You are on page 1of 16

Lecture notes drawn from Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty

Unit One: Colonial through Early National Period

Dr. Price!"#$%%&&
Introduction: Freedom: An Analytical Framework
'. (hat are the meanings of freedom and how ha)e they changed o)er time*
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that their Creator with certain
unalienable Rights endows them, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the
People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such
principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their
Safety and Happiness. (Declaration of Independence)
Deeply embedded in our culture is the idea that the United States has a mission to demonstrate the
superiority of free institutions and to spread freedom throughout the world.
Nineteenth-century Americans, for example, defined freedom in part as economic autonomy, achieved
through owning a farm or small business. This was perfectly compatible with lack of freedom for those
dependent on the male head of household, including the women in a family and, in the South, slaves.
For much of the 20th century, many Americans thought economic security for ordinary citizens
essential to freedom.
In the 1960's, the civil rights and feminist movements redefined freedom as equality for those long
held down by the larger society, and the counterculture called for freedom in lifestyle and culture.
A second point to remember is that freedom is more than a set of ideas. It must be embodied in
institutions, popular values, and the law, and these only develop over time.
%. 'merican +e)olution , community-s right to .olitical self/determination
0. 'nte1ellum era , .olitical democracy, or white male suffrage
2. 0&th century .ersonal freedom , indi)idual 3a1ility to choose4
5. Economic freedom , e)ol)es o)er time from early notion of economic autonomy and
glorification of inde.endent .roducers, to free wage la1or, to li1erty of contract, to mass
6. (hat are the social conditions that ma7e freedom .ossi1le*
%. Colonial through ante1ellum era , .ro)ide land for economic autonomy
0. 8ilded 'ge , secure li1erty of contract
2. New Deal , guarantee economic security
5. Contem.orary 'merica , su..ort mass consum.tion in a mar7et economy
6. (hat are the 1oundaries of freedom*
$he 1oundaries of freedom can come from
%. "s the 'merican creed uni)ersal or .articular*
0. (ho is an 'merican* (ho en9oys the right to freedom*
2. Lines circumscri1ing freedom , race, gender, class, religion, and ethnicity
5. Ongoing struggle 1y e:cluded and their su..orters for inclusion and e;uality
I. British Roots of American Political Thought:
'. Freedom in England was not understood as a single, <uni)ersal< idea 1ut rather as a
<.articular< collection of distinct rights and .ri)ileges, many held 1y only small grou.s of
.eo.le. Christian freedom, for e:am.le, was understood as a1andoning a life of sin to
em1race the teachings of Christ= o1edience to authority was the rule, not religious
toleration, and dissenters were .rosecuted for endangering .u1lic order. Ci)ic freedom
consisted of secular o1edience to higher authority. Li1erty was secured 1y 7nowing one>s
social .lace and fulfilling the duties to one>s social ran7. ?ings claimed to
rule 1y authority of 8od and the aristocracy demanded deference from social inferiors.
(ithin English families, men e:ercised authority o)er wi)es, children, and ser)ants
through such de)ices as co)ertures @a married woman surrendered her legal identity to
her hus1andA and dower rights @widow>s right to %2 hus1and>s .ro.erty if he died first,
1ut at death family .ro.erty goes to male heirsA. 'lthough .eo.le of wealth en9oyed
more li1erties than commoners, certain +ights of Free1orn Englishmen a..lied to all
within the 7ingdom. $he Bagna Carta was seen as em1odying English freedom and the
7ing was su19ect to the rule of law, not a1solute in his .ower. 'll .ersons en9oyed
security of .erson and .ro.erty esta1lished in the common law, including the rights of
ha1eas @or .rotection against im.risonment without legal chargeA, the right to face
one>s accuser in court, and the right to trial 1y 9ury.
6. $he +ights of Free1orn Englishmen were rooted in the con)iction that
li1erty was the uni;ue .ossession of the 6ritish. Freedom was seen as rule of law,
.arliamentary legislation 1y consent of the go)erned, restraints on ar1itrary e:ercise of
.olitical authority, and rights held in common under the law. Li1erty was .rotected 1y a
1alanced constitution or 1y a system of chec7s and 1alances 1etween the !ouse of
Commons, the !ouse of Lords, and the ?ing. No real conce.t of uni)ersal freedom
e:isted in England during the early %C
century. Freedom was seen as uni;uely 6ritish
and Protestant @thus anti/Catholic and intensely nationalisticA, and com.ati1le with wide
gradations in .ersonal rights. 's such, li1erties were understood as .ri)ileges .articular
to one>s social station @or classA rather than uni)ersal or e:isting in nature li1erty,
although a gradual trend toward the latter 1ecame a..arent as the century .rogressed.
"ncreasingly, .ower and li1erty were also )iewed as 1eing in antagonism.
C. $wo 7ey sets of .olitical ideas flourished in 'nglo/'merican world:
%. +e.u1licanism: re.u1licanism @literally go)ernment without a 7ingA cele1rated acti)e
.artici.ation in .u1lic life 1y economically inde.endent citiDens as the essence of li1erty=
a man reached his highest fulfillment in .u1lic ser)ice 1ut only .ro.erty/owning citiDens
.ossessed )irtue//defined as a moral ;uality 1ut also as willingness to su1ordinate self/
interest to the .ursuit of the .u1lic good. ?ey 1elief , lu:ury and .olitical mani.ulation
results in loss of )irtue and li1erty.
0. Li1eralism: whereas re.u1licanism focused on ci)ic and social o1ligations as
fundamental to .reser)ation of freedom, li1eralism defined freedom as essentially
indi)idual and .ri)ate. "n Two Treatises on Government @ca %EF&A Gohn Loc7e argued
for go)ernment 1y mutual agreement among e;uals, or for a social contract where1y the
many surrender .art of their indi)idual li1erty to en9oy the 1enefits of rule of law @or
.rotection from .ower of the fewA. Natural rights .redate formation of .olitical
authority. 8o)ernment e:ists to .rotect life, li1erty, and .ro.erty, which were uni)ersal
rights of man7ind rather than .ri)ileges defined 1y social .osition. Preser)ing freedom
re;uired shielding .ri)ate life and .ersonal concerns, such as family relations, religious
.references, and economic acti)ity, from the state. ?ey ideas from Loc7e//indi)idual
rights, consent of the go)erned, and right of re1ellion against un9ust or o..ressi)e
go)ernment//had a large im.act on understanding of li1erty in 6ritish mainland colonies.
$he notion that li1erty follows .ro.erty, howe)er, denied freedom to large num1ers of
.eo.le, although the language of Loc7ean li1eralism also .ro)ided the .oor, women, and
sla)es a .latform from which to mount future challenges to their e:clusion.
