Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997

Update From A Would-Be Criminal astermind
!" #e #ant to solve t$e problems #it$ our yout$ su%$ as dru&s' illi%it se(' %rime' vandalism' &an&s and even t$e
terribly $i&$ rate o" teen sui%ide #e must stop dealin& #it$ t$e symptoms and loo) at t$e disease*
1
For too many o"
our yout$ li"e $as no meanin&* +$ey are s%reamin& at us to &ive t$em some moorin&s and purpose in li"e*
,
“Kids know them as “roofies.” ” ________________________________________________6
The Horrible Truth__________________________________________________________11
We Have The Right__________________________________________________________1
“!ake the most of the "ndian Hem# $eed and sow it ever%where.”___________________1&
Harm Redu'tion____________________________________________________________()
*rohibition________________________________________________________________(+
,angster -ureau'rats________________________________________________________)
“!e.i'o/s a turn'oat in the war on drugs.” ______________________________________6
“*oliti's is broken.” _________________________________________________________01
1ttorne% ,eneral "s 2ot Re3uired To -e “4earned at 4aw”_________________________05
1fter 1ll6 "t/s 1 $mall World__________________________________________________66
The 7ir'le_________________________________________________________________88
9imi______________________________________________________________________5+
“The :m#ire never ended.” ___________________________________________________5
“$oft #eo#le be'ome hard 'riminals.” __________________________________________&1
*harma'ologi'al 4obotom%___________________________________________________&6
$u#er#redator_____________________________________________________________1)+
!un'hausen______________________________________________________________1)8
*atient/s -ill of Rights______________________________________________________11
*rison $u'ks______________________________________________________________118
*rivati;ed *risons__________________________________________________________1++
7hivalrous<_______________________________________________________________1+5
*awns___________________________________________________________________1(8
-%stander 1#ath%__________________________________________________________1(
*ornogra#h%______________________________________________________________1&
=________________________________________________________________________108
1
Con%erned Was$in&ton -tate resident' Journal American*
,
Op. cit.
1
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
:.tin'tion________________________________________________________________166
*edagog%_________________________________________________________________180
*ain_____________________________________________________________________151
>________________________________________________________________________156
The 2et__________________________________________________________________1&6
?m . . .___________________________________________________________________+)(
“ “7lone” derives from the ,reek word for “twig.” ” _____________________________+11
$'hr@dinger/s Kitten________________________________________________________+10
“$ni#s and snails and #u##% dog tails”_________________________________________+1&
“:%es in the ba'k of %our head” ______________________________________________++6
“*rivate enter#rise #uts u# the mone%.” ________________________________________+(+
Ao##elgBngers_____________________________________________________________+(&
1nimals “$mell” Cear______________________________________________________+
Areams__________________________________________________________________+&
!ar'h 1(_________________________________________________________________+0+
Histori'ism_______________________________________________________________+61
“-e kind to slugs.”_________________________________________________________+8
Ta'ks____________________________________________________________________+88
“4ife6 libert% and the #ursuit of ha##iness.” ____________________________________+5
“Kids know them as “roofies.”


3
!ma&ine all t$e "ears o" parents #$ose dau&$ters $ave $it datin& a&e pa%)ed into one #$ite pill t$e si.e o" a
dime*
/
0ou probably remember stories about t$e party pun%$ spi)ed #it$ al%o$ol or t$e bro#nies ba)ed #it$
mari1uana 2or mari1uana la%ed #it$ speed or drin)s dosed #it$ eye drops to %ause diarr$ea3* Well it4s still
$appenin& * * * but no# it4s t$ose dru&s plus some ne# ones*
5
!t %osts about 63 at t$e $i&$-s%$ool #ater "ountain
7
8in its ori&inal manu"a%turer4s pa%)a&in&*
7
!t is
2tasteless'
9' 9
3

%olorless' odorless and :ui%)ly dissolves in a %an o" %ola*
!n about 10 minutes' it %reates a drun)li)e e""e%t lastin& ei&$t $ours* !t stren&t$ens t$e e""e%ts o" al%o$ol'
%ausin& loss o" in$ibition' sleepiness' rela(ation and ; per$aps #orst o" all "or its vi%tims ; amnesia*
+$e pill is made o" a dru& %alled <o$ypnol*
10
<o$ypnol is )no#n by various street names= <oa%$ies' >a <o%$e'
<ope' <ib' <o%$e' <op$ies' <oo"ies' <u""ies* !n an un%on"irmed report out o" Australia' it #as re"erred to as
?-tupe"i'@ and it $as also been desi&nated ?t$e Auaalude o" t$e B90s@ in some media reports*
11
3
Cavid Kid#ell D Connie Eiloto FKnight-Ridder NewspapersG' Cime-si.ed' 63 pill sends rape rates soarin&' The Seattle
Times' 17 Feb 1997' p* A3*
/
Op. cit.
5
Je"" >indenbaum' Earentin&H Broo"ies4 &o a step beyond spi)ed pun%$' The Seattle Times' / Ce% 1997' p* C,*
7
Cavid Kid#ell D Connie Eiloto FKnight-Ridder NewspapersG' Cime-si.ed' 63 pill sends rape rates soarin&' The Seattle
Times' 17 Feb 1997' p* A3*
7
Je"" >indenbaum' Earentin&H Broo"ies4 &o a step beyond spi)ed pun%$' The Seattle Times' / Ce% 1997' p* C,*
9
Kemp $its Bsad4 et$i%sH Iore de%ries Blo# road'4 The Seattle Times' 1/ J%t 1997' p* A/
9
-ta""er says se%urity %$ie" )ne# FB! "iles #ere &at$ered' The Seattle Times' / J%t 1997' p* A7*
10
Cavid Kid#ell D Connie Eiloto FKnight-Ridder NewspapersG' Cime-si.ed' 63 pill sends rape rates soarin&' The Seattle
Times' 17 Feb 1997' p* A3*
11
Cavid K* -mit$' *C*' Conald <* Wesson' *C*' D -ara$ <* Cal$oun' *E*L*' <o$ypnol F"lunitra.epamG "a%t s$eet'
Lai&$t As$bury Free Clini%s' !n%*' 1997*
,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
>i)e Auaaludes' t$e trademar) "or met$a:ualone'
2 1,3
a dru& popular in t$e 1970s' <o$ypnol %an ma)e people
"or&et t$eir troubles*
13
!t is also )no#n as ?t$e "or&et pill@ be%ause it %an %ause temporary bla%)outs*
1/
!t $as been
used to e(tend or ease t$e e""e%ts o" ot$er dru&s' or dropped in a drin) to in%apa%itate unsuspe%tin& people' leavin&
t$em #it$ no memory o" an assault or robbery*
15
<o$ypnol is a potent and $ypnoti% sedative'
17
8is 10 times more po#er"ul t$an t$e %ommonly pres%ribed
sedative Malium and is used le&ally in 7/ %ountries be"ore sur&ery and in treatin& insomnia*
17
+$ey are le&ally
pres%ribed as sleepin& pills in about 90 %ountries but not in t$e United -tates
19
t$ou&$ Colombian dru& tra""i%)ers'
lon& t$e sour%e o" most o" t$e #orld4s %o%aine' are smu&&lin& 2t$e3 po#er"ul sedative onto t$e streets o" t$e United
-tates*
19
+$e U*-* Customs -ervi%e said 2ar%$ 5' 1997'3 it is sealin& t$e border a&ainst8<o$ypnol*
,0
+$e United
-tates8banned imports o" t$e sedative <o$ypnol and said it #ould sei.e it "rom individuals' in t$e mail or in
%ommer%ial s$ipments*
,1
Eoli%e in several states say men $ave slipped pills into #omen4s drin)s prior to se(ual assaults*
,,
!t4s t$e
amnesia-produ%in& e""e%ts o" <o$ypnol t$at ma)e it t$e dru& o" %$oi%e "or prospe%tive rapists*
,3
!n
<o$ypnol-related rapes' vi%tims #$o are slipped t$e dru& be%ome di..y and disoriented' and $ave trouble movin&
t$eir arms and le&s*
,/
any %ases $ave been reported' mostly in 2Florida' +e(as'
,5
3 and Cali"ornia*
,7
• +#o8brot$ers and a "riend #ere %$ar&ed #it$ repeatedly rapin& a 15-year-old8&irl a"ter t$ey se%retly
put a roo"ie in $er #ine %ooler*
,7
• A 17-year-old8&irl raped Jan* 7' 21997'3 #$ile s$e #as under t$e in"luen%e o" roo"ies lost 10 $ours
bet#een $avin& dinner #it$ "riends and #a)in& up in a stran&e $otel bed* Eoli%e8investi&at2ed3 a
,9-year-old suspe%t #$o #as at t$e dinner*
,9
• Erose%utors in Bro#ard County' Fla*' said one man bra&&ed to "riends t$at $e $ad dru&&ed and raped a
do.en #omen*
,9
• Jne Bro#ard County man #$o pleaded &uilty to roo"ie rape in a 1993 %ase ; ar) Ant$ony Eere. o"
Elantation ; told aut$orities $e used it to rape as many as ,0 #omen*
30
• At least t#o +e(as #omen $ave no# died a"ter un)no#in&ly in&estin& <o$ypnol*
31
+$e latest episode
involved a 15-year-old and a "emale "riend &iven t$e dru& and t$en raped by "ive men in Kl Easo*
3,' 2 333
1,
et$a:ualone' sold under t$e brand names Auaalude and -opor' is a depressant similar in e""e%t to barbiturates*
N -pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Winston' 1997G' p* 197*
13
The Associated Press' Eo#er"ul sedative "rom Colombia &ains popularity amon& U*-* teens' The Seattle Times' , April
1995' p* A9*
1/
Cavid Ja%)son FDallas orning NewsG' U*-* "orbids imports o" sedu%tive sedative used "or date rapes' The Seattle Times'
7 ar%$ 1997' p* A9*
15
A%ross t$e Oation' The Seattle Times' 15 June 1997' p* A,*
17
Cavid Kid#ell D Connie Eiloto FKnight-Ridder NewspapersG' Cime-si.ed' 63 pill sends rape rates soarin&' The Seattle
Times' 17 Feb 1997' p* A3*
17
A%ross t$e Oation' The Seattle Times' 15 June 1997' p* A,*
19
Cavid Kid#ell D Connie Eiloto FKnight-Ridder NewspapersG' Cime-si.ed' 63 pill sends rape rates soarin&' The Seattle
Times' 17 Feb 1997' p* A3*
19
The Associated Press' Eo#er"ul sedative "rom Colombia &ains popularity amon& U*-* teens' The Seattle Times' , April
1995' p* A9*
,0
Cavid Ja%)son FDallas orning NewsG' U*-* "orbids imports o" sedu%tive sedative used "or date rapes' The Seattle Times'
7 ar%$ 1997' p* A9*
,1
A%ross t$e Oation' The Seattle Times' 5 ar%$ 1997' p* A/*
,,
Cavid Ja%)son FDallas orning NewsG' U*-* "orbids imports o" sedu%tive sedative used "or date rapes' The Seattle Times'
7 ar%$ 1997' p* A9*
,3
Je"" >indenbaum' Earentin&H Broo"ies4 &o a step beyond spi)ed pun%$' The Seattle Times' / Ce% 1997' p* C,*
,/
A%ross t$e Oation' The Seattle Times' 15 June 1997' p* A,*
,5
Op. cit.
,7
Je"" >indenbaum' Earentin&H Broo"ies4 &o a step beyond spi)ed pun%$' The Seattle Times' / Ce% 1997' p* C,*
,7
Cavid Kid#ell D Connie Eiloto FKnight-Ridder NewspapersG' Cime-si.ed' 63 pill sends rape rates soarin&' The Seattle
Times' 17 Feb 1997' p* A3*
,9
Op. cit.
,9
Cavid Ja%)son FDallas orning NewsG' U*-* "orbids imports o" sedu%tive sedative used "or date rapes' The Seattle Times'
7 ar%$ 1997' p* A9*
30
Cavid Kid#ell D Connie Eiloto FKnight-Ridder NewspapersG' Cime-si.ed' 63 pill sends rape rates soarin&' The Seattle
Times' 17 Feb 1997' p* A3*
31
Kditorial' Fi&$tin& t$e Bdate rape4 dru&' The !os Angeles Times' 9 J%t 1997*
3,
Op. cit.
33
Reuters' BCate rape4 dru& overdose )ills &irl' The !os Angeles Times' / J%t 1997*
3
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
2From January 1 to June ,9' 1997' Florida4s
3/
3 poison-%ontrol %enter $a2d3 lo&&ed more t$an 100 reports o"
se(ual assaults on vi%tims82in%apa%itated by3 ?roo"ies@ and la#-en"or%ement o""i%ials say abuse amon& teena&ers
is &ro#in&*
35
?!n 1ust t$ree #ee)s' more t$an 100'000 tablets o" t$is dru& #ere de%lared and brou&$t into t$e
%ountry t$rou&$ >aredo' 2+e(as'3 alone'@ said +reasury -e%retary <obert <ubin*
37
+$e dru&' "irst seen in Florida in 199,' $as proli"erated to su%$ a point t$at t$e Cru& Kn"or%ement
Administration and t$e Florida Cepartment o" >a# Kn"or%ement $ave 1oined "or%es #it$ lo%al poli%e to $ave
<o$ypnol4s ille&al-dru& status stren&t$ened to ma)e penalties e:ual to 2>-C'
37
3 %o%aine and $eroin*
?A lot o" times t$e &uys don4t t$in) t$ey4ve done anyt$in& #ron&'@ said Cooper City' 2Florida'3 Eoli%e Cete%tive
Kre&& >upo* ?+$is is not a rape in t$eir eyes* +$ey t$in) i" t$e &irl is not a#a)e or alert enou&$ to say' BOo'4 it4s
not rape*@
?!t4s very di""i%ult ma)in& t$ese %ases'@ said Cennis Oi%e#ander' an assistant state attorney in t$e Bro#ard
se(-%rimes unit* ?Usually t$ese vi%tims * * * don4t remember a t$in&*@
?!t4s almost li)e t$e per"e%t %rime'@ $e said* ?Be%ause t$ey don4t $ave to #orry about a #itness testi"yin&
a&ainst t$em* And don4t t$in) t$ese &uys aren4t "i&urin& t$at out*@
+$e dru& also $as t$e potential to ma)e rapists out o" men #$o #it$out t$e dru& mi&$t not %ommit t$e %rime'
$e said*
?Usually' t$ey aren4t t$e )ind o" &uys #$o #ould "or%e t$emselves on someone "or se(* +$ey seem to be t$e
)ind o" &uys you4d see at $appy $our #it$ t$eir buddies' t$e )ind o" "rat-boy mentality t$at t$in)s it4s "un to &et a
&irl drun) and $ave t$eir #ay*@
39
?We simply %annot' in &ood %ons%ien%e' stand by and leave our #ives and dau&$ters' sisters and mot$ers'
vulnerable to t$ese se(ual predators'@ said <ep* Ierald -oloman' <-O*0*
39
?+$e only #ay to prote%t t$em is to
&uarantee $ard prison time "or t$ese %o#ards*@
/0
?! %an tell you ! $ave told my 17-year-old dau&$ter never to a%%ept a bevera&e o" any )ind "rom anyone unless it
is in a sealed %ontainer t$at s$e opens $ersel"'@ 2-tan Eea%o%)3 said* ?Coes t$at &ive you any )ind o" an idea $o#
%on%erned ! am about itP@
/1
!n addition to usin& t$e dru& to &ain po#er over ot$ers' $i&$-s%$ool and %olle&e students are in%reasin&ly ta)in&
<o$ypnol to lo#er in$ibitions*
/,
!t is o"ten ta)en in %ombination #it$ beer as an ?al%o$ol e(tender*@
/3
?+$ey ta)e
a pill and t$ey drin) a beer and t$ey4re $i&$ "or an entire day'@ said poli%e -&t* Jo$n Jo$nston o" Coral Iables'
Fla*
//
U*-* Customs -ervi%e Commissioner Ieror&e Weise des%ribed it as ?t$e party dru& o" today*@
/5
+$e dru&
<o$ypnol is &ainin& popularity as a %$eap $i&$ in Colombia' t$e United -tates' t$e Oet$erlands' Iermany and ot$er
%ountries*
/7
Legislation
!n an emer&en%y move to stem use' Florida4s attorney &eneral up&raded t$e penalty "or possessin& t$e sedative
<o$ypnol*
/7
<o$ypnol #as previously &rouped #it$ dru&s $avin& a lo# potential "or abuse*
/9
Oo#' t$e penalty "or
possessin& <o$ypnol $as in%reased "rom t$ree to 30 years in prison*
/9
A 2Cali"ornia3 state la# made possession o" <o$ypnol8ille&al as o" 2January 13*
3/
A%ross t$e Oation' The Seattle Times' ,7 June 1997' p* A7*
35
Op. cit.
37
Cavid Ja%)son FDallas orning NewsG' U*-* "orbids imports o" sedu%tive sedative used "or date rapes' The Seattle Times'
7 ar%$ 1997' p* A9*
37
A%ross t$e Oation' The Seattle Times' ,7 June 1997' p* A7*
39
Cavid Kid#ell D Connie Eiloto FKnight-Ridder NewspapersG' Cime-si.ed' 63 pill sends rape rates soarin&' The Seattle
Times' 17 Feb 1997' p* A3*
39
The Associated Press' Bill penali.es use o" dru&s to subdue rape vi%tims' Journal American' 1997*
/0
Op. cit.
/1
Cavid Kid#ell D Connie Eiloto FKnight-Ridder NewspapersG' Cime-si.ed' 63 pill sends rape rates soarin&' The Seattle
Times' 17 Feb 1997' p* A3*
/,
Je"" >indenbaum' Earentin&H Broo"ies4 &o a step beyond spi)ed pun%$' The Seattle Times' / Ce% 1997' p* C,*
/3
Op. cit.
//
The Associated Press' Eo#er"ul sedative "rom Colombia &ains popularity amon& U*-* teens' The Seattle Times' , April
1995' p* A9*
/5
Cavid Ja%)son FDallas orning NewsG' U*-* "orbids imports o" sedu%tive sedative used "or date rapes' The Seattle Times'
7 ar%$ 1997' p* A9*
/7
The Associated Press' Eo#er"ul sedative "rom Colombia &ains popularity amon& U*-* teens' The Seattle Times' , April
1995' p* A9*
/7
A%ross t$e Oation' The Seattle Times' ,7 June 1997' p* A7*
/9
Op. cit.
/9
Op. cit.
/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$e Louse' by a vote o" /,1-1' approved le&islation 2-eptember ,73 ma)in& it a %rime to possess <o$ypnol and
similar po#er"ul tran:uili.ers #it$ t$e intent to %ommit a violent %rime' in%ludin& se(ual assault*
50
Use o"8
po#er"ul tran:uili.ers to subdue rape vi%tims #ould %arry a penalty o" up to 15 years in prison*
51
+$e potential 1ail
term in%reases to ,0 years #$en t$e vi%tim is a&ed 1/ or youn&er*
<ep* a(ine Waters' C-Cali"*' voted Bno*4 -$e said it #as ?$ap$a.ard@ and ?dis$onest@ ele%tion-year
le&islation t$at does not address similar use o" ot$er into(i%atin& substan%es' su%$ as al%o$ol or %o%aine*
?!t 1ust sounds li)e typi%al politi%al le&islatin& by <epubli%ans'@ s$e said*
5,
+$e -enate a%ted by voi%e vote 2J%tober 33 to %ontrol use o" <o$ypnol* +$e bill must return to t$e Louse'
#$ere a sli&$tly di""erent version #as 2previously3 approved*
53
-eparately' t$e Louse' by voi%e vote' approved and sent to Eresident Clinton a -enate bill re:uirin& t$e Federal
Bureau o" !nvesti&ation 2FFB!G3 to establis$ a national database to )eep tra%) o" "elons %onvi%ted o" se( %rimes
involvin& violen%e or minors* +$e data base #ill in%lude names' addresses' "in&erprints and p$otos*
+$e bill re:uires released o""enders to re&ister #it$ t$e FB! #$i%$ in turn is re:uired to noti"y state o""i%ials
#$en an o""ender moves* Community or&ani.ations and private &roups %ould tap into t$e database via lo%al la#
en"or%ement*
5/
Rohypnol (Flunitrazepam)
<o$ypnol' made by t$e -#iss %ompany <o%$e 2Fa*)*a* Lo""man->arou%$'
55
a*)*a* Lo""man->a <o%$e'
57
a*)*a*
<o%$e E$arma%euti%als' !n%*
57
G'3 is not sold in t$e United -tates but is available by pres%ription in Colombia' as
#ell as in ot$er -out$ Ameri%an %ountries' Asia and Kurope*
59
<o$ypnol is mar)eted and manu"a%tured in e(i%o'
-out$ Ameri%a' Kurope and Asia'
59
82and3 alt$ou&$ <o$ypnol is ille&al in t$e United -tates' residents $ave been
able to brin& it in #it$ a do%tor4s pres%ription "rom e(i%o or any o" t$e 70 %ountries #$ere t$e dru& is le&al*
70' 2 713
<o%$e says it is not sellin& <o$ypnol in t$e United -tates be%ause t$ere is too mu%$ %ompetition #it$ ot$er
sedatives*
7,
2<o%$e also3 announ%ed8it is %onvertin& to a smaller-dose pill t$at #ill not dissolve as easily in a
drin)*
73
• • •
<o$ypnol belon&s to t$e "amily o" medi%ations %alled ben.odia.epines #$i%$ in%ludes Malium Fdia.epamG'
>ibrium F%$lorodia.epo(ideG and Qana( Falpra.olamG*
7/
>i)e ot$er ben.odia.epines' "lunitra.epam ta)en alone is
unli)ely to produ%e deat$' even i" an overdose is ta)en* Combinin& "lunitra.epam #it$ al%o$ol redu%es t$e sa"ety
mar&in' $o#ever' and is more li)ely to be let$al due to en$an%ed %entral nervous system depression* <o$ypnol
into(i%ation is &enerally asso%iated #it$ impaired 1ud&ment and impaired motor s)ills' and t$e %ombination o"
al%o$ol and "lunitra.epam is also parti%ularly $a.ardous be%ause to&et$er' t$eir e""e%ts on memory and 1ud&ement
are &reater t$an t$e e""e%ts resultin& "rom eit$er ta)en alone* !t is %ommonly reported t$at persons #$o be%ome
into(i%ated on a %ombination o" al%o$ol and "lunitra.epam $ave ?bla%)outs@ lastin& 9 to ,/ $ours "ollo#in&
in&estion* Cisin$ibition is anot$er #idely reported e""e%t o" <o$ypnol' #$en ta)en eit$er alone or in %ombination
#it$ al%o$ol*
75
50
Capital Wat%$' The Seattle Times' ,7 -ep 1997' p* A7*
51
The Associated Press' Bill penali.es use o" dru&s to subdue rape vi%tims' Journal American' 1997*
5,
Op. cit.
53
-ta""er says se%urity %$ie" )ne# FB! "iles #ere &at$ered' The Seattle Times' / J%t 1997' p* A7*
5/
Op. cit.
55
Op. cit.
57
Cavid -tipp' +$e business o" &eneti%s' "ortune' 31 ar%$ 1997' 135F7G' p* 77*
57
Cavid K* -mit$' *C*' Conald <* Wesson' *C*' D -ara$ <* Cal$oun' *E*L*' <o$ypnol F"lunitra.epamG "a%t s$eet'
Lai&$t As$bury Free Clini%s' !n%*' 1997*
59
The Associated Press' Eo#er"ul sedative "rom Colombia &ains popularity amon& U*-* teens' The Seattle Times' , April
1995' p* A9*
59
A%ross t$e Oation' The Seattle Times' 5 ar%$ 1997' p* A/*
70
Cavid Ja%)son FDallas orning NewsG' U*-* "orbids imports o" sedu%tive sedative used "or date rapes' The Seattle Times'
7 ar%$ 1997' p* A9*
71
ary Bet$ -$eridan' Ameri%ans "uel +i1uana dru&store boomH border= retailers are )ey suppliers to U*-* o" popular'
ille&al <o$ypnol' The !os Angeles Times' 5 July 1997*
7,
The Associated Press' Eo#er"ul sedative "rom Colombia &ains popularity amon& U*-* teens' The Seattle Times' , April
1995' p* A9*
73
A%ross t$e Oation' The Seattle Times' 15 June 1997' p* A,*
7/
Cavid K* -mit$' *C*' Conald <* Wesson' *C*' D -ara$ <* Cal$oun' *E*L*' <o$ypnol F"lunitra.epamG "a%t s$eet'
Lai&$t As$bury Free Clini%s' !n%*' 1997*
75
Op. cit.
5
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
>i)e ot$er sedative-$ynoti%s' "lunitra.epam %an produ%e p$ysi%al dependen%e' and abrupt %essation may %ause
si&ns and symptoms su%$ as an(iety' insomnia' intense dreamin&' parent$esis' in%reased sensitivity to li&$t and
sounds' and &rand mal sei.ures* From t$e p$arma%olo&i%al pro"ile o" "lunitra.epam' #it$dra#al intensity "rom
"lunitra.epam alone #ould be e(pe%ted to pea) t$ree to "ive days a"ter %essation o" use*
77
A patient #$o is
p$ysi%ally dependent but ta)in& only "lunitra.epam %ould be #it$dra#n usin& E$enobarbital*
77
at!h "our Friend#s $a!k
• 5 out o" 7 persons are e(pe%ted to be a vi%tim o" an attempted or %ompleted violent %rime Frape' robbery'
and assault' e(%ludin& murderG at least on%e durin& li"e' based on 1975-9/ annual vi%timi.ation rates* F-ee
>i"etime >i)eli$ood o" Mi%timi.ation' BJ-' OCJ-10/,7' ar%$ 1997*G
79
• 1 o" every 100 men and o" every 3,3 #omen are e(pe%ted to be a vi%tim o" murder' based on 1979-90
annual murder rates and li"etime probabilities* F-ee Crime in t$e United -tates' 1991' FB!*G
79
• • •
!t4s important to tea%$ your teen to be %autious #it$out bein& paranoid*
70
Con4t attend parties or ot$er events
alone*
71
Al#ays let a "riend or someone else )no# #$ere you are
7,
82and3 #$om you are #it$*
73
Be %are"ul #$om
you a%%ept opened "ood or drin) "rom* -ee) out an unopened pa%)a&e or %an' or #at%$ someone #$en t$ey pour
you a drin)* <emember t$at pun%$-type drin)s are very easy to spi)e*
7/
Avoid8situations8su%$ as bein& le"t in a
room alone #it$ stran&ers or &oin& some#$ere alone #it$ someone*
75
0ou mi&$t #ant to revie# some basi%
rape-prevention te%$ni:ues*
77
Be assertiveH don4t be intimidated into anyt$in&* Lave %on"iden%e to say no and
mean it*
77
C$ildren' and &irls espe%ially' are tau&$t to "ear se( %rimes* +$ey are told never to a%%ept rides #it$ stran&e
men or to ta)e %andy "rom t$em* 0et t$e e(a%t nature o" t$e potential dan&er remains un)no#n and so t$e &irl may
build up an e(%eedin&ly &reat dread o" a mysterious %rime' per$aps t$in)in& t$at it #ould be t$e #orst t$in& t$at
%ould $appen to $er* +$us' #$en s$e is atta%)ed' s$e may be absolutely immobili.ed #it$ "ear* -$e "ree.es and is
unablle to #a&e an e""e%tive %ounteratta%)*
79
77
Op. cit.
77
Op. cit.
79
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' -pe%ial report= li"etime li)eli$ood o"
&oin& to state or "ederal prison Far%$ 1997G' 30 April 1997' $ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRas%iiRll&s"p*t(t*
79
Op. cit.
70
Je"" >indenbaum' Earentin&H Broo"ies4 &o a step beyond spi)ed pun%$' The Seattle Times' / Ce% 1997' p* C,*
71
Op. cit.
7,
Op. cit.
73
Op. cit.
7/
Op. cit.
75
Op. cit.
77
Op. cit.
77
Op. cit.
79
Janet -$ibley Lyde' #nderstanding $uman Se%uality' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill Eublis$in& Co*' 1990G' p* /79*
7
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
%he &orri'le %ruth
+$e preeminent pys%$iatrist -i&mund Freud #rote t$at all in%est memories #ere "alse* !n ot$er #ords' t$at
in%est never $appens ; but it does*
79
A %ontroversy $as arisen in re%ent years over Freud4s abandonment o" $is
sedu%tion t$eory o" t$e ori&in o" psy%$olo&i%al disorder*
90
Freud eventually ?reali.ed@ t$at t$e a%%ounts $e #as
$earin& "rom patients #eren4t literally true* +$e #omen #eren4t sudu%ed as %$ildren* <at$er' t$ey $ad
un%ons%iously distorted t$eir o#n se(ual desires "or t$eir parents into a symboli% "orm and pro1e%ted
itout#ard* 2si%3
+$at4s t$e #ay Freud put it ; t$at $e4d reali.ed t$e trut$* !n 199/' $o#ever' an analyst named Je""rey asson
stron&ly %$allen&ed t$is statement* asson $ad reread a lon& series o" letters bet#een Freud and $is "riend and
%ollea&ue Wil$elm Fliess Fasson #as editin& t$e letters "or publi%ationG* Eartly on t$e basis o" previously
upublis$ed 2si%3 parts o" t$ese letters' asson ar&ued t$at t$e sedu%tions #ere in "a%t real' t$at Freud $ad )no#n it'
and t$at Freud $ad %$osen ; eventually ; to i&nore t$eir reality*
asson $olds t$at Freud la%)ed t$e %oura&e to brin& to li&$t a s$ame"ul trut$= t$at violent %$ild se(ual abuse
a%tually #as #idespread* Freud apparently #as in a position to )no# t$at t$is #as so* Le o#ned boo)s "rom t$e
literature o" le&al medi%ine on t$e sub1e%t o" %$ild$ood rape F2asson' J* * F199/G* The assault on truth* Oe# 0or)= Farrar'
-traus' D Iirou(
91
3G* Le $ad attended autopsies #$ere $e4d seen somet$in& ?o" #$i%$ medi%al s%ien%e pre"erred to
ta)e no noti%e*@ And asson "ound t$at some o" t$ose autopsies may $ave been %ondu%ted on %$ildren #$o4d been
raped and t$en murdered*
W$y #ould Freud la%) t$e %oura&e to stand up "or $is t$eory i" $e believed itP +#o possible reasons stand out*
Jne %on%erns Freud4s pro"essional reputation* Lis "irst presentation o" t$e sedu%tion t$eory' in a spee%$ to a
pro"essional so%iety' #as met #it$ utter silen%e 2Fand an&ry &laresG3* Le #as later ur&ed not to publis$ it* By
pointin& to upsettin& realities' Freud ris)ed be%omin& an out%ast in $is pro"ession* Le needed a #ay out' to salva&e
$is "ast-vanis$in& %areer prospe%ts* 2F-o $e #ent under%over*G3
+$e se%ond issue %on%erned Freud4s "riends$ip #it$ Fliess* asson %laims t$ere4s eviden%e t$at Fliess
molested $is o#n son* +$us' even as Freud #as "ormin& t$e vie# t$at psy%$olo&i%al disturban%e stems "rom se(ual
abuse' t$e person to #$om $e %on"ided t$ese ideas #as &uilty o" pre%isely su%$ abuse* asson believes t$at Freud
eventually %ame to reali.e t$is* Iiven t$ese t#o pressures' says asson' Freud #as "or%ed to banis$ t$e eviden%e
o" %$ild$ood sedu%tion "rom $is o#n %ons%iousness*
asson also ar&ues t$at seduction is an e(tremely un"ortunate label "or t$is t$eory and t$at t$e #ord is not at
all typi%al o" Freud4s "irst statement o" t$e t$eory' in #$i%$ $e also used t$e terms rape' a&use' attac'' assault'
aggression' and trauma* !t4s ironi% t$at even as t$e t$eory #as bein& set aside' a pre"erential use o" t$e term
seduction $as made t$e t$eory4s impli%ations seem more beni&n* Eer$aps t$is terminolo&y represents yet one last
de"ense a&ainst a truly una%%eptable trut$*
W$at really #as t$e trut$P We obviously %an4t return to Freud4s era and investi&ate t$e rate o" %$ild abuse at
t$e time* Jn t$e ot$er $and' it $as be%ome %lear t$at %$ild se(ual abuse today is "ar more %ommon t$an on%e
believed F2Fin)el$or' C*' D C.iuba->eat$erman' J* F199/G* Mi%timi.ation o" %$ildren* American Psychologist' /9' 173-193H
9,

