxygenated blood
Amnitic egg: egg encased in fl!id filled membrane and shell
2. prevent desication
3. provide n!trients
4. protection
Amniotes traits
2. amniotic egg
3. scaly s;in
4. no gills?lateral line
9. internal fertili)ation
:. nails
Layers of amniotic egg
2. yol; sac: provide n!trients for embryo
3. amnion: fl!id filled sac that s!rro!nds embryo provide a c!shion
4. allantoid: aste disposal
9. chorion: gas exchange
.lass mammalia
-evolved from a gro!p of reptile called =imetrodon *sail on bac; for heat exchange,
$ammals traits
2. mammal glands
3. +egative press!re respiration
4. erect post!re
9. hair
:. Aa bone -7 ear bone
E. different teeth
F. endothermic
-increase metabolism
-9 chambered hear
- for en)yme reg!lations
#vol!tion of Birds
Archaeopteryx both possess birds and reptilians traits
-elongate mobile nec;
-tridactyl foot
-some possess feathers
Birds traits
2. endothermic
3. efficient l!ngs, 9 chambered heart
4. conto!r feathers
9. light eights
-hollo bones
-no bladder
-no teeth
-small gonads
-loss tail
Ceptilian traits
2. teeth
3. nails
Birds evolved from therapod dinosa!r
2. elongate nec;, tridactyl foot
Feathers initially !sed for armth b!t grad!ally evolved for mobility mechanism
Ancestral primates
2. insectivore
3. arboreal
4. grasping hands
2. primitive arboreal
3. small brain si)e
4. noct!ral and larger eyes
-paraphyletic beca!se they are diverged and not all of their descendent
Anthropoid *mon;ey and apes,
2. Platyrrhini *+e Gorld $on;eys,
-prehensile tail, larger brain
-flat nose
-.entral or 8o!th America
3. .artarrhini *-ld Gorld $oneys and Apes,
-baboon, lang!rs
-teeth adapted for herbivore
-front donard nostrils
-stomach for cell!lose digestion
-Africa and Asia
-full terrestrial
-larger brain
Binoc!lar vision allos mon;ey to increase their depth perception in order to move aro!nd trees
and grasp on branches
Apes *6omonoid,
-gibbons, orang!tans, gorilla, bonobos, chimps and h!mans
-loss of tail
-adaptation for erect post!re
-broader chest and hips, red!ce tr!n; length
6ominid B bipedal
6omonoid B all apes
Bipedalism adaptations
2. 8-shaped spine
3. reshaping of the pevlis
4. increase hindlimb si)e
9. reposition of foreman magn!m
:. f!lly opposable th!mbs
Advantages: foraging, loo;o!t, holding
A!strolopithec!s afarensis
-brain si)e similar to chimps
-can climb trees
-primarily herbivore
-4-9.: feet tall
6omo habilis
-increase in brain si)e
-tool !ser
6omo erect!s
-increase body and brain si)e
-sophisticated tool !se and live in comm!nity
-more social
- ider range of die
-move in n!mber
-care of yo!ngings
Fire !sage
-coo; food: eliminate parasite and softer
-safety prevent predator
6omo sapiens
-increase brain si)e
-increase parental care, learning
-problem and s;ill solving
-increase cranial index
-increase s;!ll proportion -7 increase brain si)e
-decrease facial proAection -7 do not rely m!ch on teeth to brea; don food