II. The Southern Colonies:
$he English founding of Gamestown in %E&C occurred during a time of heightened
Euro.ean in)ol)ement in North 'merica @French, Dutch, and #.anishA. English North
'merica was a .lace where entre.reneurs sought fortunes, religious minorities ho.ed to
worshi. without go)ernmental interference and to create societies 1ased on 1i1lical
teachings, and aristocrats dreamed of recreating feudalism where the <lower orders would
occu.y the same less than fully free status as in England.< For ordinary men and women,
emigration .ro)ided o..ortunity to esca.e li)es of de.ri)ation and ine;uality. $he
charter granted 1y Games " in %E&E to the Hirginia Com.any .romised colonists would
en9oy <all li1erties< of those residing in England. O)er time, English settlers ac;uired
more li1erty than colonists of other em.ires, es.ecially land ownershi., although many
degrees of freedom e:isted from sla)e, to indentured ser)ant, to inde.endent landowner.
$he #outhern .lantation colonies, which e)entually included Hirginia, Baryland, #outh
Carolina, North Carolina, and 8eorgia, de)elo.ed .lantation economies that .roduced
sta.le cro.s li7e to1acco, rice, indigo, and cotton for e:.ort and utiliDed sla)e la1or. 6y
%C&& southern society was characteriDed 1y a small .lanter @large sla)eholdingA elite, a
white ma9ority yeomanry @or small non/sla)eholding farmersA, and a large sla)e wor7
'. $he Gamestown Colony in Hirginia @%E&CA e:.erienced )ery roc7y 1eginnings,
including a high death rate, inade;uate su..lies and la1or. "n res.onse, the Hirginia
Com.any too7 strong measures to sta1iliDe the colony, sym1oliDed 1y Ca.tain Gohn
#mith-s edict 3!e that will not wor7, shall not eat.4 $he Hirginia Com.any also
instituted a !eadright system which granted I& acres of land to any colonist .aying his
own way or another-s .assage, and issued a <charter of grants and li1erties< esta1lishing a
!ouse of 6urgesses @%E%JA, the first re.resentati)e assem1ly. 'n initial .eriod of
coo.eration and trade 1etween "ndians and Gamestown settlers was followed 1y s.oradic
conflict and (ar in %E00 when O.echancanough @Powhatan-s 1rother and successorA
attac7ed settlers and wi.ed out one ;uarter of .o.ulation of %,0&&. $he settlers retaliated
and instituted land seiDures and an e:.ulsion .olicy of gradual remo)al of sur)i)ing
"ndians to reser)ations. "n %E05 Hirginia Com.any surrendered its charter and Hirginia
1ecame the first royal colony. $he 7ey to e)entual success in Hirginia and later in
Baryland was to1acco, which enriched an emerging class of .lanters and colonial
go)erning elite, .rofited the crown )ia customs duties, and attracted 1y mid/%C
an influ: of new immigrants with am.le financial resources.
6. Producing to1acco stimulated a s.iraling demand for la1or initially met 1y indentured
ser)ants 1ut ultimately met 1y sla)ery. Chesa.ea7e .lanters saw many ad)antages to
'frican sla)es, including lac7 of .rotection of English common law, .ermanent terms of
ser)ice @therefore fewer unruly landless men when indentures e:.ireA, and children-s
inheritance of their mother-s status rather than their father-s. #7in color ra.idly 1ecame
an indicator of ser)ant status in the late %C
century. $he English also )iewed alien
.eo.les such as the "rish, Nati)e 'mericans, 'fricans as sa)age, .agan, and unci)iliDed.
'nti/1lac7 and economic e:.loitation gradually led to rigid racial di)isions.
III. The ew !ngland Colonies:
(hereas many settlers came to the new world in search of material reward, a large
num1er came in .ursuit of religious freedom. $wo main strands of religious reform
stood out in %C
/century England. $he larger grou., 7nown as the Puritans, sought to
cleanse the 'nglican church of a num1er of ceremonies and rituals that had sur)i)ed the
se.aration from the Catholic Church during the initial stages of the +eformation. '
second, smaller grou., 7nown as #e.aratists @or PilgrimsA fled to !olland in %E&F only to
find life there unsuited to their needs and tem.erament. ' distincti)e culture soon
emerged in the New England colonies @e)entually consolidated into Bassachusetts,
+hode "sland, Connecticut, and New !am.shireA 1ased on town/1ased self/go)ernment,
Puritan religion, small family farming, fishing, commerce, and .roduction of na)al stores.
"n the early years of settlement, ministers .layed a leading role in the life of the New
England colonies, although e)entually merchants 1ased in 6oston rose to .rominence.
'. #e)eral years after their arri)al in !olland, the Pilgrims were authoriDed 1y the
London Com.any to settle in Hirginia, sailing on the Mayflower and arri)ing at Plymouth
on Ca.e Cod in No)em1er %E0&. Prior to their landing, forty/one of the settlers signed a
written contract creating 3a ci)il 6ody Politic7,4 otherwise 7nown as the Bayflower
Com.act, which outlined the .rinci.les on which the go)ernment of their colony would
rest. (ith the hel. of two English/s.ea7ing "ndians named #;uanto and #amoset, the
small Pilgrim colony at Plymouth sur)i)ed and .ros.ered.
6. 6ac7 in England, ?ing Charles " ga)e another grou. of Puritans .ermission to form a
9oint/stoc7 com.any in %E0J called the Bassachusetts 6ay Com.any and settle a new
colony north of Hirginia. Gohn (inthro. was chosen to lead the well/financed 8reat
Bigration of more than %&&& men, women, and children on %C shi.s, which left England
in Bay %E2&. Proclaiming 3(e shall 1e as a City u.on a !ill,4 the Puritans sought to
create a model society for the reform of the 'nglican Church 1ac7 in England. 6elie)ing
that they had formed a co)enant with 8od, the Puritans sought to 1uild a society 1ased on
the teachings of the 6i1le. Church, state, family, and indi)iduals were 1ound together
into a new religious commonwealth. (ithin a few years the .o.ulation of the colony
num1ered 0&,&&&. +eligious dissenters such as +oger (illiams, 'nne !utchinson, and
$homas !oo7er, howe)er, were not tolerated in the Bassachusetts 6ay Colony. Fleeing
Puritan .ersecution, dissenters esta1lished new colonies in +hode "sland and Connecticut.
$he Puritans defined religious li1erty as acce.tance of religious authority and did not
.ractice religious toleration.
