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CONTENTS

Sl. No. Subject Page No.
1. Executive Summary 01
2. Introduction 02-32
3. Aims and Objective 33
4. Limitation 33

5. Research Methodology 34-37

6. Data Analysis 38-50

7. Findings 51-52

8. Conclusion 53-54
9. Recommendation 55-63
10. References 64-65

11. Appendix


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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The aim of marketing is to meet and satisfy target consumer‟s needs and wants.
The field of Consumer Behaviour studies how individuals, groups and
organizations select, buy, use and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or
experiences to satisfy their needs and desires. Predicting consumer behaviour
and knowing customers is a difficult task. Customers may say something but do
another. Organizations and marketing managers need to understand the secrets
behind consumer behaviour and develop mechanism to measure them also. The
marketer should identify and map consumer‟s behaviour and then try to develop
marketing strategy to satisfy customers and retain them for longer period of
time.
The ultimate objective of any business is to earn profit by satisfying and
retaining customers. This is easier said than done. This is because consumer‟s
need evaluation is a dynamic process and what consumer states as a need or
want may not guide him to make the expected purchase decision.
The consumer‟s buying behaviour is influenced by cultural, social, personal,
and psychological factors. Cultural factors exert the broadest and deepest
influence. Sometimes even consumer may not be aware about his deeper
motivations and the reason „why‟ of buying and may change his mind. In spite
of such diversities among consumers there are many similarities in their
behavioural pattern. Results from such studies will help marketer to proactively
design a marketing offer which consumer is likely to ask.


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INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC
Meaning of Buying Behaviour

The term „Consumer Behaviour‟ refers to the study of how individuals make
decisions to spend their available resources on consumption related items.
Studying customers provide clues for developing new products, product
features, prices, channels, messages, and other marketing-mix elements.

DEFINITION: -

“Consumer Behaviour is the process and physical activity individuals engage in
when evaluating, acquiring, using, and disposing of goods and services.”
:Louden-Dellabitta
Consumer Behaviour refers to the behaviour that consumers display in
searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and
services that they expect will satisfy their needs. Study of Consumer Behaviour
is the study of how individuals make decisions to spend their available
resources like time, money and effort on consumption related items.
: Schiffman and Kanuck
In order to survive and grow the organization has to delight the customers.
Consumers will be delighted if they get more than what they expect. Study of
consumer behaviour helps in knowing their expectations and the sacrifices they
are ready to make in order to fulfil those expectations.
Study of consumer behaviour assumes that consumers are actors in the market
place. Consumers play various roles in the market place. Starting from
information provider to consumer, from user to payer and to disposer,
consumers play roles in the decision process.
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Different people play different roles in different stages of purchase. A purchaser
or customer may not be the same person for example a person who purchases a
product for the family may not be the consumer of the product.
Consumers may take the form of an organization or group. Decisions by
organizations and groups can be studied as organizational buying behaviour or
group buying behaviour. An enterprise-oriented decision making is
organizational buying behaviour, family behaviour can be termed as group
buying behaviour. It is important to know how a consumer makes his decision
regarding buying, or not buying any product, service, idea, concept or thought.

The buying decision process:-

Marketer needs to develop an understanding of how consumer actually makes
the buying decisions. He must identify who makes the buying decision, the
types of buying decisions; and steps in the buying process.

Buying Roles:-
The following are the roles played by the people in consumer decision making
process.

Initiator: - The person who suggests the idea of buying the product or services.
Influencer: - The person who influence buying decision through his opinion or
advice.
Decider: - The person who decides on any component of a buying decision:
Whether to buy, what to buy, Where to buy, or how to buy.
Buyer: - The person who makes the actual purchase.
User: - The person who consumes or uses the product or service.


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Types of Buying behaviour:-

Four types of buying behaviour can be identifies based on the degree of buyer
involvement and the degree of difference among buyers.

Complex Buying Behaviour:-

The consumer displays complex buying behaviour when he is highly involved
in the purchase of the product and can observe significant differences among
brands. Complex buying behaviour involves three steps: - First, the buyer
develops belief about the product. Second, he develops attitudes about the
product and third, he makes the thoughtful choice. The complex buying
behaviour is exhibited in case of expensive, infrequent, risky and highly self
expressive like automobiles.

High
Involvement
Low
Involvement
Significant
Differences
Between Brands
Complex Buying
Behavior
Variety Seeking
Buying Behavior
Few Differences
Between Brands
Dissonance
Reducing
Buying Behavior
Habitual Buying
Behavior

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The marketer of a high involvement product must understand consumer‟s
information gathering and evaluation behavior. The marketer needs to develop
strategies that help buyer in learning about product‟s features and their relative
importance, and positioning of company brand on more important attributes.
The marketer must judiciously use promotions to communicate brand benefits.
Dissonance Reducing Buying Behaviour:-
Sometimes consumer is highly involved in the purchase but sees little difference
in brands. The high involvement is based on the facts the purchase is expensive,
infrequent, and/or risky. In this case, buyer will shop around to learn what is
available. If the consumer finds little difference, he may buy on the basis of
price or convenience. After the purchase, the buyer may notice certain
undesirable features or below expectation experience or may hear favourable
views about other brands. In this case consumer is likely to experience
dissonance. Dissonance is a state of consumer‟s mind when he experiences a
gap between an expected performance and a real performance of the product.
Consumer will then collects favourable information about his purchases and
develop positive beliefs about his choice which will reduce dissonance.
Variety Seeking Buying Behaviour: -
Sometimes the consumer shows low involvement behaviour but there is a
significant brand difference. Consumers show a high level of brand switching
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behaviour. Consumers buy chocolates without considering any such variable
and for no reason switch brands to test the variety in the market. The brand
switching tendency is not due to dissatisfaction but due to need for variety.
Habitual Buying Behaviour:-
Many products are purchased with low involvement and without perception of
differences among different brands available. E.g. Salt. Consumer shows low
involvement in case of low cost, frequently purchased products. The consumer
decision making is based on brand familiarity rather than brand conviction. The
price, convenience or point of sale offer would play decisive role in buying.
Marketer would often induce product trial in such types of products. The
consumers usually do not evaluate the post purchase performance of such
products.
Stages In Buying Decision Process:-
Consumers pass through different stages during buying process. Marketer
would learn about the stages of buying process through four methods.
1. Introspective method: - They can about how they themselves would act for
purchasing.
2. Retrospective method: - They can interview recent buyers to collect
information about buying process.
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3. Prospective method: - They can locate prospective customers and ask them
the process they are going through and their action in future.
4. Prescriptive Method: - They can ask customers to describe the ideal way to
buy the product.
Generally teenage buying decision process can be divided in to five stages: -
 Problem Recognition
 Information Search
 Evaluation of Alternatives
 Purchase Decision and
 Post Purchase Evaluation.
All consumers may not go through all of the five stages. E.g. Purchaser of low
involvement product would not go through all the stages. However, Buyer of
high involvement products would pass through all the stages.





