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Chapter 7

Rotational Motion and Dynamics


Motion
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Rotational Kinematics
Rolling motion and
Energy
Rotational Motion
Rotational Kinematics
Moment of Inertia
Unit of Chapter 7
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Moment of Inertia
Rotational Work and Power
Rolling motion and Energy
Rotational Motion
Rotational motion refers to something rotating or
moving in a circle around an axis, moving across an
angle as it rotates.
Since the motion is measured by the angle through
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Since the motion is measured by the angle through
which it rotates, it is also called angular motion and
since it generally rotates in a circle, it is related to
circular motion.
One difference between rotational motion and
circular motion is that in circular motion, the entire
object moves in a circle while in rotational motion, it
rotates around an axis in itself.
Rotational Motion
In the simplest kind of rotation,
points on a rigid object move on
circular paths around an axis of
rotation.
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In a rigid object, every part is
fixed in position relative to every
other part; hence they would all
rotate across the same angle
about the axis of rotation
Angular Position/Displacement
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Degrees and revolutions:
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Angular Position and Angular Displacement
We can measure the angle moved
through in terms of degrees, radians
or number of revolutions
1 radians is defined as the
angle made by an arc of the
same length as the radius
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r
s
= =
Radius
length Arc
radians) (in
For a full revolution:
o
360 rad 2 = rad 2
2

= =
r
r
SI Unit of Angular Displacement: radian (rad)
1 full revolution is one
complete turn of a circle
same length as the radius
0
57.3 rad 1 =
Example 1:
(a) A rope is wrapped many times around a drum of radius 50
cm. How many revolutions of the drum will be required to raise
the bucket to a height of 20 m?
(b) A bicycle tire has a radius of 25 cm. If the wheel makes
400 rev, how far will the bicycle have traveled?
R R
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hh = 20 m = 20 m
R R
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Angular Velocity
If the object moves through a
certain angle in a given time,
the speed at which it moves
through that angle is called the
angular velocity.
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Angular velocity* is hence the
rate at which angular
displacement is changing.
t t t
o
o

time Elapsed
nt displaceme Angular
locity angular ve Average =
Angular Velocity
The instantaneous angular velocity is the rate of
change of angular displacement at that instance in time
t
t

0
lim
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t
t

0
r
v
dt
ds
r dt
r
s
d
dt
d
t
t
= =

= =

=

1
lim
0

Angular velocity or angular frequency, , is the rate of


change in angular displacement. (radians per second.)
We can also measure angular velocity in terms of its
frequency of revolution f, or how many turns (revolutions)
it passes through within a certain time (rev/s or rpm).
Angular Velocity
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it passes through within a certain time (rev/s or rpm).
60s
rad 2
60s
1rev
rpm 1

= =
Revolution per
minute (rpm)
(rev/s) f , revolution of frequency , 2 f =
T
1
= f
(s) T period, ,
T
2
=
Example 2:
A rope is wrapped many times around a drum of radius 20 cm.
(a) What is the angular velocity of the drum if it lifts the bucket
to 10 m in 5.0 s?
(b) What is the angular frequency (in rpm) for the drum?
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Angular Acceleration
o

=

time Elapsed
locity angular ve in Change
on accelerati angular Average =
SI Unit of angular
Angular acceleration is the rate of change of angular velocity
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t t t
o
o

SI Unit of angular
acceleration: rad/s
2
The angular acceleration can also be found from the
change in frequency, as follows:
t
f
f

= =
) ( 2
2


When an object turns faster
and faster or slower and
slower, its angular velocity is
changing: if it changes fast, it
has a higher acceleration and
a slower change indicates a
lower acceleration.
Angular Acceleration
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lower acceleration.
A change that increases its
velocity in the
counterclockwise direction is
positive acceleration while
the opposite (ie. in the
clockwise direction) is
negative.
Example 3:
As the wind dies, a windmill that was rotating at 2.1 rads
-1
begins to slow down with a constant angular acceleration
of 0.45 rads
-2
. How long does it take for the windmill to
come to complete stop?
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Angular velocity and Tangential
Velocity (or Linear Velocity)
velocity l tangentia =
T
v
r
speed l tangentia =
T
v
r s Since =
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r
t
r
t
r
t
s
v
T
=