I". The #iddle Colonies:
Economic life in the Biddle Colonies @New Kor7, Pennsyl)ania, New Gersey, DelawareA
was characteriDed 1y mi:ed farming @wheat, corn, and )egeta1lesA, the fur trade, and
commerce radiating outward from New Kor7 City and Philadel.hia to the southern
colonies and (est "ndies. $he middle colonies offered more religious li1erty and the
.o.ulation was ;uite di)erse com.ared to 1oth New England and the colonies to the
#outh. $he Dutch in New Kor7 and 8ermans in Pennsyl)ania added a strong fla)or to
the cultural life of their res.ecti)e colonies.
'. 'fter Charles "" initiated a successful war with England-s commercial ri)al !olland
o)er the Dutch colony of New Netherland, he ga)e all the land 1etween the Connecticut
and Delaware +i)ers, including Banhattan "sland and its wonderful .ort at the mouth of
the !udson +i)er, to his 1rother Games the Du7e of Kor7, who renamed the colony New
Kor7. $he Du7e of Kor7 assumed he could continue the authoritarian style of
go)ernment .racticed earlier 1y the Dutch, 1ut his go)ernor encountered
resistance. Charles "" also granted a large land grant to (illiam Penn to settle an old
de1t. Penn esta1lished Pennsyl)ania in %EF% as a ha)en for .ersecuted Lua7ers. $he
colony was remar7a1le for its li1erality and di)ersity. "n addition to treating "ndians with
dignity and 9ustice, Penn offered land at e:tremely low .rices to .eo.le of all
nationalities, including Dutch, (elsh, #wedish, French, 8erman, and English emigrants.
$he colony grew ra.idly into the most .o.ulous and .ros.erous of all of the English
". The Rise of Colonial $o%ernments:
O)er a relati)ely short .eriod of time, the English colonies in 'merica de)elo.ed three
forms of go)ernment: +oyal @or CrownA, Cor.orate @or CharterA, and Pro.rietary.
'lthough they differed in some .articulars, they also shared common characteristics.
Each colony had a go)ernor who re.resented the 7ing, the .ro.rietor, or the cor.oration
that held its charter. $he go)ernor enforced all English laws .assed 1y Parliament or
.olicies de)ised 1y the ?ing-s Pri)y Council. 6ut in .urely local matters the go)ernors
en9oyed wide discretion and were ad)ised 1y resident landowners. $he Crown .olicy of
salutary neglect @or wea7 a..lication of im.erial authorityA during the early colonial
.eriod resulted in a high le)el of self go)ernment 1y colonial assem1lies under the
leadershi. of colonial merchants, large landowners, and lawyers, who used their .ower of
the .urse or control o)er finance to limit .ower of go)ernors and councils. +e.u1lican
writings of the English country .arty, which em.hasiDed the tension 1etween li1erty and
.olitical .ower and the danger of e:ecuti)e influence on legislature, en9oyed wide a..eal
among leaders of colonial assem1lies. Le)el of .o.ular .artici.ation in colonial
go)ernments reinforced the .rinci.le of .o.ular consent to go)ernment.
"I. #ercantilism:
Bercantilism was the dominant economic .hiloso.hy of the colonial era. 'ccording to
mercantilist theory, the go)ernment should regulate economic acti)ity to .romote
national .ower 1y: encouraging manufacturing and commerce )ia s.ecial 1ounties,
mono.olies, and legislati)e action @Na)igation 'ctsA= controlling trade to increase gold
and sil)er within the country @e:.orts should e:ceed im.orts= and esta1lishing colonies to
ser)e interests of mother country 1y .roducing raw materials and im.orting
manufactured goods from home. 6ut in direct )iolation of the Na)igation 'cts, New
England shi..ers and merchants de)elo.ed a series of triangular trade routes 1etween
England and the Euro.ean Continent, 'frica, the (est "ndies, and North 'merica.
"II. The Se%en &ears' (ar )or French and Indian (ar*:
$he Biddle 8round or Ohio Halley ser)ed as a flash.oint for im.erial ri)alries in)ol)ing
the 6ritish, French, ri)al "ndian communities @es.ecially the 'lgon;uin and "ro;uoisA,
and 6ritish settlers. $he French and "ndian (ar 1egan in %CI5 and e)ol)ed into a larger
im.erial struggle in Euro.e and a1road @the #e)en Kears (arA. 6ritish )ictory @$reaty of
Paris in %CE2A remo)ed the French from North 'merica and eliminated the 1alance of
.ower .olitics that had .re)iously wor7ed to the ad)antage of "ndian nations. Pontiac>s
+e1ellion, a .an/"ndian u.rising resulted. "n the aftermath of the war 6ritish authorities
im.lemented a .olicy of financial reform designed to gi)e them greater control o)er their
colonies in North 'merica.
"III. The American Re%olution+ ,-./0,-1/:
$he re)olutionary crisis 1egan when the 6ritish initiated a .olicy of im.erial reform after
the #e)en Kears (ar to alle)iate war de1t and hel. finance maintenance of o)erseas
.ossessions, 1ut efforts to ma7e colonies share cost of em.ire resulted in
colonial resistance to the .ercei)ed loss of freedom. E:am.les of 6ritish determination
to enforce e:isting Na)igation 'cts @and end the .olicy of salutary neglectA and
im.lement new .olicies included: the Proclamation of %CE2 which for1id further
settlement west of the '..alachians= the #ugar 'ct of %CE5 which reduced the ta: on
molasses im.orted from French (est "ndies 1ut esta1lished machinery to end
smuggling and also strengthened admiralty courts where accused smugglers were tried
without trial 1y 9ury= the +e)enue 'ct which .laced new items @wool and hidesA on the
enumerated list of trade goods re;uired to 1e shi..ed through England to mar7ets= and
the Currency 'ct which reaffirmed the 1an on colonial assem1lies issuing as legal
'. $he #tam. 'ct Crisis: $he #tam. 'ct of %CEI re.resented a new .olicy of direct
ta:es in colonies rather than indirect ta:ation )ia regulation of trade. $he act re;uired a
stam. on all sorts of .rinted material @news.a.ers, 1oo7s, court documents, commercial
.a.ers, land deeds, etc.A. $he .ur.ose was to hel. finance im.erial e:.enses such as
stationing troo.s in North 'merica without see7ing re)enue from colonial assem1lies.
$he direct ta: offended all free colonists, the .ros.ect of a standing army generated alarm, and im.lementation of the ta: without consent of colonial assem1lies
was seen as a direct affront to the rights of free1orn Englishmen @no ta:ation without
re.resentationA. Conflicting ideas of em.ire 1egan to coalesce. Colonial leaders saw the
6ritish em.ire of an association of e;uals .rotected 1y rights en9oyed 1y all Englishmen.