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Indian Textile Industry:


Indian Textile Industry is one of the leading textile industries in the world.
Currently it is estimated to be around US$ 52 billion and is also projected to be
around US$ 115 billion by the year 2012. The current domestic market of textile
in India is expected to be increased to US$ 60 billion by 2012 from the current
US$ 34.6 billion. Though was predominantly unorganized industry even a few
years back, but the scenario started changing after the economic liberalization of
Indian economy in 1991.
India textile industry largely depends upon the textile manufacturing and export.
It also plays a major role in the economy of the country. India earns about 27%
of its total foreign exchange through textile exports. Further, the textile industry
of India also contributes nearly 14% of the total industrial production of the
country. It also contributes around 3% to the GDP of the country. India textile
industry is also the largest in the country in terms of employment generation. It
not only generates jobs in its own industry, but also opens up scopes for the
other ancillary sectors. India textile industry currently generates employment to
more than 35 million people. It is also estimated that, the industry will generate
12 million new jobs by the year 2010.
Various Categories:

Indian textile industry can be divided into several segments, some of which can
be listed as below:

 Cotton Textiles
 Silk Textiles
 Woolen Textiles
 Readymade Garments
 Hand‐crafted Textiles
 Jute and Coir
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Current Facts on India Textile Industry:

o India retained its position as world‟s second highest cotton producer.
o Acreage under cotton reduced about 1% during 2008-09.
o The productivity of cotton which was growing up over the years has
decreased in 2008- 09.
o Substantial increase of Minimum Support Prices (MSPs).
o Cotton exports couldn't pick up owing to disparity in domestic and
international cotton prices.
o Imports of cotton were limited to shortage in supply of Extra Long staple
cottons.

Globalization of Indian Textile Industry

The initiation and development of globalization and Indian textile industry took
place simultaneously in the 1990s. The Indian textile industry is one of the
largest textile industries in the world and India earns around 27% of the foreign
exchange from exports of textiles and its related products. Further, globalization
of India textile Industry has seen a paradigm increase in the 'total industrial
production' factor of this Industry, which presently stands at 14%. Furthermore,
the contribution of the Indian textile Industry towards the gross domestic
product (GDP) of India is around 3% and the numbers are steadily increasing.
The process of globalization and Indian textile industry development was the
effect of rapid acceptance of 'open market' policy by the developing countries,
much in the lines of the developed countries of the world.

The globalization of the Indian textile sector was the cumulative effect of the
following factors -

 Huge textile production capacity
 Efficient multi-fiber raw material manufacturing capacity
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 Large pool of skilled and cheap work force
 Entrepreneurial skills
 Huge export potential
 Large domestic market
 Very low import content
 Flexible textile manufacturing systems

The Indian textile industry consist of the following sectors -

 Man-made Fiber
 Filament Yarn Industry
 Cotton Textile Industry
 Jute Industry
 Silk and Silk Textile Industry
 Wool & Woolen Industry
 Power loom Sector

An approximate number of textile manufacturing companies operating in
India are given below:

 Badges, emblems ribbons and allied products - 175
 Bed covers, curtains, cushions and other draperies - 2471
 Carpets and rugs - 270
 Embroidery and embroidered garments, made ups and furnishing - 848
 Fabrics and textiles - 3013
 Yarns and threads - 1201
 Jute products - 337
 Kids apparel and garments -1052
 Ladies apparel and garments - 2932
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 Men's' apparel and garments - 2936
 Miscellaneous garments, textile and leather accessories - 1658
 Yarns and threads - 1201
 Wool, woolen garments, blankets and accessories - 468
 Textile chemicals, dyeing and finishing chemicals - 239


What is Brand?

A brand is a product but adds other dimensions that differentiate it in some way
from other products designed to satisfy the same need.
A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design which is intended to identify
the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them
from those of competitors.
A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires brand recognition.
When brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a critical
mass of positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved brand
franchise. One goal in brand recognition is the identification of a brand without
the name of the company present.

Brand Elements

A variety of brand elements can be chosen that inherently enhance brand
awareness or facilitate the formation of strong, favorable, and unique brand
associations:

 Brand Name
 Logo
 Symbol
 Character
 Packaging
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 Slogan

Why do brand matter? To consumers

 Identification of sources of product
 Assignment of responsibility to product maker.
 Risk reducer
 Search cost reducer
 Symbolic device
 Signal of quality
 Promise or bond with product or maker

Why do brand matter? To Manufacturer

 Means of identification to simplifying handling and tracing.
 Means of legally protecting unique feature.
 Signal of quality
 Means of endowing products with unique associations.
 Sources of competitive advantage
 Sources of financial returns

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Textile Exports at a Glance
Sector
Target
2009-10
(Rs. in Crores/ US$ in Millions)
April-Feb. 2008-09 April-Feb. 2009-10
% increase/
decrease of 2008-
09 over 2009-10
% target
achieved
Rs. US$ Rs. US$ Rs. US$ US$
1.
Readymade
Garment
6250 23003.1 4746.4 22772.8 4946.7 -1.00% 4.20% 79.10%
2.Cotton
Textiles
4775 14701.8 3033.6 14302.9 3106.9 -2.70% 2.40% 65.10%
3.Man-made
textiles
1750 6153.4 1269.7 7521.2 1633.8 22% 28.70% 93.40%
4. Wool
500 1214.7 250.6 1513.3 328.7 24.60% 31.10% 65.70%
5. Silk
350 1995 411.6 2222.4 482.8 11.40% 17.30% 137.90%

Total
Textiles
13625 47068 9711.9 48333 10499 2.70% 8.10% 77.10%
6.
Handicrafts
2350 5767.7 1190.1 4230.7 919
-
26.60%
-
22.80%
39.10%
7. Coir
250 322.5 66.5 318 69.1 -1.40% 3.80% 27.60%
8. Jute
85 841.6 173.7 973.9 211.6 15.70% 21.80% 248.90%
Total
16310 54000 11142 53855 11699 -0.30% 5.00% 71.70%

Source : Foreign Trade Statistics of India (Principal Commodities & Countries)
DGCIS, Kolkata.
Technology in Garment industry
The garment industry in India is betting on technology as one of the major
growth factors for the industry. The Indian apparel industry, which took off in
the mid 60s, is worth around $15 billion now. The growth over the years has
been significant, and technology does have a role to play in that. In fact, the
industry has evolved gradually in terms of technology adoption and has reached
a critical mass today. The apparel technology solution market in India is over Rs
1,000 crore today and is growing regularly. Automated machines for cutting,
sewing, button-holes, CAD/CAM for pattern-making, etc, have brought down
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the cost of production considerably. As a result, garment companies now focus
on technology to be productive and cost-effective at the same time. In terms of
advancements in automation, Mr Mahajan said: „„Today we even have under
bed trimmers which stitch and trim excess thread simultaneously. This means a
huge saving on threads and excess manpower.‟‟ There are automated machines
for stitching collars and cuffs, finishing machines, pressing machines, etc.
There are more than a thousand garment manufacturing units in the country
today, out of which less than 200 are big players while the rest are in the small
and medium enterprises (SME) segment. One of the major restrictions in terms
of using technology is the huge initial investment.
But, technology adoption doesn‟t come easy to this industry. For, at least an
investment of Rs 2 crore is required for automating a 100-machine garment unit.
Not only has the cost of technology been a deterrent, this has also placed India
in a position much below other countries such as China, Sri Lanka and Korea, in
terms of production efficiency.
Automation can bring down the total cost of production by at least 10 to 15 per
cent, out of which the saving on fabric alone would be 5 to 7 per cent, according
to most of the industry players.