=
rad/s) in ( r v
T
=
r s Since =
Linear speed = angular speed x radius
( ) ( )
t
r
t
r r
t
v v
a
o o To T
T

=


Angular Acceleration and
Tangential Acceleration (Linear Acceleration)
Linear accel. = angular accel. x radius
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Linear accel. = angular accel. x radius
Example 4:
Find the angular speed a CD must have to give a linear
speed of 1.25 ms
-1
when the laser beam shines on the disk
(a) 2.50 cm and (b) 6.00 cm from its center.
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Example 5:
Suppose the centrifuge is starting up with a constant angular
acceleration of 95.0 rads
-1
.
(a) What are the magnitudes of the centripetal, tangential,
and total acceleration of the bottom of a tube when the
angular speed is 8.00 rads
-1
?
(b) What angle does the total acceleration make with the
direction of motion?
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Exercise
A helicopter blade has an angular speed of 6.50 rev/s and
an angular acceleration of 1.30 rev/s
2
.
For point 1 on the blade, find the magnitude of
(a) the tangential speed, and [122 ms
-1
]
(b) the tangential acceleration. [24.5 ms
-1
]
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Rotational Kinematics
If the angular
acceleration is
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acceleration is
constant:
Rotational Kinematics
Analogies between linear and rotational kinematics:
(for constant accelerations)

r a
r s
r v
T
T
T
=
=
=
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r a
T
=
Example 6
(a) If the angular velocity of the pulley is -8.40 rads
-1
at a
given time, its angular acceleration is -2.80 rads
-2
, what is
the angular velocity of the pulley 1.50 s later?
(b) A drum rotating clockwise initially at 100 rpm undergoes
a constant counterclockwise acceleration of 3.00 rad/s
2
for
2.00 s. What is the angular displacement?
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2.00 s. What is the angular displacement?
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Example 7
To throw a curve ball, a pitcher gives the ball an initial
angular speed of 36.0 rads
-1
. When the catcher gloves the
ball 0.595 s later, its angular speed has decreased due to air
resistance to 35.2 rads
-1
.
(a) What is the balls angular acceleration, assuming it to be
constant?
(b) How many revolutions does the ball make before being
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(b) How many revolutions does the ball make before being
caught?
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Translation or Rotation?
If you are to solve for a linear parameter, you must convert
all angular terms to linear terms:
s R = v R =
R a =
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If you are to solve for an angular parameter, you must
convert all linear terms to angular terms:
s R = v R =
R a =
s
R
=
v
R
=
2
(?) I mR =
R
a
=
Rotational Kinetic Energy
m
2
m
3
m
4
m
m
1
axis

v = R
Assuming that the total kinetic
energy of a rotating object is
the sum of the kinetic energy
of all the tiny masses that
make up the object:
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axis
Object rotating at constant .
Consider each tiny mass mm:
Sum to find total KE:
(
2
same for all m )
Rotational Inertia Defined:
2 2 2 2
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
2
1
mR R m mv K = = =
2 2
2
2
1
) (
2
1
I = =

mR K
Total
2

= mR I
Greater I will gives greater kinetic energy of a rigid body
rotating with a given angular speed.
I is also called the moment of inertia.
The figure below shows that the greater a bodys moment
of inertia, the harder it is to start the body rotating if its at
rest and the harder it is to stop its rotation if its already
rotating.
Rotational Kinetic Energy
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rotating.
Moment of Inertia
If we apply Newtons second law upon rotational motion
in a similar way as for translational motion, we obtain
the inertial of rotation, I:
F = 20 N
a = 4 m/s
2
Linear Inertia, m
kg 5
N 20
= = =
F
m
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a = 4 m/s
F = 20 N
R = 0.5 m
= 2 rad/s
2
Rotational Inertia, I
Torque does for rotation what force does for translation
kg 5
m/s 4
2
= = =
a
m
2
2
m kg 5.0
/s 2
m) N)(0.5 (20
= = =
rad
I