$he 6ritish go)ernment )iewed the em.ire as consisting of une;ual .arts su19ect to the
authority of Parliament. $he issue 1ecame direct re.resentation, or consent of the
go)erned, )ersus <)irtual re.resentation.4 $he Hirginia !ouse of 6urgesses
resolutions 1y Patric7 !enry that colonists en9oyed the same <li1erties, .ri)ileges,
franchises, and "mmunities< and that the right to consent to ta:ation was a cornerstone of
6ritish freedom. $he #tam. 'ct Congress in Octo1er affirmed the actions of the Hirginia
assem1ly and colonial merchants initiated a 1oycott of 6ritish goods, which was the first
time that 'merican colonists had united in resistance. #ym1ols of li1erty @Li1erty $ree
in 6oston, Li1erty Pole in New Kor7 CityA and Committees of Corres.ondence
resulted in creation of networ7s of communication. $he #ons of Li1erty
organiDed direct @sometimes )iolentA .u1lic resistance such as destruction of stam.s and
.u1lic .arades. Under .ressure from 6ritish merchants, Parliament re.ealed the #tam.
'ct 1ut tried to sa)e face with the Declaratory 'ct, which re9ected the colonial claim that
only their elected re.resentati)es could le)y ta:es.
6. $he +oad to +e)olution: 'fter the 6ritish go)ernment reluctantly res.onded to
demands 1y 6ritish merchants and colonial leaders to re.eal the #tam. 'ct, the
Chancellor of the E:che;uer Charles $ownshend con)inced Parliament in %CEC to
im.ose new ta:es on goods im.orted into the colonies and created a new 1oard of
customs commissioners to collect them and su..ress smuggling. 8radually resistance
grew and resulted in a 1oycott of 6ritish goods in se)eral colonies and the creation of
e:tralegal local committees to enforce com.liance to nonim.ortation. $he most dramatic
incident, the so/called 6oston Bassacre, occurred on Barch I, %CC&. 'gain under
.ressure 1y 6ritish merchants, the 6ritish go)ernment re.ealed the $ownshend duties
e:ce.t for a ta: on tea. "n %CC2 Parliament ado.ted the $ea 'ct. 'lthough the act
actually lowered the .rice of tea in the colonies, it threatened to undercut colonial
merchants and smugglers and the authority o)er ta:ation claimed 1y the colonial
assem1lies. 'gain resistance followed with the most dramatic incident occurring on
Decem1er %E, %CC2 with the so/called 6oston $ea Party. $his time the 6ritish authorities
res.onded ;uic7ly with the so/called "ntolera1le 'cts 1y closing the 6oston .ort,
radically altering the Bassachusetts charter to curtail town meetings, authoriDing the
go)ernor to a..oint mem1ers of his council, and em.owering military commanders to
;uarter @or houseA soldiers in .ri)ate homes. Parliament also .assed the Lue1ec 'ct
which e:tended the southern 1oundary of Canada to the Ohio +i)er and granted religious
toleration to Catholics in the .ro)ince. Coordinated resistance to the "ntolera1le 'cts led
to the First Continental Congress @only 8eorgia a1sentA and the creation of Committees
of Pu1lic #afety @or shadow go)ernmentsA to enforce its 1oycott of 6ritish trade.
O..osition to the Crown and Parliament among elites and commoners ali7e.
(hen the #econd Continental Congress con)ened in Bay %CCI, war with 8reat 6ritain
@Le:ington and ConcordA had already 1egun. ?ey issue remains: were the colonists
fighting for their rights as free1orn Englishmen within the em.ire or for inde.endence*
$homas Paine>s .am.hlet Common Sense argued for the latter in Ganuary %CCE 1y
attac7ing the .rinci.les of hereditary rule and monarchial go)ernment. #.ea7ing directly
to the .o.ulation at large, Paine offered a new )ision of 'merica as an <asylum of
li1erty,< or a refuge from tyranny and a model for the rest of the world.
C. $he Declaration of "nde.endence: $wo days after declaring the United #tates an
inde.endent nation, Congress the Declaration of "nde.endence. $he 7ey .hrase
in $homas Gefferson>s .ream1le stated that <(e hold these truths to 1e self/e)ident, that
all men are created e;ual, that they are endowed 1y their Creator with certain unaliena1le
+ights, that among these are Life, Li1erty, and the .ursuit of !a..iness.< $he
declaration asserted the right to re)olution when go)ernment )iolated the social contract.
Freedom was defined as a uni)ersal entitlement not a .articular set of li1erties.
"ndi)idual self/fulfillment unim.eded 1y go)ernment had 1ecome a central element of
'merican freedom.
I2. The Re%olution (ithin:
From the 1eginning, the war for li1eration from the 6ritish was also a struggle o)er the
meaning, social conditions, and 1oundaries of freedom within the colonies//sla)es,
ser)ants, women, "ndians, and .ro.ertyless men seiDed the o..ortunity to reconsider their
own .olitical rights @or lac7 thereofA and .lace in society. 6y cele1rating e;uality and
o..ortunity in the same uni)ersal language of li1erty used to assert inde.endence from
the 6ritish, the lower classes asserted a new standard 1y which to challenge the
legitimacy of colonial elites and homegrown institutions. $hough women and sla)es did
not achie)e full .olitical e;uality, new state constitutions re)ealed a dramatic e:.ansion
of democracy for common white men. Bany states such as Pennsyl)ania @1ut not allA
e:.anded the franchise, a1olished .ro.erty ;ualifications for office holding, and
guaranteed freedom of s.eech and religious li1erty. E)ery state e:ce.t #outh Carolina
.ro)ided for annual legislati)e elections to ensure that re.resentati)es remained
accounta1le to the .eo.le. For common white men the +e)olution thus e:.anded the
meaning of freedom 1eyond economic autonomy to include self ownershi..
'. #la)ery and the +e)olution: 'frican/'mericans @0&M of the total .o.ulationA seiDed
the ideals of the +e)olution to assert their claim on freedom. $he issue 1ecame sla)ery
as reality )ersus sla)ery as meta.hor, the latter used 1y colonial writers as shorthand for
denial of .ersonal and .olitical rights 1y ar1itrary go)ernment. O1stacles to a1olition
nonetheless remained strong. Gefferson himself owned o)er %&& sla)es and Hirginia,
#outh Carolina, and 8eorgia remained adamantly o..osed to a1olition. #ome .atriots
argued that sla)ery for 1lac7s made freedom .ossi1le for whites. 6ut 1y defining
freedom as a uni)ersal right, leaders of the +e)olution ga)e sla)es a wea.on against
1ondage. <Freedom .etitions< were deli)ered to New England>s courts and legislatures.