+ri%)ett' E* K*' D Eutnam' F* W* F1993G* !mpa%t o" %$ild se(ual abuse on "emales= +o#ard a developmental' psy%$obiolo&i%al
inte&ration* Psycholoogical Science' /' 91-97
93
3G*
9/
it!h ( )e*ual +redator
+$e rise in reports o" do%umented %ases o" %$ild se(ual abuse $as been a%%ompanied by a rise in reports o"
se(ual abuse t$at %annot be do%umented* embers o" t$e publi%' as #ell as members o" t$e mental $ealt$ and
ot$er pro"essions' $ave debated t$e validity o" some memories o" se(ual abuse' as #ell as some o" t$e t$erapeuti%
te%$ni:ues #$i%$ $ave been used* +$e Ameri%an Esy%$iatri% Asso%iation $as been %on%erned t$at t$e passionate
debates about t$ese issues $ave obs%ured t$e re%o&nition o" a body o" s%ienti"i% eviden%e t$at underlies #idespread
a&reement amon& psy%$iatrists t$at t$e publi% %on"usion and dismay over t$is issue and t$e possibility o" "alse
a%%usations not dis%redit t$e reports o" patients #$o $ave indeed been traumati.ed by a%tual previous abuse*
95
Luman memory is a %omple( pro%ess about #$i%$ t$ere is a substantial base o" s%ienti"i% )no#led&e* emory
%an be divided into "our sta&es= input Fen%odin&G' stora&e' retrieval' and re%ountin&* All o" t$ese pro%esses %an be
in"luen%ed by a variety o" "a%tors' in%ludin& developmental sta&e' e(pe%tations and )no#led&e base prior to an
eventH stress and bodily sensations e(perien%ed durin& an eventH post-event :uestionin&H and t$e e(perien%e and
79
Jenni"er James' Con"usion %ontinues over repressed memories' The Seattle Times' ,, J%t 1995' p* >,*
90
C$arles -* Carver D i%$ael F* -%$eier' Perspecti(es on Personality' 3rd ed* FBoston= Allyn D Ba%on' 1997G' p* ,50*
91
)&idem' p* 593*
9,
)&idem' p* 579*
93
)&idem' p* 599*
9/
)&idem' p* ,50*
95
-tatement on memories o" se(ual abuse FAmeri%an Esy%$iatri% Asso%iation statementG' *++, )n-ormation Please F+G
Almanac' Annual 1995' p* /39F1G*
7
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
%onte(t o" t$e re%ountin& o" t$e event* !n addition' t$e retrieval and re%ountin& o" a memory %an modi"y t$e "orm o"
t$e memory' #$i%$ may in"luen%e t$e %ontent and t$e %onvi%tion about t$e vera%ity o" t$e memory in t$e "uture*
-%ienti"i% )no#led&e is not yet pre%ise enou&$ to predi%t $o# a %ertain e(perien%e or "a%tor #ill in"luen%e a
memory in a &iven person*
97
-ome individuals #$o $ave e(perien%ed do%umented traumati% events may nevert$eless in%lude some "alse or
in%onsistent elements in t$eir reports* !n addition' $esitan%y in ma)in& a report' and re%antin& "ollo#in& t$e report
%an o%%ur in vi%tims o" do%umented abuse* +$ere"ore' t$ese seemin&ly %ontradi%tory "indin&s do not e(%lude t$e
possibility t$at t$e report is based on a true event*
97
emories %an be si&ni"i%antly in"luen%ed by :uestionin&' espe%ially in youn& %$ildren* emories also %an be
si&ni"i%antly in"luen%ed by a trusted person Fe*&*' t$erapistG*
99
!t $as also been s$o#n t$at repeated :uestionin& may
lead individuals to report ?memories@ o" events t$at never o%%urred*
99
any individuals #$o re%over memories o" abuse $ave been able to "ind %orroboratin& in"ormation about t$eir
memories* Lo#ever' no su%$ in"ormation %an be "ound' or is possible to obtain' in some situations*
90
+$ere $ave
been numerous studies t$at $ave validated repressed memories #$en t$e o""enders and ot$er siblin&s eventually
admitted to bein& a part o" a%ts o" abuse*
91
-ome vi%tims remember only smells Ft$e sense o" smell is %losest to t$e
memory areas o" t$e brain so is a very po#er"ul %onne%tor to eventsG* -ome only remember sounds or "eelin&s'
9,
8
2but3 %$ildren' not )no#in& #$et$er t$eir memories are real' &ro# up unsure and un$appy*
93
2F+een an&st*G3
C$ildren and adoles%ents #$o $ave been abused %ope #it$ t$e trauma by usin& a variety o" psy%$olo&i%al
me%$anisms* !n some instan%es' t$ese %opin& me%$anisms result in a la%) o" %ons%ious a#areness o" t$e abuse "or
varyin& periods o" time* Cons%ious t$ou&$ts and "eelin&s stemmin& "rom t$e abuse may emer&e at a later date*
9/

2FKarly %$ild$ood memories resur"a%in& durin& one4s mid-t#enties $as o"ten been labeled ?sudden onset82b*s*3@G*3
Esy%$iatrists s$ould maintain an empat$i%' non1ud&mental' neutral stan%e to#ards reported memories o" se(ual
abuse*
95
A stron& prior belie" by t$e psy%$iatrist t$at se(ual abuse' or ot$er "a%tors' are or are not t$e %ause o" t$e
patient4s problems is li)ely to inter"ere #it$ appropriate assessment and treatment* any inidividuals #$o $ave
e(perien%ed se(ual abuse $ave a $istory o" not bein& believed by t$eir parents' or ot$ers in #$om t$ey $ave put
t$eir trust* K(pression o" disbelie" is li)ely to %ause t$e patient "urt$er pain*
97
!ntervie#in& a %$ild involved in a8%ase re:uires t$e )no#led&e o" a trained pro"essional #$o %an eli%it true
testimony by as)in& :uestions t$at #ill not in"luen%e t$e %$ild*
97
Usin& televised testimony %an $elp %$ildren avoid
t$e trauma o" "a%in& t$e de"endant in %ourt*
99
,ompare -nd ,ontrast
J"ten t$e alle&ed vi%tim is t$e only #itness* -$ould #e a%%ept #$at t$e %$ild $as to say at "a%e valueP -ome
psy%$olo&ists and %$ildren4s t$erapists say #e must ; t$at %$ildren don4t o"ten lie' t$at t$eir lies %an usually be
dete%ted' and t$at t$e story t$ey tell is &enerally detailed and e(pli%it enou&$ to ma)e #$at t$ey say believable*
any de"ense attorneys say #e s$ouldn4t*
99
Bass and Cavis F1997G' aut$ors o" t$e boo) .ourage to $eal' #$i%$ deals #it$ se(ual abuse' #rote' ?!" you are
unable to remember any spe%i"i% instan%es' but still $ave a "eelin& t$at somet$in& $appened to you' it probably
did*@ Esy%$olo&ist Kli.abet$ >o"tus' $o#ever' believes t$at "or some individuals' t$e ?memory@ may be ina%%urate
and t$e result o" ima&ination' su&&estion' or a means o" e(plainin& un$appiness in li"e FCarnton et al*' 1991G*
100
97
Op. cit.
97
Op. cit.
99
Op. cit.
99
Op. cit.
90
Op. cit
91
Jenni"er James' Con"usion %ontinues over repressed memories' The Seattle Times' ,, J%t 1995' p* >,*
9,
Op. cit.
93
arla Williams D Cee Oorton' +$e unravelin& o" a monstrous se%retH se(-abuse s%andal $as Wenat%$ee reelin&' FEart 1
o" ,G' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1995' p* A1*
9/
Iail -* Ioodman' Understandin& and improvin& %$ildren4s testimonyH in %$ild abuse %ases' .hildren Today' Jan-Feb
1993' ,,F1G' p* 13F/G*
95
-tatement on memories o" se(ual abuse FAmeri%an Esy%$iatri% Asso%iation statementG' *++, )n-ormation Please F+G
Almanac' Annual 1995' p* /39F1G*
97
Op. cit.
97
Iail -* Ioodman' Understandin& and improvin& %$ildren4s testimonyH in %$ild abuse %ases' .hildren Today' Jan-Feb
1993' ,,F1G' p* 13F/G*
99
Op. cit.
99
Alan * Cers$o#it. FEro"essor o" >a#' Larvard >a# -%$ool F1999GG' -e( abuse= t$e %$ild as #itness F30 J%t 199/G'
Ta'ing !i&erties/ A Decade o- $ard .ases0 1ad !aws0 and 1um Raps F!llinois= Contemporary Boo)s' !n%*' 1999G' p* 5,*
100
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*' 199/G'
p* ,01*
9
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
A $u&e number o" people are reportin& t$at t$ey #ere vi%tims o" ritual abuse as %$ildren* -ome t$erapists and
la# en"or%ement o""i%ials believe stories o" rape' $uman sa%ri"i%e' torture and in%est' #$ile ot$ers say it is mass
$ysteria or B"alse memory syndrome*4
101
+$e False emory -yndrome Foundation &ot its start in ar%$ 199, in
response to t$e %ries o" parents %laimin& t$ey4d been #ron&ly a%%used o" se(ual abuse*
10,
“-n!ient signs of se!ret identifi!ation would return.”
./3
+$e "oundin& "at$ers #ere members o" +emplar in"luen%ed asoni% &roups o" t$e time' &roups #$o s#ore t$eir
members to se%re%y*
10/
,aution
W$ere su%$ repair is possible' #$at o"ten results is not t$e a%:uisition o" "ully normal status' but a
trans"ormation o" sel" "rom someone #it$ a parti%ular blemis$ into someone #it$ a re%ord o" $avin& %orre%ted a
parti%ular blemis$*
105
0.K.1 2id "ou 3et -ll %hat4
101
>eslie Bennetts' Oi&$tmares on ain -treetH adult survivors o" %$ild$ood se(ual abuse and satani% %ults' 2anity "air'
June 1993' 57F7G' p* /,F9G*
10,
Eaul %Cart$y' UFJ update= are UFJ resear%$ers usin& $ypnosis to manu"a%ture memories in abdu%teesP' Omni' Oov
199/' 17F,G' p* 95*
103
E$ilip K* Ci%)' 2alis FO0= Minta&e Boo)s' 1991G' p* ,07*
10/
C$ris Bennett' >ynn Jsburn' D Judy Jsburn' 3reen 3old the Tree o- !i-e/ ari4uana in agic 5 Religion FCA= A%%ess
Unlimited' 1995G' p* ,71*
105
Krvin& Io""man' Stigma/ Notes on the anagement o- Spoiled )dentity FO0= -imon D -%$uster !n%*' 1997F1973GG' p* 9*
9
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
e &a5e %he Right
Arti%le 1
Con&ress s$all ma)e no la# respe%tin&
an establis$ment o" reli&ion' or pro$ibitin& t$e
"ree e(er%ise t$ereo"H or abrid&in& t$e "reedom
o" spee%$' or o" t$e pressH or t$e ri&$t o" t$e
people pea%e"ully to assemble' and to petition
t$e Iovernment "or a redress o" &rievan%es*
But * * * anyt$in& you say or si&n may be used a&ainst you in a %ourt o" la#*
0ou also $ave t$e ri&$t to remain silent' * * *
$o#ever' i" you $ave anyt$in& to say in your de"ense' #e advise you to tell us no#* 0our "ailure to tal) at
t$is intervie# %ould ma)e it $arder "or a 1ud&e or 1ury to believe any story you &ive later on*
107
Lo# %an a %iti.en $ave a ri&$t' and at t$e same time be ?advised@ t$at i" $e invo)es t$at ri&$t' it #ill be made
?$arder@ "or $imP
107
A sta"" report to Attorney Ieneral Kd#in eese ar&ue2d38overturnin& t$e -upreme Court4s
1977 de%ision in iranda v* Ari6ana #ould ?be amon& t$e most important a%$ievements o" t$is administration ;
indeed o" any administration*@
109
+$e iranda de%ision is8a symbol* !t stands "or every %iti.en4s ri&$t to )no# about $is or $er ri&$ts and to be
"ree to e(er%ise t$em #it$out "ear o" reprisal*
109
!t #ould be a sad day i" Ameri%a #ent ba%) to t$e time #$en t$e
e(er%ise o" one4s %onstitutional ri&$ts depended on t$e level o" one4s edu%ation and t$e ability to $ire a
sop$isti%ated la#yer*
110
• • •
Conservatives pro"ess &reat reveren%e "or t$e Constitution ; as s$ould everybody ; yet t$ey )eep tryin& to
%$an&e it* * * *
111
+$e Constitution #ill "a%e some o" its most bitter tests in t$e82mont$s3 to %ome* Kven t$ou&$ t$e body o" our
Constitution is %elebratin& its bi%entennial'82#e are3 s)epti%al it #ill survive t$ese %$allen&es #$olly inta%t to
%elebrate t$e t#o $undredt$ anniversary o" t$e Bill o" <i&$ts ; t$e "irst ten amendments to t$e Constitution'
ena%ted in 1791* Alt$ou&$ t$ey are %alled amendments' t$e Bill o" <i&$ts is an or&ani% part o" t$e ori&inal
do%ument* Wit$out t$em t$e Constitution #ould not $ave been rati"ied* By itsel" t$e Constitution %reated a
stru%ture "or %entrali.ed po#er #it$out su""i%ient assuran%es o" liberty* +$e Bill o" <i&$ts &ave us a stron&
&overnment #it$out t$e po#er to %ensor ne#spapers or ot$er#ise %urtail t$e ri&$ts o" %iti.ens*
11,
!n t$e 2t$is3 de%ade #e 2$ave3 en%ounter2ed38te%$nolo&i%al' biolo&i%al' and e%olo&i%al dilemmas t$at t$e
"ramers o" our Constitution %ould never $ave anti%ipated* Consider' "or instan%e' &overnmental intrusion on t$e
priva%y o" individuals* +$e "ramers #ere deeply %on%erned about t$is issue and mani"ested t$at %on%ern in t$e
Fourt$ Amendment #$i%$ &uarantees t$at t$e ?ri&$t o" t$e people to be se%ure in t$ere persons' $ouses' papers' and
e""e%ts@ s$all not be unreasonably restri%ted* +$ey $ad e(perien%ed intrusive &overnmental sear%$es'
eavesdroppin&' and spyin&H so t$ey #rote a %onstitutional amendment %apable o" dealin& not only #it$ t$ese
spe%i"i% evils but also #it$ as-yet-unanti%ipated violations o" t$e ri&$t to priva%y* Alt$ou&$ t$e "ramers %ould not
ima&ine t$e %urrent state-o"-t$e-art intrusions ; #iretappin&' miniaturi.ed bu&s' satellite inter%eptions' and
%omputeri.ed "iles ; it is %lear t$at t$ey did not intend t$e Constitution to be%ome obsolete #it$ every %$an&e in
te%$nolo&y* +$ey endo#ed us #it$ %onstitutional poli%ies and lan&ua&e su""i%ient to adapt to t$e inevitable %$an&es
o" t$e "uture*
107
Alan Cers$o#it. FEro"essor o" >a#' Larvard >a# -%$ool F1999GG' J" eese and iranda F,7 Jan 1997G' Ta'ing
!i&erties/ A Decade o- $ard .ases0 1ad !aws0 and 1um Raps F!llinois= Contemporary Boo)s' !n%*' 1999G' p* ,51*
107
Op. cit.
109
)&idem' p* ,/9*
109
)&idem' p* ,51*
110
Op. cit.
111
Scripps $oward News Ser(ice F,7 ar%$ 1997G' Constitution 1ust "ine' 7astside Journal' 1 April 1997' ,1F,,7G' p* A9*
11,
Alan Cers$o#it. FEro"essor o" >a#' Larvard >a# -%$ool F1999GG' +$e "uture o" our Constitution F11 Ce% 1997G' Ta'ing
!i&erties/ A Decade o- $ard .ases0 1ad !aws0 and 1um Raps F!llinois= Contemporary Boo)s' !n%*' 1999G' p* 305*
10
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Kven today #e %annot be&in to predi%t ea%$ o" t$e s%ienti"i% dis%overies t$at a#ait us in t$e t$ird %entury o" our
%onstitutional $istory* +$e ever-%$an&in& lines bet#een t$e $uman and t$e non$uman' and even t$e possibility o"
alien li"e' #ill pose ines%apable %$allen&es to our Constitution* +$e #orld #e live in barely resembles t$e one in
#$i%$ our Foundin& Fat$ers resided' and t$e #orld For #orldsG our &rand%$ildren #ill in$abit may bear little
resemblan%e to our o#n* 0et our Constitution must be %apable o" adaptin& to and &overnin& all t$ese #orlds*
!t #ill ta)e a broad-based %ommitment to liberty to #eat$er t$e approa%$in& %onstitutional storms* We #ill
survive t$ese %$allen&es only i" #e remain to&et$er as a nation proud o" our le&a%y o" "reedom and re"use to
su%%umb to t$e sedu%tive temptations o" t$e :ui%) "i(* !" #e ma)e it to 199293 #it$ our Constitution inta%t' #e #ill
truly $ave somet$in& to %elebrate*
113
“)kews 6e”

. . . 7 &a5e - 8uestion For %he 2efendant
ore t$an 5 million Ameri%ans are summoned "or 1ury duty ea%$ year*
11/
Oot lon& a&o' "e# 1ud&es permitted 1urors to ta)e notesH no# 1urors routinely are &iven pen%ils and noteboo)s*
115
<e"ormers %ontend t$at 1urors s$ould be more involved in trials' instead o" sittin& passively #$ile t$e 1ud&e and
la#yers di%tate #$at t$ey #ill be told' by #$om and #$en*
117
?!t4s t$e trut$ #e4re a"ter'@ 2a3 1ury "orman said a"ter82a3 trial* ?Bein& able to as) :uestions $elped us )eep
our attention*@
117
?Oone o" us $ad done t$is be"ore* * * * Oo one )ne# $o# to do t$is'@ said t$e 1uror' a #oman in $er /0s #$o
spo)e to +$e -eattle +imes on t$e %ondition t$at $er name not be used*
Jurors #ran&led over t$e meanin& o" premeditation and sel"-de"ense' studied do.ens o" e($ibits' made "lip
%$arts #it$ a pa&e "or ea%$ #itness' and #or)ed to de%ip$er t$e s%ribbles in everyone4s noteboo)s' s$e said*
-tress' sleepless ni&$ts and ni&$tmares be%ame part o" t$e pro%ess "or t$e81ury' s$e said*
119
?Juries $ave no idea $o# mu%$ po#er t$ey $ave'@ says Con Coi&' %o"ounder o" t$e Fully !n"ormed Jury
Asso%iation FF!JAG in Lelmville' ontana*
F!JA supports la#s re:uirin& 1ud&es to tell 1uries o" t$eir po#er*
119
2For instan%e'3 in %riminal %ases' t$e U*-* le&al system &ives 1uries t$e po#er' %alled 1ury nulli"i%ation' to re"use
to %onvi%t a de"endant #$o t$ey )no# is &uilty o" t$e %$ar&es* oreover' no matter $o# biased t$e de%ision' t$e
1urors %annot be penali.ed*
1,0
?We )no# not all o" t$e :uestions %an be as)ed* But at least #e )no# #$at t$e 1urors are t$in)in&'@ said B*
i%$ael Cann' a E$oeni( 1ud&e #$o s$ep$erded 1ury re"orm in Ari.ona' #$ere as)in& :uestions is part o" a 1urors4
bill o" ri&$ts*
1,1
?!t $elps %ompre$ension'@ Cann said* ?Auestion-as)in& %an ma)e deliberations more e""i%ient*@
1,,
Le said
%ourtrooms s$ould be more li)e %lassrooms ; #it$ 1urors ta)in& notes' dis%ussin& t$e %ase amon& t$emselves and
raisin& :uestions*
1,3
But %riti%s say t$e pra%ti%e $as several dra#ba%)s' in%ludin& ma)in& trials lon&er*
1,/
?Jurors s$ould be
passive'@ 2Fair"a( County Cir%uit Court C$ie" Jud&e F* Bru%e3 Ba%$ said*
1,5
?+$ey s$ould not be players in t$e
drama*@
1,7
?0ou #or) very $ard to )eep %ertain in"ormation out o" t$e trial'@
1,7
8Colin Cun$am' president o" t$e
!ndependent Eubli% Ce"ender Asso%iation' a &roup o" Was$in&ton %riminal de"ense la#yers'
1,9
8said* ?+$en all o"
your "inesse and art and te%$ni:ue are t$ro#n out t$e #indo# #$en a 1uror %omes in and as)s' ?W$ere #ere you on
t$e ni&$t in :uestionP@
1,9
113
)&idem' p* 307*
11/
Bill iller F8ashington PostG' Oe# %ourtroom trend= some let 1urors as) :uestions' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1997'
15F,3G' p* A17*
115
Op. cit.
117
Op. cit.
117
Op. cit.
119
Ci%) >illy' -tudents #ant role in &radin& tea%$ers= $i&$-s%$ool board proposes evaluations "or -eattle distri%t' The
Seattle Times' 17 April 1997' 119F9,G' p* A1*
119
Bristol >ane Moss' ore po#er to t$e 1ury' Omni' -ep 1991' 1/F3G' p* 39*
1,0
Op. cit.
1,1
Bill iller F8ashington PostG' Oe# %ourtroom trend= some let 1urors as) :uestions' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1997'
15F,3G' p* A17*
1,,
Op. cit.
1,3
Op. cit.
1,/
Op. cit.
1,5
Op. cit.
1,7
Op. cit.
1,7
Op. cit.
1,9
Op. cit.
1,9
Op. cit.
11
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
?0ou don4t &enerally #ant t$e 1ury ma)in& its o#n la#sH it implies anar%$y'@
130
8notes yrna <aeder'
%$airman o" t$e Committee on <ules o" Criminal Ero%edure and Kviden%e o" t$e C$i%a&o-based Ameri%an Bar
Asso%iation4s Criminal Justi%e se%tion*
131
For no#' 1ud&es #$o permit 2as)in& :uestions3 are "e# and "ar bet#een' a%%ordin& to one national survey'
13,
8
2but3 1uries %an i&nore t$e la# and &et a#ay #it$ it*
133
Cann said t$e %$an&e is ?pi%)in& up steam@ and &eneratin&
dis%ussion at 1udi%ial %on"eren%es*
13/
“alls ha5e ears”
.39
?Kmployees are &enerally at t$e mer%y o" employers'@ says <obert Kllis -mit$' publis$er o" t$e Eriva%y Journal'
an independent mont$ly* ?+$ere is no prote%tion in t$e #or)pla%e*@
137
Oearly t#o-t$irds o" employers re%ord
employee voi%e mail' e-mail or p$one %alls' revie# %omputer "iles or videotape #or)ers' t$e Ameri%an ana&ement
Asso%iation said 2ay ,,3 as it released a survey t$at provides t$e most substantive loo) yet at t$e prevalen%e o"
employer spyin&*
oreover' t$e 2asso%iation3 said' up to a :uarter o" %ompanies t$at spy don4t tell t$eir employees*
137
• • •
+$e mot$er o" a 17-year-old &irl $as sued Oordstrom and a member o" its se%urity sta""' %ontendin& $er
dau&$ter #as #ron&ly detained at t$e department store in t$e Man%ouver all*
139
+$e la#suit %ontends 2t$e &irl3
#as in t$e store on April 7 to return items and s$op "or summer %lot$es #$en 2a se%urity-sta"" member3 or ot$er
store employees se%retly #at%$ed t$e &irl disrobe in a dressin& room*
W$en 2t$e &irl3 emer&ed "rom t$e dressin& room' ?2+$e se%urity-sta"" member3 $and%u""ed $er #rist' t#isted
$er arm be$ind $er ba%) and "or%ed $er a%ross t$e mer%$andise display "loor and up t$e es%alator in "ull vie# o" t$e
publi% in $and%u""s'@ t$e la#suit alle&es*
Eaula -tanely' a spo)esperson "or t$e -eattle-based %$ain' said ?Oordstrom is sorry t$at t$is in%ident $appened'
and #e apolo&i.ed immediately to t$e %ustomer*
?We $ave also met #it$ t$e %ustomer4s "at$er and attorney in person to try to %ome to a solution #it$ t$em' but
t$eir demands $ave been unreasonable*@
139
• • •
For more t$an a de%ade' t$e %$an%ery buildin& o" t$e U*-* Kmbassy in os%o# ; red bri%)' empty and "orelorn
; #as a $istori%al landmar)' a %autionary monument to Cold War espiona&e*
-even years o" re%onstru%tion slammed to a s$udderin& $alt in 1995*
1/0
-$ame"a%ed Ameri%an o""i%ials
belatedly dis%overed tens o" t$ousands o" mi%ros%opi% listenin& devi%es embedded in its %on%rete #alls and sealed
o"" t$e entire stru%ture*
1/1
W$en &round #as bro)en in 1979' Ameri%ans $ad %aved in to t$eir $osts4 demands t$at most o" t$e #or)ers
and buildin& materials be -oviet*
1/,
+$e %$an%ery'
1/3
8or embassy o""i%e buildin&'
1//
8#as to %ost 67, millionH
6,, million $ad already been spent on it #$en t$e bu&s #ere dis%overed*
130
Bristol >ane Moss' ore po#er to t$e 1ury' Omni' -ep 1991' 1/F3G' p* 39*
131
Op. cit.
13,
Bill iller F8ashington PostG' Oe# %ourtroom trend= some let 1urors as) :uestions' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1997'
15F,3G' p* A17*
133
Bristol >ane Moss' ore po#er to t$e 1ury' Omni' -ep 1991' 1/F3G' p* 39*
13/
Bill iller F8ashington PostG' Oe# %ourtroom trend= some let 1urors as) :uestions' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1997'
15F,3G' p* A17*
135
+* K* Breitenba%$' Eroverbidioms

S FO0= 1990G*
137
a&&ie Ja%)son FThe Associated PressG' ost "irms spy on employees' survey "inds' San "rancisco .hronicle' ,3 ay
1997' 133F109G' p* B1*
137
Op. cit.
139
Ea%i"i% Oort$#est' -$opper sues over detention' The Seattle Times' ,0 April 1997' ,0 April 1997' 15F17G' p* B3*
139
Op. cit.
1/0
Alessandra -tanley FThe New 9or' Times News Ser(iceG' Kmbassy4s #alls #it$ ears to be rebuilt' The Seattle Times' /
ay 1997' 15F19G' p* A5*
1/1
Op. cit.
1/,
Op. cit.
1/3
Op. cit.
1//
Op. cit.
1,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
K(a%tly $o# and #$en t$e -oviets mana&ed to slip t$e devi%es into t$e embassy remains a mystery' but years o"
study and millions o" dollars in resear%$' U*-* intelli&en%e a&en%ies tra%ed most o" t$e bu&s to t$e %on%rete*
1/5