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COMPANY PROFILE – ADITYA BIRLA NUVO

Aditya Birla Nuvo Ltd., is the Aditya Birla Group's most diversified
conglomerate, with a turnover of Rs. 3860.62 crore for FY 2010. It is a leading
player in its key business segments, including viscose filament yarn (VFY),
carbon black, branded garments, textiles and insulators. Over the past three
years, Aditya Birla Nuvo through its subsidiaries has made successful forays
into insurance, IT services and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO), striking a
balance between manufacturing, brands and services.

A leading player

:: The second largest producer of viscose filament yarn (VFY) in India
:: The largest branded apparel company in India.
:: The second largest producer of carbon black in India.
:: Life insurance joint venture, Birla Sun Life Insurance Company Ltd, is India's
second largest private sector insurance company.
:: Insulators joint venture with Birla NGK Insulators Pvt Ltd is India's largest
and world's third largest producer of insulators.
:: Emerging player in high growth IT services and BPO sector.





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Capacities

Business Capacity
Viscose Filament Yarn (VFY) 17,000 tpa
Caustic soda 41,975 tpa
Carbon black 170,000 tpa
Flax yarns 6,036 spindles
Wool combing 4,000 tpa
Worsted yarns 21,136 spindles
Synthetic yarns 50,208 spindles
Linen / fire retardant fabrics / other fabrics
53 looms
Insulators 36,000 tpa
BPO 1,656 seats

Expansion underway

Business Capacity
Caustic soda 31,025 tpa
Wool combing 4,000 tpa
Carbon Black 50,000 tpa
BPO 450 seats


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Company Profile – Madura Garment

Madura Garments, Aditya Birla Nuvo's garments division, is a market leader in
branded apparel. It offers a wide range of ready-to-wear clothes to cater to every
market segment. Its power brands are Van Heusen, Louis Philippe and Allen
Solly. Its popular brand is Peter England, and its youth brand is San Frisco.
Exclusive showroom space has been expanded to two lakh sq.ft including retail
formats such as 41 Planet Fashion and nine Trouser Town showrooms in India
and another nine Planet Fashions in the Middle East.
The thrust is on new product innovations. The Company is aggressively
marketing its new initiatives like superior-crafted suits under all the brands,
Allen Solly's women's wear and jeans, as well as leveraging its retailing and
brand strength though licensing in select areas such as leather goods, ties and
other accessories.
Madura Garments' fully fledged design studio at Bangalore, headed by a Europe
based designer, constantly works on innovations to stay in tune with changing
trends and customer aspirations, keeping brands refreshed and on the cutting
edge. Suits and jackets from the recently set up state-of-the-art manufacturing
facility stack up with the best-in-class global brands, including formal suits
crafted with Italian technology. The launch of Allen Solly women's wear has
also met with an overwhelming response.
Louis Philippe and Allen Solly were accorded the prestigious “Super brands”
status, which marks them among the 101 most powerful brands across
categories in India. Madura Garments was adjudged as the “Best Apparel
Company” in the Clothing & Manufacturers Association of India (CMAI)
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awards. Allen Solly Women‟s Wear got the award for the best “Women‟s
Wear” brand.
Madura Garments’ key brands

:: Louis Philippe
Louis Philippe's range of superbly crafted garments makes an exclusive fashion
statement that is accepted as a status symbol, recognized by its distinctive icon -
'The Upper Crest'.
:: Van Heusen
Van Heusen has redefined corporate attire through continuous product
innovation and exclusive collections.
:: Allen Solly
Allen Solly popularized the Friday dressing concept in India. It has won the IFA
Images 2001 'Best Brand Award' in the readymade menswear apparel category.
With the launch of its women's wear in December 2001, Allen Solly has made a
successful foray into the growing women's work and casual wear market.
:: Peter England
This mid-segment shirt has effectively penetrated the mini metros. It has won
several awards, including 'Shirt of the Year 2000' and 'India's most admired
menswear brands 2001'.
:: SF Jeans
Positioned as the 'bad boy of denim' with a slew of radically different designs
and fits, SF Jeans is targeted at the 18 to 21-year-old youth. SF Jeans are
available in multiple styles such as the 'Oil and Grease Collection' – a line of
denim that takes its inspiration from the garage mechanic's overalls – and the
'Permanently Creased Collection' – which has wrinkles and creases that
normally appear after years of wear. These jeans are available in boot cut, low
waist and belt less frayed styles.
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OPERATIONAL STRATEGY
Drivers to Growth
 BEST PEOPLE IN THE INDUSTRY
 STRONG BRANDS – FURTHER STRENGTHENED BY BRAND
DEVELOPMENT
 EXERCISES
 TRANSFORMATION FROM SHIRTS BRAND TO LIFESTYLE
BRANDS
 TRANSFORMATION FROM WHOLESALE TO RETAIL
ORIENTATION
 ROBUST SUPPLY CHAIN - MANAGING MULTIPLE PRODUCT
CATEGORIES
 AND MULTIPLE CHANNELS.
 JUDICIOUS MIX OF OWN AND OUTSOURCED
MANUFACTURING
 STRONG DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
CAPABILITIES
Mission is to be India‟s leading clothing company
1. By achieving World Class Standards
2. Quality, Customer Service, Design and Brand Equity
3. Through empowered and motivated employees
Madura Garments is unquestioned Indian market leader for branded men‟s wear
with sales of Rs. 548 crore in 2010 has maintained growth rate of 35-40% for
last many years.

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Company is pioneers of ready-to-wear in India
1. Louis Philippe launched in „89 the first national level up-market
men‟s shirt.
2. Van Heusen launched in 1990, positioned as International
corporate wear .
3. Introduced concept of Friday Dressing with Allen Solly in 1995.
4. Launch of mid-priced Peter England in 1997 - currently the largest
selling shirt brand in India .
5. San Frisco Trousers - Great trousers that last - launched in 1999.













Also does Contract Exports of high value, high quality shirts to select private
labels.