Bany sla)es ran away during war or tried to .ass as free1orn, while others ser)ed in
racially integrated com.anies in state militias or under 8eorge (ashington in the
continental army. E:ce.t for #outh Carolina and 8eorgia, military ser)ice in the
southern colonies often resulted in emanci.ation. Nearly %&&,&&& sla)es, including one
;uarter of all sla)es in #outh Carolina and 8eorgia, deserted their owners and fled to
6ritish lines. Nearly e)ery state .rohi1ited or discouraged further im.ortation of sla)es
during the war. Considera1le num1er of sla)eholders in Baryland and Hirginia
)oluntarily emanci.ated their sla)es, 1ut a1olition did not ta7e root in #outh Carolina and
8eorgia. 6etween %CCC @HermontA and %F&5 @New GerseyA, e)ery state north of
Baryland too7 ste.s toward emanci.ation, although .ro.erty rights limited emanci.ation
to children 1orn to sla)e mothers after they ser)ed an a..renticeshi.. #till, the
+e)olution esta1lished a clear line 1etween free and sla)e states. '1olition in the North,
)oluntarily emanci.ation in the #outh, and the self/li1eration )ia flight of
thousands created a siDa1le free 1lac7 .o.ulation in the United #tates. Free 1lac7
communities with their own churches, schools, and leaders .resented a direct ongoing
challenge to the legitimacy of sla)ery. Nonetheless, sla)ery sur)i)ed the re)olution and
grew ra.idly thereafter through natural increase in the #outh//1y %CJ& the first national
census re)ealed that the sla)e .o.ulation had grown to C&&,&&&//0&&,&&& more than in

6. Daughters of Li1erty: (omen contri1uted to the .atriot cause in numerous ways
ranging from direct military .artici.ation and s.ying, to crowd action against merchants
accused of .rofiteering, to fundraising and other forms of .olitical acti)ism. Ket
inde.endence did not alter family law or the .rinci.le of co)erture and .olitics remained
a man>s game 1ecause a woman lac7ed economic autonomy )ia .ro.erty ownershi. or
full control of her own .erson. $he "deology of +e.u1lican Botherhood s.awned 1y the
re)olution nonetheless indirectly ele)ated women>s .olitical status 1y assigning them the
role of training future citiDens. $he foundation of national morality was widely seen as
1eing rooted in familial relationshi.s. Educational o..ortunities e:.anded for many
women 1ecause of their new res.onsi1ility for instructing sons on the .rinci.les of li1erty
and go)ernment. $he re)olution also accelerated mo)ement toward the idea of
com.anionate marriage, or )oluntary union 1ased on affection and mutual de.endency
rather than male authority.
2. The Articles of Confederation:
'fter a lengthy and difficult war the colonies achie)ed inde.endence and the territorial
e:.anse of the new nation was e:.anded dramatically 1y the $reaty of Paris of %CF2. '
7ey issue ;uic7ly surfaced. (as the minimalist go)ernment of the wartime articles of
Confederation sufficient to go)ern the new nation in a dangerous world* !ow could the
com.eting claims of local self/go)ernment, sectional interests, and national authority 1y
1alanced* (ho should 1e considered full/fledged mem1ers of the 'merican .eo.le,
entitled to the 1lessings of li1erty* $he 'rticles of Confederation, the United #tates- first
written constitution, was drafted 1y Congress in %CCC and in %CF%. $he
'rticles go)ernment .ur.osed to 1alance the need for a coordinated national war effort
with fear of centraliDed .ower. $he first go)ernment of the United #tates was a
<confederation< or treaty for mutual defense 1etween thirteen so)ereign states, consisting
of a one/house congresseach with one )ote, no .resident, and no 9udiciary, and re;uiring
nine states needed to ma9or decisions. $he 'rticles included the .ower to
declare war, conduct foreign affairs, and ma7e treaties, 1ut .ro)ided Congress with no
financial .ower )ia ta:ation or regulation of commerce. 'mendments to 'rticles
re;uired uni)ersal consent.
'. Esta1lishing national control o)er contested western lands and rules for settlement
.ro)ed to 1e the 'rticles of Confederation era-s greatest accom.lishment. Congress ruled
that aiding the 6ritish in the war 9ustified forfeiture of land claims 1y "ndians. ' series of
.eace conferences also resulted in ma9or land ac;uisitions. $he issue then 1ecame how
to go)ern and settle western lands in an orderly fashion. Gefferson>s Ordinance of %CF5
esta1lished stages of self/go)ernment 1ut Congress re9ected 1y one )ote .rohi1ition of
sla)ery in all western lands. $he Ordinance of %CFI regulated land sales north of the
Ohio +i)er @Old NorthwestA=, although a minimum .urchase @NE5&A .olicy fa)ored large
land s.eculators o)er settlers. $he Northwest Ordinance of %CFC .ro)ided for
esta1lishment of three to fi)e states north of the Ohio +i)er and east of the Bississi..i
+i)er. Gefferson>s notion of an <em.ire of li1erty< esta1lished the .rinci.le of creation of
new states as e;ual .artners rather than colonies. "n the new re.u1lic self/go)ernment
1ecame firmly lin7ed to territorial e:.ansion. 'lthough sla)ery was .rohi1ited in the Old
Northwest, it was .ermitted in the #outhwest. $he 'rticles of Confederation>s
wea7nesses nonetheless 1ecame e)ident during the growing economic crisis caused 1y
war de1ts, e:clusion from 6ritish mar7ets, and com.etition from im.orted goods.
Esta1lishment 1y indi)idual states of se.arate economic .olicies increasingly was seen
1y creditors and nationalist minded leaders as ma9or threat to .reser)ation of
6. #hay>s +e1ellion: De1t/ridden farmers led 1y Daniel #hays closed down courts in
late %CFE in western Bassachusetts to .re)ent land seiDures for failure to .ay de1ts.
8o)ernor Games 6owdoin dis.atched troo.s and su..ressed the re1ellion in Ganuary
%CFC, 1ut the incident re)ealed disaffection 1y small farmers and craftsmen
throughout the states. Fear of re)olutionary .otential inherent in su..ort for de1t relief in
state legislatures con)inced many influential nationalists such as Games Badison and
'le:ander !amilton that the central go)ernment needed to 1e strengthened. (hen
delegates from e)ery state e:ce.t +hode "sland assem1led in Philadel.hia in Bay %CFC,
they elected to scra. the 'rticles go)ernment altogether.
2I. A ew Constitution:
$he II men who gathered in constitutional con)ention @Gefferson and 'dams were away
ser)ing as di.lomats in Euro.eA were drawn from the nation>s .ro.ertied and highly
educated elite. $hey differed in many ways 1ut shared the con)iction that the central
go)ernment must 1e strengthened to .rotect the .ro.erty rights of the minority from <the
e:cesses of democracy.<
'. Federalism and #e.aration of Powers: $he .ro1lem centered around achie)ing
constitutional 1alance 1etween the federal and state go)ernments while resol)ing the
conflicting interests of large and small states. $he new go)ernment included a much
strengthened e:ecuti)e, a .owerful national 9udiciary, and a 1icameral legislature.