Alt$ou&$ Ameri%an %ounterintelli&en%e e(perts #ere supposed to oversee all aspe%ts o" t$e %onstru%tion' se%urity
#as obviously la(*
?+$ere #ere attra%tive "emale %onstru%tion #or)ers@ at t$e %$an%ery site' said one <ussian #$o #or)ed "or t$e
embassy on t$e %onstru%tion pro1e%t more t$an 10 years a&o and spo)e on %ondition o" anonymity* ?And despite all
t$e &uards and #arnin&s' in t$e under&round utilities tunnel' people %ould #al) in and out* +$ere #ere #or)ers
snea)in& vod)a in and ot$ers snea)in& stolen e:uipment out*@
W$en t$e United -tates revealed t$at t$e buildin& #as bu&&ed' all <ussian #or)ers #ere e(pelled "rom t$e
site* +$e episode instantly "lared into a ma1or s%andal' spar)in& %on&ressional $earin&s and intense s%rutiny o" t$e
-tate Cepartment and t$e C!A !n 2si%3 1997*
+$e spy s%andal &re# even more dire a"ter a arine &uard at t$e embassy' -&t* Clayton >onetree' #$o $ad been
sedu%ed by a "emale KIB a&ent' #as arrested and %onvi%ted o" espiona&e*
1/7
Eresident <onald <ea&an #anted t$e buildin& ra.ed and a ne# one ere%ted in its pla%e* +$at option #as
deemed too e(pensive' and t$e buildin& sat "or years until Eresident Clinton persuaded Con&ress to allo%ate "unds
to re"urbis$ it*
1/7
Be%ause t$e bu&&in& devi%es are too numerous and deeply embedded to remove' t#o "loors #ill be lopped o""
and repla%ed and t#o ne# se%ure "loors #ill be added to t$e top o" t$e buildin&' in a re"urbis$in& )no#n as
Jperaton +op Lat* Ciplomats #ill #or) in t$e se%ure +op Lat areas* Un%lassi"ied business #ill ta)e pla%e on t$e
remainin& ori&inal "loors' #$i%$ remain sus%eptible to ele%troni% surveillan%e*
1/9
0uri Kobalad.e' spo)esperson "or t$e <ussian Forei&n !ntelli&en%e -ervi%e' noted dryly= ?!n &eneral' t$ere is
al#ays a devi%e t$at %an brea) t$rou&$ any prote%tion* +$e $istory o" man)ind $as s$o#n t$at #$atever sa"ety
system you invent' t$ere is al#ays a #ay*8@
Le noted t$at t$e end o" t$e Cold War $ad not brou&$t espiona&e to a %lose* ?+$e #orld may be a sa"er pla%e'@
$e said' ?but &overnments still )eep se%rets "rom ea%$ ot$er*@
1/9
• • •
Wor)ers renovatin& rooms in a Mienna $otel dis%overed sop$isti%ated listenin& devi%es be$ind t$e #alls' and
aut$orities suspe%t t$ey #ere planted by t$e C!A' and Austrian #ee)ly reported 2April 1/3*
Ierman intelli&en%e o""i%ials told t$e Austrian se%ret servi%e t$at t$e bu&s may $ave been installed to
eavesdrop on t$e !ra:i and !ranian dele&ations to an JEKC meetin& in Oovember' t$e Ero"ile #ee)ly said*
150
• • •
-ometimes' t$e end 1usti"ies t$e means*
Kvery on%e and a #$ile' a 1ournalist is et$i%ally obli&ated to put a %amera in $er #i& and a mi%rop$one in $er
bra and pose as a re&ular 1ob appli%ant and employee*
151
7 $uy 6usi! For 6inors
-ome o" a %olle&e student4s most important learnin& e(perien%es ta)e pla%e outside t$e "ormal %lassroom
settin&* Eoliti%al rallies' &uest le%tures' %ampus movies' and dormitory ?bull sessions@ all supplement #$at t$e
pro"essors tea%$ in %lass* -ome %olle&es and universities seem to understand t$is better t$an ot$ers*
1/5
Op. cit.
1/7
Op. cit.
1/7
Op. cit.
1/9
Op. cit.
1/9
Op. cit.
150
World <eport' >istenin& devi%es "ound in Mienna $otel*' San "rancisco .hronicle' 15 April 1997' 133F77G' p* 9*
151
Joann Byrd' Iood 1ournalist do must out#ei&$ $arm' The Seattle Times:Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ "ocus' ,7 Jan 1997'
15F/G' p* K,*
13
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$rou&$out t$e %ountry' e""orts are under#ay to prevent %olle&e students "rom bein& e(posed to %ertain
?%ontroversial@ points o" vie#' ?o""ensive@ "orms o" e(pression' and ?dan&erous@ people* University administrators
1usti"y su%$ %ensors$ip by invo)in& t$eir paternalisti% role as prote%tors o" t$e students* But o"ten' t$ey are simply
%apitulatin& to pressure "rom alumni' parents' politi%ians' "a%ulty and even students*
15,
• • •
Cear Li&$ -%$ool Kditor' ! )no# $o# disappointed you must be in t$e U*-* -upreme Court4s8de%ision to
%ensor your s%$ool ne#spaper* any %on%erned %iti.ens are upset at t$e ne&ative messa&e t$is sends to $i&$ s%$ool
students about "reedom o" spee%$ and 1ournalisti% responsibility* We are also %on%erned about t$e messa&e it sends
to $i&$ s%$ool prin%ipals= t$at t$ey are relatively "ree to impose t$eir o#n vie#s about %ontroversial sub1e%ts ; su%$
as divor%e' birt$ %ontrol' and se( ; on a %aptive audien%e o" publi% s%$ool students*
153
+$e -upreme Court4s de%ision does not mar) t$e last #ord about t$e "reedom o" $i&$ s%$ool students to publis$
un%ensored ne#spapers*
15/
+$e s%$ool %annot %ensor outside ne#spapers ; it #ould be &ood 1ournalism and &ood
edu%ation
155
82to3 be%ome independent*
157
!t #ill tea%$ you about t$e real #orld o" ne#spaper* 0ou must sell your
produ%t' %ultivate readers' "ind advertisers* 0ou must %ompete in t$e open mar)etpla%e o" ideas* !" you are to
su%%eed' your paper must be better t$an t$e prin%ipal4s paper*
+$ere $as al#ays been somet$in& anomalous about o""i%ially sponsored s%$ool ne#spapers* !t is di""i%ult to
e(pe%t t$ose #$o pay t$e piper not to try to %all t$e tune* +$is is espe%ially true #$en t$e o""i%ial ne#spaper is a
monopoly*
Kven independent ne#spapers $ave piper-players #$o try to %all tunes= lar&e advertisers' subs%ribers'
%on&lomerate o#ners* But at least t$ey are not &overnment o""i%ials* And let t$ere be no mista)e= -%$ool
prin%ipals are &overnment o""i%ials' ans#erable to s%$ool boards and ot$er politi%ians*
157
+$ere is no assuran%e t$at t$e prin%ipal #ill approve* Fe# o" t$ose in po#er li)e to be %riti%i.ed by t$ose
#$om t$ey %annot %ontrol* Le many 2si%3 even try to stop you "rom distributin& it on %ampus* And t$e la# is
un%lear about #$et$er $e %an*
159
+est t$e issue= +ry to distribute 2F"ree o" %$ar&eG3 your independent ne#spaper
#it$in t$e s%$ool &rounds* !" t$e prin%ipal tries to stop you' sue $im* Jr distribute t$e paper outside t$e s%$ool
&ates*
+$e %urrent -upreme Court is see)in& to %ut ba%) on t$e ri&$ts o" $i&$ s%$ool students* +$e ma1ority o" 1usti%es
seem to $ave more "ait$ in t$e e(er%ise o" po#er by t$e aut$orities t$an in t$e e(er%ise o" ri&$ts by students* +$e
Ameri%an #ay is to "i&$t ba%) #$en your ri&$ts are bein& %urtailed ; even a&ainst s%$ool prin%ipals' and even
a&ainst t$e -upreme Court*
+$e independent s%$ool ne#spaper is one #ay to do it in a %ivili.ed' mature' and %onstru%tive manner*
159
-$o#
t$e Ameri%an people t$at $i&$ s%$ool students %an e(er%ise t$eir First Amendment ri&$ts responsibly' in &ood taste'
and #it$ 1ournalisti% inte&rity* -$o# t$e #orld t$at %ensors$ip8is not t$e Ameri%an #ay*
170
15,
Alan Cers$o#it. FEro"essor o" >a#' Larvard >a# -%$ool F1999GG' Censors$ip $as no pla%e on %ampus F,/ Oov 1997G'
Ta'ing !i&erties/ A Decade o- $ard .ases0 1ad !aws0 and 1um Raps F!llinois= Contemporary Boo)s' !n%*' 1999G' p* 313*
153
)&idem' -tudents %an "i&$t %ensors' p* 3,0*
15/
Op. cit.
155
Op. cit.
157
Op. cit.
157
)&idem' pp* 3,0-3,1*
159
)&idem' p* 3,1*
159
Op. cit.
170
Op. cit.
1/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
“6ake the most of the 7ndian &emp )eed and sow it e5erywhere.”
( 3eorge ashington1 ashington#s 2iary :otes (.;<9)
.<.1 = .<>?
+$e earliest )no#n #oven "abri% #as made "rom t$e hemp plant' .anna&is sati(a' #$i%$ people be&an #or)in&
in t$e ei&$t$ millennium

2FCJ>UB!A L!-+J<0 JF +LK WJ<>C' edited by Jo$n A* Iarraty and Eeter Iay' Corset Eress'
Larper and <o#' O0' 1991'
173
p* 5/G
17/
3*
175
+$e oldest )no#n pi%ture o" $emp82is3 "rom an illustrated Cios%orides
manus%%ript 2si%3' ?Constantinopolitanus@ FBritis$ useumG*
177
Cr* Carl -a&an proposes eviden%e s$o#in& t$at $emp #as t$e "irst plant %ultivated by man' datin& ba%) to t$e
time o" primitive $unter-&at$erers* !n $is boo)' +LK C<AIJO- JF KCKO' -a&an spe%ulated t$at mari1uana
2 1773

F.anna&is sati(aG may $ave been t$e "irst %rop planted by stone a&e man' usin& t$e primitive li"estyle o" py&mies o"
t$e Kala$ari re&ion in sout$#est A"ri%a as an e(ample* +$e py&mies #ere basi%ally $unter-&at$erers until t$ey
started plantin& t$e mari1uana #$i%$ t$ey use "or reli&ious purposes* ari1uana is t$e only %rop %ultivated by t$e
py&mies and t$ey %laim to $ave used it sin%e t$e da#n o" time* Bot$ Ero"essor ir%ea Kliade and -ir James
Ieor&e Fra.er Faut$ors o" +LK IJ>CKO BJUILG' t#o o" t$e "oremost aut$orities on t$e $istory o" reli&ious t$ou&$t'
also advo%ated t$e t$eory t$at early reli&ions #ere derived "rom a&ri%ultural "ertility %ults*
179
<i%$ard K* -%$ultes' a Je""ery Ero"essor o" biolo&y and dire%tor o" t$e Botani%al useum at Larvard University'
stated in $is arti%le' an and ari4uana= ?early man e(perimented #it$ all plant material t$at $e %ould %$e# and
%ould not $ave avoided dis%overin& t$e properties o" %annabis Fmari1uanaG' "or in $is :uest "or seeds and oil' $e
%ertainly ate t$e sti%)y tops o" t$e plant*@
179
Lemp $as played a prominent role in t$e development o" t$e reli&ions and %ivili.ations o" Asia' t$e iddle
Kast' Kurope and A"ri%a* +$e insi&$ts &ained "rom t$e mari1uana $i&$ by t$e an%ient #ors$ippers #ere %onsidered
to be o" divine ori&in and t$e plant itsel" an ?an&el@ or messen&er o" t$e &ods*
170
• • •
!t is a #ell do%umented "a%t t$e Eresidents Was$in&ton and Je""erson bot$ &re# $emp* Was$in&ton #rote o"
separatin& t$e male plants "rom t$e "emales' a pra%ti%e t$at #$i%$ usually ta)es pla%e #$en &ro#in& %annabis "or
p$sy%$oa%tive 2si%3 resin produ%tion* +$ere $as been some spe%ulation t$at besides usin& $emp "or its "iber' t$e
Ameri%an "oundin& "at$ers smo)ed it as #ell*
171
Kntries in Was$in&ton4s 1775 diary in%lude=
ay 1,-13 ; -o#ed Lemp at uddy $old by -#amp
Au&ust 7 ; be&an to separate t$e male "rom t$e "emale $emp at Co ; rat$er too late 2FWritin&s o" Ieor&e
Was$in&ton' Mol* 33' p* /33
17,
G3*
173
171
C$ris Bennett' >ynn Jsburn' D Judy Jsburn' 3reen 3old the Tree o- !i-e/ ari4uana in agic 5 Religion FCA= A%%ess
Unlimited' 1995G' p* ,70*
17,
Ieor&e Was$in&ton' +$omas Je""erson' 2Ben1amin Fran)lin'3 and ot$er "armers and land$olders made a point o"
%olle%tin& seeds durin& t$eir travels abroad*
N Eaul <aeburn' Jur "oundin& "at$ers' Popular Science' ay 1997' ,/9F5G' p* 7/*
173
C$ris Bennett' >ynn Jsburn' D Judy Jsburn' 3reen 3old the Tree o- !i-e/ ari4uana in agic 5 Religion FCA= A%%ess
Unlimited' 1995G' p* /77*
17/
)&idem' p* ,*
175
Op. cit.
177
)&idem' p* 5*
177
mari1uana or mari$uana' 8e&ster;s New .ollegiate Dictionary Fass*= I* D C* erriam Co*' 1977G*
179
C$ris Bennett' >ynn Jsburn' D Judy Jsburn' 3reen 3old the Tree o- !i-e/ ari4uana in agic 5 Religion FCA= A%%ess
Unlimited' 1995G' pp* ,-3*
179
)&idem' p* 3*
170
)&idem' p* /*
171
)&idem' p* ,70*
17,
Op. cit.
173
Op. cit.
15
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Jn t$e ot$er $and' 2t$ou&$ $i&$ly improbable'3 it is possible t$at Was$in&ton #as re"errin& to a disappointin&
yield o" seeds resultin& "rom $is "ailure to remove t$e male plants to ma)e more sunli&$t available to t$e remainin&
"emales* ?As soon as t$e male plants s$ed t$eir "auna'@ #rote +$omas Je""erson in a boo) on "armin&' 2?3%ut t$em
up' t$at t$e #$ole nouris$ment may &o to t$e "emale plants@ 2FIeor&e Andre#s and Min)enoo&' +LK BJJK JF I<A--=
AO AO+LJ>JI0 JF !OC!AO LKE' Eeter J#en >td*' >ondon' 1977
17/
G3*
175
• • •
As one p$arma%olo&ist put it' ?+$ose readin& only 3ood $ouse'eeping #ould $ave to believe t$at mari1uana is
%onsiderably more dan&erous t$an t$e bla%) pla&ue*@ Un"ortunately' an evaluation o" mari1uana4s ris)s $ave been
%louded by emotional debate* >et4s see i" #e %an ma)e a realisti% appraisal*
!n t$e 1970s' it #as #idely reported t$at mari1uana %auses brain dama&e' &eneti% dama&e' and a loss o"
motivation* +$ese are serious %$ar&es' but ea%$ $as been %riti%i.ed "or bein& based on poorly done or in%on%lusive
resear%$ F2Bre%$er' K* * F1975a' ar%$G* ari1uana= +$e $ealt$ :uestions* .onsumer Reports' /0' pp* 1/3-1/9*B KH
177
Julien' <*
* F1995G* A primer o- drug action F/t$ ed*G* -an Fran%is%o= FreemanH
177
Oational !nstitute on Cru& Abuse FO!CAG F1977G*
arihuana and health* Erin%eton' O* J*= <esponse Analysis CorporationH
179
Tinber&' O* K* F1977' Ce%*G* +$e #ar over mari1uana*
Psychology Today' pp* 9,-99
179
3G* !n addition' ma1or studies in Jamai%a' Iree%e' and Costa <i%a "ailed to "ind any
serious $ealt$ problems or mental impairment in lon&-term mari1uana smo)ers F2Carter' W* K* FKd*G F1990G* .anna&is in
.osta Rica/ A study o- chronic marihuana use. E$iladelp$ia= !nstitute "or t$e -tudy o" Luman !ssuesH
190
<ubin' M*' D Comitas' >*
FKds*G* F1975G* 3an4a in Jamaica* +$e La&ue= outonH
191
-te"anis' C*' Cornbus$' <* >*' D Fin)' * F1977G* $ashish/ A study o-
long-term use. Oe# 0or)= <aven Eress
19,
3G*
193
ari1uana stirs interest be%ause it $elps some people rela( and %an elevate t$e mood*
19/
+$e sub1e%tive e""e%ts
o" mari1uana in%lude "eelin&s o" eup$oria' tran:uillity' and passivity*
195
Fair to stron& into(i%ation is lin)ed to
reports o" $ei&$tened per%eptions' and in%reases sel"-insi&$t' %reative t$in)in&' and empat$y "or t$e "eelin&s o"
ot$ers*
197
+$e ma1or82a%tive %$emi%al %ompound3 in mari1uana is delta-9-tetra$ydron%annabinol #$i%$' per$aps to save
ener&y' is usually re"erred to as +LC* Jt$er substan%es #it$ possible psy%$edeli% e""e%ts t$at are "ound in
mari1uana in%lude canna&ichromene and canna&idol* +LC is "ound in t$e bran%$es and leaves o" male and "emale
plants' but is %on%entrated $i&$ly in t$e resin o" t$e "emale plant* Las$is$' or ?$as$'@ is derived "rom t$is sti%)y
resin*
197
+$e novi%e does not ordinarily &et $i&$ t$e "irst time $e smo)es mari$uana' and several attempts are usually
ne%essary to indu%e t$is state*
199
+$e e""e%ts o" t$e dru&' #$en "irst per%eived 2by a novi%e'
199
3 may be p$ysi%ally
unpleasant or at least ambi&uous*
190
+$e early sta&es o" into(i%ation are "re:uently %$ara%teri.ed by restlessness'
#$i%$ &ives #ay to %almness*
191
Jn%e t$e dru& $as ta)en e""e%t' sub1e%tive time passes slo#ly' and some users
report in%reased sensory e(perien%e as #ell as mild per%eptual distortions* Erior e(perien%e #it$ t$e dru&'
e(pe%tan%y o" its e""e%ts' and t$e settin& in #$i%$ mari1uana is used in"luen%e t$e pre%ise rea%tions*
19,
!n t$e last %entury' mari1uana #as used almost as aspirin is used today "or $eada%$es and minor a%$es and
pains* !t %ould be bou&$t #it$out pres%ription in any dru&store* +oday mari1uana use and possession are ille&al in
17/
)&idem' p* /75*
175
)&idem' p* ,71*
177
Cennis Coon' )ntroduction to Psychology/ 7%ploration and Application' 5t$ ed* F-t* Eaul= West Eubl* Co*' 1999G' p*
<-/*
177
)&idem' p* <-1/*
179
)&idem' p* <-,0*
179
)&idem' p* <-,9*
190
)&idem' p* <-5*
191
)&idem' p* <-,3*
19,
)&idem' p* <-,7*
193
)&idem' p* 177*
19/
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Wilson' 1997G' p* 19,*
195
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 300*
197
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Wilson' 1997G' p* 19,*
197
Op. cit.
199
Lo#ard Be%)er' Jn be%omin& a mari$uana user' American Journal o- Sociology' 1953' pp* ,35-,/,' !n Iero&e -*
Brid&es' De(iant 1eha(ior/ An Anthology o- Readings FO0= %Ira#-Lill' !n%*' 199/G' p* 5,*
199
)&idem' p* 57*
190
)&idem' p* 57*
191
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Wilson' 1997G' p* 19,*
19,
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 300*
17
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
most states' but medi%al appli%ations are bein& e(plored*
193
Alt$ou&$ mu%$ %ontroversy $as ra&ed over t$e e""e%ts
o" mari1uana' many states $ave no# de%riminali.ed t$e possession o" small :uantities o" t$is substan%e*
19/
)afer %han -spirin1 and 7t#s -lmost Legal
!" you pi%) any t$ree Ameri%ans at random' one #ill $ave tried mari1uana at least on%e FOational !nstitute on
Cru& Abuse' 1995G* ore t$an 19 million Ameri%ans may be re&ular users' #$i%$ puts mari1uana in a lea&ue #it$
toba%%o and al%o$ol*
195
2By Ce%ember 1979'3 t$e Oational !nstitute o" ental Lealt$ estimate2d3 t$at per$aps as
many as ,0'000'000 Ameri%ans ; or one out o" every ten ; $a2d38tried mari1uana at least on%e*
197
!n 1990 nearly ,5 million Ameri%ans spent 6,/ billion to smo)e mari1uana re&ularly* Anot$er ,5 million $ave
tried t$e dru&* Jne reason t$at mari1uana is t$e most #idely used ille&al substan%e in t$e United -tates is t$e
tena%ious belie" t$at o%%asional 1oints do little' i" any' $arm* !n February 199, t$e !nstitute o" edi%ine o" t$e
Oational A%ademy o" -%ien%es' %$aired by Arnold <elman' editor o" t$e presti&ious New 7ngland Journal o-
edicine' issued a lon&-a#aited 199-pa&e report on mari1uana4s e""e%ts*
197
+$e a%ademy $ad to admit t$at as yet
t$ere is insu""i%ient resear%$ to %on%lude t$at mari1uana %auses irreversible lon&-term dama&e to mental "un%tionin&
and p$ysi%al $ealt$*
199
Oearly all medi%ines $ave to(i%' potentially let$al e""e%ts* But mari1uana is not su%$ a substan%e* +$ere is no
re%ord in t$e e(tensive medi%al literature des%ribin& a proven' do%umented %annabis-indu%ed "atality*
199' 2 ,003
+$is is
a remar)able statement* First' t$e re%ord on mari1uana en%ompasses 5'000 years o" $uman e(perien%e* -e%ond'
mari1uana is no# used daily by enormous numbers o" people t$rou&$out t$e #orld* Kstimates su&&est t$at "rom
t#enty million to "i"ty million Ameri%ans routinely' albeit ille&ally' smo)e mari1uana #it$out t$e bene"it o" dire%t
medi%al supervision* 0et' despite t$is lon& $istory o" use and t$e e(traordinarily $i&$ numbers o" so%ial smo)ers'
t$ere are simply no %redible medi%al reports to su&&est t$at %onsumin& mari1uana $as %aused a sin&le deat$*
,01
A smo)er #ould t$eoreti%ally $ave to %onsume nearly 1'500 pounds o" mari1uana #it$in about "i"teen minutes
to indu%e a let$al response*
,0,
!n pra%ti%al terms' mari1uana %annot indu%e a let$al response as a result o"
dru&-related to(i%ity*
,03
By %ontrast aspirin' a %ommonly used' over-t$e-%ounter medi%ine' %auses $undreds o"
deat$s ea%$ year*
,0/
?Con&ress s$ould de"inately %onsider de%riminali.in& possession o" mari1uana* We s$ould %on%entrate on
prose%utin& t$e rapists and bur&lars #$o are a mena%e to so%iety*@
,05
• • •
+$ere is some eviden%e t$at mari1uana in$ibits ovulation FAbel' 1995GH t$us its use mi&$t ma)e it more di""i%ult
to be%ome pre&nant*
,07
2ari1uana also3 appears to $ave a modest reversible suppressive e""e%t on sperm
produ%tion in men' but t$ere is no proo" t$at it ?2@impairs?3@ male "ertility*
,07
2!t3 temporarily lo#ers sperm
produ%tion*
,09
193
Op. cit.
19/
)&idem' p* 301*
195
Cennis Coon' )ntroduction to Psychology/ 7%ploration and Application' 5t$ ed* F-t* Eaul= West Eubl* Co*' 1999G' p*
175*
197
Forum Oe#s"ront' Play&oy' Ce% 1979' 17F1,G' p* 7,*
197
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Wilson' 1997G' p* 193*
199
Op. cit.
199
Fran%is >* 0oun& FAdministrative >a# Jud&e' U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRCru& Kn"or%ement AdministrationG'
ari4uana Rescheduling Petition F7 -ep 1999G' CKA Co%)et Oo* 97-,, at pa&e 57' Caly( !nternet A%%ess' June 1997'
$ttp=RR###*%aly(*%omRUolsenRKC!CA>R0JUOIRyoun&/*$tml*
,00
Carr' <* <*' D eyers' K* J* F1990G* ari1uana and %o%aine= +$e pro%ess o" %$an&e in dru& poli%y* !n The -acts a&out
<drug a&use.= +$e Cru& Abuse Coun%il* Oe# 0or)= +$e Free Eress' !n Cennis Coon' )ntroduction to Psychology/
7%ploration and Application' 5t$ ed* F-t* Eaul= West Eubl* Co*' 1999G' p* 175*
,01
)&idem' CKA Co%)et Oo* 97-,, at pa&e 57*
,0,
Op. cit.
,03
Op. cit.
,0/
Op. cit.
,05
U*-* <ep* Can Auayle Far%$ 1977G' )n Caly( !nternet A%%ess' ari1uana and t$e War on Cru&s' June 1997'
$ttp=RR###*%aly(*netRmari1uana*$tml*
,07
Janet -$ibley Lyde' #nderstanding $uman Se%uality' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill Eublis$in& Co*' 1990G' p* 131*
,07
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Wilson' 1997G' p* 193*
,09
Cennis Coon' )ntroduction to Psychology/ 7%ploration and Application' 5t$ ed* F-t* Eaul= West Eubl* Co*' 1999G' p*
177*
17
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
2J*3 Coates F1990G' $o#ever' pointed out t$e bene"its o" mari1uana in treatin& %ertain p$ysi%al ailments* For
e(ample' open-an&le &lau%oma' an eye disorder t$at %an lead to blindness' temporarily responds to t$e dru&H
patients nauseated by %$emot$erapy "or %an%er o"ten "ind relie" #it$ mari1uana treatment* <esear%$ers are no#
e(perimentin& #it$ t$e use o" mari1uana "or vi%tims o" multiple s%lerosis and "or people a""li%ted by sei.ures* -u%$
"indin&s ; and t$ere seem to be ne# ones almost every #ee) ; s$o# $o# little #e )no# about mari1uana and $o#
mu%$ #e still $ave to learn 2FCoates' J* F1990' ar%$ ,7G* Eot more perilous t$an #e t$ou&$t* .hicago Tri&une* pp* 1' 1/
,09
G3*
,10
0ur 2rug ,zar et al.
!n a re%ent intervie# in -eattle' 2Ien* Barry %Ca""rey
,11
3 noted t$at t$e Army today is virtually dru&-"ree*
+$at didn4t $appen by ?)i%)in& ass and arrestin& people'@ $e said' ?but by edu%ation and prevention*@
-o it is t$at edu%ation and prevention are t$e %enterpie%es o" t$e national dru& strate&y t$at %Ca""rey #ants to
tal) about' i" only somebody #ould listen*
+$e &eneral' #$o #as %ommander and division %$ie" o" sta"" at Fort >e#is "rom 199, to 1997' no# %laims t$is
area as $ome*
,1,
• • •
2J3n Oovember 25'
,13
3 voters in Cali"ornia 2and Ari.ona
,1/
3 approved a re"erendum le&ali.in& t$e medi%al use
o" mari1uana ;
,15
8and in t$e %ase o" Ari.ona' $eroin' >-C nnd met$amp$etamines as #ell*
,17
!n -an Fran%is%o'
Eroposition ,15 &ot almost 79 per%ent o" t$e vote' t$e $i&$est per%enta&e "rom any o" Cali"ornia4s 59 %ounties*
,17
?+$e proposition is t$e la# o" t$e land' but it is not bein& "ollo#ed Fin t$e rural areasG'@
,19
8%o-aut$or o"
Eroposition ,15 and t$e dire%tor o" t$e -an Fran%is%o Cannabis Cultivators Club'
,19
82Cennis3 Eeron said*
,,0
Eoli%e
o""i%ers in ountain Mie#' Cali"*'
,,1
8$ad sei.ed si( plants and e:uipment'
,,,
82but3 at t$e dire%tion o" a -anta
Clara County prose%utor' #$o said t$e %ounty #ould not prose%ute anyone #$o %ultivated mari1uana solely "or
medi%inal purposes'
,,3
8t$e poli%e returned t$e mari1uana*
,,/
+$e "ederal &overnment re"uses to san%tion su%$ le&al use o" mari1uana' and $as t$reatened p$ysi%ians #it$
prose%ution or possible loss o" t$eir medi%al li%enses i" t$ey su&&est pot*
,,5
+$e Justi%e Cepartment and t$e
Cepartment o" Lealt$ and Luman -ervi%es82is3 attempt2in&3 to dra# a line bet#een medi%al o""i%e dis%ussions
prote%ted by t$e First Amendment and t$ose t$at are %ontrary to t$e la#*
,,7
,09
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* A-,9*
,10
)&idem' p* 301*
,11
indy Cameron' <e%ent turbulen%e #on4t t$ro# dru& %.ar o"" %ourse' The Seattle Times' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G' p* B7*
,1,
Op. cit.
,13
A%ross t$e Oation' Cru& %.ar open to possibility o" allo#in& medi%al use o" pot' The Seattle Times' 1, Jan 1997' 15F,G'
p* A7*
,1/
Op. cit.
,15
The Associated Press' Eoli%e return sei.ed mari1uana' The New 9or' Times' 3 ar%$ 1997' CQ>M! F50' 7,0G' p* A,*
,17
A%ross t$e Oation' Cru& %.ar open to possibility o" allo#in& medi%al use o" pot' The Seattle Times' 1, Jan 1997' 15F,G'
p* A7*
,17
Kd#ard Kpstein' ari1uana pres%ription prote%tionH -*F* panel J)s measure to s$ield some do%tors' San "rancisco
.hronicle' 11 April 1997' p* A,0*
,19
Ilen artin' -tate4s rural pot &ro#ers "eel t$e $eatH in spite o" Erop* ,15' poli%e step up arrests' San "rancisco
.hronicle' 11 April 1997' p* A,0*
,19
Op. cit.
,,0
Op. cit.
,,1
The Associated Press' Eoli%e return sei.ed mari1uana' The New 9or' Times' 3 ar%$ 1997' CQ>M! F50' 7,0G' p* A,*
,,,
Op. cit.
,,3
Op. cit.
,,/
Op. cit.
,,5
Kd#ard Kpstein' ari1uana pres%ription prote%tionH -*F* panel J)s measure to s$ield some do%tors' San "rancisco
.hronicle' 11 April 1997' p* A,0*
,,7
<obert -uro F8ashington PostG' Co%tors &et JK to tal) pot' The Seattle Times' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G' p* A,0*
19
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
2-o3 a "ederal 1ud&e slapped a temporary restrainin& order on t$e U*-* Justi%e Cepartment'8pro$ibitin& t$e
prose%ution o" Cali"ornia do%tors #$o re%ommend mari1uana to t$eir patients*
,,7
?+$e 1ud&e %learly did t$e ri&$t
t$in& in stoppin& t$e &overnment "rom t$reatenin& do%tors "or simply pra%ti%in& medi%ine'@
,,9
8said Ira$am Boyd'
t$e lead attorney in t$e do%tor4s la#suit*
,,9
Barrin& p$ysi%ians "rom dis%ussin& mari1uana #it$ a patient ?means t$e
patient is "or%ed to depend on in"ormation "rom unreliable sour%es'@ Boyd said' ?not "rom t$eir p$ysi%ian' #$i%$ is
#$y t$e patient &oes to t$e p$ysi%ian in t$e "irst pla%e*@
,30
<alp$ -eeley' dia&nosed 10 years a&o #it$ a rare "orm o" terminal bone %an%er' told t$e %ourt t$at $is
%onstitutional ri&$ts #ere bein& violated by "ederal and state la#s t$at allo# do%tors to pres%ribe %o%aine
and opium' but not mari1uana*
,31
Le said $e $as tried a number o" pain)illers' in%ludin& t$e
&overnment-approved synt$eti% "orm o" mari1uana t$at puts t$e )ey a%tive in&redient o" t$e plant in pill
"orm* But t$ey made $im so violently ill t$at $e said $e %onsidered simply lettin& t$e disease run its
%ourse*
+$en $e tried smo)in& mari1uana and en1oyed almost instant relie" "rom $is a&ony*
,3,
?! need t$is stu"" in my system* ! need it in my blood* Iivin& me a pill t$at ! %an4t )eep do#n isn4t
e""e%tive medi%ine'@ -eeley told t$e %ourt*
?Anybody %an &et it* +$e :uestion is' #$y do #e $ave to %$oose bet#een su""erin& and brea)in& t$e
la#P@
,33
Kn%oura&ed by t$e re%ent passa&e o" 2a3 Cali"ornia ballot measure' or&ani.ers $ere 2in t$e -eattle re&ion3 are
studyin& t$e e""ort t$at le&ali.ed t$e %ultivation' possession and use o" mari1uana "or medi%al purposes*
,3/
Wealt$y
national advo%ates o" le&ali.in& mari1uana $ave 1oined t$e e""ort to liberali.e Was$in&ton state dru& la#s*
,35