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 Madura Garments now has essentially three businesses
Premium Brands
Mid Priced Brands
Peter
England
Mid-priced shirt brand - the honest shirt. It is India’s largest shirt
brand.
San
Frisco
Recent foray into trousers. Mid-priced positioning as the "Hard
working trousers."
Byford Knitwear brand for Socks and T-shirts. Leading International
position for under clothes
Contract Exports
 All three businesses exhibit widely different characteristics
Segment Key Success Factors
Premium Brands  Fashion,
 Innovation,
 Retail Image and Identity
Mid Priced Brands  Distribution Reach,
 Replenishments,
 Brand Salience,
 Retail visibility
Contract Exports  Price Competitiveness,
 Delivery response,
 Quota
Louis
Philippe
Up market top of the line brand. Enjoy "Upper Crest" status
symbol.
Van
Heusen
Powerful contemporary corporate wear. It is one of the largest
shirt brands in USA.
Allen Solly Smart Casual Line. It pioneered the "Friday Dressing" concept.
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Madura Garments is a virtual company with 1030 employees, Investment of Rs.
535 crore and Sales Revenue of Rs. 845 crore.
COMPETITION
 Tailor Made
 Ready Made
1. Textile Mills integrating forward. e.g. Raymonds, Arvind, Bombay
Dyeing, Mafatlal, Siyarams, etc.
2. Garment Exporters focussing onto domestic market e.g. Zodiac,
Color Plus, Lerros, Weekender, Wearhouse, etc
3. Retail Chains bringing own Brands, e.g. Shopper‟s Stop, Westside,
Pantaloon, etc.
4. Fabric Distributors diversifying into Garments, e.g. Crocodile, Pan
America, etc.
5. Other Localized competition e.g. Cambridge in Bombay, Turtle in
Calcutta, etc.
MEN’S READY-TO-WEAR INDUSTRY
 Market size is estimated at Rs. 6000 crore (1999), Rs. 15000 crore by
2010.
 Branded sector share is currently about 25% of market; expected to be
about 45-50% share by 2010.
 Market is expected to grow at about 8-10% p.a. While branded formal
wear will grow at about 10-11%, Branded semi-formal/casual will grow
at about 20-22%.
 Growth drivers
1. Emergence of large scale organized retailing
2. Change in consumer aspirations / lifestyles
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3. Launches in the Mid value / Economy Segments
 Business Opportunities
1. Rapid shift on going from tailor-made to ready-made garments in
shirts and trousers.
2. Current readymade usage is 20% in shirts and less than 5% in
trousers.
3. Per capital clothing usage increasing in casual wear.
4. Urban women's wear will shift to western style clothing over the
next 10-15 years.

























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About Peter England


Peter England as a brand has a rich heritage. It began in the year 1885 when
foundation was struck for 5 storied building in Ireland. In 1888 Peter England
factory came in to being. It was during 1889-1902 that the company expanded
when it got the order for outfits for British soldiers for the Boer war. The order
was large and it demanded quality merchandise at Honest –to- goodness price.

The brand came to India in 1997. During that period there was a huge
potential for a mid segment shirts in the 60mn pieces Indian shirt market. The
industry was dominated by in store brands and the consumers have to
painstakingly check for the right shirt. The then owners of Peter England
(Indian Rayon) wanted to tap this segment. Thus, evolved the idea of a brand
that aims to shorten the buying process of the consumer.
Research also revealed that the consumers perceived premium shirts as
overpriced and there was a need for such a national brand. Also another insight
was that the market had a perception that good things happen to people who
wear good clothes.
Peter England was initially positioned as an “Honest Shirt”. The strategy
clicked and has to click because the product was very good and the price was
excellent. It just fit in to ones budget. The target market for the brand was the
24-28 ambitious and career oriented youth.
In order to make sure that the excitement remains, Peter England came
out with various ranges and varieties of shirts. The brand also extended to
trousers with the same positioning. Although some of the variants like English
Cottons compromised on quality, the brand still enjoys a good equity in the
targeted customer‟s min.
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In 2002 the brand made a slight makeover. The positioning changed to
“Honestly Impressive”. The aim is to make the brand more than just value for
money proposition but also as a lifestyle brand. It has maintained its value
proposition unchanged.
Peter England is a brand that clearly shows a marketer that it is possible
to sell... Honestly.
The Peter England People (PEP) brand is marketed through Peter England
Fashions and Retail, a division of Aditya Birla Nuvo, which is one kind of
specialty store.
The PEP brand, which is distinctly different from its more retail brand,
will be rolled out through 80 stores spread over 34 cities across India in the next
three to five years. After Mumbai, the next stop for launching the new retail
brand will be Bangalore, which will be immediately followed by Hyderabad and
Delhi by early June. And by the end of the fiscal, the company expects to have
10 such stores across different cities. Each store will be spread over 10,000 to
15,000 sq ft. PEP‟s hallmark will be the concept of a family store, where Peter
England brands of men‟s, women‟s and kid‟s wear will be on the shelves.
 Peter England, the hallmark of honesty, started off with shirts and now
Comprises of the entire men's wardrobe containing the full range of
garments.
 Popular for lifestyle brands.
 The largest selling shirt brand in the country.
 Owned by Madura Garments in India with a retail value of 130 crores.




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The Honest Shirt
Honestly Impressive






































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Formal
Wears
Casual
Wears
Accessorie
s
Other
Shirt
s
Trousers Suits Ties
Sock
s
Undergarments
Wallet
s
Belts
T-
shirts
Denim
s
Half
Sleeve
s
Full
sleeves
Half
sleeves
Full
sleeves
Color-
A
Color-
B
Color-
A
Color-
B
Small
Extra-large
Large
Medium
Smal
l
Extra-large
Larg
e
Medium
Categor
y
Sub-
Category-I
Sub-
Category-II
Stock Keeping
Units
Peter England
specialty store
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Product Range of Peter England






























PRODUCT RANGE


Fashion apparel in 100% Cotton (Natural fibers)

Men’s wear

Formal–Casuals
Party wear– Shirts
Trousers
Denims
Chinos
Cargos-Shirts
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SWOT ANALYSIS
1. Strengths
 Extensive range of office and casual wear
 Good quality label and branding
 Contemporary designs, colors and price
 Wide distribution , easy availability
 Well-orchestrated merchandising
 High market viability
 Use of latest information technology for collaborative planning ,
forecasting and replenishment
2. Weakness
 Product knowledge of the store persons is lower.
 Very few customer prefers to go for specialty store (may be brand
loyal customers only). So specialty store format sometimes leads to
lower sales.
 Pre- and Post- purchase uncertainty and anxiety over fit, quality,
shrinkage, durability etc. because of readymade garments.
3. Opportunity
 Large educated and working class available in Pune is one of the
opportunities because their target market itself is youth.
 They can also go for brand extension and store extension.
 Increased disposable income of the working class.
4. Threats
 Belief of Indian consumers-“ Premium shirt brands were
overpriced”, “good quality product at a great price”
 Threat from the local vendors and other big players.
31

STORE INTERIORS
The principal objective of any retailer is to maximize its sales and customer
satisfaction, and to minimize the operational costs. Therefore, the interior of the
store should be designed in such a way that it serves this purpose. The store
interiors should be attractive. Peter England specialty store have considered two
parameters
 The value of space
 Space utilization and allocation



Overall designing of the store interior was good, but there is only one seating
arrangement provided. They can increase the no. of seating arrangement to
increase convenience level for the customers.