Bem1ers of the !ouse of +e.resentati)es were a..ortioned 1y .o.ulation and elected
directly e)ery two years 1y .o.ular )ote. Bem1ers of the #enate were elected indirectly
e)ery si: years 1y state legislatures. $he new go)ernment re9ected direct election of
federal 9udges @#u.reme Court 9udges were to 1e a..ointed to life terms 1y the .residentA
and the President @to 1e chosen 1y the Electoral College or !ouse of +e.resentati)esA,
and charged the E:ecuti)e with enforcing the law and commanding the military.
Congress was gi)en )astly increased authority o)er economic affairs, including .ower to
le)y ta:es, 1orrow and coin money, regulate international commerce )ia tariffs on
im.orts, and .ower o)er interstate commerce. "ndi)idual states were 1arred from issuing money, im.airing contracts and otherwise interfering with .ro.erty rights, and
le)ying im.ort and e:.ort duties. Each 1ranch of the national go)ernment was
em.owered to <chec7 and 1alance< the .owers of other two 1ranches.
6. $he Constitution and #la)ery: ' ma9or stum1ling 1loc7 arose o)er finding a way to
reconcile the differences 1etween sla)eholders and a1olitionists. $he words sla)e and
sla)ery do not a..ear in the Constitution, 1ut three ma9or com.romises o)er sla)ery
surfaced in the final document: Congress was .re)ented from a1olishing the 'frican
sla)e trade for twenty years= inclusion of the .rinci.le of e:traterritoriality later resulted
in a federal fugiti)e sla)e law re;uiring states to return runaways to owners= and the
three/fifths clause stated that sla)e .o.ulation would 1e counted in determining each
state>s .ro.ortionate re.resentation in the !ouse of +e.resentati)es. 'll three
com.romises were considered necessary to .reser)e national unity 1ut em1edded
sla)ery into 'merican life and .olitics. Plus the Constitution ga)e the federal
go)ernment no .ower to interfere with sla)ery within indi)idual states. $he three/fifths
clause ga)e the #outh influence in national go)ernment= twel)e of the
first si:teen .residential elections .ut a southern sla)eholder in the (hite !ouse.
C. $he +atification De1ate: $he 1attle to secure from nine of the thirteen states
shifted to thirteen s.ecial ratifying con)entions. ?nown as the Federalists 1ecause of
their ad)ocacy of a stronger central go)ernment, 'le:ander !amilton @I&A, Games
Badison @2&A, and Gohn Gay @IA com.osed a series of FI essays @later collected as $he
Federalist Pa.ersA in defense of the new Constitution. !amilton sought to disa1use
'mericans of their fear of .olitical .ower, arguing for a .erfect 1alance 1etween li1erty
and .ower. Badison sought to resol)e conflict 1etween .o.ular go)ernment and the
threat of <dangerous enthusiasms< of the .oor ma9ority to minority .ro.erty rights,
arguing that the sheer siDe of the nation would lessen the danger of factions to the
re.u1lic. ?nown as the 'nti/Federalists, o..onents of ratification argued that the
'rticles of Confederation needed to 1e amended and that the Constitution shifted
the 1alance of state and indi)idual li1erty too far toward national .ower. #tate .oliticians
and re)olutionary heroes such as #amuel 'dams, Gohn !ancoc7, and Patric7 !enry
maintained that only the states could chec7 the tyrannical dangers inherent in strong
central go)ernment and the rising .ower of merchants and creditors. Bany small
farmers, the ma9ority, saw their freedom as arising from land ownershi. and feared loss
of their .ower as the ma9ority at the state le)el. Po.ular go)ernment .resuma1ly
flourished 1est in small communities and li1erty should 1e grounded in local, democratic
institutions. Lac7 of a 6ill of +ights .rotecting indi)idual li1erties was also seen as a
ma9or wea7ness in the Constitution. Badison hel.ed turn the tide toward ratification 1y
.romising that the first Congress would enact a 6ill of +ights.
D. $he 6ill of +ights of %CJ%: $he First 'mendment .rohi1ited Congress from
legislating with regard to religion or infringing on freedom of s.eech, freedom of the
.ress, or the right of assem1ly. $he #econd 'mendment u.held the .eo.le>s right to
<7ee. and 1ear arms< in con9unction with <a well/regulated militia.< Other amendments
.ro)ided .rotection against arrests without warrants @due .rocess and ha1eas cor.usA, the
right to trial 1y 9ury, .rohi1ition against e:cessi)e 1ail and cruel and unusual
.unishments. $he Ninth 'mendment stated that rights not s.ecifically mentioned in the
Constitution were retained 1y the .eo.le, while the $enth 'mendment reser)ed to the
states .owers not delegated to the national go)ernment or s.ecifically .rohi1ited to the
states. $oday, the first ten amendments are )iewed as foundational to 'merican freedom,
1ut they were all 1ut ignored for decades.
2II. The Rise of Political Parties+ ,-340,1,5:
(ith the of the Constitution and the election of 8eorge (ashington as President
and Gohn 'dams as Hice President, the United #tates entered a new era. 'lthough the
founding fathers as good re.u1licans saw .olitical factions as a threat to li1erty, .olitical
.arties soon arose and the le)el of .olitical rancor ra.idly escalated. (ashington, <a
model of self/sacrificing re.u1lican )irtue,< ironically may ha)e hel.ed to fuel the
di)isi)eness 1y 1ringing the leaders of the o..osing factions @'le:ander !amilton as
secretary of the $reasury and $homas Gefferson as #ecretary of #tateA into his ca1inet.
'. !amilton>s Program: Conflict surfaced immediately o)er !amilton>s financial .lan,
which sought to esta1lish the nation>s financial sta1ility, align .owerful financial interests
with the go)ernment, encourage economic de)elo.ment, and ultimately ma7e the United
#tates a ma9or commercial and military .ower modeled after 8reat 6ritain. $he .lan
won strong su..ort from financiers, manufacturers, and merchants and included:
esta1lishing the nation>s credit 1y assum.tion at .ar @or full face )alueA the national war
de1t and outstanding de1ts of the states= creating a new national de1t 1y selling interest/
1earing 1onds to men of economic su1stance to ma7e them sta7eholders in the new
go)ernment= chartering a 6an7 of the United #tates modeled on the 6an7 of England, or
a .ri)ate cor.oration that held .u1lic funds, issued 1an7 notes, and made loans to the
go)ernment= raising re)enue )ia an e:cise ta: on whis7ey= and encouraging
manufacturing )ia a tariff on im.orted goods and go)ernment su1sidies @a form of
mercantilismA. !amilton also recommended the creation of a standing national army.