2!nitiative 795
,37
3 "a%es July 3 deadline "or %olle%tin& 179',/9 si&natures*
,37
2Citi.ens "or Cru& Eoli%y <e"orm3
$a2ve3 re#ritten t$e initiative to remove a provision t$at #ould $ave allo#ed nurses' %$iropra%tors or veterinarians
to re%ommend %ontrolled substan%es*
,39
+$e initiative' #$i%$ #ould be on t$e Oovember ballot' #ould=
• Allo# do%tors to re%ommend t$at patients use ille&al dru&s' in%ludin& mari1uana' $eroin and >-C "or
medi%inal pruposes*
• <elease "rom prison all nonviolent people %onvi%ted o" dru& possession*
• Allo# 1ud&es to re:uire treatment' not prison' "or dru& users*
!t also #ould re:uire people %onvi%ted o" a violent %rime #$ile under t$e in"luen%e o" dru&s to serve t$eir "ull
senten%e and not be eli&ible "or parole*
,39
)low +eople 2on#t )moke +ot
<obert <* Ea&ano e(empli"ies in $is te(t' #nderstanding Statistics in the 1eha(ioral Sciences' t$at
moderate mari1uana users e($ibit "aster rea%tion times t$an bot$ li&$t users and sub1e%ts #$o $ad not
previously used t$e dru&* W$en all t$ree &roups #ere into(i%ated on mari1uana' moderate users demonstrated
t$e least impairment in rea%tion times* W$et$er into(i%ated or sober' non-users e($ibited slo#er rea%tion times
t$an users under t$e same %onditions*
,/0
!n 2anot$er3 e(periment' mari1uana smo)ers #ere &iven eit$er a mari1uana or a pla%ebo %i&arette to smo)e*
-ome sub1e%ts #ere told to over%ome t$e dru&4s e""e%ts in per"ormin& tas)sH ot$ers #ere not told to do so* +$e
resear%$ers #anted to "ind out #$et$er sub1e%ts %ould %ontrol t$eir per"orman%e even a"ter mari1uana into(i%ation ;
t$at is' #$et$er t$ey %ould ?%ome do#n@ "rom a ?$i&$@ at #ill* +$eir results indi%ated t$at mari1uana into(i%ation
,,7
Bill Walla%e' Oo prose%ution "or do%tors #$o re%ommend potH Justi%e Cept* $it #it$ temporary ban' San "rancisco
.hronicle' 1, April 1997' 133F7/G' p* A1*
,,9
Op. cit.
,,9
Op. cit.
,30
)&idem' p* A13*
,31
Lunter +* Ieor&e FThe Associated PressG' edi%al mari1uana ban &oes be"ore state supreme %ourt*
,3,
Op. cit.
,33
Op. cit.
,3/
Eu&et -ound Oe#s#at%$' Cali"* measure on mari1uana studied' The Seattle Times0 19 Oov 1997' p* B,*
,35
Cavid Eostman' Jutside donors support initiativeH 6,50'000 used to &at$er si&natures on 1ari1uana e""ort' The Seattle
Times' 17 June 1997' 1,0F1//G' p* A1*
,37
Op. cit.
,37
Op. cit.
,39
Op. cit.
,39
Op. cit.
,/0
<obert <* Ea&ano' #nderstanding Statistics in the 1eha(ioral Sciences' /t$ ed* Finn*= West Eubl* Co*' 199/G' p* C-57*
19
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
in"luen%es t$e person4s ability to estimate time and to remember lists o" #ords* oreover' motivatin& sub1e%ts to
over%ome t$e e""e%ts o" mari1uana improved t$e sub1e%ts4 per"orman%e at estimatin& time but not t$eir ability to
remember lists o" #ords F2Cappell' L*' D Eliner' E* F1973G* Molitional %ontrol o" mari1uana into(i%ation= A study o" t$e ability to
?%ome do#n@ on %ommand* Journal o- A&normal Psychology' 9,' /,9-/3/
,/1
3G*
,/,
3et "our Kid &igh $efore )ome'ody @lse 2oesA 3o %o - Boo
!n most %ases' a %$ild4s be$avior is a result o" bot$ peer and parental in"luen%e F2-immons' <* I*' Con&er' <* C*' D
W$itebe%)' >* B* F1999G* A multista&e so%ial learnin& model o" t$e in"luen%es o" "amily and peers upon adoles%ent substan%e use* The
Jorunal o- Drug )ssues' 19' ,93-315
,/3
3G*
,//
any ne# users are as$amed to admit i&noran%e and' pretendin& to )no#
already' must learn t$rou&$ t$e more indire%t means o" observation and imitation*
,/5
Kandel F1973G studied mari1uana use by adoles%ents #$ose parents eit$er used or did not use psy%$oa%tive
dru&s and #$ose best "riends used or did not use mari1uana* Amon& teena&ers #$ose best "riends #ere nonusers
but #$ose parents #ere users' only 17 per%ent smo)ed mari1uana* !" only "riends used dru&s' 57 per%ent o" t$e
adoles%ents reported usin& mari1uana* Lo#erver' 77 per%ent o" t$e sub1e%ts used mari1uana #$en bot$ parents and
peers #ere users* +$us' t$ere #as a %ombined impa%t o" dru& usa&e by parents and peers on mari1uana use by
adoles%ents* A&e ma)es a di""eren%e'
,/7
82and3 t$e use o" illi%it dru&s seems to depend less upon situational "a%tors
and more on t$e response to psy%$olo&i%al problems su%$ as depression' an(iety' lo# sel"-esteem' or re1e%tion* !"
mari1uana $as been used to resolve su%$ personal or psy%$olo&i%al problems rat$er t$an as a response to so%ial
situations' it is li)ely to lead to use o" $ard dru&s*
,/7
W$ile dru& use "or preteens is still relatively lo#' a survey 2ar%$ /3 says mari1uana use by %$ildren in t$e
"ourt$ t$rou&$ si(t$ &rades doubled last year ; "rom , per%ent to / per%ent*
,/9
+$e survey' prepared "or t$e Oe#
0or)-based Eartners$ip "or a Cru&-Free Ameri%a' "ound %$ildren in t$ose &rades less li)ely t$an be"ore to believe
dru&s are ris)y' more li)ely t$an be"ore to believe t$ey are a%%eptable and more li)ely to e(periment #it$ t$em*
,/9

+$e survey also "ound %$ildren #ere less li)ely to believe ?people on dru&s are stupid*@
,50
Amon& teens' //V "rom millde and upper in%ome $omes reported tryin& mari1uana vs* 3/V "rom lo#-in%ome
$omes*
,51
Jver 7 per%ent o" $i&$ s%$ool seniors use mari1uana every day' and some smo)eers and remain stoned
#$ile in s%$ool* W$ereas adoles%ent boys are almost t#i%e as li)ely as &irls to be daily mari1uana users' t$e use o"
toba%%o by &irls $as in%reased in t$e past de%ade' until teena&e &irls are no# $eavier smo)ers t$an are t$eir male
peers*
,5,
Jne %ause "or %on%ern about teen-a&e smo)in& is t$at t$e better t$e lun& "un%tion in early adult$ood' t$e
$ealt$ier a person is li)ely to be as an adult*
,53
any non-users may ima&ine t$e typi%al mari1uana smo)er is a $ippieH an unemployed' uninvolved
t#enty-somet$in&-year-old-loser-still-livin&-at-$ome-#it$-mot$erH a youn& suburban s)ateboarderH or an e&& in
a "ryin& pan*
Almost every psy%$oa%tive dru& $as been re&arded by some so%iety as a dire t$reat to publi% order and moral
standards' #$ile as a sour%e o" $armless pleasure by ot$ers* Almost every so%iety $as one dru& #$ose use is
tolerated' #$ile ot$ers are re&arded #it$ deep suspi%ion'
,5/
82but t$ose #$o Duc' and .o(er' t$ose3 noted "or stri%t
observan%e o" rites and %eremonies o" t$e #ritten la# and "or insisten%e on t$e validity o" t$eir o#n oral traditions
%on%ernin& t$e la#'
,55
82tend to also believe in Ree-er adness3*
,/1
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* A-,7*
,/,
)&idem' pp* 300-301*
,/3
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* <-57*
,//
)&idem' p* /91*
,/5
Lo#ard Be%)er' Jn be%omin& a mari$uana user' American Journal o- Sociology' 1953' pp* ,35-,/,' !n Iero&e -*
Brid&es' De(iant 1eha(ior/ An Anthology o- Readings FO0= %Ira#-Lill' !n%*' 199/G' p* 53*
,/7
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* /91*
,/7
)&idem' p* 7,7*
,/9
ari1uana use doubles amon& some %$ildren' study says' The Seattle Times0 / ar%$ 1997' 1,0F5/G' p* A/*
,/9
Op. cit.
,50
+ime Friend' <eport s$o#s t$at more preteens are tryin& dru&s' #SA Today' 5 ar%$ 1997' 15F1,0G' p* 1A*
,51
Op. cit.
,5,
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* 7,/*
,53
Jane K* Brody FThe New 9or' TimesG*
,5/
Britis$ edi%al Asso%iation' !i(ing with Ris' F1990G' !n Oi%$olas -aunders #it$ <i%) Coblin' 7cstasy/ Dance0 Trance
5 Trans-ormation FCA= Aui%) Am* Ar%$ives' 1997G' p* 9*
,55
2non-denominational3 E$arisee' 1' 8e&ster;s Ninth New .ollegiate Dictionary Fass*= erriam-Webster' 1991G*
,0
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
We %an stop insultin& youn& people4s intelli&en%e by tryin& to pass o"" anti-dru& propa&anda as dru&
?edu%ation*@
,57
!n Ameri%a' t$e ?Just -ay Oo@ %ampai&n is losin& %redibility and is bein& %$allen&ed by more and
more %riti%s' but t$e o""i%ial anti-dru& vie# $as not %$an&ed*
,57
!n Britain' t$e )ndependent and t$e 7conomist $ave
laun%$ed a %rusade to le&ali.e dru&s on t$e &rounds t$at pro$ibition is t$e root %ause o" about $al" o" all %rime' and
t$at present poli%ies simply do not #or)*
,59
-!id
>-C is t$e abbreviation "or lyser&i% diet$ylamide a%id 2or lyser&i% a%id diet$ylamide'
,59' ,70' ,71' ,7,
3 a synt$eti%
$allu%ino&eni% dru&*
,73
>-C or ?a%id@ &ained notoriety as a $allu%ino&en in t$e mid-1970s* Eraised by users as a
potent psy%$edeli%' %ons%iousness-e(pandin& dru&' >-C produ%es distortions o" reality and $allu%inations* ?Iood
trips@ are e(perien%es o" s$arpened visual and auditory per%eption' $ei&$tened sensation' %onvi%tions t$at one $as
a%$ieved pro"ound p$ilosop$i%al insi&$ts' and "eelin&s o" e%stasy* ?Bad trips@ in%lude "ear and pani% "rom
distortions o" sensory e(prien%es' severe depression' mar)ed %on"usion and disorientation' and delusions* -ome
users report ?"las$ba%)s@ or t$e re%urren%e o" $allu%inations or ot$er sensations days or #ee)s a"ter ta)in& >-C*
Fati&ue' stress' or t$e use o" anot$er dru& may tri&&er a ?"las$ba%)*@
>-C is %onsidered a psychotomimetic dru& be%ause' in some %ases' it produ%es rea%tions t$at mimi% t$ose seen
in a%ute psy%$oti% rea%tions* !t does not produ%e p$ysi%al dependen%e' even in users #$o $ave ta)en t$e dru&
$undreds o" times* Aside "rom its psy%$olo&i%al e""e%ts' no substantial eviden%e supports t$e notion t$at >-C is
dan&erous in and o" itsel"* >ar&e doses do not %ause deat$' alt$ou&$ t$ere are reports o" people #$o $ave
un#ittin&ly %ommitted sui%ide #$ile under t$e in"luen%e o" >-C* !nitially resear%$ers believed t$at >-C %aused
%$romosomal dama&e and spontaneous abortions' but su%$ events are probably attributable to impurities in t$e
dru&' t$e use o" ot$er dru&s' or t$e un$ealt$y li"estyles o" many users*
,7/
@!stasy ,om'ined ith -!id 7s ,alled - ,andyflip
!n t$e -#in&in& -i(ties' >-C #as touted as bein& %apable o" %$an&in& t$e #orld t$rou&$ t$e %ompellin&
sel"-insi&$t it #as supposed to a""ord* +#o de%ades later' in a #orld still teeterin& on t$e brin)' a dru& %alled
CA' or ?K%stasy'@ is t$e ne# savior on t$e blo%)*
,75
@!stasyA %he Lo5e 2rug
+$e derby so%%er mat%$es' in #$i%$ t#o teams "rom t$e same %ity play ea%$ ot$er' are notorious "or &eneratin&
violent in%idents*
,77
Jne youn& man' #$o #as very ne# to t$e K%stasyRrave sen%e but somet$in& o" a veteran o"
derby mat%$ violen%e' said t$at a s$iver #ent do#n $is ba%) at t$e t$ou&$t o" #$at $e e(pe%ted to $appen*
,77
?And t$e last time ! sa# $im $e #anted to )ill me and everybody li)e me* ! t$ou&$t' BLello' $ere #e &o'4 and
$e 1ust stands at t$e bar at t$e side o" me and says' BWell' #$o4d $ave t$ou&$t t$at #e #ould be stood side by side
t$e ni&$t be"ore a derby &ame and t$ere4s no trouble in any o" us* !t4s #eird' innitP !t %ould never $ave $appened
be"ore K*4 Well' ! t$ou&$t to mysel"' B+$an) C$rist "or t$at*4