Example 8:
What is the rotational kinetic energy of the device shown if it
rotates at a constant speed of 600 rpm?
3 kg
2 kg
1 m
3 m

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1 kg
1 m
2 m
Moment of Inertia
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Example 9:
A circular hoop and a disk each have a mass of 3.00 kg and a
radius of 30.0 cm. Compare their rotational inertias.
R
I = mR
2
I = 0.270 kg m
2
2 2
m) kg)(0.300 (3.00 = = mR I
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I = mR
Hoop
R
I = mR
2
Disk
I = 0.135 kg m
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
m) kg)(0.300 (3.00 = = mR I
Important Analogies
For many problems involving rotation, there is an analogy to
be drawn from linear motion.
xx
f
R
4 kg

= 50 rad/s
= 40 N m
I
m
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f
= 40 N m
A resultant force F produces
negative acceleration a for a
mass m.
F ma =
A resultant torque produces
angular acceleration of
disk with rotational inertia I.
I =
Newtons 2nd Law for Rotation
R
4.0 kg

F

= 50 rad/s
R = 0.20 m
F = 40 N
How many revolutions required to stop?
I =

2
1
mR RF =
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= 100 rad/s
2
2 = = = =
f
2
-
o
2
0
= -12.5 rad = -1.99 rev
m) kg)(0.20 (4.0
N) 2(40 2
= =
mR
F

) / 100 ( 2
) / 50 (
2
2
2 2
0
s rad
s rad
=

2
2
1
mR RF =
Example 10:
What is the linear acceleration of the falling 2.00 kg mass?
R = 50.0 cm
6.00 kg
a = ?
M
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2.00 kg
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Rotational Work and Power
A torque acting through an angular displacement does
work, just as a force acting through a distance does.
Work = Fs = F(R) = FR
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The work-energy theorem applies as usual.
Example 11:
It take good deal of effort to make homemade ice cream.
(a) If the torque required to turn the handle on an ice cream
maker is 5.7 Nm, how much work is expended on each
complete revolution of the handle?
(b) How much power is required to turn the handle if reach
revolution is completed in 1.5s.
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Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Exercise 2:
The rotating disk has a radius of 40.0 cm and a mass of 6.00 kg.
Find the work and power if the 2.00 kg mass is lifted 20.0 m in
4.00 s.

F
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F
s
s = 20 m
m = 2.0kg
The Work-Energy Theorem
Recall for linear motion that the work done is equal
to the change in linear kinetic energy:
2 2
2
1
2
1
i f
mv mv Fx W = =
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Using angular analogies, we find the rotational work
is equal to the change in rotational kinetic energy:
2 2
2 2
2
1
2
1
i f
I I W = =
Applying the Work-Energy Theorem:
Work =
r
Work needed to stop
wheel rotating is:
R
4.0 kg