ATMOSPHERICS

Visual communication











From the above photographs it is
32

clear that specialty store of Peter England has a good visual communication
which involves communicating with the customers through graphics, signs and
certain theatrical effects inside the store.

Lighting and Fragrance



In the store lighting is used intelligently to highlight the merchandise and attract
customers to specific departments in the store as shown into photo.

Some of the main objectives they have achieved with lighting are following:

 Highlighting the displayed product.
 Capturing customer‟s mood.
 Masking the unattractive features or places of the store.
There is also a mild fragrance available into the store to influence the
purchasing decisions of the target market.
Colours and Music:


Instrument for fragrance
33

As shown into the photos they have used mild colours (like cream colour) for
ceiling and walls, so that customer can recognize different colours of various
apparels very easily. There is no any kind of music which perfectly matches
with the “Honestly Impressive” tagline of Peter England.


IT SYSTEM IN STORE





















As shown into photo, they are using Bar-code reader to directly feed the
information into their system, so that they can manage the inventory properly.
They were using the software “Shopper -A Retail Solution”. This software is
directly connected to their warehouse and it automatically generates order
quantity by forecasting the demand.
Because of the above Bar-code reading technique, they are able to get the real
time information of various SKUs and also about the consumer preferences
which help them to schedule the production.
34

Aims and Objectives of the Project Work
The main aims and objectives of this project work are as follows: -
(i) To become familiar with the corporate environment.
(ii) To study the importance of teenage buying behavior.
(iii) To get a field on experience to prepare a project on the study of importance
of teenage buying behavior in branded ready-made garment industry.
(iv) To find out probable limitations of the buying behavior models.


Limitations of the Study

 First limitation of this project is the very short time limit.
 A portion of the respondents are not cooperative.
 The researcher is inexperienced.
 Biasness or prejudice of some of the respondents regarding any sort of
the information which is required for such study.
 Not much of importance was attached to this task by some of the
Respondents.
 The sample size of the respondents is very small.
 The method of sampling is judgement sampling.









35

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Meaning of Research:
Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also
define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on
a specific topic. In fact, research is an act of scientific investigation. The
advanced learner s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of
research as a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new
facts in any branch of knowledge. Redman and Mory define research as a
systematized effort to gain new knowledge.
Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a
technical sense. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and
redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution; collecting,
organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions;
and at last carefully testing the conclusion to determine whether they fit the
formulating hypothesis. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study,
observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for knowledge
through objective and systematic method finding solution to problem is
research.
Objectives of research:
The purpose of research is to discover answer to questions through the
application of scientific procedures. Through each research study has its own
36

specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number
of following groups: -
1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or archive new insights into it.
2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or
a group.
Meaning Of Research Methodology:
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It
may be understood as science of studying how research is done scientifically. In
it we study various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying
his research problem along with logic behind them. It is necessary for researcher
to know not only the research methods/ techniques but also the methodology.
Research methodology has many dimensions and research methods do
constitutes a part of the research methodology. Thus when we talk of research
methodology we not only talk of research methods but also consider logic
behind the methods we use in context of our research study and explain why we
are using a particular method or technique and why we are not using others so
that research result is capable of being evaluated either by the researcher
himself or by others.
Research Process:
Before embarking on the details of research methodology and techniques, it
seems appropriate to present a brief overview of research process. Research
process consists of a series of action or steps necessary to effectively carry out
37

research and the desires sequencing of these steps. The following order
concerning various steps provides a useful procedural guideline regarding the
research process:
1. Formulating the research problem.
2. Extensive literature survey.
3. Development of working hypothesis.
4. Preparing the research design.
5. Determining sample size.
6. Collecting the data.
 By observation.
 Through personal interview.
 Through telephone interview.
 By mailing of questionnaires.
 Through schedules.
7. Execution of the project.
8. Analysis of data.
9. Generalization and interpretation.
10. Preparation of the report.
Types of Research:
1. Descriptive research.
2. Analytical research.
38

3. Applied research.
4. Fundamental research.
5. Quantitative research.
6. Qualitative research.
7. Conceptual research.
8. Empirical research.
The above-mentioned are the various type of research, which a researcher can
apply in order to achieve one‟s desired objective. Therefore to achieve the
objectives of my research I have used descriptive research.
This will be based on proper Research design to meet the objectives of the
project study.
Sampling
It involves procedures that use a small part of population to make conclusion
regarding the whole population.
Sampling unit: Teen age boys and girls living in Local residential areas of
Asansol and restaurants, schools, colleges and shopping malls.
Sample size: 100
Sampling method: Judgment sampling.





39

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA



Age Group of Respondents Percentage
12- 13 years 13%
14-15 years 18%
16-17 years 37%
18-19 years 32%










Interpretation:
 37% of t he customer is under the age group of 16-17yrs.
 32% of the customer is under the age group of 18-19yrs.
 18% of the customer is under the age group of 14-15yrs.
 13% of the customer is under the age group of 12-13yrs.



13
18
37
32
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
12-13yrs 14-15yrs 16-17yrs 18-19yrs
Age group
40


Annual Income of the Respondents Percentage
Less than 3 lakhs 32%
3 lakhs – less than 6 lakhs 47%
6 lakhs and more 21%























Interpretation:

The above chart depicts the total number of customers divided on the basis of
their Annual Income. Analyzing the above pie chart it is easily seen that the
Annual income of maximum customer are more than 3 lakhs and below 6 lakhs.
The percentage is 47%. Another 32% of customers have Annual income of 6
lakhs and above and 21% of customers are below the range of 3 lakhs.

21%
47%
32%
Annual Income
Less than 3
lakhs
3 lakhs - less
than 6 lakhs
6 lakhs & more
41


1. HAVE YOU USED BRANDED T-SHIRT?

OPTIONS
TOTAL NUMBER OF
RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE
YES 71 71%
NO 29 29%






Interpretation:

A major amount of people (71%) said that they have used branded T-shirt.
















71%
29%
Yes
No
42

2. ARE YOU CONSUS ABOUT PETER ENGLAND T –SHIRT?


OPTIONS
TOTAL NUMBER OF
RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE
YES 89 89%
NO 11 11%







Interpretation:

 A large amount of Respondents (89%) said that they knew about Peter
England.










89%
11%
Yes
No
43


3. HAVE YOU USED PETER ENGLAND EARLIER?

OPTIONS
TOTAL NUMBER OF
RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE
YES 63 63%
NO 37 37%




Interpretation:

 A large amount of Respondents (63%) said that they knew about Peter
England.












63%
37%
Yes
No
44

4. DO YOU HAVE ANY PLAN TO PURCHASE PETER ENGLAND T-
SHIRT?


OPTIONS
TOTAL NUMBER OF
RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE
YES 77 77%
NO 23 23%



















Interpretation:

 77% Respondents said that they have planned to purchase Peter England.