@
,79
,57
Oi%$olas -aunders #it$ <i%) Coblin' 7cstasy/ Dance0 Trance 5 Trans-ormation FCA= Aui%) Am* Ar%$ives' 1997G' p*
19*
,57
)&idem0 p* ,1*
,59
Op. cit.
,59
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 301*
,70
James E* C$aplin' Dictionary o- Psychology/ Re(ised 7dition' FO0= >aurel' Cell Eubl* Co*' !n%*' 199,F1979GG*
,71
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* 111*
,7,
8e&ster;s New .ollegiate Dictionary Fass*= I* D C* erriam Co*' 1977G*
,73
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Wilson' 1997G' p* 19/*
,7/
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' pp* 301-30,*
,75
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Wilson' 1997G' p* 197*
,77
Oi%$olas -aunders #it$ <i%) Coblin' 7cstasy/ Dance0 Trance 5 Trans-ormation FCA= Aui%) Am* Ar%$ives' 1997G' p*
51*
,77
Op. cit.
,79
Op. cit.
,1
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
A reader studyin& politi%al "a%tions in Oort$ern !reland told 2Oi%$olas -aunders3 t$at t$e resultin& brea)do#n
in $ard-line se%tarianism amon& t$e yout$ #as a %ause o" %on%ern to t$e paramilitaries' but no one seemed to be
tryin& to stop )ids "rom ma)in& "riends at raves*
,79
!n t$e summer o" 199/' 1ust be"ore t$e !<A %ease"ire' 2-aunders3 spent t$ree days in Oort$ern !reland visitin& a
Cat$oli% %lub one ni&$t and a Erotestant %lub t$e ne(t*
2Le3 intervie#ed teena&e )ids at a rave event in t$e Cat$oli% %lub #it$ a $ome video %amera* As ne# spread
about #$at 2$e3 #as doin&' lots o" t$em #ere ea&er to tell 2$im3 about t$e "riends$ips t$ey $ad made #it$ members
o" t$e opposite se%t' #$o' t$ey assured me' t$ey #ould never $ave met ot$er#ise*
,70
• • •
Users and proponents %laim t$at K%stasy allo#s %lients in t$erapy to tal) about t$in&s t$at #ould normally be
too "ri&$tenin&* A assa%$usetts #oman too) K%stasy to enable $er to dis%uss $er terminal %an%er #it$ $er "amily*
A -an Fran%is%o rape vi%tim used K%stasy in order to be able to "a%e $er memories o" $er atta%) F2+ou"e(is' A* F1995'
June 10G* A %ra%)do#n on K%stasy* Time aga6ine' 7/
,71
3G* >ester Irinspoon' a Larvard University psy%$iatrist' says t$at
K%stasy ?$elps people &et in tou%$ #it$ "eelin&s #$i%$ are not ordinarily available to t$em@ F2Adler' J*' Abramson' E*'
Kat.' -*' D La&er' * F1995' April 15G* Iettin& $i&$ on ?e%stasy*@ Newswee'' p* 97
,7,
3G*
,73
2Oi%$olas -anders3 %arried out a small survey o" 2$is3 o#n on overall %$an&es in attitudes resultin& "rom K%stasy
use* Curin& t$e #inter o" 199/' 2$e3 in%luded survey "orms in t$e last 1'000 %opies o" 7 -or 7cstasy' so t$e results
apply to 2$is3 readers rat$er t$an to typi%al users*
Jne $undred t$irty-seven :uestionaires #ere returned= most ans#ered all t$e :uestions* +$e se(es #ere
rou&$ly e:ually represented* +#enty per%ent #ere students' but t#o t$irds $ad "ull-time 1obsH nearly $al" o" t$ese
earned 6,,'000 or more' #it$ several earnin& over 670'000* +$e avera&e a&e #as about ,5' but ,3V #ere over 30*
ost $ad ta)en at least one ot$er dru& #it$ t$eir last K= t$e most popular #as mari1uana' "ollo#ed by
amp$etamine' al%o$ol' and toba%%o* Jnly 10V o" t$e under-30s too) K%stasy by itsel"' %ompared #it$ $al" o" t$ose
#$o #ere older* ost people too) a sin&le tabletH as many too) $al" a tablet as more t$an one*
All :uestions related to e""e%ts as noti%ed in normal li"e' not #$ile under t$e in"luen%e* !n order' t$e si&ni"i%ant
e""e%ts o" K%stasy use reported #ere=
1* !n%reased en1oyment o" dan%in&
,* !n%reased :uality o" li"e
3* Ireater ease o" sel"-e(pression
/* ore %arin& "or ot$ers
5* !n%reased spiritual a#areness
7* Ireater $appiness
7* !n%reased %loseness #it$ lover
+$ere #ere no ot$er si&ni"i%ant %$an&es in avera&e be$avior* !n parti%ular' patterns o" sleep' paranoia' and %asual
se( #ere un%$an&ed*
,7/
K%stasy $as also been %redited #it$ rela(in& so%ial in$ibitions' en$an%in& t$e 1oys o" se(' and enablin& people
to trust one anot$er* But unli)e stimulants' K%stasy in normal doses is not reported to produ%e a rus$ o" eup$oriaH
unli)e $allu%ino&eni%s' K%stasy apparently does not produ%e $allu%inations 2at %onventional dosa&es3 or impair t$e
user4s ability to distin&uis$ bet#een reality and "antasy*
,75
Alt$ou&$ many youn& people on t$e dan%e s%ene no# drin) and do not ta)e K%stasy' t$e normal #ay to be$ave
is still "ree o" 2meanin&less and super"i%ial3 small tal)8
,77
Kver $an& around a &roup o" people #$o don4t loo) at you #$en t$ey tal)P W$o don4t in%lude you in
t$e %onversation 2Fi*e*' small tal)G'3 and re"use to lau&$ at your 1o)esP Lan& around t$ose "ol)s lon& enou&$
and t$e sli&$test attention "eels li)e a meal "or t$e starvin&*
,77
8or se(ual a&ression* any youn&er people $ave not )no#n anyt$in& else' so t$at t$is ne# style is not so mu%$ a
re1e%tion as t$e so%ially a%%epted #ay to be$ave* +$e di""eren%e #idens t$e &eneration &ap even "urt$er*
,79
,79
Op. cit.
,70
)&idem' p* 50*
,71
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Wilson' 1997G' p* <-39*
,7,
)&idem' p* <-1*
,73
)&idem' p* 197*
,7/
Oi%$olas -aunders #it$ <i%) Coblin' 7cstasy/ Dance0 Trance 5 Trans-ormation FCA= Aui%) Am* Ar%$ives' 1997G' pp*
/7-/9*
,75
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Wilson' 1997G' p* 197*
,77
Oi%$olas -aunders #it$ <i%) Coblin' 7cstasy/ Dance0 Trance 5 Trans-ormation FCA= Aui%) Am* Ar%$ives' 1997G' p*
/9*
,77
<osie Bla%)' +ired o" r* W$itey' The Stranger' ,3 Jan 1997' 7F19G' p* 9*
,,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Be$avior at raves durin& t$e "irst "e# years' #$en nearly everyone #as on K' #as very di""erent "rom t$at at
al%o$ol-based %lubs and seemed to "ollo# "rom la%) o" male se(ual a&&ression* Lu&&in& and even %arassin&
stran&ers #as a%%eptable on a sensous level #it$out implyin& a se(ual advan%e*
-$eila Lenderson Fa resear%$er studyin& t$e #ay youn& #omen use K%stasy and aut$or o" papers entitled'
?Women' -e(uality and K%stasy@ 2F8omen0 Se%uality and 7cstasy #se > The "inal Report *++?0 by -$eila Lenderson' publis$ed
by >i"eline' 101 Jld$am -t' an%$ester / 1>W
,79
G3 and ?>uvdup and CeKlited'@ 2F!u(dup and De!ited0 by -$eila Lenderson'
resear%$er "or >i"eline' a non-statuory dru& a&en%y in an%$ester* A paper &iven at -out$ Ban) Eolyte%$ni%' 5R9,
,90
G3 #rote in
199,' ?ost men $ave t$e opposite o" an ere%tion= a s$rin)in& penis*@ Women %an en1oy )issin& at raves be%ause it
is sa"e ; not a prelude to $avin& se(* +$ey are less li)ely to $ave %asual se( "ollo#in& a ni&$t o" ravin& t$an a"ter
&oin& to an al%o$ol-based %lub* As one &irl put it' ?you don4t &o to a rave to s%ore*@
,91
• • •
?+$e sin&le best use o" CA is to "a%ilitate more dire%t %ommuni%ation bet#een people involved in a
si&ni"i%ant emotional relations$ip'@
,9,
82and3 "or promotin& sel"-understandin& and spiritual and personal &ro#t$*
Eositive' mostly lon&-lastin&' %$an&es in relations$ips #ere reported by most*
,93
Jt$er bene"its t$at #ere %laimed
ran&ed "rom a &reater a%%eptan%e o" ot$ers to an appre%iation o" bein& alive and a "eelin& t$at t$ey %ould be more
#arm and lovin& 2F?-ub1e%tive <eports o" t$e K""e%ts o" CA in a Clini%al -ettin&'@ by Ieor&e Ireer and <e:ua +olbert' "rom
Journal o- Psychoacti(e Drugs' vol* 19R/' 1997
,9/
G3*
,95
A%%ordin& to t$e arti%le in t$e American Journal o- Psychotherapy by Irinspoon and Ba)alar' 2F?Can Cru&s
Kn$an%e Esy%$ot$erapyP@ by Irinspoon and Ba)alar' "rom American Journal o- Psychotherapy' 1997G3 t$e e""e%ts o" CA ;
$ei&$tened %apa%ity "or introspe%tion alon& #it$ temporary "reedom "rom an(iety and depression ; is said to
stren&t$en t$e t$erapeuti% allian%e Fbet#een t$erapist and %lientG by invitin& sel"-dis%losure and en$an%in& trust*
Clients in CA-assisted t$erapy report t$at t$ey lose de"ensive an(iety and "eel more emotionally open' ma)in&
it possible "or t$em to &et in tou%$ #it$ "eelin&s and t$ou&$ts t$at are not ordinarily available to t$em*
,97
Couples
resolved si&ni"i%ant %on"li%ts under CA*
,97
+$ey #ere released "rom de"ensive an(iety and "elt more
emotionally open' #$i%$ made it possible "or t$em to &et in tou%$ #it$ deeper "eelin&s*
A patient des%ribed t$e ma1or di""eren%e bet#een psy%$ot$erapy #it$ and #it$out CA as ?bein& sa"e*
Oot$in& %ould t$reaten me@ 2FOp. cit.G3*
,99
2-el"-t$erapy3 %an 2also3 #or)' but a $elper is essential* +$ere $as to be someone to a%%ept' listen'
a%)no#led&e' and &ive t$e support o" un%onditional love to t$e %lient' but not to %ontrol t$e session* !t is easier to
empat$i.e i" t$e $elper is also on CA' but it is not ne%essary* CA %an also be used in %o-%ounselin&-type
sessions F#$ere t#o people ta)e turns at bein& t$erapist and %lientG 2F!ntervie# #it$ Ceborra$ Larlo#' resear%$ "ello# at
t$e Civision o" Addi%tions' Larvard edi%al -%$ool' 10R93
,99
G3*
,90
• • •
Jverdose story ; ?! #as "ed up #it$ t$e :uality o" K' so ! #ent to Lolland and bou&$t ,00' pa%)ed t$em in
%ondoms' and s#allo#ed t$em* ! loo)ed out o" t$e plane #indo# and sa# t$e #in& melt and t$e ne(t t$in& !
remember #as #a)in& up in a $ospital #it$ t$e poli%e loo)in& do#n at me* W$en t$e %ondoms %ame out' 50 pills
#ere missin&*@ N >etter "rom a reader in prison 2#$o survived 50 doses3*
,91
,79
Oi%$olas -aunders #it$ <i%) Coblin' 7cstasy/ Dance0 Trance 5 Trans-ormation FCA= Aui%) Am* Ar%$ives' 1997G' p*
/9*
,79
)&idem' p* /3*
,90
Op. cit.
,91
)&idem' p* //*
,9,
)di&em' p* 1,/*
,93
Op. cit.
,9/
Op. cit.
,95
Op. cit.
,97
)&idem' pp* 1,/-1,5*
,97
)&idem' p* 1,/*
,99
Op. cit.
,99
)&idem' p* 133*
,90
Op. cit.
,91
)&idem' p* 75*
,3
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
2@- C 626-
Until 1995' CA #as as le&al as aspirin and +ums' alt$ou&$ it is mu%$ more e(pensive Fabout 610-630 on
t$e street "or a 100-milli&ram doseG* But t$en CA be%ame pro$ibited under t$e Controlled -ubstan%es A%t o"
199/' #$i%$ permits t$e dru& Kn"or%ement Administration to temporarily ban dru&s*
,9,
!n 1995' t$e 2Cru& Kn"or%ement A&en%y FCKAG3 sou&$t to ?temporarily@ pla%e CA in -%$edule !
2 ,933
under
t$e emer&en%y s%$edulin& po#ers &ranted by ,1 U*-*C* -e%tion 911* Under t$ose po#ers' t$e CKA $ad t$e
aut$ority to pla%e dru&s in -%$edule ! #it$out providin& t$e opportunity "or publi% %omment and $earin&s t$at it
normally re:uired "or su%$ pla%ement*
,9/' 2 ,953
Con&ress ena%ted t$e Controlled -ubstan%e Analo&ue Kn"or%ement A%t in J%tober 1997* +$e A%t provides t$at
a ?%ontrolled substan%e analo&ue@ intended "or $uman %onsumption is to be treated as a -%$edule ! %ontrolled
substan%e' and de"ines an ?analo&ue@ as a dru& t$at is not itsel" s%$eduled and t$at meets any one o" t$e "ollo#in&
des%riptions=
F1G Any dru& #it$ a %$emi%al stru%ture substantially similar to t$at o" a -%$edule ! or !! dru&*
F,G Any dru& t$at $as a stimulant' depressant' or $allu%ino&eni% e""e%t on t$e %entral nervous system t$at is
substantially similar to t$at o" a -%$edule ! or !! dru&*
F3G Any dru& represented as $avin&' or intended to $ave' a stimulant' depressant' or $allu%ino&eni% e""e%t
on t$e %entral nervous system t$at is substantially similar to t$at o" a s%$edule ! or !! dru&' i" t$e person
bein& %$ar&ed under t$e A%t is t$e person #$o made su%$ a representation or $ad su%$ intentions*
+$e A%t4s lan&ua&e $as been %riti%i.ed as overly broadH indeed' t$e lan&ua&e #ould seem to render ille&al any
substan%e' even su&ar' i" it #ere ?represented as $avin&@ an e""e%t ?substantially similar@ to t$at o" a %ontrolled
substan%e*
,97
Be&innin& in 1997' several "ederal %ourts $eld t$at t$e temporary s%$edulin& #as invalid' and stru%) do#n t$e
"ederal statute &rantin& t$e CKA t$e po#er to en&a&e in emer&en%y temporary s%$edulin&*
2 ,973
!n 1991' t$e
-upreme Court overruled t$e lo#er %ourts and up$eld t$e CKA4s temporary emer&en%y s%$edulin& po#ers*
!n t$e meantime' t$e CKA issued a "inal rule in Oovember 1997' permanently pla%in& CA in -%$edule !
pursuant to t$e normal s%$edulin& pro%edures* +$at "inal rule #as va%ated in 1997 by a "ederal 1ud&e' #$o $eld
t$at t$e CKA $ad improperly &iven %on%lusive #ei&$t to t$e absen%e o" FCA mar)etin& approval as indi%atin& a
la%) o" a%%epted medi%al use or a%%epted sa"ety "or use under medi%al supervision*
!n an e""ort to remedy t$e improper s%$edulin&' t$e CKA in 1999 2Far%$ ,3G
,99
3 issued anot$er "inal rule'
a&ain pla%in& CA in -%$edule !*
+$e 1999 s%$edulin& is "la#ed be%ause t$e CKA relied on %riteria subse:uently ruled invalid by t$e Court o"
Appeals o" t$e C*C* Cir%uit in a 1991 %ase' Allian%e "or Cannabis +$erapeuti%s v* C*K*A*' 930 F*,d* 937 F?t$e AC+
%ase@G*
,99
• • •
,9,
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Wilson' 1997G' p* 197*
,93
+$e %$airman o" t$e 2World Lealt$ Jr&ani.ation FWLJG3 K(pert Committee disa&reed #it$ t$is de%ision' statin&' ?At
t$is time' international %ontrol is not #arrented*@ A %lause #as added en%oura&in& member nations to ?"a%ilitate resear%$
on t$is interestin& substan%e@ 2F,,nd report o" t$e K(pert Committee on Cru& Cependen%e 1995' publis$ed by t$e World
Lealt$ Jr&ani.ation as part o" its Technical Report Series @AB+G3*
N Oi%$olas -aunders #it$ <i%) Coblin' 7cstasy/ Dance0 Trance 5 Trans-ormation FCA= Aui%) Am* Ar%$ives' 1997G' pp*
10' 11*
,9/
)&idem' pp* 9,-93*
,95
Jne #idely publi%i.ed report re"erred to eviden%e t$at anot$er dru&' CA' %aused brain dama&e in rats and %on%luded
t$at CA %ould %ause brain dama&e in $umans* +$e media spun $orror s%enarios o" )ids4 brains rottin& by t$e time t$ey
#ere 30' alt$ou&$ t$ere is no eviden%e t$at CA %auses brain dama&e in rats at a dose e:uivalent to t$at used by
$umans* Jn t$e ot$er side #ere t$e psy%$ot$erapists #$o &ave eviden%e o" t$e bene"its o" t$e dru& ; but t$ey $ad been
unable to %arry out s%ienti"i%ally a%%eptable trials in se%ret* +$eir eviden%e #as re&arded as ane%dotal*
N )&idem' pp* 10-11*
,97
)&idem' pp* 93-9/*
,97
+$e CKA Administrative $earin& ended #it$ t$e 1ud&e re%ommendin& t$at CA be pla%ed in a less restri%tive
%ate&ory' -%$edule 3' #$i%$ #ould $ave allo#ed it to be manu"a%tured' to be used i" pres%ribed' and to be t$e sub1e%t o"
resear%$* +$e re%ommendation #as i&nored by t$e CKA' #$i%$ re"used to ba%) do#n and instead pla%ed CA
permanently in -%$edule 1*
N )&idem' p* 11*
,99
Op. cit.
,99
)&idem' p* 93*
,/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
W$en t$e World Lealt$ Jr&anisation FWLJG as)ed members o" t$e United Oations to ban CA' it in%luded
a %lause en%oura&in& member %ountries to do resear%$ into t$erapeuti% use o" t$e dru&* Alt$ou&$ -#it.erland is not
a member o" t$e UO' t$e -#iss &overnment #as impressed enou&$ to be &uided by its re%ommendation and
li%ensed a &roup o" psy%$iatrists to use CA "rom 1999 to 1993*
300
300
)&idem' p* 1,9*
,5
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
&arm Redu!tion
Larm redu%tion involves )no#in& t$e available options and &ettin& edu%ated to t$e ris)s*
• • •
any le&al dru&s' in%ludin& barbiturates' tran:uili.ers' anal&esi%s' opiates' al%o$ol' and toba%%o' %an be
addi%tive*
301
J" %ourse #e4re a %ountry addi%ted to dru&s ; "rom %ra%) to Ero.a%*
30,
We are su%$ a pill-poppin&
%ulture t$at #e seldom stop to t$in) about #$et$er #e s$ould ta)e a %ertain dru&*
303
?y e(perien%e $as been t$at at parties' )ids #ill ta)e #$at is &iven to t$em* !" someone said you %ould smo)e
a bar o" soap and &et $i&$' ! suspe%t )ids #ould try to do it'@ 2observed Cr* i%$ael -$annon' a to(i%olo&ist at
C$ildren4s Lospital in Boston3*
30/
• • •
+$e Food and Cru& Administration moved 2June ,3 to limit t$e dosa&es o" t$e a%tive in&redient in many dietary
supplements and ban t$e mar)etin& o" su%$ produ%ts as lon&-term #ays to lose #ei&$t or build mus%les*
305
a)ers
o" ep$edrine al)aloid produ%ts indi%ated t$ey may ob1e%t to t$e FCA proposals*
307
+$e proposals %ame in response to at least 17 deat$s and 900 reports o" illness asso%iated #it$ t$e stimulant
ep$edrine al)aloid' an amp$etamineli)e %ompound*
307
-pe%i"i%ally' t$e a&en%y #ould pro$ibit all ep$edrine
produ%ts "rom %ontainin& 9 milli&rams or more per dose*
309
Kp$edrine al)aloids $ave also been used in traditional $erbal medi%ine to %ombat %old and %$est ailments' a
pra%ti%e #$i%$ t$e FCA #ould permit as a s$ort-term use under t$e ne# proposal*
309
+$e proposals are not nearly
as tou&$ as state la#s passed last year in Florida and Oe# 0or)* +$ese la#s ban all ep$edrine al)aloid produ%ts*
310
• • •
A 1/-year-old &irl 2ar%$ 113 #as %$ar&ed #it$ stealin& a mail-order s$ipment o" a mus%le rela(ant "rom a
nei&$bor4s por%$ and passin& out t$e pills at a dan%e*
+$e &irl' #$ose name #as not released be%ause o" $er a&e' #as %$ar&ed #it$ distribution o" a pres%ription dru&
and stealin& a %ontrolled substan%e* -$e pleaded not &uilty and #as released on $er o#n re%o&ni.an%e*
+$e &irl #as amon& t$e 1/ teena&ers $ospitali.ed a"ter ta)in& t$e dru& ba"lo%en at t$e Feb* ,9 dan%e at t$e
Woburn' 2assa%$usetts'3 Boys and Iirls Club* +$ey $ave made "ull re%overies*
311
• • •
301
James K* arti #it$ Andrea Line' The Alternati(e $ealth 5 edicine 7ncyclopedia' FO0= Iale <esear%$ !n%*' 1995G' p*
157*
30,
Ce%ile Andre#s' Want to live lon&P As) a%tivist' a&e 99' The Seattle Times' 10 ar%$ 1997' 1,0F59G' p* K,*
303
Janet -$ibley Lyde' #nderstanding $uman Se%uality' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill Eubl* Co*' 1990G' p* 1,9*
30/
Auotation o" t$e day' The New 9or' Times' 3 ar%$ 1997' CQ>M!F50' 7,0G' p* A,*
305
Cina Bass F!os Angeles TimesG' FCA #ants to limit use o" $erbal stimulants' The Seattle Times' 3 June 1997' 1,0F13,G'
p* A7*
307
Op. cit.
307
Op. cit.
309
Op. cit.
309
Op. cit.
310
Op. cit.
311
The Associated Press' Iirl' 1/' is %$ar&ed in %ase o" pills at dan%e' The New 9or' Times' 11 ar%$ 1997' CQ>M!F50'
7,9G' p* A13*
,7
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Cra%) %o%aine poisonin& $as sent ,, people to 2Winter Laven' Florida'3 area $ospitals 2Fsi( #ere in %riti%al
%onditionG'
31,
3 and aut$orities #arned8t$at t$e dru& $ad8been la%ed #it$ a %$emi%al*
313
A man #as arrested8
#it$ blo%)s o" %ra%) o" an unusual s$ape' %olor and odor*
31/
• • •
+$e more enli&$tened aut$orities admit t$at preventin& dru& use is an unattainable &oal' but still %laim it is
possible to redu%e t$e $arm %aused by dru& use* Larm redu%tion poli%ies are based on t$e idea t$at $arm results
lar&ely "rom t$e #ays in #$i%$ dru&s are used' and t$at t$ese %an be in"luen%ed* +$is approa%$ #as "irst applied to
$eroin users' in response to t$e A!C- s%are' by supplyin& "ree needles to prevent L!M "rom bein& spread t$rou&$
needle s$arin&*
315
+$e state s$ould %onsider &ettin& needle e(%$an&es o"" t$e streets and into dru& stores' #$ere
p$arma%ists %an e(%$an&e dirty syrin&es' said Bob Wood o" t$e -eattle-Kin& County Lealt$ Board*
317
Larm redu%tion8$as been adopted as a poli%y by t$e an%$ester City Coun%il in t$e "orm o" t$e -a"er Can%in&
Campai&n* +$e poli%y a%%epts t$at it is impra%ti%al to prevent dru& use #it$in dan%in& venues' but t$at it is
pra%ti%al to redu%e dan&ers resultin& "rom t$e use o" dru&s by ma)in& t$ose venues sa"er* As a result' many %lub
o#ners are be%omin& more responsible and some even employ people to loo) a"ter ravers*
317
<ussell Oe#%ombe' E$*C*' says t$at primary prevention $as "ailed* Lo#ever' it $as been s$o#n t$at edu%ation
%an slo# t$e development o" t$e more problemati% "orms o" dru& use* +$is su&&ets t$at it #ould be prudent to
divert some resour%es to#ard se%ondary prevention or $arm redu%tion ; preventin& t$e overdoses' addi%tions' and
in"e%tions t$at result "rom i&noran%e*
A%%ordin& to Oe#%ombe' t$e "our main %omponents o" a $arm redu%tion strate&y s$ould be F1G rationale' F,G
%ontent' F3G implementation' and F/G evaluation*
F1G !t s$ould be a%)no#led&ed t$at people li)e to &et $i&$' and t$at t$is is not li)ely to %$an&e* Cru&
use may be rational' not deviant' Oe#%ombe says* !t s$ould be a%)no#led&ed t$at many psy%$oa%tive dru&s
are no more $arm"ul t$an pres%ribed dru&s* ?+$e messa&e t$at dru&s are un$ealt$y is a)in to #arnin&
soldiers in battle t$at %$e#in& &um %an %ause indi&estion'@ $e says* Larm redu%tion poli%ies are based on a
%arin& rat$er t$an a 1ud&emental approa%$' and are t$ere"ore less li)ey to drive dru& dealer under&round*
F,G +$e strate&y must be based on )no#led&e* +$e "o%us s$ould be on %ontrollin& use rat$er t$an on
en%oura&in& %omplete abstinen%e' #$i%$ is out o" pla%e in modern li"e* !nstru%tions s$ould be &iven on
suitable :uantities' e""e%ts' sa"est met$ods o" administration' obtainin& $elp #$en needed' avoidin&
$a.ards' and met$ods o" %ontrollin& mental states*
F3G +$e implementation strate&y s$ould dra# on )no#led&e o" $o# to ma(imi.e t$e probability o"
su%%ess* Cru& use tends to start #it$ $eavy smo)in& and drin)in&' so smo)ers and drin)ers are a suitable
tar&et' alt$ou&$ t$ere may be a ris) o" arousin& an interest in dru& use' and t$ere may be ob1e%tions "rom
parents*
F/G !t #ill be ne%essary to do be"ore-and-a"ter studies and lon&-term "ollo#ups usin& %ontrol &roups to
evaluate t$e e""e%tiveness o" $arm redu%tion strate&ies 2F?Li&$ +ime "or Larm <edu%tion'@ by <ussel Oe#%ombe'
Druglin'0 1R97
319
G3*
319
31,
A%ross t$e Oation' Bad bat%$ o" %ra%) sends ,, to $ospitals in Floria' The Seattle Times' / ay 1997' 15F19G' p* A9*
313
Op. cit.
31/
Op. cit.
315
Oi%$olas -aunders #it$ <* Coblin' 7cstasy/ Dance0 Trance 5 Trans-ormation FCA= Aui%) Am* Ar%$ives' 1997G' p* 135*
317
Was$in&ton' A%ross t$e U-A= ne#s "rom every state' #SA Today0 ,/ Feb 1997' 15F113G' p* 9A*
317
Oi%$olas -aunders #it$ <* Coblin' 7cstasy/ Dance0 Trance 5 Trans-ormation FCA= Aui%) Am* Ar%$ives' 1997G' p* 135*
319
Op. cit.
319
Op. cit.
,7
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+rohi'ition
Ameri%a $as al#ays been &iven to puritani%al snits ; se(' al%o$ol' toba%%o' dru&s and any "orm o" musi% "avored
by yout$s $ave al#ays sent moralists into outra&e*
3,0
2Oo# Louse -pea)er Oe#t3 Iin&ri%$ proposes t$at dru&
dealers &et mandatory li"e terms on "irst %onvi%tions and t$e deat$ senten%e "or se%ond %onvi%tions* ?!" you sell it'
#e are &oin& to )ill you'@ $e said*
3,1
+$e +e(as >e&islature is about to %riminali.e %i&arette smo)in& in teens' and a
"ederal 1ud&e in Oort$ Carolina ruled last 2April3 t$at ni%otine is a dru& and %an be re&ulated by t$e Food and Cru&
Administration*
3,,
2Aut$or o" ?+$e Eleasure Eoli%e= Lo# Blue-Oosed Busybodies and >ily->ivered Alarmists Are +a)in& All t$e
Fun Jut o" >i"e'@ Cavid
3,3
3 -$a#' $imsel" a "airly militant anti-%i&arette %i&ar-smo)er' is %orre%t in $is s%enario*
?-upplies plummet* Cemand soars* A bla%) mar)et :ui%)ly develops to "ill t$e void* Eri%es s)yro%)et* As #it$
2t$e al%o$ol3 Ero$ibition' people start ma)in& t$eir o#n illi%it %i&arettes* Eeople &et si%) ; and die ; "rom t$e to(i%
bootle& produ%t* * * * >atter-day Al Capones use modern terrorist ta%ti%s in a battle to %ontrol t$e illi%it toba%%o
trade*@
3,/
• • •
Ero$ibition %reates more problems t$an solutions* WeWve %reated a #ar-li)e relations$ip bet#een &overnment
and its %iti.ens over su%$8bene"i%ial plant2s3
3,5
2; .anni&is sati(a' .. sati(a indica' 7rythro%ylon coca' and
Papa(er somni-erum'
2 3,73
amon& ot$er %$emi%al %ompounds3*
2 3,73
?!t4s a #ar out t$ere ; and #e4re losin&'@ says
"ormer %ustoms inspe%tor 2i)e3 Lorner*
3,9
• • •
Co%aine' li)e t$e opiates' is "or some people a $i&$ly and debilitatin& dru&* +o le&ali.e it in t$e sense o"
ma)in& it available "or %onsumption to everyone #ould produ%e a set o" problems %omparable to t$ose resultin&
"rom t$e "a%t t$at al%o$ol is le&al* +$at is' most people #$o use %o%aine #ould not be%ome addi%ted and in time
me%$anisms "or %ontrollin& its use #ould develop #it$in t$e %ulture* Co%tors and ot$er spe%ialists #ould be%ome
more )no#led&eable about $o# to $elp people "or #$om t$e dru& #as addi%tive mu%$ as #e $ave learned $o# to
$elp people %ope #it$ problems o" al%o$olism* Oeedless to say' t$is solution is not a per"e%t one' but t$e
alternative ; ma)in& t$e dru& ille&al and t$ereby %reatin& %rime net#or)s ; is a very $i&$ pri%e to pay "or a
relatively small bene"it* !t is unli)ely t$at many more people t$an presently e(perien%e problems #it$ %o%aine
#ould e(perien%e problems i" t$e dru& #ere le&al* W$en al%o$ol is an ille&al %ommodity' t$e number o" al%o$oli%s
is not si&ni"i%antly lo#er*
3,9
3,0
olly !vins' A %apitalisti% nanny state' San "rancisco .hronicle' ,0 ay 1997' p* A,3*
3,1
Op. cit.
3,,
Op. cit.
3,3
Op. cit.
3,/
Op. cit.
3,5
Joan Conro#' Irass-roots movement pus$es $emp' $onolulu Ad(ertiser' ,1 ar%$ 1993' pp* A9X*
3,7
!n t$eir "res$ "orm' t$e ille&al poppies' )no#n as Eapaver somni"erum' &ra%e &ardens all over t$e %ountry* Bo:uets o"
t$e poppies %an even be bou&$t in supermar)ets'8most any "lorist4s s$op or %ra"t store' #$ere t$ey are sold "or
dried-"lo#er arran&ements*
N The New 9or' Times' Cried poppies be%ome %ause %YlZbre' lead to %$ar&es a&ainst -eattle man' The Seattle Times' ,5
ay 1997' 15F,1G' p* B,*
3,7
Erimatolo&ists try23 to learn about t$e animals= $o# t$ey "i&$t' mate' play* <e%ently "res$ eyes peerin& t$rou&$ t$e
underbrus$ $ave "o%used instead on #$at $umans %an learn -rom t$e &reat apes ; spe%i"i%ally' #$at t$ey )no# about
medi%ine*
?We %all it B.oop$arma%o&nosy'4

@ says Jo$n E* Berry' a ,/-year-old plant bio%$emist at Cornell University #$o $as
spent mont$s in B#indi studyin& mountain &orillas* ?Ant$ropolo&ist <i%$ard W* Wran&$am and my advisor' Kloy
<odri&ue.' %ame up #it$ t$at term a"ter several beers in an A"ri%an dis%o@ to des%ribe t$eir novel approa%$ to dru& $untin&=
analy.e t$e plants t$at ot$er animals eat #$en t$ey "eel ill*
N -%ien%e and t$e Citi.en' Jun&le edi%ine' Scienti-ic American' Ce% 1997' ,75F7G' p* ,0*
3,9
+revor Armbrister' Jur dru&-pla&ued e(i%an border' Reader;s Digest' Jan 1997' 1/9F995G' p* 59*
3,9
William J* C$ambliss FEro"essor o" -o%iolo&y and C$air o" t$e -o%iolo&y Cept* at t$e Iero&e Was$* U*' and Eresident o"
t$e Am* -o%iety o" Criminolo&y F1999GG' On the Ta'e/ "rom Petty .roo's to Presidents F!ndiana= University Eress' 1999G'
p* ,15*
,9
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
ari1uana use is mu%$ less $arm"ul t$an t$e use o" al%o$ol* W$ere mari1uana use $as been essentially
le&ali.ed Fin Cali"ornia "or e(ampleG' %rime net#or)s $ave dissipated in importan%e in t$e produ%tion and supply o"
t$is %ommodity*
330
!ndeed' t$e elimination o" pro"its "rom dru&s and &amblin& #ould redu%e t$e annual ta)e o" %rime net#or)s in
t$e United -tates by billions o" dollars* -in%e money is po#er' it #ould %orrespondin&ly redu%e t$eir po#er*
331
+$e se%ond %ondition ne%essary "or redu%in& t$e po#er and in"luen%e o" %rime net#or)s is t$e %reation o"
or&ani.ations to survey &overnment operations* We %annot e(pe%t t$e 2FB!'
33,
3 poli%e or t$e C!A to %ontrol t$eir
o#n %riminality* +$e "or%es t$at lead to t$eir %riminality are "ar too po#er"ul* W$at is ne%essary is t$at %iti.en
&roups "orm t$at #ill %onstantly #at%$ over &overnment a&en%ies*
333
• • •
+$e seeds "or t$e "irst national or&ani.ed %rime net#or)s #ere planted in t$e late 1900s* !n t$e "a%e o" massive
#or)er unrest and demands "or t$e ri&$t to or&ani.e trade unions' bi& business $ired t$u&s as stri)e brea)ers*
<at$er t$an rely on t$e un%ertain supply o" lo%al talent to %ontrol re%al%itrant #or)ers' lar&e %orporations imported
&an&s "rom ot$er %ities* +$is re:uired a de&ree o" or&ani.ation and %ooperation t$at ended in t$e %reation o"
%ompanies spe%iali.in& in ?stri)e brea)ers*@ any o" t$ese same &roups later be%ame involved in or&ani.ed %rime
net#or)s*
33/
Bet#een 191/ and 1937' la#ma)ers and la# en"or%ement a&en%ies ea&erly lobbied "or and passed le&islation
t$at "illed t$e need o" or&ani.ed %rime net#or)s "or a %ommodity t$at #as ille&al' t$at re:uired t$e )ind o"
or&ani.ation and e(pertise t$ey possessed' and t$at #as e(tremely pro"itable* Curin& t$ese years la#s #ere passed
ma)in& it ille&al to import' distribute' sell or use ?mind alterin& substan%es@ ran&in& "rom opium and its derivatives
Fespe%ially $eroinG to %o%aine' mari1uana' peyote' and t$e amp$etamines*
335
!n 191/ t$e sale or possession o" opium and its derivatives' in%ludin& $eroin' #as made ille&al #it$ t$e passa&e
o" t$e Larrison 2Oar%oti%
337
3 A%t* By 191/' $o#ever' t$ere #as a lar&e population o" opium-addi%ted 2veterans'3
#or)ers' $ouse#ives' and mer%$ants' not to mention t$e C$inese immi&rants #$o brou&$t opium $abits #it$ t$em
#$en t$ey emi&rated to t$e U*-*
!t is an e%onomi% a(iom t$at #$ere t$ere is a mar)et' lar&e pro"its' and an available supply o" a %ommodity'
people #it$ "ind #ays to supply t$e demand* +$e mer%$ants #$o pro"ited "rom opium and $eroin #$en it #as le&al
did not immediately %ease t$eir operations simply be%ause o" international a&reements and statutes ma)in& t$eir
business ille&al* Auite predi%tably t$ey %ontinued to trade in opium' alt$ou&$ t$e ille&al nature o" t$e enterprise
%$an&ed t$e %$ara%ter o" t$e business %onsiderably* Cistribution pra%ti%es $ad to %$an&e' poli%e and %ustoms
o""i%ials $ad to be bribed' but t$e import business t$rived in spite o" t$e %ompli%ations t$at a%%ompanied t$e
ille&ality o" t$e interprise*
337
+$e event t$at most a%%ounted "or t$e &ro#t$ and development o" or&ani.ed %rime bot$ nationally and
internationally #as pro$ibition* +$e passin& o" t$e Molstead A%t in 1919' ma)in& it ille&al in t$e U*-* to sell'
distribute' and %onsume al%o$ol' %reated ideal %onditions "or t$e emer&en%e o" national %rime net#or)s* +$e
demand "or al%o$ol #as "ar &reater t$an t$e U*-* &overnment4s #illin&ness to e(pend t$e money and ener&y
ne%essary to stamp it out* +$ere #as' nonet$eless' a su""i%ient .ealousness to en"or%e t$e la#s to ma)e it ne%essary
"or t$ose #$o #ould distribute and sell t$e ?evil rum@ to %reate %riminal enterprises* As a result' di""erent %riminal
&roups spe%iali.ed in' and monopoli.ed' t$e smu&&lin& o" al%o$ol "rom di""erent %ountries* -ome smu&&led s%ot%$
"rom -%otland' ot$ers brou&$t rum into t$e U*-* "rom Cuba' #$is)ey and beer "rom Canada' and #ine "rom Fran%e*
+$is #as not an easy "eat* +$e import-e(port business is %ompli%ated and re:uires international ban)in&' and'
#$en people do not "ul"ill t$eir %ontra%ts' #ays o" san%tionin& trans&ressors* +$e pi%ture is "urt$er %ompli%ated
be%ause t$e sine Cua non o" %apitalism is' o" %ourse' %ompetition* +$e business stru%ture %an be unstable "or t$e
importation o" ille&al %ommodities be%ause all o" t$e business dealin&s must be %arried out #it$out t$e -ormal
%ooperation o" ban)s' la# en"or%ement a&en%ies' %ourts' and international treaties* +$e essential in"rastru%ture "or
t$e importation o" ille&al %ommodities must be or&ani.ed ?in"ormally*@ Eeople #$o do not "ul"ill t$eir %ontra%tual
330
Op. cit.
331
Op. cit.
33,
2<epubli%an -enator C$arles3 Irassley 2o" !o#a3 #rote= ?Auestions $ave been raised in t$e publi% arena in re%ent years
re&ardin& t$e FB!4s ability to investi&ate itesl"*@
N The Associated Press' Justi%e Cept* to probe possible FB! %over-up' The Seattle Times' ,7 Feb 1997' 1,0F50G' p* A/*
333
William J* C$ambliss FEro"essor o" -o%iolo&y and C$air o" t$e -o%iolo&y Cept* at t$e Iero&e Was$* U*' and Eresident o"
t$e Am* -o%iety o" Criminolo&y F1999GG' On the Ta'e/ "rom Petty .roo's to Presidents F!ndiana= University Eress' 1999G'
pp* ,15-,17*
33/
)&idem' p* 157*
335
)&idem' p* 159*
337
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Winston' 1997G' p* 199*
337
William J* C$ambliss FEro"essor o" -o%iolo&y and C$air o" t$e -o%iolo&y Cept* at t$e Iero&e Was$* U*' and Eresident o"
t$e Am* -o%iety o" Criminolo&y F1999GG' On the Ta'e/ "rom Petty .roo's to Presidents F!ndiana= University Eress' 1999G'
pp* 193-19/*
,9
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
obli&ations must be "or%ed to do so by #$atever means is available= ususally t$is means relyin& on violen%e or t$e
t$reat o" violen%e* Knter' t$en' t$e spe%ialists in violen%e #$o served to brea) stri)es and "inan%iers o" le&itimate
business #$o $ad t$e %apital and t$e #$ere#it$al to ma)e and )eep international monetary a&reements* Lere'
t$en' are t$e ma)in&s o" t$e national and international %rime net#or)s t$at "louris$ed in t$e 19,0s and 1930s*
+$ese #ere t$e ?parent %ompanies@ t$at spa#ned today4s net#or)s*
339
W$en pro$ibition ended in 193,' t$e spe%ialists and or&ani.ations t$at $ad &ro#n up to "a%ilitate t$e smu&&lin&
o" al%o$oli% bevera&es trans"erred t$eir talents' %onta%ts' and personnel to t$e smu&&lin& o" dru&s* W$en' in t$e
t$irties' mari1uana and %o%aine #ere added to t$e list o" ille&al dru&s' t$e business e(panded and smu&&lin&
be%ame an international enterprise o" &i&anti% proportions*
339
!n 1937' t$e %ontroversial ari1uana +a( A%t #as passed #$i%$ %reated a ne# sour%e o" %rime*
Oo primary empiri%al eviden%e #as presented about t$e e""e%ts o" t$e dru&8only $earsay and emotional pleas "rom
t$e Federal Bureau o" Oar%oti%s and a "e# state la# en"or%ement a&ents* +$e la# #as tied neit$er to s%ienti"i%
study nor to la# en"or%ement need* +$e le&islative revie# %on%luded t$at Con&ress $ad been B$ood#in)ed*4
3/0
+$e a""luen%e in t$e U*-* t$at "ollo#ed t$e end o" World War !! brou&$t re%ord sales to t$e manu"a%turers and
industrialists* +$e a""luen%e #as e:ually )ind to t$e purveyors o" ille&al %ommodities and servi%es* Bet#een 19/5
and 1975 nar%oti%s %onsumption in t$e United -tates and Kurope &re# by leaps and bounds* First t$e &$ettoes t$en
t$e middle and upper %lasses %omprised t$e mar)et' 1ust as t$e minin& to#ns and "a%tories $ad been t$e mainstay o"
t$e mar)et in t$e 1900s*
3/1
eyer >ans)y #as a true %apitalist #it$ %onne%tions to or&ani.ed %rime* Le be&an $is empire in ?1933
#it$ t$e openin& o" a &amblin& %asino and $i&$ %lass brot$el in Bro#ard County' Florida*@
3/,
?>ans)y #as
uni:ue amon& or&ani.ed %rime "i&ures in t$at $e #as s%rupulously $onest in t$e division o" pro"its amon& $is
?sto%)$olders@
3/3
82and3 re%o&ni2.ed3 t$at it #as more important to ma)e po#er"ul politi%ians and t$eir la#
en"or%ers partners in $is ille&al operations t$an to merely bribe t$em*@
3//
+$ese points %annot be understated*
A bloomin& opium mar)et #as &ro#in& in Ameri%a' and ?"ollo#in& World War !!82arseilles' Fran%e
3/5
3
be%ame t$e international %enter "or %onvertin& ra# opium "rom t$e iddle Kast into t$e $i&$ly re"ined [/
$eroin*@
3/7
2>ans)y4s3 e(traodinarily pro"itable investments in Florida' Cuba' >as Me&as' and in international nar%oti%s
smu&&lin& surpassed t$ose o" $is "ello# %riminals*
3/7
!n t$e 1950s
3/9
8$is e(perien%e &ained durin& pro$ibition in
smu&&lin& al%o$oli% bevera&es &ave $im t$e )no#-$o# and t$e international %onne%tions ne%essary "or su%%ess"ul
smu&&lin& operations* Le )ne# #$ere to lo%ate investors #it$ ?venture %apital'@ #as %onne%ted #it$ ban)s'
politi%ians' and la# en"or%ement people nationally and internationally' and %ould ta)e advanta&e o" all t$ese
net#or)s to ma(imi.e pro"its and minimi.e ris)s "or $imsel" and $is investors*
3/9
,.7.-.
Kstablis$ed in 19/7 to %oordinate Ameri%an intelli&en%e a%tivities abroad' t$e Central !ntelli&en%e A&en%y
played only a minimal role in t$e %rusade a&ainst Communist in"luen%e in t$e United -tates in t$e late 19/0s and
early 1950s* +$e presen%e and presti&e o" t$e a&en%y did' $o#ever' produ%e 1ealousy in FB! dire%tor J* Kd&ar
Loover' #$o a%%ordin&ly redoubled $is e""orts to dis%over domesti% subversives in t$e United -tates*
350
By t$at
time' risin& publi% %on%ern amon& Ameri%ans about -oviet espiona&e $ad %onvin%ed t$e +ruman administration to
establis$ "ormally t$e C!A' #it$ aut$ority to %ondu%t intelli&en%e operations abroad* !n 1950' Eresident +ruman
named Allen 2W*3 Culles deputy dire%tor o" t$e C!A* Wit$ inau&uration o" Eresident C#i&$t Cavid Kisen$o#er in
January 1953' Culles #as named dire%tor o" t$e C!A*
351
339
)&idem' pp* 157-159*
339
)&idem' p* 19/*
3/0
C$ris Conrad' $emp !i-eline to the "uture F>os An&eles= Creative Qpressions' 1993G*
3/1
William J* C$ambliss FEro"essor o" -o%iolo&y and C$air o" t$e -o%iolo&y Cept* at t$e Ieor&e Was$* U*' and Eresident o"
t$e Am* -o%iety o" Criminolo&y F1999GG' On the Ta'e/ "rom Petty .roo's to Presidents F!ndiana= University Eress' 1999G'
p* 19/*
3/,
)&idem' p* 170*
3/3
Op. cit.
3//
Op. cit.
3/5
)&idem' p* 195*
3/7
Op. cit.
3/7
)&idem' p* 170*
3/9
)&idem' p* 19/*
3/9
)&idem' pp* 19/-195*
350
William K* Klin&aman' 7ncyclopedia o- the c.arthy 7ra FO0= Fa%ts Jn File' !n%*' 1997G' p* 59*
351
)&idem' p* 1,0*
30
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
2r*3 Culles4 appointment o" William Bundy to a post in t$e C!A in"uriated %Cart$y*
35,
Con%erned t$at
-oviet espiona&e a&ents $ad in"iltrated t$e C!A and "rustrated by $is inability to %ompel t$e appearan%e o" a C!A
o""i%ial named William Bundy be"ore $is Iovernment Jperations Committee' %Cart$y vo#ed to laun%$ an
investi&ation o" t$e A&en%y* Eresident C#i&$t Cavid Kisen$o#er moved immediately to :uas$ any su%$ in:uiry*
353