F


= = = = 60 rad/s
R = 0.30 m
F = 40 N
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2
0
2
0
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
I I I K
f r
= = =
So, find I for wheel:
I = mR
2
= (4.0 kg)(0.30 m)
2
= 0.36 kgm
2
Work = -(0.36 kg m
2
)(60 rad/s)
2
Work = -650 J
Rolling Motion
If a round object rolls without slipping, there is a fixed
relationship between the translational and rotational speeds:
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Rolling Motion
If consider rolling motion to be a combination of pure
rotational and pure translational motion:
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Rolling without slipping
An important case of combination translation and rotation
is rolling rolling without without slipping slipping as shown in figure below.
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The condition for rolling without slipping is
The kinetic energy of the wheel rolling is
Rolling
R v
cm
=
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2
2
1
I K
R
=
The motion of a rolling wheel is the sum of the translational
motion of the center of mass plus the rotational motion of the
wheel around the center of mass.
For rolling without slipping, the speed of the rim relative to the
center of mass must be equal to the magnitude of v
cm
.
Rolling without slipping
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Note that the wheel is instantaneously at rest at the point
where it contacts the ground.
Two Kinds of Kinetic Energy
Kinetic Energy of
Translation motion::
Kinetic Energy of
Rotational motion::
2
2
1
mv K
nal Translatio
=
2
2
1
I K
Rotational
=
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Rotational motion::
Total Kinetic Energy of a Rolling Object:
2
2 2
2
1
2
1
I mv K
Total
+ =
Example 13:
A 1.20 kg disk with a radius of 10.0 cm rolls without slipping. If
the linear speed of the disk is 1.41 ms
-1
, find (a) the
translational kinetic energy, (b) the rotational kinetic energy,
and (c) the total kinetic energy of the disk. (I
disk
= 0.5mR
2
)
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Exercise 3: Speed of a primitive yo-yo
A primitive yo-yo is made by
wrapping a string several times
around a solid cylinder with mass M
and radius R (Figure shown).
You hold the end of the string
stationary while releasing the cylinder
with no initial motion.
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with no initial motion.
The string unwinds but does not slip
or stretch as the cylinder drops and
rotates.
Use energy considerations to find the
speed v
cm
of the center of mass of the
solid cylinder after it has dropped a
distance h.
Conservation of Energy
If these two objects, of the same mass and radius, are
released simultaneously, the disk will reach the bottom
first more of its gravitational potential energy becomes
translational kinetic energy, and less rotational.
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Conservation of Energy
The total energy is still conserved for systems in rotation
and translation.
Begin: (U + K
t
+ K
R
)
o
= End: (U + K
t
+ K
R
)
f
However, rotation must now be considered.
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=
Height? Height?
Rotation? Rotation?
velocity? velocity?
Height? Height?
Rotation? Rotation?
velocity? velocity?
2
2
2
1
2
1
i
i
i
I
mv
mgh

2
2
2
1
2
1
f
f
f
I
mv
mgh

Example 14:
A block of mass m is attached
to a string that is wrapped
around the circumference of a
wheel of radius R and
moment of inertia I. The wheel
rotates freely about its axis
and the string wraps around
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and the string wraps around
its circumference without
slipping. Initially the wheel
rotates with an angular speed
, causing the block to rise
with a linear speed v. To what
height does the block rise
before coming to rest? Give a
symbolic answer.
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Exercise 4:
A hoop and a disk rolls from the top of an incline. What are
their speeds at the bottom if the initial height is 20 m?
20 m
Hoop: I = mR
2
Disk: I = mR
2
;
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4
3
0
v gh =
Summary Rotational Analogies
Quantity Linear Rotational
Displacement Displacement s Radians
Inertia Mass m (kg) I (kgm
2
)
Force Force N Torque Nm Force Force N Torque Nm
Velocity
v m/s
rad/s
Acceleration
a m/s
2

rad/s
2
Analogous Formulas
Linear Motion Rotational Motion
F = ma = I
K = mv
2
K = I
2
K = mv K = I
Work = F.s Work =
Power = Fv Power =
Fx = mv
f
2
- mv
o
2
= I
f
2 -
I
o
2
Summary of Formulas: I = mR
2
2
1
2
K I =
Power
t

= =
Work =
o o f f
I I =
2 2
1 1
i f
I I =
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==
Height? Height?
Rotation? Rotation?
velocity? velocity?
Height? Height?
Rotation? Rotation?
velocity? velocity?
Power
t
= =
2 2
i f
I I =
2
2
2
1
2
1
i
i
i
I
mv
mgh

2
2
2
1
2
1
f
f
f
I
mv
mgh