6. $he Geffersonian O..osition: Gefferson and Badison re9ected the notion that the
nation-s future success hinged on closer colla1oration with 8reat 6ritain and loo7ed
westward to a re.u1lic of inde.endent farmers mar7eting grain, to1acco, and other
.roducts to entire world in a free trade system= feared the growing .ower of commercial
interests in the national go)ernment= considered a standing army a danger to li1erty=
cautioned that a national 1an7 and assum.tion of state de1ts would lead to corru.tion=
and re9ected the e:cise @or lu:uryA ta: on whis7ey @which they saw as a necessityA as
harmful to 1ac7country farmers. 6oth thought that !amilton had e:ceeded his
constitutional authority, raising the issue of a loose )ersus strict construction of the
C. Political Parties Emerge 1y the mid/%CJ&s:
%. Federalist Party: Led 1y (ashington, 'dams, and es.ecially !amilton, the
Federalists su..orted the (ashington administration, !amilton>s financial .lan, and
stronger ties with 8reat 6ritain. Elitist in outloo7, they saw society as a fi:ed hierarchy
wherein .u1lic office was reser)ed for the 1etter sort and deference was shown to
traditional authority, and feared the +e)olution>s <s.irit of li1erty< as leading to anarchy
and licentiousness.
0. +e.u1lican Party: Led 1y Gefferson and Badison, the +e.u1licans were more
sym.athetic to France, had more faith in democratic self/go)ernment, saw agriculture
@southern .lanters and ordinary farmersA as the foundation of future success rather than
commercial and industrial growth, re9ected e:cessi)e social and economic ine;uality, and
acce.ted 1road democratic .artici.ation as essential to freedom.
D. 'fter (ashington com.leted his second term, Gohn 'dams assumed the .residency in
early %CJC. $he 7ey issue of his .residency was na)igating the international turmoil
unleashed 1y the French +e)olution and the ongoing wars 1etween 8reat 6ritain and
France that followed. 'merican neutrality was made .ro1lematic 1y the <.ermanent<
alliance signed 1etween the United #tates and France in %CCF during the +e)olution and
the Federalist Party>s .ro/6ritish leanings. $o silence +e.u1lican o..osition, the
Federalists .ushed through the 'lien and #edition 'cts of %CJF, which included a new
NaturaliDation 'ct e:tending residency re;uirements for citiDenshi. from fi)e to fourteen
years, an 'lien and 'lien Enemies 'ct allowing de.ortation of .ersons from a1road
deemed dangerous 1y the federal authorities, and a #edition 'ct @aimed .rimarily at
+e.u1lican editorsA authoriDing .rosecution of )irtually any .u1lic assem1ly
or .u1lication critical of the federal authorities. Badison and Gefferson res.onded with
the Hirginia and ?entuc7y +esolutions calling the 'lien and #edition 'cts
unconstitutional )iolations of the First 'mendment. Gefferson also ad)anced the doctrine
of inter.osition 1y which states had the right and o1ligation to nullify federal law and the
right to secede if necessary.
E. $he slogan <Gefferson and Li1erty< hel.ed the +e.u1licans mo1iliDe .o.ular su..ort
for $homas Gefferson>s .residential cam.aign in %F&&. President Gefferson attem.ted to
smooth o)er the antagonism 1etween the two .arties 1y .roclaiming in his inaugural
address, 3(e are all +e.u1licans= we are all Federalists.4 "ronically, the so/called
+e)olution of %F&& was made .ossi1le 1y the three/fifths clause. Gefferson and Games
Badison concluded that the sla)ery ;uestion was so di)isi)e that it must 1e 7e.t out of
national .olitics, 1ut in %CJ2 Congress a fugiti)e sla)e law. Once in .ower,
Gefferson also mo)ed ;uic7ly to re)erse Federalist .olicies 1y reducing the siDe of the
federal go)ernment, reducing the siDe of the army and na)y, a1olishing all ta:es
@including the whis7ey ta:A e:ce.t the tariff, and .aying off a large .art of the federal
de1t. Perha.s the greatest irony of Gefferson>s .residency was his .urchase of the
Louisiana territory from France in %F&2 in s.ite of his 1elief in strict construction of the
Constitution. Fearing that Na.oleon would close New Orleans to 'merican trade, the
Louisiana Purchase in one stro7e dou1led the siDe of the United #tates for the cost of N%I
million. Gefferson then sent Lewis and Clar7 to sur)ey the territory. 'lthough .romised
that the li1erties they en9oyed under #.anish and French ci)il codes would 1e .reser)ed,
women and free 1lac7s in New Orleans nonetheless gradually saw their freedom erode.
F. Gudicial +e)iew: Gefferson distrusted the unelected federal 9udiciary 1ut under the
leadershi. of Gohn Barshall, the #u.reme Court e:.anded its .ower in the federal
system. Marbury v. Madison @%F&2A, a landmar7 case that dealt with Gohn 'dams so/
called <midnight 9udges,< esta1lished the #u.reme Court>s .ower of 9udicial re)iew of
acts of the federal Congress. Fletcher v. Peck @%F%&A, which was decided during the
.residency of Games Badison and dealt with the so/called 8eorgia KaDoo land fraud case,
esta1lished the #u.reme Court>s .ower of 9udicial re)iew o)er acts of the #tate
8. (ar of %F%0: Gefferson tried to remain neutral in the French and 6ritish war 1y
im.osing an em1argo on trade with either .ower, 1ut his em1argo de)astated the
economies of .ort cities, es.ecially in New England, and re)italiDed Federalist
o..osition. Continued 6ritish im.ressment of 'merican sailors and seiDure of 'merican
shi.s led Gefferson>s hand.ic7ed successor, Games Badison, to declare war on 8reat
6ritain in %F%0. O)erall, the war .ro)ed a disaster for the United #tates, including the
1urning of the (hite !ouse in (ashington D. C. and the failure to ac;uire Canada, 1ut
'merican na)al )ictories 1y the Constitution @1uilt from 8eorgia li)e oa7sA and 1y Oli)er
!. Perry on the 8reat La7es, the successful defense of Fort Bc!enry, and 'ndrew
Gac7son>s )ictory o)er the 6ritish at New Orleans in %F%I @ironically after the $reaty of
8hent had ended the warA resulted in a groundswell of nationalistic .ride and the
demise of the Federalist Party.
