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Distributed Force

Distributed Force

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They are not discrete forces that act at specific points. Rather they act over a continuous region.

What are distributed forces?

Examples:

5.2 Center of Gravity

Gravity pulls each and every particle of a body vertically downwards.

What is the location of the equivalent single force that replaces all the distributed forces.

x

y z

x

y z

Let the location be

x

y z

Wednesday, October 07, 2009

12:39 PM

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 1

Find the Center of Gravity of the area shown below.

Example

Tuesday, October 13, 2009

7:07 PM

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 2

Centroid of a Quarter or Semi Ellipse.

Example:

Wednesday, October 14, 2009

3:21 PM

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 3

Centroids of Lines

x

z

y

x

z

y

Exercise 5.45

Find the Centroid of the wire shown.

Friday, October 16, 2009

10:38 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 4

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 5

5.3 - 5.4 Centroids and First Moments of Areas & Lines.

The first moment of an area with respect to a line of

symmetry is zero.

lies on that axis

centroid lies at their intersection.

every point P there exists a point P such that PP is

perpendicular to BB and is divided into two equal

parts by BB.

symmetry.

every element dA at (x,y) there exists an area dA of

equal area at (-x,-y).

Properties of Symmetry

Centroid of any area always exists.

But, a center of symmetry may or may not exist.

NOTE:

First Moment of an Area

Definition:

First Moment of a Line

Definition:

Wednesday, October 14, 2009

12:13 PM

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 6

5.5 Composite Areas and Lines

The Centroid of an area (or line) that is made up of several simple shapes

can be found easily using the centroids of the individual shapes.

If an area is composed by adding some shapes and subtracting other shapes, then the

moments of the subtracted shapes need to be subtracted as well.

Note:

Friday, October 16, 2009

7:53 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 7

Exercise 5.7

Find the centroid of the figure shown.

Find the reactions at A & B.

(specific weight = 0.28 lb/in

3

; thickness t = 1 in)

Exercise 5.28

A uniform circular rod of weight 8 lb and radius r=10 in is shown.

Determine the tension in the cable AB & the reaction at C.

Friday, October 16, 2009

9:04 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 8

5.7 Surfaces & Volumes of Revolution: Theorems of Pappus-Guldinus

The concepts of area, centers of areas, and Moments of areas can also be extended to general

3D surfaces.

The same integral formulas still hold:

General 3D surfaces (aside)

Surfaces of revolution are obtained when one "sweeps" a 2-D curve about a fixed axis.

Area of a surface of revolution is equal to the length of the generating curve times

the distance traveled by the centroid through the rotation.

Theorem 1

Surface areas of revolution

Rotating about y-axis:

Rotating about x-axis:

Sunday, October 18, 2009

3:55 PM

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 9

Volume of a body of revolution is equal to the generating area times the distance

traveled by the centroid through the rotation.

Theorem 2

Rotating about y-axis:

Rotating about x-axis:

Volumes of Revolution

Exercise 5.59

Find the internal surface area and the volume

of the punch bowl.

Given R= 250 mm.

Sunday, October 18, 2009

8:00 PM

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 10

5.8 Distributed Loads on Beams

w(x) is weight per unit length.

In several applications, engineers have to design beams

that carry distributed loads along their length.

Simply supported beam.

Cantilever Beam

Total weight:

Point of action:

Exercise 5.70

Find the reactions at the supports.

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

9:33 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 11

5.9 Distributed forces on submerged surfaces.

Objects that are submerged in water (or in any liquid) are subjected to distributed

force per unit area which is called pressure.

In water, this pressure always acts perpendicular (normal) to the submerged surface

and its magnitude is given by:

Aside: If the liquid is viscous, then in addition the normal pressure the viscous fluid may also apply a tangential traction

to the body. This traction is also a force per unit area and is a more general form of pressure.

The buoyancy force is the resultant of all these distributed forces acting on the

body. Recall the buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the water displaced.

Note:

Resultant force

To obtain the resultant force acting on a submerged surface:

For inclined surfaces:

Exercise 5.82

3m x 4m wall of the tank is hinged at A and held by rod BC.

Find the tension in the rod as a function of the water depth d.

Friday, October 23, 2009

7:51 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 12

For Curved Surfaces:

Forces on curved submerged surfaces can he obtained

by using equilibrium of a surrounding portion of water.

Example 5.10

Friday, October 23, 2009

9:42 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 13

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 14

5.10 Center of Gravity in 3D space; Center of volume

The formulas for center of gravity in 2 D can be easily

generalized to 3D as follows:

5.11 Composition of Volumes

Examples 5.11 and 5.12 in the book.

Friday, October 23, 2009

10:15 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 15

5.12 Center of Volume by integration.

For complex 3D shapes, triple integrals can be difficult to evaluate exactly.

(i) Bodies of revolution

(ii) Volume under a surface

For some special cases one can find the centroid as follows:

Read Example 5.13

Find the centroid of the volume obtained by rotating

the shaded area about the x-axis.

Exercise 5.126

Monday, October 26, 2009

11:04 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch5 Page 16

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