77%
23%
Yes
No
45

5. WHICH TIME YOU MAY PREFER TO PURCHASE PETER ENGLAND
T-SHIRT?

OPTIONS
TOTAL NUMBER OF
RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE
Festive Time 62 62%
Special Occasions 21 21%
Special offer time 13 13%
Any time in the year 4 4%




Interpretation:

62% Respondents purchase Peter England in Festive time, 21% in special
occasion, 13% in special offer time and 4% any time.









62%
21%
13%
4%
Festive Time
Special Occasion
Special offer time
Any time
46

6. ASSIGN A SCORE BETWEEN -1 TO +1 AGAINST A SPECIFIC
FEATURE IN CASE OF BOTH BRANDED AND UNBRANDED T-SHIRTS.

FEATURES BRANDED T-SHIRTS
UNBRANDED T-
SHIRTS
+1 0 -1 +1 0 -1
STYLE 85 13 02 23 32 45
COLOUR
AVAILABILITY
81 17 02 12 15 73
PRODUCT RANGE 80 19 01 18 30 52
LONG-LASTING 88 10 02 25 26 49
PRICE 41 22 37 69 29 02
RELIABILITY 91 08 01 11 22 67
















Interpretation:

85% respondents are thinking branded T-Shirts are Stylish. 13% respondents are
thinking branded T-Shirts are average stylish. 2% respondents are thinking
branded T-Shirts are not Stylish.
81% respondents are thinking branded T-Shirts are available of different
colours. 17% respondents are thinking branded T-Shirts are average available of
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
RELIABILITY
PRICE
LONG-LASTING
PRODUCT RANGE
COLOUR
AVAILABILITY
STYLE
47

different colours. 2% respondents are thinking branded T-Shirts are not
available of different colours.
80% respondents are thinking branded T-Shirts are having a wide product
range. 19% respondents are thinking branded T-Shirts are having an average
product range. 1% respondent thinks branded T-Shirts are not having any wide
product range.
88% respondents are thinking branded T-Shirts are long-lasting. 10%
respondents are thinking branded T-Shirts are average-lasting. 2% respondents
are thinking branded T-Shirts are not long-lasting.
41% respondents are preferring branded T-Shirts though they are having a good
price. 22% respondents are thinking branded T-Shirts are having an average
price. 37% respondents are thinking branded T-Shirts are really costly.
91% respondents are thinking branded T-Shirts are reliable. 8% respondents are
thinking branded T-Shirts are somehow reliable. 1% respondent thinks branded
T-Shirts are not reliable.
23% respondents are thinking unbranded T-Shirts are Stylish. 32% respondents
are thinking unbranded T-Shirts are average stylish. 45% respondents are
thinking unbranded T-Shirts are not Stylish.
12% respondents are thinking unbranded T-Shirts are available of different
colours. 15% respondents are thinking unbranded T-Shirts are average available
of different colours. 73% respondents are thinking unbranded T-Shirts are not
available of different colours.
18% respondents are thinking unbranded T-Shirts are having a wide product
range. 30% respondents are thinking unbranded T-Shirts are having an average
product range. 52% respondent thinks unbranded T-Shirts are not having any
wide product range.
25% respondents are thinking unbranded T-Shirts are long-lasting. 26%
respondents are thinking unbranded T-Shirts are average-lasting. 49%
respondents are thinking branded T-Shirts are not long-lasting.
48

69% respondents are preferring unbranded T-Shirts as they are having a low
price. 29% respondents are thinking unbranded T-Shirts are having an average
price. 2% respondents are thinking unbranded T-Shirts are having a high price.
11% respondents are thinking unbranded T-Shirts are reliable. 22% respondents
are thinking unbranded T-Shirts are somehow reliable. 67% respondents are
thinking unbranded T-Shirts are not reliable.































49


7. RANK THE FOLLOWING FEATURES OF PETER ENGLAND T-SHIRTS
ACCORDING TO YOUR OWN CHOICE.

Features Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Rank 5 Rank 6
STYLE 19 21 18 17 10 15
COLOUR
AVAILABILITY
18 23 26 15 09 09
PRODUCT RANGE 17 19 19 18 20 07
LONG-LASTING 20 15 14 16 18 17
PRICE 02 06 18 24 25 25
RELIABILITY 24 16 05 10 18 27




























0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Rank 6
Rank 5
Rank 4
Rank 3
Rank 2
Rank 1
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Rank 1 Rank
2
Rank
3
Rank
4
Rank
5
Rank
6
RELIABILITY
PRICE
LONG-LASTING
PRODUCT RANGE
COLOUR
AVAILABILITY
STYLE
50

Interpretation:

19% respondents assigned rank 1 against the feature style. 21% respondents
assigned rank 2 against the feature style. 18% respondents assigned rank 3
against the feature style. 17% respondents assigned rank 4 against the feature
style. 10% respondents assigned rank 5 against the feature style. 15%
respondents assigned rank 6 against the feature style.
18% respondents assigned rank 1 against the feature colour availability. 23%
respondents assigned rank 2 against the feature colour availability. 26%
respondents assigned rank 3 against the feature colour availability. 15%
respondents assigned rank 4 against the feature colour availability. 09%
respondents assigned rank 5 against the feature colour availability. 09%
respondents assigned rank 6 against the feature colour availability.
17% respondents assigned rank 1 against the feature product range. 19%
respondents assigned rank 2 against the feature product range. 19% respondents
assigned rank 3 against the feature product range. 18% respondents assigned
rank 4 against the feature product range. 20% respondents assigned rank 5
against the feature product range. 07% respondents assigned rank 6 against the
feature product range.
20% respondents assigned rank 1 against the feature long-lasting. 15%
respondents assigned rank 2 against the feature long-lasting. 14% respondents
assigned rank 3 against the feature long-lasting. 16% respondents assigned rank
4 against the feature long-lasting. 18% respondents assigned rank 5 against the
feature long-lasting. 17% respondents assigned rank 6 against the feature long-
lasting.
2% respondents assigned rank 1 against the feature price. 6% respondents
assigned rank 2 against the feature price. 18% respondents assigned rank 3
against the feature price. 24% respondents assigned rank 4 against the feature
51

price. 25% respondents assigned rank 5 against the feature price. 25%
respondents assigned rank 6 against the feature price.
24% respondents assigned rank 1 against the feature reliability. 16%
respondents assigned rank 2 against the feature reliability. 5% respondents
assigned rank 3 against the feature reliability. 10% respondents assigned rank 4
against the feature reliability. 18% respondents assigned rank 5 against the
feature reliability. 27% respondents assigned rank 6 against the feature
reliability.





















52

FINDINGS

This study is conducted only among teenagers.