Kventually Mi%e Eresident <i%$ard * Oi(on intervened in t$e dispute and %onvin%ed %Cart$y to abandon $is
investi&ation o" t$e a&en%y' but only a"ter t$e administration promised to %arry out an e(tensive pur&e o" t$e
a&en%y4s personnel
35/
8to remove any impression o" subversion*
355
,.7.-.
77
Lansky 7n 0lympia
2>ans)y4s3 enterprise #or)ed marvelously "or a number o" years despite t$e mostly symboli% e""orts o" dru&
en"or%ement a&en%ies and international %ommissions to brea) up ille&al dru& s$ipments*
357
+emporary disruptions
o%%urred but t$e overall pattern o" dru& tra""i%)in& survived*
357
>ans)y #as be%omin& deeply involved in Was$in&ton state politi%s*
359
Jn "irst blus$ it made no sense t$at
eyer >ans)y ; #$o %ontrolled a vast international empire o" ban)s' &amblin& %asinos' and an international
nar%oti%s smu&&lin& net#or)' and #$ose politi%al partners in%luded presidents' vi%e presidents and members o"
%on&ress ; #ould devote so mu%$ attention and money to t$e &overnors$ip o" Was$in&ton' even i" $is son did live
in t$e state*
359
!mportant %$an&es #ere ta)in& pla%e in national or&ani.ed %rime net#or)s*
370
A symbioti% relations$ip bet#een
politi%s' la# en"or%ement' le&itimate business' and or&ani.ed %rime #as absolutely ne%essary "or or&ani.ed %rime to
survive and "louris$*
371
+rin!iple 0f )!ientifi! +arsimonyA
%he 6ost )imple %heory @*plains - 3i5en )et 0f Fa!ts
+$is time in Ameri%a ; 1970 to 1970 ;8#as totally "2--3)ed* !4m sorry to tell you t$is' but t$at4s t$e
trut$* Fan%y terms and ornate t$eories %annot %over t$is "a%t up* +$e aut$orities be%ame as psy%$oti% as
t$ose t$ey $unted* +$ey #anted to put all persons #$o #ere not %lones o" t$e establis$ment a#ay* +$e
aut$orities #ere "illed #it$ $ate*
37,
+$e day t$ey moved An&ela Cavis' t$e bla%) ar(ist' out o" t$e arin County 1ail' t$e aut$orities
dismantled t$e #$ole %ivi% %enter* +$is #as to ba""le radi%als #$o mi&$t intend trouble* +$e elevators &ot
un#iredH doors &ot relabeled #it$ spurious in"ormationH t$e distri%t attorney $id*
373
A"ter >ans)y #as indi%ted "or per1ury and ta( evasion' t$e po#er s$i"ted "rom >ans)y- and +eamster Cave
Be%)-ba%)ed Cemo%rats to +eamster Jimmy Lo""a-ba%)ed <epubli%ans*
37/
An in"ormant in t$e Cru& Kn"or%ement A&en%y told 2William J* C$ambliss3 t$at >ans)y4s li"elon& %ompetitor
and o"t-time nemisis' -anto +ra""i%ante' Jr*' #ent to -out$east Asia in 1979 %arryin& ?untold millions@ in %as$
#$i%$ $e &enerously distributed to Asian nar%oti%s manu"a%turers' espe%ially to one Man& Eao' in order to insure a
%onstant supply o" $eroin "rom t$em*
375
+$en Fran) -inatra' t$e "air-$aired "avorite o" >as Me&as ni&$t %lubs and
%asinos' #$o "or years $ad t$e run o" t$e %ity' #as t$ro#n out o" t$e -ands Lotel' pun%$ed in t$e mout$ by a -ands
employee and banned "rom ever enterin& t$e $otel or %asino a&ain*
377
35,
Op. cit.
353
)&idem' p* 59*
35/
Op. cit.
355
)&idem' p* 131*
357
William J* C$ambliss FEro"essor o" -o%iolo&y and C$air o" t$e -o%iolo&y Cept* at t$e Ieor&e Was$* U*' and Eresident o"
t$e Am* -o%iety o" Criminolo&y F1999GG' On the Ta'e/ "rom Petty .roo's to Presidents F!ndiana= University Eress' 1999G'
p* 195*
357
Op. cit.
359
)&idem' p* 15,*
359
Op. cit.
370
)&idem' p* 153-15/*
371
)&idem' p* 15/*
37,
E$ilip K* Ci%)' 2alis FO0= Minta&e Boo)s' 1991G' pp* 11-1,*
373
)&idem' p* 1,*
37/
William J* C$ambliss FEro"essor o" -o%iolo&y and C$air o" t$e -o%iolo&y Cept* at t$e Ieor&e Was$* U*' and Eresident o"
t$e Am* -o%iety o" Criminolo&y F1999GG' On the Ta'e/ "rom Petty .roo's to Presidents F!ndiana= University Eress' 1999G'
pp* 15,-153*
375
)&idem' p* 153*
377
)&idem' p* 15/*
31
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Bet#een 1979 and 197, t$ere #as a dramati% %$an&e in t$e pattern o" international nar%oti%s smu&&lin&* Erior
to 1979' 90 per%ent o" t$e $eroin %omin& into t$e United -tates %ame "rom opium &ro#n in t$e iddle Kast*
377

