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Unit 1 Lesson 1 Objectives

The Scientific Method


State and District Objectives
Evaluate scientific information for relevance to a given problem.
Develop questions from observations that transition into testable hypotheses
ormulate a testable hypothesis
!redict the outcome of an investigation based on prior evidence" probability" and#or
modeling $not guessing or inferring%.
Specify the requirements of a valid" scientific e&planation $theory%" including that it
be' logical" subject to peer revie(" public" respectful of rules of evidence
E&plain the process by (hich accepted ideas are challenged or e&tended by
scientific innovation.
Distinguish bet(een pure and applied science.
Describe ho( scientists continue to investigate and critically analy)e aspects of
theories.
Demonstrate safe and ethical procedures $e.g." use and care of technology"
materials" organisms% and behavior in all science inquiry.
*dentify the resources needed to conduct an investigation.
Evaluate the design of an investigation to identify possible sources of procedural
error" including' sample si)e" trials" controls" analyses
Design models $conceptual or physical% of the follo(ing to represent +real (orld+
scenarios' collisions
Use descriptive statistics to analy)e data" including' mean" frequency" range
!ropose further investigations based on the findings of a conducted investigation.
or a specific investigation" choose an appropriate method for communicating the
results.
,ommunicate results clearly and logically.
Lesson Objectives
Demonstrate an understanding of the scientific method by developing a plausible
theoretical scenario that utili)es the steps of the scientific method in order to arrive at
a logical conclusion.
Unit 1 Lesson 1 -he Scientific .ethod
-hrough research" scientists see/ to e&plain natural phenomenon and solve the natural mysteries
of the Earth. Over the years" the scientific community has developed and organi)ed a logical
approach to scientific reasoning and research called the scientific method. -his process of
systematic reasoning consists of a set or sequential steps that are guides to specific problem
solving $see igure 1%.
igure 1 0 Scientific .ethod lo( ,hart
-he first step in the process of the scientific method is the identification of a problem. *n order
to understand if a problem can be resolved through a logical thin/ing process" a scientist must
conduct research in order to understand al the various aspects of that problem. *n order to
formulate (hether a problem can be evaluated to(ard a conclusion" a scientist must ma/e a
hypothesis or an educated guess as to (hat the probable solution to the problem (ill be.
*n order to arrive at a conclusion or solution to a problem" the hypotheses must be tested through
experimentation. 1n e&periment is an organi)ed procedure used to test a hypothesis. -here are
t(o elements related to the proper conduct of an e&periment. -he first element is the control.
-he control is used to sho( that the result of an e&periment is really due to the condition being
tested. -he other element is the variable. -his element is the factor that changes in an
e&periment. -he variable factor is tested under altered conditions to see ho( the changing factor
affects the results of the e&periment. During the course of an e&periment" it is essential that
precise observations and measurements are recorded in order to test and or verify the
hypotheses (ith reliable data and it is absolutely imperative that the observations and
measurements be recorded faithfully and (ithout error.
2hen enough data as been collected and analy)ed" a judgment based on the results of an
e&periment can be made. -his judgment is called the conclusion. *f after numerous tests a major
hypothesis cannot be sho(n to be false" it may be accepted as a theory. 1 theory is a logical
model for the e&planation of a problem or phenomenon" (hich is based upon accurate and
verifiable data. aulty data or the falsifying of data is completely contrary to the entire process of
e&perimentation as it relates to the scientific method because in order to be accepted" a scientific
discovery must produce the same results every time it is tested! -his method ma/es science a
self-correcting process" (hich helps to e&plain phenomenon and (hich" gives us practical
scientific /no(ledge in the form of technology.