 All the teenagers are further classified into age groups and the
major response is provided by 16-17 years aged respondents.
 Majority of respondents are belonging to annual income group 3
lakhs- less than 6 lakhs.
 Majority of respondents are habituated with branded T-shirt.
 Though a particular portion of the respondents have not used Peter
England T-shirts, but majority of them have purchased Peter
England T-shirt earlier.
 Majority of respondents are so interested to purchase Peter England
T-shirt in future.
 Majority of respondents are preferring festive time to purchase
Peter England T-shirts.
 Only a small fraction of the respondents are preferring any time in
the year to purchase Peter England.
 Majority of respondents are thinking branded T-shirts are more
stylish than Unbranded T-shirt.
53

 Majority of respondents are thinking branded T-shirt are available
in more colours than Unbranded T-shirt.
 Majority of respondents are thinking branded T-shirts are having a
wider product range in comparison with Unbranded T-shirts.
 Majority of respondents are thinking branded T-shirts are more
reliable than Unbranded T-shirts.
 The negative side of Peter England T-shirts is it’s price. A larege
portion of the sample avoids to purchase Peter England T-shirts
only because of its high price.
 Majority of respondents have assigned the highest rank on Peter
England T-shirts against the feature of price.
 A significant portion of the sample shows their non reliability on
Peter England T-shirts.














54



















CONCLUSION

In order to survive and grow the organization has to delight the customers.
Consumers will be delighted if they get more than what they expect. Study of
consumer behavior helps in knowing their expectations and the sacrifices they
are ready to make in order to fulfil those expectations.
Study of consumer behavior assumes that consumers are actors in the market
place. Consumers play various roles in the market place. Starting from
information provider to consumer, from user to payer and to disposer,
consumers play roles in the decision process.
Different people play different roles in different stages of purchase. A purchaser
or customer may not be the same person for example a person who purchases a
product for the family may not be the consumer of the product.
55

Consumers may take the form of an organization or group. Decisions by
organizations and groups can be studied as organizational buying behavior or
group buying behavior. An enterprise-oriented decision making is
organizational buying behavior, family behavior can be termed as group buying
behavior. It is important to know how a consumer makes his decision regarding
buying, or not buying any product, service, idea, concept or thought.
Marketer needs to develop an understanding of how teen age consumers
actually make the buying decisions. He must identify who makes the buying
decision, the types of buying decisions; and steps in the buying process.
Ultimately the Purchase decision of a teen-ager involves six sub decisions:
A. Brand Decision (What To Buy?)- Here Peter England convinces customers
with the help of advertisements and celebrity endorsements.
B. Vendor Decision (Where To Buy?)- Here Peter England showroom near
Veteran Petrol Pump influences customers with the help of in-store display.
C. Quantity Decision (How Much To Buy?)- This decision is influenced by the
sales persons.
D. Quality Decision – The quality of a Peter England T-Shirt and Perception of
teenagers are influencing this sub decision.
E. Timing Decision (When To Buy?) – Different types of offers provided by
Peter England, special occasions and willingness of the teenager influence this
sub decision.
&
56

F. Payment Decision (Cash Payment or Credit Payment) – The final sub
decision is making the payment. In today‟s techno savvy world cash free
electronic monet transfer mechanisms are becoming popular. The ability of a
teenager to pay successfully proceeds towards a positive sale outcome.
Thus purchase decision of a teenager in case of branded T-Shirt like Peter
England is ultimately produced dye to his or her commitment for a product.





SUGGESTIONS & RECOMENDATIONS
Researchers are suggesting teenage buyers are showing mainly two types of
behaviours – either they are influenced by social class and status or they are
deeply concerned about quality at a cheaper price. As a result detail discussion
of the factors influencing them is essential and this study will suggest organized
retail giants like Peter England a particular roadmap to success.
The consumer decision process explains the internal process as well as
individual behavior for making product or service decisions. The consumption
process is influenced by external factors like cultural, social, personal, and
psychological factors.
Influence of Cultural Factors:
Culture, subculture and social class are particularly important in buying
behavior.
57

Culture: - Culture is the fundamental determinant of a person‟s wants and
behavior. Culture refers to the traditions, taboos, values and basic attitudes of
the whole society within which an individual lives. The growing child acquires
a set of values, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors through his or her family
and other key institutions. E.g. A child growing up in India is exposed to the
values like tolerance, Equality, Sacrifice, love for the family¸ respect for the
elders and guru etc. Culture teaches an individual the acceptable norms of
behaviour and tells him the right or wrongs. Cultural values affect how the
business is conducted. Culture also affects consumption behavior. Culture
influences can be seen in the food habits and dressing style of people. It also
influences communication, attitudes and values that influence consumption
patterns. Culture influences are highly conspicuous in communication
messages. Use of colors, symbols, and language and message sources reflect
culture. The main aim behind it could be to tune their messages according to the
cultural specifications of various regions that they operate in. Culture values are
passed on from one generation to the next.
Subculture: - Each culture consists of smaller subcultures that provide more
specific identification and socialization for their members. Subcultures include
nationalities, religions, and geographic regions. When subcultures grow large
and affluent enough, companies design specialized marketing programs to serve
them. Such programs are known as diversity marketing. E.g. In diverse country
like India, people from different region show distinct difference in their food
58

habits and clothing styles. Also the consumption pattern is also affected by
religious diversity.
Social Class:-
Social class refers to the hierarchical arrangements of the society into various
divisions, each of which signifies social status or standing. Social class is an
important determinant of consumer behavior as it affects consumption patterns,
lifestyle, media patterns, activities and interests of the consumers.
Social classes not only reflect income, but other indicators such as occupation,
education, area of residence. E.g. two consumers earning the same income may
differ considerably in lifestyle when one has professional qualification at the
post of graduate level and is employed at the senior management cadre of
multinational, while the other is self employed, with education confined to a
few years of schooling. Social classes differ in many characteristics.
Social classes show distinct product and brand preferences in many areas
including their lifestyles, they differ in media preferences, and there are also
language differences among the social classes. In addition to the cultural and
social factors, a consumer‟s behavior is also influenced by factors such as
reference groups, family, and social roles and status.
Reference Groups: -
An individual‟s attitude, value and behavior are influenced by different groups.
These groups are called reference groups and they have direct or indirect
influence on the individual. Buying behavior of consumers is largely influenced
59

by the reference group to which they belong or aspire to belong. Reference
groups are of two types:
Primary Reference Group:
This group is further divided into four subgroups namely (a) Membership
reference group: This is the group to which a person holds membership and has
frequent interactions with other members of group. He comes in regular and
informal contact with the members of this group and is directly influenced by
them. (b)Aspiration reference group: This is the group to which the individual
does not hold any membership bur desires to belong to that group. He tries to
copy the attitudes and behavior, including buying behavior of the members of
the group. (c) Disclaiming reference group: This is a group to which an
individual holds a membership but does not want to belong to and therefore, all
his actions would be opposed to that of the group. He tries not to be influenced
by the attitudes, values and behavior of the members of this group. (d)
Avoidance group: This is the reference group to which an individual does not
hold any membership. He tries to resent the values and beliefs of such a group.
Secondary Reference Group:-
Secondary groups include religious groups, professional associations and trade
unions with which the interaction of customer is formal and infrequent. Every
reference group has its own set of opinion leaders. Opinion leaders are
perceived as people with special skills, knowledge, personality etc. Opinion
leaders influence actions or attitudes of others informally. Marketers should
60