W$en t$e United -tates entered t$e Mietnam War a"ter Fran%e4s i&nominious de"eat at Cien Bien E$u' t$e U*-*
in$erited t$e dependen%e on opium* +$e U*-* military and parti%ularly t$e C!A set about or&ani.in& opium
smu&&lin& out o" -out$east Asia to an unpre%edented de&ree* +$e Centeral !ntelli&en%e A&en%y arran&ed to pi%) up
and distribute t$e opium to t$e ma1or %ities o" -out$east Asia #$ere laboratories spran& up t$at %onverted t$e
opium into morp$ine and $eroin* For t$is purpose' t$e C!A establis$ed an airline %alled Air Ameri%a*
379
By
2197,'
379
3 over /5 per%ent o" t$e $eroin enterin& t$e United -tates %ame "rom opium &ro#n in t$e Iolden +rian&le
o" -out$east Asia*
370
-eattle and Man%ouver' Britis$ Columbia' $ad never been si&ni"i%ant import %enters "or $eroin* By 197,'
$o#ever' as mu%$ as /0 per%ent o" t$e $eroin enterin& t$e United -tates %ame t$rou&$ t$ese t#o ports*
371
,.7.-.
777
%he )!ru'
+$e #orld#ide revie# be&an in 199/ under t$e "ormer Cire%tor o" Central !ntelli&en%e' <* James Woolsey Jr*'
and &at$ered steam in 1995 under $is su%%essor' Jo$n * Ceut%$*
37,
Be$ind %losed doors' t$e 2-enate3 !ntelli&en%e
Committee sta""' at 2-enator <i%$ard C*3 -$elby4s dire%tion' $as been resear%$in& some ma1or poli%y issues under
2nominee "or Cire%tor o" Central !ntelli&en%e' Ant$ony3 >a)e4s %ontrol* +$ese in%lude #$at r* >a)e )ne# about
C$inese missile sales to Ea)istan'
373
8not immediately sell2in&3 sto%)s in "our ener&y %ompanies in 1993 #$en t$e
W$ite Louse %ounsel4s o""i%e told $im t$ey posed a possible %on"li%t o" interest'
37/
8$is "ailure to tell Con&ress
about Eresident Clinton4s ta%it approval o" !ran4s arms s$ipments to Bosnia4s uslims in 199/2-1995'
375
3 and
#$et$er $e played do#n $uman ri&$ts abuses in Laiti under t$e &overnment t$e W$ite Louse $elped install in
199/*
377
2r*3 >a)e $as be&un %onta%tin& -enate leaders to say $e no# #is$es $e $ad told Con&ress about
Clinton4s de%ision to raise no ob1e%tion to t$e 199/ !ranian arms s$ipment to Bosnia*
377
!" %on"irmed' r* >a)e4s3
pri.e #ill be t$e Central !ntelli&en%e A&en%y ; no# su""erin& sel"-in"li%ted #ounds "rom t#o treasonous o""i%ers'
2sla%) se%urity'
379
3 bot%$ed e%onomi% espiona&e operations a&ainst allies and an abidin& midli"e %risis as its 50t$
birt$day approa%$es ; and t$e rest o" t$e intelli&en%e servi%es*
379
2Clinton3 made a stron& plea8"or t$e -enate to end t$e delay and %on"irm >a)e as t$e ne(t dire%tor o" %entral
intelli&en%e* Le des%ribed $is nominee as ?suberbly :uali"ied@ and t$e ar%$ite%t o" pea%e in Bosnia*
390
?Clinton is no# loo)in& "or anot$er nominee to be C!A Cire%tor* Clinton said $e4s loo)in& "or someone
#$o %an )eep a lo# pro"ile' is $i&$ly intelli&ent' %apable o" %rossin& et$i%al lines #$en #arranted' and t$en
denyin& any involvement* Le4s loo)in& "or Lilary' really*@ N Jay >eno' ?+$e +oni&$t -$o# #it$ Jay >eno@
391
377
)&idem' p* 153*
379
)&idem' pp* 19/-197*
379
)&idem' p* 153*
370
Op. cit.
371
Op. cit.
37,
+im Weiner' C*!*A* brea)s lin)s to a&ents abroad' The New 9or' Times' 3 ar%$ 1997' CQ>M!F50' 7,0G' p* A1,*
373
+im Weiner' >a)e is alive but only 1ust pure politi%s #it$ C*!*A*' The New 9or' Times' 11 ar%$ 1997' CQ>M!F50'
7,9G' p* A1,*
37/
Connie Cass FThe Associated PressG' Cespite apolo&y' >a)e4s C!A %on"irmation un%ertain' Seattle Post- )ntelligencer' 17
Ce% 1997' 133F301G' p* A7*
375
Jill >a#ren%e' -pe%ter may oppose >a)e "or C!A' #SA Today' 1, Ce% 1997' 15F73G' p* /A*
377
+im Weiner' >a)e is alive but only 1ust pure politi%s #it$ C*!*A*' The New 9or' Times' 11 ar%$ 1997' CQ>M!F50'
7,9G' p* A1,*
377
Connie Cass FThe Associated PressG' Cespite apolo&y' >a)e4s C!A %on"irmation un%ertain' Seattle Post- )ntelligencer' 17
Ce% 1997' 133F301G' p* A7*
379
A lone &unman "irin& an AK-/7 assault ri"le met$odi%ally pi%)ed o"" employees outside t$e C!A4s $ead:uarters in
>an&ley' Ma*8 Be"ore t$en' an atta%) on t$e %ampus-li)e "a%ility #as so unt$in)able t$e &uard s$a%) didn4t even $ave a
%lear vie# o" t$e street*8
+$e dra&net t$at netted suspe%t ir Aimal Kansi in t$e 1993 s$ootin& atta%) on C!A $ead:uarters brou&$t relie" 2June
173 to "amilies o" slain C!A #or)ers' as #ell as #itnesses and "ormer a&en%y o""i%ers*8 ?+oday mar)s a %lear triump$ o"
&ood over evil'@ a%tin& C!A dire%tor Ieor&e +enet said*
N -teve ars$all' <elie" over suspe%t4s %aptureH C!A dire%tor= BClear triump$ o" &ood over evil4' #SA Today' 19 June
1997' 15F19/G' p* 3A
379
+im Weiner' >a)e is alive but only 1ust pure politi%s #it$ C*!*A*' The New 9or' Times' 11 ar%$ 1997' CQ>M!F50'
7,9G' p* A1,*
390
Reuters' Lelms ot vote a&ainst C!A-nominee >a)e' The Seattle Times' 17 Feb 1997' 15F7G' p* A5*
391
+$e >ast Word' 7astside Journal' 1 April 1997' ,1F,,7G' p* A9*
3,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
2ean#$ile'3 t$e ?s%rub'@ as it #as %alled inside t$e a&en%y' #as resisted by some station %$ie"s and %overt
operators #$o ar&ued' in e""e%t' t$at t$ey %ould not re%ruit saints to spy on sinners*
39,
But it #as pressed by r*
Ceut%$ and $is &eneral %ounsel' Je""rey L* -mit$' #$o ar&ued t$at i" t$e C*!*A* $ad to dine #it$ t$e devil' it s$ould
brin& a lon& spoon*
393
+$e s%rub #as ?a ri&orous evaluation o" ea%$ one o" t$e a&ents #e re%ruit'@ 2r* Ceut%$3 said*
39/
?!" t$e
in"ormation t$ese assets provide is no lon&er relevant'@ $e said' ?i" #e %an &et t$at same in"ormation else#$ere' i"
:uestions o" $uman ri&$ts violations' o" %riminal involvement out#ei&$ t$e value o" t$e in"ormation to our national
interests' t$en #e #ill end t$e relations$ip #it$ t$e asset*@
395
A%%ordin& to8Iovernment o""i%ial2FsG'3 as many as
1'000 "orei&n a&ents ; some#$ere bet#een one-:uarter and one-t$ird o" all t$e a&ents on t$e C*!*A*4s payroll in
1995 ; "ailed to meet t$is test'
397
8#ere not #ort$ t$e t$ousands or tens o" t$ousands o" dollars t$ey #ere paid
annually'
397
82and3 t$e :uality o" t$eir in"ormation did not 1usti"y )eepin& t$em on t$e payroll a"ter t$e %old #ar*
399
+$rou&$out >atin Ameri%a
399
8"rom t$e early 19504s on#ard'
390
Asia' t$e iddle Kast and A"ri%a' t$e a&en%y
$as lon&-standin& o""i%ial liaisons #it$ military' intelli&en%e and se%urity servi%es* -ome o" t$e o""i%ers o" t$ese
servi%es are violent or %orrupt' but t$ey are amon& t$e C*!*A*4s most valued in"ormers* +$e a&en%y also $as $ad on
its payroll people #$o are terrorists and dru& dealers' or #$o #ere terrorists and dru& dealers*
391
For e(ample' a
Eresidential panel' t$e !ntelli&en%e Jversi&$t Board' reported in June 219973 t$at t$e C*!*A* )no#in&ly $ired as
paid in"ormers 2Central Ameri%an
39,
3 military o""i%ers suspe%ted o" politi%al assassinations' murder' )idnappin& and
torture*
393
+$ese people provide in"ormation t$at t$e C*!*A* says is di""i%ult to obtain else#$ere*
39/
!n 1995'
t$e
395
8630-billion-a-year intelli&en%e establis$ment
397
8$ad on its payroll82an3 in"ormer 2#$o3 on%e $ad been a
terrorist $imsel"82#$i%$ is3 no bar to $is employment by t$e C*!*A*
397
8under t$e &uidelines laid do#n by t$e
s%rub' Iovernment o""i%ials said*
399
+oppies
Kno#n "or its severe punis$ments ; su%$ as severin& t$e $ands o" t$ieves or stonin& adulterers to deat$ ; t$e
+aliban banned $as$is$ &ro#in& and smo)in& several years a&o* A"&$ans say $as$is$ %an $ardly be "ound
anymore*
But t$ere $as been no %ampai&n a&ainst opium poppies' %ertainly not in t$e lo#er Lelmand <iver Malley villa&e
o" Oad-i-Ali' #$i%$ $as a distin%tly Ameri%an "lavor* +$e United -tates %reated t$e irri&ation system t$at turned
t$e area "rom a desert to "armland' built mud-and-bri%) livin& %ompounds and planted trees and bus$es to $old t$e
soil*
399
By U*O* estimates' A"&$anistan is no# t$e #orld4s lar&est supplier o" opium ; produ%in& more t$an ,',00 tons
in 1997* Ameri%an estimates are some#$at lo#er' s$o# A"&$anistan as t$e #orld4s Oo* , produ%er but %omin& up
"ast*
Ameri%an o""i%ials are pain"ully a#are t$at A"&$an land made "ertile t$an)s to several -$undred millions o"
dollars "rom Ameri%an ta(payers no# produ%es nar%oti%s "or Ameri%an and Kuropean addi%ts* Oar%oti%s e(perts
estimate t$at $eroin made "rom re"ined A"&$an opium a%%ounts "or almost one-"i"t$ o" t$e $eroin %omin& into t$e
United -tates* !n Kurope' t$e per%enta&e is mu%$ $i&$er*
/00
39,
+im Weiner' C*!*A* brea)s lin)s to a&ents abroad' The New 9or' Times' 3 ar%$ 1997' CQ>M!F50' 7,0G' p* A1,*
393
Op. cit.
39/
Op. cit.
395
Op. cit.
397
Op. cit.
397
)&idem' p* A1*
399
)&idem' p* A1,*
399
Op. cit.
390
Op. cit.
391
Op. cit.
39,
Op. cit.
393
Op. cit.
39/
Op. cit.
395
Op. cit.
397
+im Weiner' >a)e is alive but only 1ust pure politi%s #it$ C*!*A*' The New 9or' Times' 11 ar%$ 1997' CQ>M!F50'
7,9G' p* A1,*
397
+im Weiner' C*!*A* brea)s lin)s to a&ents abroad' The New 9or' Times' 3 ar%$ 1997' CQ>M!F50' 7,0G' p* A1,*
399
Op. cit.
399
Knight-Ridder Newspapers' Flours$in& opium trade %ontradi%ts !slami% ban' The Seattle Times' , Feb 1997' 15F5G' p*
A19*
/00
ar% Kau"man FKnight-Ridder NewspapersG' U*-* made A"&$an land "ertile ; to &ro# opium' The Seattle Times' , Feb
1997' 15F5G' p* A19*
33
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
?We %annot banis$ t$e poppy until our people $ave ot$er %rops to &ro# and #or) to do'@ said ulla$ Abdul
Lamid A)$unda.a' t$e +aliban dire%tor o" t$e "orei&n ministry4s liaison o""i%e in Kanda$ar' t$e sout$ern A"&$an
%ity #$ere t$e +aliban ori&inated*
Jt$ers su&&est t$e +aliban $as a di""erent motive "or its apparently $ands-o"" poli%y on opium= !t is still "i&$tin&
an e(pensive #ar in t$e nort$ and needs %as$ to "eed and supply its army* !n #ar-rava&ed A"&$anistan' t$ere are
"e# ot$er produ%ts "or a &overnment to ta(*
/01
?Eoppies are a very &ood %rop' be%ause t$ey brin& a $i&$ pri%e and &o easily to mar)et'@ Amin said*
/0,
• • •
+$e West4s &ro#in& $eroin $abit pours up to 6500 million a year into t$e $ands o" some o" t$e #orld4s deadlies
terrorists' "inan%in& )idnappin&s and bombin&s t$at $ave )illed t$ousands' U*-* dru& a&ents say*
+$e Kurdistan Wor)ers Earty' )no#n by t$e initials EKK' demands prote%tion money "rom $eroin labs in
eastern +ur)ey' t$e %rossroads and pro%essin& %enter "or A"&$an $eroin on its #ay to Kurope and Oort$ Ameri%a*
+$e EKK may even run some o" t$e labs' say under%over Cru& Kn"or%ement Administration a&ents #$o spo)e
to +$e Asso%iated Eress on %ondition o" anonymity*
W$ile more popular in Kurope' $eroin pro%essed in EKK-%ontrolled areas $as made inroads into t$e United
-tates ; #$ere it sells "or 6305 a &ram ; espe%ially %ities #it$ lar&e iddle Kastern populations' in%ludin& Oe#
0or)' Cetroit' C$i%a&o and >os An&eles' t$e a&ents say*
/03
ore t$an ,1'000 people $ave died in "i&$tin& sin%e t$e
EKK started its #ar in 199/*
A%%ordin& to FB! and -tate Cepartment re%ords' t$e EKK %ommitted more terrorist a%ts "rom 1991 t$rou&$
1995 t$an any ot$er su%$ &roup in t$e #orld*
/0/
EKK terrorists re&ularly plant bombs in %ro#ded areas o" !stanbul' )illin& and maimin& "orei&ners as #ell as
+ur)s* !n 1995' t#o suspe%ted EKK a&ents died in a premature e(plosion #$ile $idin& bombs in a teddy bear*
/05
6oney Laundering
W$en -eattle4s %rime net#or) #as in "ull s#in&' on t$e "i"teent$ o" every mont$ an o""i%ial o" t$e state Louse
o" <epresentitives "le# "rom -eattle to -an Fran%is%o %arryin& a sat%$el "ull o" one-$undred dollar bills* +$is #as
?laundered money'@ "rom &amblin& pro"its* +$e amount in t$e sat%$el varied ea%$ mont$ dependin& on $o# mu%$
-eattle boo)ma)ers' &amblers' and nar%oti%s dealers o#ed investors in ot$er parts o" t$e United -tates* !t also
depended on $o# mu%$ -eattle4s people #anted to eit$er launder t$rou&$ ban)s into se%ret a%%ounts or invest in
enterprises in ot$er parts o" t$e %ountry*
/07
Mene.uela also is an important8"inan%ial %enter "or dru& money
launderin&*
/07
>aunderin& met$ods 2also3 in%lude padded %onstru%tion %ontra%ts and investin& in restaurants' ni&$t%lubs'
dry-%leanin& "irms' s$oppin& %enters' travel a&en%ies and tru%)in& lines*
/09
For years' dru& %artel money-launderers in Oe# 0or) $ave been sendin& up to 61*3 billion a year ba%) to
Colombia t$rou&$
/09
8$undreds o" small businesses li%ensed to send money abroad ; store"ront %$e%) %as$in&
pla%es' p$one %enters' tele&ram o""i%es' even travel a&en%ies
/10
8; #$ere t$ose #it$out ban) a%%ounts' mostly
immi&rants' pay a "ee to send %as$ to relatives abroad*
/11
J""i%ials o" a 1oint Federal' state and lo%al tas) "or%e on
money-launderin&' )no#n as Kl Corado' "ound in 1995 t$at 61*3 billion #as bein& sent to Colombia every year
t$rou&$ 1'700 o" t$ese small businesses* -in%e t$ere #ere ,5'500 Colombian "amilies in Oe# 0or)' ea%$
/01
Op. cit.
/0,
Op. cit.
/03
<i%$ard Cole FThe Associated PressG' Leroin trade "inan%es some o" #orld4s deadliest terrorists' 7astside Journal' 17
Ce% 1997' p* A5*
/0/
Op. cit.
/05
Op. cit.
/07
William J* C$ambliss FEro"essor o" -o%iolo&y and C$air o" t$e -o%iolo&y Cept* at t$e Ieor&e Was$* U*' and Eresident o"
t$e Am* -o%iety o" Criminolo&y F1999GG' On the Ta'e/ "rom Petty .roo's to Presidents F!ndiana= University Eress' 1999G'
p* 157*
/07
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRCru& Kn"or%ement A&en%y' !ntelli&en%e Bulletin F1 July 1997G' 30 April 1997'
$ttp=RR###*usdo1*&ovRdeaRpubsRintelR%o%aine*$tm*
/09
Kri% Iei&er' Lun&ry "or tourists' Austria %aters to <ussian ma"ia' San "rancisco .hronicle' ,3 ay 1997' 133F109G' p*
A17*
/09
<obert C* %Fadden' >imits on %as$ transa%tions %ut dru&-money launderin&' The New 9or' Times' 11 ar%$ 1997'
CQ>M!F50' 7,9G' p* A1*
/10
)&idem' p* A11*
/11
Op. cit.
3/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
$ouse$old #ould $ave to be sendin& 650'000 a year to a%%ount "or t$e vast "lo#' t$ou&$ median $ouse$old in%ome
#as only 6,7'000*
/1,
+$e ma1or restraint on t$is ele%troni% smu&&lin& $as been a Federal re:uirement t$at transa%tions o" more t$an
610'000 be reported to t$e Iovernment'
/13
82but3 money launderers' o"ten #or)in& #it$ %roo)ed remitters' #ould
brea) t$eir loot into in%rements under 610'000* +o ma)e transa%tions seem aut$enti%' names and addresses #ould
be ta)en "rom t$e8telep$one boo) and listed as senders' #$ile names "rom p$one boo)s in Colombia #ould be
used as re%ipients* Cartel operatives %arryin& p$ony identi"i%ation #ould t$en s$o# up at t$e #ire o""i%es in
Colombia*
/1/
But sin%e last summer'8a +reasury Cepartment order :uietly imposin& a 6750-per-transa%tion limit on 1'700
remittan%e s$ops suspe%ted o" #irin& most o" t$e illi%it money $as #on a small vi%tory in t$e #ar on dru&s' s$arply
%uttin& t$e ele%troni% trans"ers to Colombia and "or%in& t$e %artels to return to %rude old met$ods o" smu&&lin&
money in bul)
/15
82by3 stas$in& %as$ in %o""ins' bo#lin& balls and ot$er $idin& pla%es*
/17
At airports and seaports
alon& t$e Kast Coast' a&ents sei.ed 6,9 million in smu&&led money durin& t$e "irst t$ree mont$s t$e order #as in
e""e%t' %ompared #it$ 67 million in t$e same period a year earlier' investi&ators said*
/17
?+$e 6750 limit is a ma1or
$urdle #$en you $ave to move 6500'000'@
/19
8Andre Flores' t$e %$ie" a&ent o" t$e United -tates Customs -ervi%e
on >on& !sland' said in an intervie#*
/19
• • •
Almost 630'000 laundered "rom ille&al nar%oti%s transa%tions #as donated to t$e Cemo%rati% Oational
Committee 2FCOCG3 in 199, and to Eresident Clinton4s 1993 2Eresidental !nau&ural Committee Ieneral Fund'
/,0
3
a%%ordin& to an indi%tment returned 2April 93 a&ainst an Ar)ansas la#yer*
ar) -teven Cambiano' /,' o" orrilton' Ar)*' surrendered 2April 93 to "a%e a 31-%ount indi%tment $anded up
by a "ederal &rand 1ury in >ittle <o%)* +$e indi%tment %$ar&es Cambiano #it$ launderin& 6390',19 "rom dru&
transa%tions involvin& a se%ond Ar)ansas man' Willard Burnett' #$o $as pleaded &uilty to tra""i%)in& in
met$amp$etamines and is servin& a "ederal senten%e*
/,1
+$e indi%tment does not a%%use Cambiano' a de"ense attorney #$o spe%iali.es in deat$-ro# %ases' o" dire%t
parti%ipation in dru& sales or manu"a%turin&' but o" $idin& t$e pro%eeds o" t$e %rimes by %ausin& ban)s to "ail to "ile
reports o" %as$ transa%tions in e(%ess o" 610'000' as re:uired by la#*
/,,
Cambiano also used part o" t$e money to buy real estate' put in a s#immin& pool' pay o"" a loan used to pay
ta(es and pay o"" $is $ome mort&a&e' t$e indi%tment said*
/,3
/1,
Op. cit.
/13
)&idem' p* A1*
/1/
)&idem' p* A11*
/15
)&idem' p* A1*
/17
Op. cit.
/17
Op. cit.
/19
Op. cit.
/19
Op. cit.
/,0
Oation' Cru& money aided Clinton' indi%tment saysH Ar)ansas man a%%used o" launderin& "unds' San "rancisco
.hronicle' 10 April 1997' 133F7,G' p* A,/*
/,1
Op. cit.
/,,
Op. cit.
/,3
Op. cit.
35
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
3angster $ureau!rats
?We s$ould be able to understand t$at &uns and violen%e and money launderin& and dru& smu&&lin& are all
lin)ed and t$at none o" t$ese %an be addressed #it$out ta)in& into a%%ount t$e e%onomi% se%urity' t$e e%onomi%
&ro#t$ o" t$e nations'@ 2dru& %.ar' Ien* Barry3 %Ca""rey said*
/,/
,osa :ostra
)n Peter aas; &rea'through &oo' <The 2alachi Papers0= a low- le(el mem&er o- organi6ed crime0 Joseph
2alachi0 con-irmed the e%istence and re(ealed the inner wor'ings o- .osa Nostra0 the true name o- the a-ia. )n a
new &oo'0 <#nder&oss= D$arper.ollingsE0 aas reports on his secret tal's0 conducted under the tightest security0
with Sal(atore 3ra(ano > whose testimony sent John 3otti0 the 3am&ino crime -amily &oss0 and other mo&sters to
prison. FPARAD7G as'ed aas to compare 3ra(ano with 2alachi and with other <in-ormers= he has written
a&out o(er the years0 including "ran' Serpico0 the cop who e%posed corruption in the New 9or' .ity police -orce0
and arie Ragghianti0 a state o--icial who &lew the whistle on the illegal sale o- pardons and paroles in
Tennessee/
!n a pa%)ed' $us$ed "ederal %ourtroom in -eptember 199/' t$e 1ud&e de%lared' ?+$ere $as never been a
de"endant o" $is stature in or&ani.ed %rime #$o $as made t$e leap $e $as made "rom one so%ial planet to anot$er*
8@
/,5
+$e man t$e 1ud&e #as des%ribin& #as -alvatore F-ammy t$e BullG Iravano'8t$e $i&$est-ran)in& member
o" t$e a"ia in Ameri%a ever to de"e%t and brea) $is blood oat$ o" silen%e to testi"y a&ainst $is boss' Jo$n Iotti*
Iravano $ad been t$e underboss ; or se%ond in %ommand ; o" t$e Iambino %rime "amily' t$e most po#er in t$e
nation* 2Oot\ Jnly O*0*3
Be%ause o" t$e "lamboyant Iotti4s un%anny ability to es%ape %onvi%tions in bot$ state and "ederal trials time and
a&ain' despite %$ar&es t$at $e #as t$e a"ia4s top %$ie"tain' t$e media $ad dubbed $im t$e ?+e"lon Con*@ +$at all
ended #$en -ammy Iravano too) t$e #itness stand in 199,* And today Jo$n Iotti is servin& li"e in prison #it$out
t$e possibility o" parole* 2Le4s still aliveP\3
+$e 1ud&e' !* >eo Ilasser' $imsel" a produ%t o" Oe# 0or)4s meanest streets' %ontinued "rom t$e ben%$ to
se%ond t$e opinion o" a "ederal a&ent t$at Iravano4s de%ision to testi"y #as ?t$e bravest t$in& ! $ave ever seen*@
By t$en' Iravano4s testimony $ad sent to prison do.ens o" ot$er )ey "i&ures in Cosa Oostra' besides Iotti' or
%aused t$em to plead &uilty* Wit$ a 2measly3 6, million pri%e ta& pla%ed on $is $ead by Iotti' Iravano
subse:uently disappeared' presumably "or &ood' in t$e anonymity o" t$e "ederal Witness Erote%tion Ero&ram*
/,7
Josept$ Mala%$i #as t$e "irst member o" Cosa Oostra to reveal its e(isten%e ; at a time #$en many in t$is
%ountry' in%ludin& FB! Cire%tor J* Kd&ar Loover' insisted t$at it #as t$e "i&ment o" over#rou&$t ima&inations* Le
also revealed t$at it %onsisted o" ,/ %rime "amilies "rom %oast to %oast and t$at ea%$ "amily $ad an identi%al
paramilitary stru%ture #it$ a national %ommission t$at set rules and poli%y*
/,7
W$ile $e #as present at its birt$ in
t$e late 19,0s and $ad an a%ute ear "or #$at #as &oin& on' $e #as not dire%tly privey to its $i&$est %oun%ils*
-ammy t$e Bull' on t$e ot$er $and' %ould ta)e us into t$e uppermost inner san%tums o" an under#orld t$at $ad
dominated 2t$e a"ia4s3 or&ani.ed %rime in t$e United -tates "or nearly 70 years* Le %ould ; and did ; e(pose a
#orld #e o"ten read and $ear about 2only3 "rom t$e outside*
/,9
Amon& 2aas4s3 previous boo)s #as Serpico' t$e story o" Fran) -erpi%o' t$e intrepid %op #$o' in e(posin&
deep- seated 2Femp$asis addedG3 %orruption in t$e Oe# 0or) City Eoli%e Cepartment' said= ?W$en ! too) an oat$ to
en"or%e t$e la#' it didn4t say a&ainst everybody e(%ept ot$er %ops*@ Anot$er boo) #as arie/ A True Story' about
arie <a&&$ianti' a valiant youn& sin&le mot$er o" t$ree %$ildren #$o' as %$air o" t$e Eardons and Earole Board in
+ennessee' revealed t$e #idespread sale o" pardons and paroles to %onvi%ted rapists' armed robbers and murderers
by t$e o""i%e o" t$e &overnor s$e #as servin&*
arie and Fran) #ere indisputably &enuine $eroes* +$en' o" %ourse' t$ere #as Josep$ Mala%$i* And no#
-ammy t$e Bull Iravano* But t$ey all $ad one %ommon denominator' re&ardless o" t$eir ba%)&rounds= +$ey #ere
all doin& t$e ri&$t t$in&*
/,9
-ammy #as a model %iti.en %ompared to t$e truly so%iopat$i% )iller #it$ #$om 2aas3 spent several days in
prison' intervie#in& $im "or a boo) titled )n a .hild;s Name* +$at )iller #as Cr* Kennet$ +aylor ; an
!ndiana-raised dentist #it$ an all-Ameri%an' &olden boy appearan%e* Le $ad vi%iously blud&eoned $is #i"e to
deat$' smas$in& $er multiple times in t$e "a%e and $ead #it$ a ,/-pound dumbbell*
/,/
The Associated Press' U*-* lin)s dru& #ar' e%onomi% aid to tiny Caribbean nations' The Seattle Times' ,7 April 1997'
15F17G' p* A11*
/,5
Eeter aas' y se%ret tal)s #it$ -ammy t$e Bull' The Seattle Times:Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ PARAD7 aga6ine' ,0
April 1997' p* 7*
/,7
)&idem' pp* 7-7*
/,7
)&idem' p* 7*
/,9
Op. cit.
/,9
Op. cit.
37
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+aylor4s de"ense #as t$at $e $ad rus$ed to t$e de"ense o" t$eir 5-mont$-old son' #$om $is %o%aine-%ra.ed #i"e
#as se(ually abusin&* !n "a%t' a%%ordin& to t$e prose%utor in t$e %ase' +aylor #as t$e %o%aine addi%t* Curin& t$e
%ourse o" 2$is3 investi&ation' 2$e3 dis%overed t$at Cr* +aylor also $ad attempted to murder a previous #i"e' #$o #as
pre&nant* 0et' in prison' +aylor %ontinued to %laim $is inno%en%e= $e #as t$e vi%tim*
-ammy t$e Bull Iravano never %ame remotely %lose to anyt$in& li)e t$at*
/30
Jn%e it #as learned t$at Iravano
$ad be%ome a %ooperatin& #itness "or t$e &overnment' a %ampai&n o" vili"i%ation #as laun%$ed by Jo$n Iotti and
$is allies*
!n senten%in& -ammy Iravano to "ive years in prison plus t$ree years o" supervised release' Jud&e Ilasser too)
note o" t$is*
?! %an4t re%all seein& any re"eren%e to Iravano t$at #asn4t pre%eded by #ords su%$ as Brat'4 Bsnit%$'4 Bturn%oat4
or some ot$er pe1orative #ord8@ $e said*
/31
?!s assistin& t$e &overnment to brin& ma1or %riminals to boo) a
%ontemptible t$in&P@
+oday' as "earless as anyone 2aas3 $a2s3 ever en%ountered' -ammy Iravano $as ele%ted to leave t$e
%onstri%tions o" t$e Witness Erote%tion Ero&ram* Le is out t$ere some#$ere*
/3,
)o5iet ,ollapse
A"ter t$e -oviet Union %ollapsed in 1991' t$e unt$in)able is o%%urrin&= +$e Communist Earty on%e a&ain
dominates t$e <ussian parliament* Free-mar)et re"ormers in Boris 0eltsin4s &overnment $ave been pur&ed' and
0eltsin $as distan%ed $imsel" "rom t$e West* 0ev&eny Erima)ov' a "ormer %$ie" o" "orei&n intelli&en%e #$o ba%)ed
%ountries t$at supported terrorism' is "orei&n minister* And a ne# nu%lear-#eapons pro&ram is under #ay*
/33
U*-*
aid $as dis%oura&ed re"orm by abettin& or&ani.ed %rime and o""i%ial %orruption*
/3/
<ussia4s 1usti%e minister as)ed to be relieved temporarily o" $is duties 2June ,13 a"ter a tabloid
publis$ed &rainy p$otos "rom a se%ret videotape alle&edly s$o#in& $im %avortin& #it$ nude #omen in a
sauna "re:uented by a notorious os%o# &an&*
Malentin Kovalev' 53' a "ormer la# pro"essor and "ormer member o" parliament' as)ed to step aside
?until all t$e %ir%umstan%es $ave been %lari"ied'@ t$e ministry said in a statement*
/35
Kovalev sits on t$e
<ussian -e%urity Coun%il' a body o" $i&$-ran)in& o""i%ials t$at advi%es t$e president on military and
la#-en"or%ement problems*
/37
Until 1991 t$e -oviet &overnment and its rulin& Communist Earty o#ned virtually everyt$in& ; "rom lo%al
s$ops to vast "arms and "a%tories* Wit$ %ommunism4s %ollapse' re"ormers $oped t$at privati.ation #ould let
<ussian %iti.ens o#n a sta)e in t$e ne# system*
/37
-oon a"ter t$e -oviet Union %ollapsed' t$e ne# <ussian
&overnment as)ed t$e West "or billions o" dollars in &rants and loans* !ts petition #ent be"ore t$e !nternational
onetary Fund F!FG' a &lobal "inan%ial institution in #$i%$ t$e United -tates is t$e lar&est %ontributor* At "irst'
#it$ Was$in&ton4s ur&in&' t$e !F :ui%)ly loaned <ussia 61 billion in 199, and anot$er 61*5 billion in 1993*
<e"ormist "inan%e minister Boris I* Fyodorov re1e%ted a t$ird loan' sayin& os%o# %ontinued to subsidi.e $u&e'
ine""i%ient state industries* Frustrated by t$is' Fyodorov resi&ned' and t$e !F bal)ed at "urt$er loans* 0eltsin
%alled on Eresident Clinton to pressure t$e !F to send more money*
+$e Administration responded* !n Ce%ember 1993' a%%ordin& to t$e Oe# 0or) Times' Mi%e Eresident Al Iore
blasted t$e !F "or bein& too $ard on os%o#' a%%usin& it o" ma)in& austerity demands t$at #ould provo)e a
nationalist ba%)las$* +$e !F relented and in April 199/ released anot$er 61*5 billion* ore #as to %ome* !n
early 1995 t$e !F e(tended a rou&$ly 67-billion loan* And last ar%$ 2F1995G3 it approved about 610 billion to
be delivered over t$e ne(t t$ree years*
/39
+$e "unds #ere bein& trans"erred to <ussia in mont$ly payments e:ualin& about 617 million a day* At t$e same
time' a%%ordin& to <ussian ne#s reports' an avera&e o" 650 million a day is bein& pumped out o" t$e %ountry to
private ban) a%%ounts in -#it.erland' Cyprus and else#$ere*
/30
)&idem' p* 9*
/31
Op. cit.
/3,
Op. cit.
/33
J* i%$ael Waller' +o <ussia' #it$ %as$H "ormer Communist $a%) and ?&an&ster bureau%rats@ are rolln& ri%$es ; t$e
result o" our misued money* ean#$ile' <ussia is testin& ultramodern missile prototypes' Reader;s Digest' June 1997'
1/9F990G' p* 177*
/3/
Op. cit.
/35
Cavid Lo""man F8ashingtonn PostG' <ussian o""i%al as)s "or leave a"ter e(posY' The Seattle Times' ,, June 1997'
15F,5G' p* A1/*
/37
Op. cit.
/37
J* i%$ael Waller' +o <ussia' #it$ %as$H "ormer Communist $a%) and ?&an&ster bureau%rats@ are rolln& ri%$es ; t$e
result o" our misued money* ean#$ile' <ussia is testin& ultramodern missile prototypes' Reader;s Digest' June 1997'
1/9F990G' p* 177*
/39
)&idem' p* 179*
37
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
!n a letter' os%o#-based !talian 1ournalist Iiulietto C$iesa told t$e U*-* -enate Forei&n <elations Committee
t$at money is stu""ed aboard airplanes' ?many o" #$i%$ &et over t$e border #it$ t$e $elp o" $i&$ly pla%ed persons
in t$e &overnment*@
/39
+$e Cru& Kn"or%ement Administration arrested t$e son o" <ep* <andy ?Cu)e@ Cunnin&$am' <-Cali"*'
earlier t$is mont$ 2FJanuaryG3 "or alle&edly "lyin& an airplane loaded #it$ more t$an /00 pounds o"
mari1uana into a small airport near Boston*
+odd Cunnin&$am' ,7' a -an Cie&o bartender' pleaded not &uilty to mari1uana tra""i%)in& and
%onspira%y to violate dru& la#s* Aut$orities said t$at on Jan* 17' t$ey sa# )ilo&ram-si.ed bri%)s o"
mari1uana unloaded "rom a t#in-en&ine turbo plane at t$e >a#ren%e uni%ipal Airport in Oort$ Andover'
ass*
+$e elder Cunnin&$am' a de%orated %ombat pilot an" "li&$t instru%tor' is )no#n in t$e Louse "or $is
"iery r$etori% and stron& stands on ille&al immi&ration and dru& tra""i%)in&*
//0
+$e U*-* &overnment $as %ommitted 6355 million "or a variety o" pro&rams to en%oura&e "ree enterprise* But
$u&e %$un)s o" t$e money appear to $ave been misused by #$at +oronto Star international-a""airs %olumnist
-tep$en Landelman %alls os%o#4s ?&an&ster bureau%rats*@
Ameri%an University pro"essor >ouise -$elley' an aut$ority on <ussian %rime and %orruption' %ites a lar&e
%onstru%tion pro1e%t in -t* Eetersbur& t$at #as bou&$t by or&ani.ed %rime* +oday si&ns in "ront o" t$e pro1e%t boast
t$at it is bein& "unded by U*-*-ba%)ed multilateral development ban)s*
//1
Loteliers and restaurant o#ners are spellbound by t$e #ads o" dollars' deuts%$e mar)s and -#iss "ran%s s$elled
out by t$e visitors "rom os%o# or -t* Eetersbur&*
And o"ten' t$ey t$umb t$eir noses at #arnin&s by la# en"or%ement o""i%ials t$at at least some o" t$e ?tourists@
may be lin)ed to t$e most violent %riminal or&ani.ation to sur"a%e 2in Kurope3 in re%ent years ; t$e <ussian ma"ia'
#$ose %ontinent#ide a%tivities ran&e "rom dru& tra""i%)in&' "inan%ial "raud' 2ille&al &amblin&'
//,
3 prostitution and
e(tortion to money launderin&*
?We don4t &ive a darn $o# our <ussian &uests obtain t$eir %as$ as lon& as t$ey spend it $ere'@ $u""ed a
-al.bur& $otel mana&er*
//3
?<ussian ma"ia &roups already $ave invested some 6,0 billion o" %leasned $ot money in
Austrian business "irms'@ said <udi Ans%$ober' t$e publi% sa"ety spo)esman "or Austria4s Ireen Earty' #$i%$ is
)no#n to $ave e(%ellent %onta%ts #it$ t$e poli%e*
///
Oot$in& %ould be more "ool$ardy t$an to i&nore t$e many <ussians #$o are tryin& to ma)e demo%ra%y prevail
a&ainst %riminals' Communists and ultranationalists* ?!n no event s$ould t$e West turn a#ay "rom <ussia and
leave it to its "ate'@ says -er&ei Kovalev' a "ormer politi%al prisoner and %urrent re"ormer in t$e parliament* ?+$at
#ould leave Ameri%ans and ot$er nations #it$ a dan&erous' a&&ressive' unpredi%table nei&$bor*@
//5
-KDE;s
A C$inese %ourt $as 2"inally3 %onvi%ted "our people o" ille&ally spiritin& ,'000 AK-/7s into t$e United -tates'
nearly a year a"ter U*-* investi&ators a%%used &overnment arms mer%$ants o" smu&&lin& automati% #eapons ri"les*
2+$e3 %onvi%tion and senten%in& o" t$e "our' announ%ed by t$e o""i%ial Qin$ua Oe# A&en%y' #as t$e C$inese
&overnment4s "irst publi% admission t$at it $ad any eviden%e to substantiate t$e embarrassin& U*-* alle&ations*
+$ree o" t$ose %onvi%ted are believed to be e(e%utives o" C$ina Oort$ !ndustrial' or Oorin%o' a &overnment -run
ma)er o" arms ran&in& "rom $eavy artillery to pistols* !ts ran)s are "illed #it$ "ormer &enerals and t$e relatives o"
po#er"ul Communist Earty leaders*
!n April 1997' U*-* investi&ators #rapped up a 17-mont$ stin& operation t$at $ad a&ents posin& as iami
mobsters ea&er to buy #eapons* -even people #ere arrested and #arrants #ere issued "or seven more "or alle&edly
sellin& ,'000 C$inese-made AK-/7s' #$i%$ arrived in t$e United states in February 1997*
+$ey re%eived prison terms ran&in& "rom t$ree to "our years in prison "or dereli%tion o" duty' Qin$ua said*
Ai Fen&' "ormer mana&er o" Cou#eidi -%ien%e and +e%$nolo&y' #as senten%ed to 1/ years in prison as one o"
t$e plot4s masterminds' Qin$ua said*
//7
/39
Op. cit.
//0
A%ross t$e Oation' Cali"* %on&ressman4s son arrested on dru& %$ar&es' The Seattle Times' ,7 Jan 1997' 15F/G' p* A7*
//1
J* i%$ael Waller' +o <ussia' #it$ %as$H "ormer Communist $a%) and ?&an&ster bureau%rats@ are rolln& ri%$es ; t$e
result o" our misued money* ean#$ile' <ussia is testin& ultramodern missile prototypes' Reader;s Digest' June 1997'
1/9F990G' pp* 177-179*
//,
Kri% Iei&er' Lun&ry "or tourists' Austria %aters to <ussian ma"ia' San "rancisco .hronicle' ,3 ay 1997' 133F109G' p*
A17*
//3
Op. cit.
///
Op. cit.
//5
J* i%$ael Waller' +o <ussia' #it$ %as$H "ormer Communist $a%) and ?&an&ster bureau%rats@ are rolln& ri%$es ; t$e
result o" our misued money* ean#$ile' <ussia is testin& ultramodern missile prototypes' Reader;s Digest' June 1997'
1/9F990G' p* 191*
39
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Friendly Fire
W$en <onald <ea&an sent U*-* "or%es to invade t$e Caribbean island o" Irenada in 1993' t$ey $ad only
outdated Britis$ %$arts and a tourist map' leadin& to8an air atta%) t$at in1ured and )illed U*-* &round troops*
//7
3anFa
+$e 1/-member Caribbean Community8"eared t$e United -tates #ould "o%us only on t$e dru& #ar at t$e ay
9-11 %on"eren%e' %ontinuin& to pus$ "or pa%ts allo#in& U*-* la# en"or%ement a&en%ies to pursue suspe%ted
tra""i%)ers into t$eir territorial air spa%e and #aters*
W$ile most Caribbean %ountries $ave si&ned su%$ a&reements' Jamai%a and Barbados $ave $eld out to ne&otiate
broader pa%ts t$at in%lude s$ared intelli&en%e and %ooperation to prevent &un-smu&&lin& "rom t$e United -tates*
//9
6(o'ile) -(rmy) )(urgi!al) &(ospital)
A %onstru%tion #or)er' embittered by -out$ Korea4s %orruption s%andals' t$re# t#o mont$s4 #ort$ o" salary out
o" a -eoul $otel room #indo# 2ay ,7'3 #itnesses said*
?!" you politi%ians need t$e money t$at badly' ta)e it'@ $e s$outed* +$e man #$o' #as not identi"ied' t$re#
"our million #on F6/'/99G onto t$e street' #$ere pedestrians s%rambled to &rab t$e money' #itnesses said*
-out$ Korea is embroiled in several %orruption s%andals' #it$ t#o "ormer presidents C$un Coo L#an and <o$
+ae-#oo be$ind bars "or bribary*
Eresident Kim 0oun&-sam4s se%ond son #as arrested earlier t$is mont$ 2FayG3 on %$ar&es o" bribary*
//9
Gust Like &ome
?any o" t$e #orld4s terrorist &roups $ave a presen%e in Canada'@ t$e Canadian intelli&en%e servi%e said in its
annual report to Earliament' "iled April ,3*
+$e intelli&en%e servi%e said it believed militant &roups use Canada "or "und raisin&' sa"e $aven and re%ruitin&
Canadian %iti.ens in et$ni% %ommunities* +$ey also provide ?lo&isti%al support "or terrorism outside Canada'@
a%%ordin& to t$e report*
/50
Fight Fire ith Fire
!t #as a %all "it "or Iot$am City*
A bat ; not one in ti&$ts' t$an) you ; #as lur)in& in a %ondominium stair#ell* And #$at better pla%e to %all "or
bat %ontrol t$an t$e %ity4s ne# Eoli%e Cepartment*
/51
2+$e o3""i%er8po)ed it #it$ $is ni&$tsti%)* +$e bat $issed* Le po)ed it a&ain* +$e bat $issed a&ain li)e a
tru%) tire lea)in& air*
Oei&$bors4 doors opened*
?W$at is itP A sna)eP@
?A batP W$ose bat is itP@
/5,
2F<obin4s8G ;3 t$e bat only #ent deeper into $idin&*
/53
Buildin& &ood %ommunity relations is %ru%ial to t$e ne# department*
Federal Way4s "irst %ity-run poli%e "or%e too) over patrol J%t* 17' a mont$ be"ore a %ontra%t #it$ Kin& County
Eoli%e ended*
//7
The Associated Press' Four C$inese %onvi%ted o" smu&&lin& ri"les into U*-*' The Seattle Times' 19 ay 1997' 15F,0G' p*
A15*
//7
Jim olnar' +$e messa&es t$at lie be$ind maps o" t$e #orld' The Seattle Times' ,7 Jan 1997' 15F/G' p* K3*
//9
The Associated Press' U*-* lin)s dru& #ar' e%onomi% aid to tiny Caribbean nations' The Seattle Times' ,7 April 1997'
15F17G' p* A11*
//9
Caily Brie"in&' E*-*' The Seattle Times' ,7 ay 1997' 1,0F1,7G' p* A9*
/50
Ant$ony CeEalma FThe New 9or' TimesG' Canada seen as terrorists4 $avenH Le.bolla$ net#or) %laimed' The Seattle
Times' / ay 1997' 15F19G' p* A,1*
/51
Oan%y Bartley' Federal Way4s buildin& a poli%e station "rom s%rat%$' The Seattle Times' 11 Oov 1997' p* B3*
/5,
Op. cit.
/53
Op. cit.
39
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
From t$e #$ite-s$irt-and-tie dete%tives to 2t$e o""i%er4s3 polite in:uiry to t$e #oman #$o made t$e bat %all ;
?!s t$ere anyt$in& else ! %an do "or you' a4amP@ ; t$e department is puttin& its best "oot "or#ard*
-ome #onder $o# lon& t$e ent$usiasm %an last as t$e department #or)s t$rou&$ t$e dilemmas o" doin& #$at
no ot$er %ity in t$e state ; and maybe t$e nation ; $as done= Create a poli%e department "or a %ity o" 75',70 "rom
s%rat%$*
/5/
2+$e o""i%er3 notes #it$ ama.ement $o# ?t$e %ity $as 1ust e(ploded@ #it$ development*
?!t4s &ood to be $ome'@ 2t$e o""i%er3 said' as $e %ruised t$rou&$ $is old nei&$bor$ood*
/55
• • •
+$e nation4s poli%e "or%es soon are e(pe%ted to $ave in t$eir %rime-"i&$tin& arsenal sop$isti%ated s%annin&
e:uipment t$at #ill s$o# #$et$er a person 70 "eet a#ay is %arryin& a $idden #eapon*
/57
But li)e all #onder"ul
te%$nolo&i%al developments' t$is one $as potential "or abuse*
/57
+$e s%anner8is a %amera Q-ray ima&in& system t$at does not penetrate t$e person4s body but emits a very lo#
dose o" radiation' %omparable to "ive minutes o" sun e(posure at sea level* Wit$in one se%ond' an ele%troni% ima&e
s$o#s anyt$in& t$e person is %arryin& under $is or $er %lot$in&*
/59
Are #e really ready to $ave our bodies s%anned #it$out our )no#led&e as #e &o about our la#-abidin& business
in a publi% pla%eP !sn4t t$at an unla#"ul sear%$P !t4s %ertainly an invasion o" priva%y*
Just $o# "ar are #e #illin& to &o in tradin& personal ri&$ts "or improved publi% sa"etyP A %rime-ridden nation
t$at o"ten pri.es individual "reedoms above t$e &ood o" t$e #$ole %onstantly must #restle #it$ t$at "undamental
:uestion*
!t4s %lear t$at any poli%e use o" su%$ a devi%e must be %are"ully %ontrolled and le&ally predi%ated on probable
%ause* And it4s e:ually %lear t$at t$e more te%$nolo&i%ally advan%ed ; and temptin& ; su%$ %rime-"i&$tin& devi%es
be%ome' t$e more ne%essary it #ill be to %lin& to t$e Constitution "or &uidan%e in t$eir use*
Jt$er#ise' some "undamental %onstitutional &uarantees may slip a#ay in our ent$usiasm "or :ui%)-"i(
te%$nolo&i%al solutions to deep-seated so%ial problems*
/59
Jpti%ally "ed sensors %reate 2an3 ima&e by re&isterin& t$e natural ele%troma&neti% emissions ;
millimeter #aves ; "rom a suspe%t4s body*
/70
A 2individual3 %ould simply move t$e %amera "rom $ead to
toe8to build an ima&e on t$e ma%$ine4s >CC s%reen* -o"t#are al&orit$ms automati%ally %orre%t "or
motion* And8ima&es %an be di&itally stored*
/71
• • •
At t$e time it seemed li)e a &ood idea*
!n 199,' -pen%er' 2assa%$usetts'3 #as s$ort on %as$H its "ull-time 1,-member poli%e "or%e seemed li)e a
lu(ury* -o t$e %utba%)s be&an and' t$is year' all t$at 2%$an&ed3*
/7,
?0ou &et #$at you pay "or'@ says William <* -$emet$ !!!' t$e %urrent $ead o" t$e to#n4s board o" sele%tmen*
W$at t$ey &ot' many residents say' #as a lo#-bud&et "or%e t$at $arassed motorists as part o" personal
vendettas' pressured #omen drivers "or dates' t$reatened inno%ent people #it$ &uns' stole "rom t$e to#n*
+$e to#nspeople say t$ey #ere a"raid to spea) out at "irst' but %omplaints be&an pilin& up' until "inally t$e
sele%tmen ordered nearly all o" t$e "or%e to turn in t$eir &uns*
/73
-o "ar' one o""i%er' Jo$n Cote' $as been indi%ted on %ounts o" brea)in& and enterin&' assault' and se(ual
mis%ondu%t*
+o#n Eoli%e C$ie" >ouis artin #as allo#ed to retire* Lis se%ond-in-%ommand resi&ned* +$e part-timers and
volunteer au(iliary %ops ; some o" #$om #ere doin& re&ular poli%in& #it$ little trainin& and supervision' o""i%ials
a%)no#led&e ; #ere laid o""* +#o "ull-time o""i%ers remain*
/7/
2A lo%al businesso#ner3 said an o""i%er on%e stopped one o" $is "emale employees on t$e road "or no apparent
reason and tried to pressure $er into a date*
/5/
Op. cit.
/55
Op. cit.
/57
Jpinion' Li&$-te%$ poli%e s%anner raised same old :uestion' The Seattle Times' ,0 April 1997' 15F17G' p* C,*
/57
Op. cit.
/59
Op. cit.
/59
Op. cit.
/70
Lan) -%$lesin&er' Iun %olle%tor' Popular Science' July 1997' ,51F1G' p* /0*
/71
Op. cit.
/7,
Je"" Conn FThe Associated PressG' +o#nspeople say poli%e abused la# instead o" in"or%in& it' The Seattle Times' ,9 June
1997' 15F,7G' p* A/*
/73
Op. cit.
/7/
Op. cit.
/0
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
?+$ese &uys t$at #ere %ops in to#n #ere basi%ally t$e little #imps in $i&$ s%$ool* Oo# t$ey4re &oin& to &et
even #it$ t$e #orld'@ 2$e3 said*
Le said $is %omplaints &ot $im a little ?&oin&-a#ay present@ "rom a %ouple o" soon-to-depart o""i%ers= a 6150
dollar speedin& ti%)et*
?+$e #$ole department $as $umiliated t$is to#n'@ said 2anot$er lo%al businesso#ner3* ?We &o to ot$er to#nsH
people lau&$ at us*@
/75
?Oone o" t$e23 2poli%e o""i%ers3 )ne# #$at t$ey #ere doin&'@ s$e said* ?+$ey #ere a bun%$
o" senseless and brainless ya$oos*@
/77
+$e department is no# led by -&t* Caniel Clar)' a state trooper #$o said many o" t$e lo%al department4s
problems #ere minor enou&$ to be $andled #it$ a reprimand or brie" suspension' but t$at internal dis%ipline #as
"aulty* ?!" you don4t $andle your problems internally' t$ey be%ome publi%'@ $e said*
A"ter a spate o" arrests by state poli%e' some residents %redited t$em #it$ %leanin& up a dru&-in"ested
nei&$bor$ood*
-ele%tmen $ope to $ire a ne# %$ie"8and build a ne# "or%e*
/77
/75
Op. cit.
/77
Op. cit.
/77
Op. cit.
/1
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
“6e*i!o#s a turn!oat in the war on drugs.”
E<H
e(i%o blunty told t$e 2U*-*3 administration t$at anyt$in& ot$er t$an a passin& &rade "or %ooperation is an
insult* +oo badH t$is is no time "or diplomati% ni%eties*
/79
+$e $ead o" t$e U*-* Cru& Kn"or%ement A&en%y told
Con&ress t$at t$e CKA does not $ave a sin&le trust#ort$y relations$ip #it$ e(i%an la# en"or%ement*
+$e rot amon& poli%e is %ompounded by t$e %orruption lin)ed to t$e "amily o" "ormer Eresident Carlos -alinas
de Iortari and t$e &overnin& !nstitutional <evolutionary Earty*
/70
e(i%an prose%utors released eviden%e 2April 93
su&&estin& t$at "ormer Eresident Carlos -alinas too) part in a %overup o" t$e role $is brot$er is a%%used o" playin&
in a 199/ politi%al assassination*
/71
Carlos -alinas $as maintained t$at durin& $is presiden%y $e #as una#are o"
most o" $is brot$er4s business and personal dealin&s* <e%ently' $e $as remained silent rat$er t$an de"end $is
brot$er a&ainst mountin& %$ar&es o" &ra"t and "raud*
/7,
A man a%%used o" bein& t$e top money launderer "or one o" e(i%o4s ma1or dru&-tra""i%)in& %artels es%aped
?ine(pli%ably@ "rom poli%e %ustody'8e(i%an o""i%ials said' but aut$orities "ailed to dis%lose t$e in%ident until
$ours a"ter Eresident Clinton %erti"ied e(i%o as a "ull ally in t$e #ar on dru&s*
Lumberto Iar%ia Abre&o' t$e brot$er o" Juan Iar%ia Abre&o' a %onvi%ted %o%aine tra""i%)er imprisoned in t$e
United -tates' slipped a#ay "rom poli%e o""i%ers assi&ned to &uard $im durin& :uestionin& at &overnment o""i%es in
do#nto#n e(i%o City'8t$e e(i%an Attorney Ieneral4s J""i%e said*
/73
+$e in%ident is t$e se%ond durin& t$e intense t#o-#ee) lobbyin& %ampai&n t$at pre%eeded 2February ,94s3
%erti"i%ation de%ision in #$i%$ e(i%an o""i%ials #it$$eld dis%losure o" an embarrassin& development' even as
Clinton administration o""i%ials #ere laudin& t$em "or t$eir sin%erity and #$ole$earted %ooperation*
A"ter t$e arrest on Feb* 7 o" e(i%o4s top anti-nar%oti%s o""i%ial' 2Army
/7/
3 Ien* Jesus Iutierre. <ebollo' on
%$ar&es o" %ollaboratin& #it$ t$e %ountry4s top tra""i%)er' e(i%an o""i%ials )ept $is detention se%ret "or 1, days*
+$ey announ%ed it only a"ter ne#spapers reported t$at anti-nar%oti%s troops $ad sear%$ed several o" t$e &eneral4s
$omes*
/75
<ebollo' t$e $ead o" e(i%o4s anti-nar%oti%s a&en%y' #as arrested on %$ar&es o" prote%tin& Amado
Carillo' t$e nation4s most po#er"ul dru& lord* -oon a"ter' anot$er army &eneral' Al"redo Oavarro' #as %$ar&ed #it$
prote%tin& %o%aine s$ipments "rom +i1uana into Cali"ornia*
/77
+$e ne#s out o" e(i%o %ould not $ave been #orse "or 2U*-* Ien* Barry3 %Ca""rey'
/77
82Iutierre. <ebollo4s
%ounterpart $ere'
/79
3 in substan%e as #ell as timin&*
/79
Erior to t$e arrest $e $ad des%ribed Iutierre. as $avin&
?absolute un:uestioned inte&rity*@
/90
!ts dru& %.ar arrested' 37 employees o" t$e anti-dru& a&en%y dismissedH it #as
#idely reported t$at t$e %ountry4s 1usti%e system is a s$ambles* !n Was$in&ton' C*C*' an instant debate erupted
over e(i%o4s status as a partner*
/91
u%$ o" e(i%o4s anti-dru& strate&y ; "rom in"ormants4 names to intelli&en%e met$ods developed over t$e
years ; $as been passed into t$e $ands o" %riminals as a result o" t$e8%orruption o" t$is nation4s top anti -nar%oti%s
o""i%ial' a "ormer senior o""i%ial said*
Co.ens o" a&ents probably $ave been %ompromised' and )ey operational plans #ill $ave to be redesi&ned' said
Fran%is%o olina <ui.' e(-dire%tor o" t$e Oational !nstitute "or Combatin& Cru&s*
/9,
+$e Oational !nstitute "or
Combattin& Cru&s #as set up #it$ U*-* assistan%e in 1993 and #as modeled on t$e U*-* Cru& Kn"or%ement
Administration* Iutierre. <ebollo #as t$e institute4s dire%tor durin& t$e t#o mont$s be"ore $is arrest*
/93
U*-*
o""i%ials $oped t$e institute4s a&ents #ould prove less %orrupt t$an t$ose o" t$e ot$er anti -dru& "or%es* But sin%e
/79
Kditorials' An ally4s nasty $abit' The Seattle Times' ,7 Feb 1997' p* B7*
/79
Op. cit.
/70
Op. cit.
/71
Julia Ereston FThe New 9or' TimesG' e(i%an e(-president impli%ated in %overup' San "rancisco .hronicle' 10 April
1997' 133F7,G' p* A1,*
/7,
Op. cit.
/73
-am Cillon FThe New 9or' TimesG' e(i%o delays report it Blost4 dru& suspe%t' The Seattle Times' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G'
p* A1-A13*
/7/
<obert Collier' Unsolved s%andals mount in e(i%oH %overups "eared in $i&$-pro"ile assassinations' dru& %ases' San
"rancisco .hronicle' 9 April 1997' 133F70G' p* A7*
/75
-am Cillon FThe New 9or' TimesG' e(i%o delays report it Blost4 dru& suspe%t' The Seattle Times' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G'
p* A13*
/77
<obert Collier' Unsolved s%andals mount in e(i%oH %overups "eared in $i&$-pro"ile assassinations' dru& %ases' San
"rancisco .hronicle' 9 April 1997' 133F70G' p* A7*
/77
indy Cameron' <e%ent turbulen%e #on4t t$ro# dru& %.ar o"" %ourse' The Seattle Times' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G' p* B7*
/79
Op. cit.
/79
Op. cit.
/90
Op. cit.
/91
Op. cit.
/9,
!os Angeles Times D Knight- Ridder Newspapers' Cru& lords &ot )ey in"oH pot rolls nort$ as dru& "i&$t sta&&ers in
e(i%o' The Seattle Times' ,7 Feb 1997' 1,0F50G' p* A1*
/93
-am Cillon FThe New 9or' TimesG' e(i%o delays report it Blost4 dru& suspe%t' The Seattle Times' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G'
p* A13*
/,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Iutierre. <ebollo4s detention' Ameri%an o""i%ials $ave a%)no#led&ed t$at t$e institute $as been t$orou&$ly
%ompromised by tra""i%)ers' #$o by one U*-* estimate spend 67 billion annually to bribe publi% o""i%ials*
/9/
olina #as "or%ed "rom $is 1ob in Ce%ember a"ter $is boss' t$en-Attorney Ieneral Antonio >o.ano Ira%ia' #as
"ired in a dispute over investi&ations into politi%al assassinations* Le turned over volumes o" intelli&en%e
in"ormation and "iles to $is repla%ement' Ien* Jesus Iutierre. <ebollo' no# a%%used o" ta)in& payo""s "rom a
po#er"ul dru& lord*
/95
?!" %ertain in"ormation #as passed into t$e $ands o" t$e enemy' dru& tra""i%)ers may be&in to
e(terminate our a&ents'@ 2olina3 said*
/97
+$e attorney &eneral4s o""i%e in e(i%o $as admitted t$at t$e nation4s 1usti%e system $as all but %ollapsed*
ean#$ile' t$e %ountry is a#as$ in reports o" dru& %orruption involvin& %urrent and "ormer &overnment o""i%ials*
/97

