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Submitted by:

AJAY KATNAURI

06608

B.ARCH. (8

TH

SEM.)

Buckling: Buckling:

Buckling is a mode of failure generally resulting

from structural instability due to compressive

action on the structural member or element

involved.

Examples:

y Overload metal building columns

y Compressive members in bridges

y Roof trusses

y Hull of submarine

y Any thin walled torque tube

y Thin web of an I-beam

Buckling:

Buckling:

Nature of buckling:

y It results from a state of unstable

equilibrium

y For example: buckling of a long column

is not caused by the failure of material of

the column, but by the determination of

what was a stable state of equilibrium to

an unstable one.

Mechanism of buckling:

y We can understand mechanism of buckling

with the help of following diagrams:

Critical buckling load:

The lowest load that causes buckling is

called critical buckling load.

It is given as:

This equation is also known as Eulers

Formula.

2

2

L

EI

P

Crit

T

!

= maximum or critical load

E = modulus of elasticity

I = area moment of inertia

L = unsupported length of column

Crit

P

Since f = P/A, critical buckling stress

Or

E = modulus of elasticity

I = area moment of inertia

L = unsupported length of column

K = common effective length factor

Cr

F

2

2

AL

EI

F

Crit

T

!

2

2

/ r KL

E

F

Crit

T

!

The value of K depends on the conditions of

end support of the column, as follows:

y For both ends pinned, K = 1.0.

y For both ends fixed, K = 0.50.

y For one end fixed and the other end pinned, K =

0.699...

y For one end fixed and the other end free to move

laterally, K = 2.0.

Three important facts about critical load:

1. Elasticity and not compressive strength of

the materials of the column determines

the critical load.

2. The critical load is directly proportional to

the second moment of inertia of the cross

section.

3. The boundary conditions determine the

mode of bending and the distance

between inflection points on the deflected

column

Self-buckling of columns:

A free-standing, vertical column of circular

cross-section will buckle under its own

weight if its height exceeds a certain

critical height:

E = Young's modulus of elasticity

= density

r = radius of column

g = acceleration due to gravity

Buckling Load Factor:

y The buckling load factor (BLF) is an indicator of the

factor of safety against buckling or the ratio of the

buckling loads to the currently applied loads.

y Interpretation of the Buckling Load Factor (BLF)

BLF value Buckling Status Remarks

0 < BLF < 1 Buckling predicted The applied loads exceed the

estimated

critical loads. Buckling will occur.

BLF = 1 Buckling predicted The applied loads are exactly equal

to the critical loads. Buckling is

expected.

-1 < BLF <

0

Buckling possible Buckling is predicted if you reverse

the

load directions.

-1 < BLF <

0

Buckling possible Buckling is expected if you reverse

the

load directions.

1 < BLF Buckling not

predicted

The applied loads are less than the

estimated critical loads.

Lateral-torsional buckling:

y When a simple beam is loaded in flexure,

the top side is in compression, and the

bottom side is in tension. If the beam is not

supported in the lateral direction (i.e.,

perpendicular to the plane of bending), and

the flexural load increases to a critical limit,

the beam will fail due to lateral buckling of

the compression flange.

y In wide-flange sections, if the compression

flange buckles laterally, the cross section

will also twist in torsion, resulting in a failure

mode known as lateral-torsional buckling.

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