identify the opinion leaders of their target group for specific product/s and then
they should target their marketing efforts towards these role models. The
marketer can use the opinion leader to communicate the message through its
promotion and advertising campaigns.
Family: -
A family is defined as two or more persons related by blood, marriage or
adoption and reside together. A family is a small reference group but it is
prominent in influencing consumer behavior. Families go through various
stages of lifecycle, each stage creates different demands for different products
and buying behavior of the members is greatly influenced by the stage of the
family lifecycle. E.g Consumer demands of a bachelor are different from those
of a newly married couple.
Members of a family exert a strong influence on the buying decision. The
husband, the wife, and the children play different roles while purchasing
expensive products and services and these roles vary from country to country.
E.g. the major buying decisions in Indian family are taken by the parents. Joint
decisions are taken by the husband and wife for purchasing expensive products
and services. Therefore marketers should be interested in the roles played by the
members and the relative influence each member exerts on the buying
decisions. Marketer tries to adjust their marketing mix to influence the decision
of the decision maker in the family.
Personal Factors: -
61

There are different personal factors, which affect the buying decision process.
These factors, such as the age, sex, lifecycle stage, occupation, economic
conditions, personality, etc. are unique to everyone.
Age and lifecycle stage: -
Changes in the society have led to the creation of different categories like
couples marrying late in life, childless couples, single parents, etc., besides the
traditional lifecycle stages which included young singles, married couples and
lone survivors. Over the lifecycle stages, people use different products and their
demand for goods and services keep changing. People at different ages will
have different tastes on food, clothes, furniture and recreation. Hence marketers
should determine the needs of their target markets and introduce different
products and marketing efforts targeted at different stages.
Occupation and financial status: -
Occupation and income level of a person have a major impact on his savings
and buying behavior. E.g. A blue collar worker will indulge more in purchasing
clothes, shoes, etc. which he can wear to work. Similarly, a company‟s
chairman may buy clothes, accessories, and other products and services that suit
his lifestyle. The financial condition of an individual such as his disposable his
income, savings, his ability to buy costly products and services on installments
and bear the interest rates, etc. will have significant influence on his buying
behavior.
Lifestyle: -
62

An individual‟s way of leading his life will determine his lifestyle. Factors such
as work life, interests, social groups, etc. influence the lifestyle of an individual.
Psychological Factors: -
Psychological factors that influence consumer buyer behavior are motivation,
perception, attitude and learning.
Motivation: - A motive is a strong urge that drives a person‟s activities towards
unfulfilled needs and wants. Consumers are influenced by a motive or a set of
motives when they have unfulfilled needs. Needs are the motivational elements
behind the purchasing behavior of the customers. One of the most widely
known theory, hierarchy of needs, was proposed by Abraham Maslow explains
why people are driven by particular needs at a particular times.
According to Maslow needs are classified as shown in the following hierarchy.
(a) Physiological needs
(b) Security needs
(c) Social needs and esteem needs
(d) Self actualization needs.
Consumers tend to satisfy their needs on the basis of the intensity or
requirement of the needs. For example, physiological need is the most basic
need and hence, an individual would satisfy it first. Satisfaction of one need
leads to emergence of higher level unfulfilled needs. Needs are general in nature
but wants arise out of the desire to fulfil the needs in a specific way. For
example, food can be classified as a need but eating a particular dish or at a
63

particular food joint are a want. Wants that are conditioned by certain motives
are known as buying motives. Marketers must work to create these wants in the
customers and target/position their product in such a way as to invoke desire in
the customer to fulfil these wants.
Perceptions: Perception is defined as the process by which an individual selects,
organizes and interprets stimuli into meaningful thoughts and pictures.
Customers base their perception on their needs, wants, past experiences and
something that they consider to be true. For example, a subscriber/ reader who
read a particular newspaper or journal might perceive it to give the true picture
of the happenings around him. Perceptions of a person are affected by many
factors like reality, sense, risk, etc.
• Customers perceive their environment through the sense of touch, smell, taste,
hearing, etc.
• Customer‟s buying decisions are also influenced by the risk factor involved.
For example, does the customer perceive the product to be safe, does he find it
worth in spending the time shopping, and does he think that the price is worth
the amount paid for? Marketers can address these problems though appropriate
marketing communication strategies.
• Understanding the customer‟s perception helps the marketer position their
product better than that of the competitors, it helps them develop the right store
image, product quality, price, distribution channel etc.
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Hence marketers must make an effort to understand the perceptions of the
customers and adjust their marketing mix accordingly.
Beliefs and Attitude:
A belief is a descriptive image or thought that an individual holds about
something. People acquire beliefs and attitudes through experience as well as
learning. The beliefs and attitudes held by people, in turn, influence their buying
behavior. A person‟s attitude is a set of his feelings and the way in which he
reacts to a given idea or thought. Attitudes can be positive, negative or neutral.
Customer attitudes are based on their past experiences with the products and
through their interaction and relationship with their respective reference groups.
Customer‟s attitude can have a major impact on a firm‟s marketing efforts. For
example, a customer with a negative attitude towards a company or its product,
does not only stop purchasing the product but is likely to influence, by
appealing, his reference group to refrain from buying the same.















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REFERENCES

Principles of Marketing, Philip Kotler & Gary Armstrong, 11th edition,
Prentice Hall of India Private Limites, New Delhi, 2006
Marketing Management, A south Asian Perspective, Philip Kotler, Kevin
Lane Keller, Abraham Koshy, Mithileshwar Jha, 13th Edition, Pearson Prentice
Hall, 2009
Marketing Management, Planning, Implementation and control, Global
Perspective Indian Context, V S Ramaswamy & S Namakumari, 3rd Edition,
Macmillan India Limited, New Delhi, 2007
Marketing Managemnet, Rajan Saxena, 3rd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill
Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 2006
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Marketing Management, 13th Edition, S A Sherlekar, Himalaya Publishing
House, Mumbai, 2007
Basic Marketing A global Managerial Approach, 15th Edition, William D
Perreault Jr, E Jerome McCarthy, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2006
Marketing Case Study Solutions, 2nd Edition, H Kaushal, MacMillan India
Ltd., New Delhi, 2007
Marketing Management Cases and concepts, Nikhilesh Dholakia, Rakesh
Khurana, Labdhi Bhandari, Abhinandan K Jain, 8th publication, Macmillan
India, New Delhi, 2007
Marketing Concepts nad Cases, Michael J Etzel, B J Walker, William J
Stanton and Ajay Pandit, 13th Edition, Tata McGraw hill, New Delhi, 2008
 www.peterengland.com

 www.maduragarments.com

 www.indian-textile.com

 www.marketshare.com

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