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BUCKLING BUCKLING

Submitted by:
AJAY KATNAURI
06608
B.ARCH. (8
TH
SEM.)
Buckling: Buckling:
Buckling is a mode of failure generally resulting
from structural instability due to compressive
action on the structural member or element
involved.
Examples:
y Overload metal building columns
y Compressive members in bridges
y Roof trusses
y Hull of submarine
y Any thin walled torque tube
y Thin web of an I-beam
Buckling:
Buckling:
Nature of buckling:
y It results from a state of unstable
equilibrium
y For example: buckling of a long column
is not caused by the failure of material of
the column, but by the determination of
what was a stable state of equilibrium to
an unstable one.
Mechanism of buckling:
y We can understand mechanism of buckling
with the help of following diagrams:
Critical buckling load:
The lowest load that causes buckling is
called critical buckling load.
It is given as:
This equation is also known as Eulers
Formula.
2
2
L
EI
P
Crit
T
!
= maximum or critical load
E = modulus of elasticity
I = area moment of inertia
L = unsupported length of column
Crit
P
Since f = P/A, critical buckling stress
Or
E = modulus of elasticity
I = area moment of inertia
L = unsupported length of column
K = common effective length factor
Cr
F
2
2
AL
EI
F
Crit
T
!
2
2
/ r KL
E
F
Crit
T
!
The value of K depends on the conditions of
end support of the column, as follows:
y For both ends pinned, K = 1.0.
y For both ends fixed, K = 0.50.
y For one end fixed and the other end pinned, K =
0.699...
y For one end fixed and the other end free to move
laterally, K = 2.0.
Three important facts about critical load:
1. Elasticity and not compressive strength of
the materials of the column determines
the critical load.
2. The critical load is directly proportional to
the second moment of inertia of the cross
section.
3. The boundary conditions determine the
mode of bending and the distance
between inflection points on the deflected
column
Self-buckling of columns:
A free-standing, vertical column of circular
cross-section will buckle under its own
weight if its height exceeds a certain
critical height:
E = Young's modulus of elasticity
= density
r = radius of column
g = acceleration due to gravity
Buckling Load Factor:
y The buckling load factor (BLF) is an indicator of the
factor of safety against buckling or the ratio of the
buckling loads to the currently applied loads.
y Interpretation of the Buckling Load Factor (BLF)
BLF value Buckling Status Remarks
0 < BLF < 1 Buckling predicted The applied loads exceed the
estimated
critical loads. Buckling will occur.
BLF = 1 Buckling predicted The applied loads are exactly equal
to the critical loads. Buckling is
expected.
-1 < BLF <
0
Buckling possible Buckling is predicted if you reverse
the
load directions.
-1 < BLF <
0
Buckling possible Buckling is expected if you reverse
the
load directions.
1 < BLF Buckling not
predicted
The applied loads are less than the
estimated critical loads.
Lateral-torsional buckling:
y When a simple beam is loaded in flexure,
the top side is in compression, and the
bottom side is in tension. If the beam is not
supported in the lateral direction (i.e.,
perpendicular to the plane of bending), and
the flexural load increases to a critical limit,
the beam will fail due to lateral buckling of
the compression flange.
y In wide-flange sections, if the compression
flange buckles laterally, the cross section
will also twist in torsion, resulting in a failure
mode known as lateral-torsional buckling.
THANKS