2III. The #arket Re%olution:
Following the (ar of %F%0 the young nation e:.erienced a economic
transformation that many historians call the Bar7et +e)olution. #team1oats, canals,
railroads, and telegra.h lines o.ened new lands to settlement, lowered trans.ortation
costs, and stimulated economic growth 1y facilitating the mo)ement of goods, ser)ices,
and communication. +o1ert Fulton>s Clermont demonstrated the feasi1ility of
commerce on the !udson +i)er, setting an e:am.le for de)elo.ment of the
steamshi. trade on the nation>s ma9or ri)ers and the great la7es. Com.letion 1y the state
of New Kor7 in %F0I of the 2E2/mile Erie Canal lin7ed New Kor7 City with the 8reat
La7es and ;uic7ly made New Kor7 City the nation>s leading commercial, manufacturing,
and financial center. $he success of Erie Canal s.awned a nationwide canal 1uilding
1oom that lasted until the economic de.ression of %F2C. O)er 2&&& miles of canals
connected waterways and created a networ7 lin7ing the 'tlantic states with the Ohio and
Bississi..i )alleys, which drastically reduced trans.ortation costs. ' railroad 1oom
1etween %F2& and %FE& o.ened u. the )ast interior of the United #tates to de)elo.ment,
created interest in further westward e:.ansion, and stimulated growth of mining of coal
for fuel and manufacture of iron for locomoti)es and rails. 6y %FE&, the nation-s railroad
networ7 consisted of 2&,&&& miles. $he telegra.h in)ented 1y #amuel F. 6. Borse was
.ut into commercial o.eration in %F55. Use of Borse code messages o)er electric lines
hel.ed to s.eed the flow of information and 1ring uniformity to .rices throughout the
nation. $a7en together, these inno)ations in trans.ortation and communication unleashed
a torrent of entre.reneurial energy that resulted in the creation of an integrated national
mar7et economy along sectional lines.
'. +ise of the (est: $he re)olution in trans.ortation and communications ga)e rise to
the (est as a self/conscious region. 'n estimated 5.I million .eo.le crossed the
'..alachians, usually tra)eling in grou.s, and esta1lished new communities. #i: new
states entered the nation 1etween %F%I/%F0% @"ndiana, "llinois, Bissouri, 'la1ama,
Bississi..i, and BaineA. One stream of .o.ulation e:tended the cotton .lantation system
into the #outhwest, another stream mo)ed into the southern regions of the Bidwest states
of Ohio, "ndiana, "llinois, while a third mo)ed from New England across New Kor7 into
the Northwest region of northern Ohio, "ndiana, and "llinois, and Bichigan and
(isconsin. $erritorial e:.ansion .ut tremendous .ressure on foreign controlled territory
in Florida, $e:as, and Oregon.
6. $he Cotton #outh: $he mar7et re)olution and westward e:.ansion also heightened
sectional di)isions 1etween the North and the #outh. $he North witnessed an early
industrial re)olution centered on te:tile .roduction, whereas the #outh saw the rise of the
so/called cotton 7ingdom 1ased on .lantation sla)ery. Eli (hitney>s in)ention of the
cotton gin in %CJ2 at Bul1erry 8ro)e near #a)annah re)olutioniDed 'merican sla)ery 1y
ma7ing short sta.le cotton .rofita1le. 'fter Congress a1olished the international sla)e
trade in %F&F, a massi)e national sla)e mar7et de)elo.ed 1etween the #outh and
Dee. #outh= ultimately an estimated one million sla)es were forci1ly mo)ed westward.
Cotton .roduction grew from I million .ounds in %CJ2 to nearly %C& million .ounds
in%F0&, and continued to grow thereafter. $hough the #outh was well integrated into the
'tlantic world-s commercial economy, it maintained an o)erwhelmingly agricultural
economy, focusing on .lantation .roduction of sta.le cro.s and in)estment in sla)es
rather than on 1uilding a di)ersified town/1ased industrial economy. "n %FE&, F&M of the
#outh>s .o.ulation wor7ed the land.
C. $he "ndustrialiDing North: $he mar7et re)olution and westward e:.ansion resulted in
the creation of an integrated economy of commercial farms and manufacturing cities.
$he Northeast ra.idly emerged as the nation-s center of commerce and 1an7ing. $he
trans.ortation networ7 and credit system drew farmers into the mar7et economy 1y
encouraging .roduction of food cro.s and li)estoc7 for ur1an consum.tion and .urchase
of manufactured goods .re)iously .roduced 1y farm families at home. $he %F5&s and
%FI&s witnessed a shift to new fertiliDers and the use of agricultural machinery in the
Northwest, including a steel .low in)ented 1y Gohn Deere in %F2C and a horse/drawn
wheat har)ester in)ented 1y Cyrus BcCormic7. 'merican wheat .roduction nearly
tri.led 1etween %F5& and %FE&. "n some industries, es.ecially te:tiles, a factory system
re.laced traditional craft .roduction. +ather than goods 1eing manufactured in homes or
small sho.s, factories concentrated large num1ers of wor7ers wor7ing with .ower/dri)en
machinery under central $he factory system emerged first in (altham,
Bassachusetts and e:.anded into Lowell. $he earliest factories were all located on the
<fall line< 1ecause of water .ower 1ut the ad)ent of steam .ower in %F5&s resulted in
e:.ansion of factories into cities li7e Philadel.hia and Chicago 1ecause of immense local
mar7ets. #oon the 3'merican system of manufactures4 1ased on mass .roduction of
interchangea1le .arts 1egan to ta7e sha.e. Eli (hitney led the way in small/arms
.roduction. $he mar7et re)olution also transformed 'mericans> conce.tion of time as
cloc7s 1ecame an integral .art of daily life and wor7 time and leisure time 1ecame
distincti)e. (or7ers in a re.u1lican society that e;uated self inde.endence with freedom
often e:.erienced the shift to wage wor7 as a loss of freedom. Conse;uently, nati)e/1orn
men initially resisted factory wor7 and em.loyers turned first to female and child la1or,
then e)entually to immigrant la1or. "ncreasingly, the world of wor7 and .olitics was seen
as a male Biddle class women, no longer needed to .roduce things at home,
em1raced a new definition of femininity that said a woman>s .lace was in the home,
where her role was to sustain non/mar7et )alues li7e lo)e, friendshi., and mutual
o1ligation and to .ro)ide her family with a ha)en in a heartless world. ' new Cult of
Domesticity gradually 1egan to su..lant the earlier "deology of +e.u1lican Botherhood,
with )irtue 1ecoming less associated with ci)ic mindedness and more as a .ersonal
;uality among women associated with se:ual innocence, 1eauty, frailty, and de.endence
on men. $he .ri)ate was thus gradually redefined as woman>s domain, the .u1lic as man>s.