?+$ese tra""i%)ers $ave &ained &round in t$eir penetration o" la# en"or%ement' and t$ey don4t #ant to &ive it up'@
olina said*
/99
Lumberto Iar%ia Abre&o' t$e youn&er brot$er o" t$e tra""i%)er #$o %ontrolled t$e nar%oti%s or&ani.ation t$at
dominated nort$eastern e(i%o and sout$ern +e(as' )no#n as t$e Iul" Cartel' #as arrested in July' a%%used o"
overseein& t$e %artel4s billion-dollar money-launderin& operations*
/99
Iar%ia Abre&o $as never been %$ar&ed #it$
a%tive parti%ipation in dru& smu&&lin&' but is a%%used o" overseein& $is brot$er4s e""orts to %$annel dru& pro"its into
real estate and le&itimate businesses' a%%ordin& to e(i%an prose%utors and an FB! report on t$e Iul" Cartel*
?Lumberto $as no dire%t %onne%tions to t$e Juan Iar%ia Abre&o dru& operations' but is "ully a#are o" all t$e
aspe%ts o" t$em' in%ludin& t$e landin&s o" dru&-laden airplanes'@ t$e report says* ?Lumberto )ept t$is separation so
t$at i" Juan Iar%ia Abre&o ever &ot arrested' Lumberto #ould be in %$ar&e o" t$e businesses and t$ey #ouldn4t be
lost*@
/90
+$e 2e(i%an3 &overnment says t$at t$e 2Arellano Feli( &an&
/91
3 are at #ar #it$ t$e anti-dru& poli%e' %arryin&
out a terror and intimidation %ampai&n' a lesser version o" t$e )illin& spree t$at Colombia #itnessed in t$e
1990s*
/9,
K""orts to pus$ aside t$e Arellanos #ould ma)e e(i%o somet$in& similar to Colombia o" t$e early
1990s* Aut$orities t$ere dismantled t$e rut$less edellin dru& &an& and' as some "ormer U*-* dru& a&ents see it'
let t$e more lo#-)ey Cali %artel ta)e %$ar&e*
/93
Kventually' t$e Cali dru& lords $ad su%$ &reat in"luen%e and
politi%al %onne%tions t$at in 199/ t$ey #ere able to "unnel millions o" dollars in %ampai&n %ontributions to t$e
presidential %andidate o" t$eir %$oi%e= Krnesto -amper*
+$e dan&er o" dealin& #it$ dru& tra""i%)ers' as Colombia )no#s no#' is t$at it allo#s t$e &an&s to "urt$er
penetrate a %ountry4s institutions* And some o""i%ials in Was$in&ton are #orried e(i%o may "all into t$at trap*
/9/

2-ome analysts3 %ontend t$at #$ile t$e &overnment %ra%)do#n $as undoubtedly played a role in t$e ras$ o"
slayin&s' %orrupt o""i%ials in t$e attorney &eneral4s o""i%e are also )illin&' turnin& in or settin& up t$eir enemies ;
in%ludin& la#-en"or%ement %ollea&ues ; to try to )eep a $and in +i1uana4s lu%rative nar%oti%s trade*
/95
2William Jlson' sta"" dire%tor o" t$e U*-* -enate Cau%us on !nternational Oar%oti%s Control in Was$in&ton
said'3 ?+$e &overnment is no# an a%%ompli%e in t$e8ille&al a%tivities* +$at4s t$e deal* !t4s a deal #it$ t$e
devil*@
/97
?+$ese &uys %ould eat e(i%o alive'@ a U*-* %on&ressional sour%e said*
/97
ore t$an $al" t$e U*-*-bound %o%aine smu&&led out o" -out$ Ameri%a passes t$rou&$ e(i%o' and +i1uana is a
)ey &ate#ay*
/99
ario <ui. assieu' on%e e(i%o4s top dru& prose%utor'82$as been3 named in alle&ations t$at top
e(i%an o""i%ials #ere paid to prote%t dru& %artels*
Erose%utors said 2ar%$ 103 t$at <ui. routinely &ot ?suit%ases "ull o" money@ "rom dru& tra""i%)ers in e(%$an&e
"or un"ettered routes %arryin& dru&s into t$e U*-* and sendin& t$eir pro"its ba%) into e(i%o*
/99
Jne s$ipment o"
%as$ #as "lo#n to e(i%o City on a plane belon&in& to t$e Attorney Ieneral4s J""i%e' U*-* Assistant Cistri%t
Attorney -usan Kempner said in openin& ar&uments 2ar%$ 103*
/9/
Op. cit.
/95
!os Angeles Times D Knight- Ridder Newspapers' Cru& lords &ot )ey in"oH pot rolls nort$ as dru& "i&$t sta&&ers in
e(i%o' The Seattle Times' ,7 Feb 1997' 1,0F50G' p* A1*
/97
)&idem' p* A,*
/97
Op. cit.
/99
Op. cit.
/99
-am Cillon FThe New 9or' TimesG' e(i%o delays report it Blost4 dru& suspe%t' The Seattle Times' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G'
p* A13*
/90
Op. cit.
/91
+ra%ey Katon FDallas orning NewsG' e(i%an dru& lords' poli%e in let$al #ar o""i%ials say +i1uana4s lu%rative nar%oti%s
trade at sta)e' The Seattle Times' 7 J%t 1997' p* A,0*
/9,
Op. cit.
/93
Op. cit.
/9/
Op. cit.
/95
Op. cit.
/97
Op. cit.
/97
Op. cit.
/99
Op. cit.
/99
+erri >an&"ord FThe Associated PressG' U*-* #ants "ormer dru& "i&$ter4s stas$ in +e(as ban) %ase involvin& e(i%an
e(-prose%utor tied to assassinations' The Seattle Times' 11 ar%$ 1997' p* A3*
/3
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$at s$ipment' s$e said' ?#as delivered to ario <ui. assieu * * * to insure t$e transportation and sa"ety o"
dru&s*@
500
“%he foes are wealthy1 sophisti!ated
drug lords aided and a'etted
'y foreign go5ernments.”
9/.
A%%ompanied by "ormer %ustoms inspe%tor i)e Lorner 2F-ee ?A W$istle-Blo#er4s Jrdeal'@ Reader;s Digest' June
199/
50,
G' +revor Armbrister3 #at%$ed tru%)s )no#n to be o#ned by suspe%ted dru& tra""i%)ers #$is) a%ross t$e
2Jtay esa' Cali"ornia'
503
3 border*
?+$at one belon&s to a notorious "amily o" dru& smu&&lers'@ Lorner said' pointin& out a trailer #it$ a telltale
stripe* A 1993 %ustoms intelli&en%e report obtained by <eader4s Ci&est stated t$at t$is "amily ; based in e(i%o
and t$e -an Cie&o area ; $as been ?dire%tly involved in t$e tra""i%)in& o" %ommer%ial :uantities o" nar%oti%s "or
de%ades*@
?+$at bro#n and #$ite ri& be$ind it is also bad ne#s'@ added Lorner* A %ustoms %omputeri.ed ?loo)out@
messa&e on t$is %ompany #as blunt= ?!ntensive e(am a must*@ Cespite t$is in"ormation' neit$er ri& #as inspe%ted*
Kviden%e amassed durin& a mont$-lon& <eader4s Ci&est investi&ation s$o#s t$at t$e U*-* Customs -ervi%e is
"ailin& in one o" its most important missions= interdi%tin& nar%oti%s at ,/ ma1or ports o" entry alon& t$e more t$an
,000-mile U*-*-e(i%an border* <esour%es to interdi%t dru&s $ave dried up' %orruption amon& inspe%tors is a
serious problem' and tur" #ars $ave $alted promisin& %riminal investi&ations*
50/
!n Oovember 1999 in Oo&ales' Ari.*' a CKA sta""er %ame into posession o" tapes re%ordin& a %onversation
bet#een t#o dru& tra""i%)ers #$o #ere dis%ussin& payo""s one $ad made to %ustoms inspe%tors "or lettin& t$eir
%ar&o t$rou&$*
505
Cates' si.es o" dru& s$ipments' amounts o" t$e payo""s ; t$is #as more t$an enou&$ to 1usti"y a
"ull-"led&ed investi&ation' t$ou&$t Jo$n Ju$as.' #$o #as t$en spe%ial a&ent in %$ar&e o" internal a""airs "or %ustoms
in Ari.ona*
But #$en Ju$as. %alled t$e CKA "or %ooperation on t$e %ase' $e &ot no#$ere* A%%ordin& to a Con&ressional
sub%ommittee report' Ierard urp$y' CKA %$ie" in +u%son' #as "urious*
507
Ju$as. #as not permitted to spea) to
t$e CKA a&ent4s sour%e #$o $ad provided t$e tape* And #it$out t$e CKA4s prompt assistan%e' Ju$as. told
<eader4s Ci&est' t$e probe &round to a $altH t$e suspe%t inspe%tors )ept t$eir 1obs*
507
!n a %on"idential memo obtained by <eader4s Ci&est' Asso%iate Customs Commissioner Cebora$ -pero
lambasted %ustoms4 "ailure to prose%ute #ron&don& in Ari.ona* ?Jver t$e last "e# years' ! $ave been stru%) by our
&eneral inability to address %orruption'@ s$e #rote*
But it4s not 1ust Ari.ona* Corruption $as in"e%ted o""i%es all alon& t$e e(i%an border*
509
?+$e a&en%y is
lettin& up'@ says Jo$n Ju$as.' a re%ently retired %ustoms o""i%ial* ?And #e4re dro#nin& in dru&s*@
509
-tand on any port o" entry on t$e U*-* side and you4ll see bands o" teen-a&ers #it$ %ellular p$ones' di&ital
pa&ers and portable s%anners t$at monitor ULF and MLF radio "re:uen%ies* Are %ustoms inspe%tors about to
e(amine every %ar in a %ertain laneP Are t$e dru&-sni""in& do&s outP +$e ?spotters@ &et on t$e p$one to dru&
tra""i%)ers in e(i%o*
-ome smu&&ler te%$ni:ues are less sop$isti%ated ; and more brutal* !n >aredo' bomb t$reats "or%ed inspe%tors
to s$ut do#n operations 7, times last year 2F1995G3* <e%ently %ustoms inspe%tors $ave been "a%in& a ne# t$reat=
%ars and tru%)s t$at don4t stop but instead a%%elerate and try to blast t$eir #ay t$rou&$* +$ere #ere 979 su%$ ?port
runner@ in%idents alon& t$e e(i%an border in 199/' some involvin& &un"ire*
>ast February 2F1995G'3 as part o" Jperation Lardline' %ustoms be&an usin& ?stop-sti%)s@ ; #ooden strips
embedded #it$ nails t$at inspe%tors %an )i%) under t$e tires o" a port-runner4s %ar' stoppin& it #it$in ,0 se%onds*
-ome stations employ steel ?bollards'@ pneumati% posts t$at rise "rom t$e pavement to blo%) speedin& %ars' or
%on%rete ma.es %alled K <ails to slo# tra""i%*
510
-till' almost /00 ve$i%les $ave rammed t$rou&$*
511
!n 1993 some si( tons o" $eroin' ,00 tons o" %o%aine and 3900 tons o" mari1uana %rossed t$e e(i%an border
into t$e United -tates' a%%ordin& to estimates by t$e W$ite Louse J""i%e o" Oational Cru& Control Eoli%y* 0et t$at
year %ustoms %on"is%ated ; "rom tru%)s' tan)ers and vans ; less t$an nine tons o" mari1uana' "our tons o" %o%aine
500
Op. cit.
501
Kditorials' An ally4s nasty $abit' The Seattle Times' ,7 Feb 1997' p* B7*
50,
+revor Armbrister' Jur dru&-pla&ued e(i%an border' Reader;s Digest' Jan 1997' 1/9F995G' p* 53*
503
Op. cit.
50/
)&idem' pp* 53-5/*
505
)&idem' p* 57*
507
Op. cit.
507
)&idem' pp* 57-57*
509
)&idem' p* 57*
509
)&idem' p* 5/*
510
)&idem' p* 57*
511
)&idem' p* 59*
//
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
and no $eroin*
51,
W$ile t$e 2U*-* Custom -ervi%e4s3 mari1uana sei.ures $ave in%reased substantially' its %o%aine
sei.ures plummeted "rom ,10'000 pounds in 199, to 137'7/3 in 1995*
513
!t #as a %risp January a"ternoon in 199, #$en Carlos Knri:ue Cervantes de Iortari' a se%ond %ousin o"
e(i%o4s t$en-president' dined "or t$ree $ours at an airport $otel restaurant $ere dis%ussin& s$rimp
"armin&' %omparin& #ines and %onspirin& to smu&&le millions o" dollars o" Colombian %o%aine t$rou&$
e(i%o into t$e United -tates*
An old "riend' a e(i%an 1ournalist' dre# a map and t$en re&aled an under%over U*-* dru& a&ent on
$o# Cervantes de Iortari ; a nu%lear en&ineer and e(i%an army o""i%er ; and $is asso%iates used CC-7
air%ra"t' mini-submarines and #idespread e(i%an poli%e %orruption in Ba1a Cali"ornia to import vast
:uantities o" %o%aine destined "or t$e United -tates' %ourt do%uments $ere s$o#*
?r* Ce Iortari told us t$at $e &uaranteed 100 per%ent any %o%aine t$at %ame t$rou&$* Le &uaranteed
its prote%tion'@ U*-* Cru& Kn"or%ement Administration a&ent Fran) Ferndande.' #or)in& under%over #it$ a
ma1or Colombian %o%aine tra""i%)er at t$e Jan* ,9 dinner' #ould re%all "rom t$e #itness stand*
51/
U*-* la#-en"or%ement o""i%ials say t$e Cervantes de Iortari %ase' #$i%$ attra%ted no publi% attention at
t$e time' o""ered 1ust one o" many si&ns t$at U*-* poli%y-ma)ers %ould $ave $eeded about t$e pervasiveness
o" dru& %orruption in e(i%o ; #arnin&s also %arried in many %ourt trials and voluminous intelli&en%e
reports on "ile in Was$in&ton*
?+$ere4s 1ust no audien%e F"or su%$ in"ormationG in Was$in&ton'@ a senior la#-en"or%ement o""i%ial
said*
515
+$ousands o" pa&es o" %ase do%uments s$o# $o# t#o U*-* administrations apparently turned a blind
eye to mountin& eviden%e o" t$at %orruption as' year a"ter year under a %on&ressionally re:uired %erti"i%ation
pro%ess' t$ey "ormally de%lared t$at e(i%o %ooperates in t$e #ar on dru&s*
517
2ean#$ile'3 t#o %ivilian employees $ave been %$ar&ed #it$ %onspira%y to manu"a%ture met$amp$etamine at
t$e Ban&or 2Ou%lear3 -ubmarine Base in Kitsap County' 2Was$in&ton -tate3*
William Ferro Jr*' //' and Ant$ony Eere.' 30' #ere %$ar&ed #it$ one %ount ea%$8in U*-* Cistri%t Court*
517

+$e men' arrested8at t$e La.ardous aterials Fa%ility at t$e base'
519
82operated a3 dru& lab8%apable o" ma)in& /
oun%es o" met$amp$etamine every /9 $ours' aut$orities said*
+$e arrests are t$ou&$t to be t$e "irst tied to a met$-manu"a%turin& operation on a naval base*
519
A%%ordin& to a Ce%ember 13' 199/' %ustoms report' stop-and-sear%$ de%isions at t$e border are in ?need o"
improvement' &iven t$e $u&e number o" e(aminations #it$out su%%ess*@
5,0
!nsiders say t$e a&en%y is more
%on%erned #it$ ma)in& border trade %onvenient t$an #it$ interdi%tin& dru&s*
5,1
?Cru& interdi%tion' not e(pedited %ommer%e' s$ould be t$e top priority o" t$e Customs -ervi%e4s e""orts at t$e
border'@ -en* Cianne Feinstein FC*' Cali"*G #rote +reasury -e%retary <obert <ubin* ?!n%reased %ommer%e is not
#ort$ in%reased dru& tra""i%)in&*@
5,,
As t$e +reasury Cepartment4s assistant inspe%tor &eneral "or investi&ations' James * Cottos' told U*-*
Customs Commissioner Ieor&e Weise' ?W$ile "a%ilitatin& international %ommer%e' %ustoms pro%edures may also
be "a%ilitatin& t$e entry o" %ontraband*@
5,3
Weise insists t$at $e #ill not tolerate %orruption in $is ran)s' and no one
doubts $is sin%erity* 0et employees $ave $eard t$is messa&e be"ore' and t$e problem $asn4t disappeared* Customs
must ta)e steps to ensure t$at #$istle-blo#ers %an tell t$eir stories #it$out "ear o" retaliation*
5,/
!n 199/' inspe%tors on t$e %ity4s t$ree brid&es pro%essed 15*7 million passen&er ve$i%les but sub1e%ted only one
in ten drivers to :uestionin& or ve$i%ular inspe%tion*
5,5
?!" ! #ere a doper'@ says +ravis Kuy)endall' #$o re%ently
retired as spe%ial a&ent in %$ar&e at Kl Easo "or t$e Cru& Kn"or%ement Administration FCKAG' ?t$ose are t$e best
odds in t$e #orld*@
5,7
+$e $eady days #$en +i1uana #as a bi&-time se( mill and boo.e me%%a' #it$ real bad &uys and one o"
t$e seediest reputations in t$e Ameri%as' are lon& &one*
51,
)&idem' p* 5/*
513
The Associated Press' Administration :uietly %uts Customs a&ents' Journal American' 1997*
51/
ar) Fineman F!os Angeles TimesG' Jn trial= e(i%an dru& tradeH %onvi%tion o" president4s %ousin un$eeded in U*-*'
The Seattle Times' ,7 Feb 1997' 1,0F50G' p* A3*
515
Op. cit.
517
Op. cit.
517
Ea%i"i% Oort$#est' , %$ar&ed in base dru& %ase' The Seattle Times' 1, Feb 1997' p* B,*
519
Op. cit.
519
Op. cit.
5,0
+revor Armbrister' Jur dru&-pla&ued e(i%an border' Reader;s Digest' Jan 1997' 1/9F995G' p* 5/*
5,1
Op. cit.
5,,
)&idem' p* 59*
5,3
)&idem' p* 5/*
5,/
Op. cit.
5,5
)&idem' pp* 55-57*
5,7
)&idem' p* 57*
/5
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$is is not to su&&est t$at +i1uana $as be%ome a temple o" virtue' be%ause t$ere are still plenty o" rou&$
ed&es to rea%$ out and bite t$e un#ary* But t$ere is' naturally' a lot more &oin& on in +i1uana t$an tourism*
+$e %ity ; e(i%o4s "ourt$ lar&est ; is &ro#in& li)e a #eed and t$e rela(ation o" trade barriers as a
result o" t$e Oort$ Ameri%an Free +rade A&reement $as resulted in a spate o" ne# industries sprin&in& up
in t$e +i1uanaRe(i%ali area o" nort$ern Ba1a Cali"ornia*
5,7
!t is no problem &ettin& into e(i%o t$rou&$ t$e -an 0sidro %rossinH %omin& out is a ni&$tmare* +o
$elp alleviate t$e 1ams' anot$er +i1uana-area %ustoms %rossin& $as been opened near t$e %ity4s airport* !t4s
%alled t$e Jtay esa border %rossin&' and it lin)s #it$ Li&$#ay 117 in Cali"ornia' #$i%$ runs #est to
!nterstate 905 east o" -an 0sidro*
• For e(i%o tourism in"ormation' p$one F900G //7-39/,*
5,9
-e%urity may soon &ro# #orse* !n 199/ t$e !mmi&ration and Oaturali.ation -ervi%e F!O-G be&an plannin&
Cedi%ated Commuter >anes* K(%ept "or an o%%asional random %$e%)' %ars in t$ese lanes #it$ t$eir pres%reened
passen&ers ; identi"ied by spe%ial de%als on t$e "ront #inds$ield and emittin& a spe%ial radio si&nal ; #ill be able
to sail into t$e United -tates #it$out stoppin&*
W$en %ustoms o""i%ials "ound out about t$e !O- plan' t$ey #ere appalled* Lo# lon&' t$ey #ondered' #ould it
ta)e dru& dealers in +i1uana to spot one o" t$ose de%als and ma)e t$e %ar4s o#ner an o""er $e %ouldn4t re"useP
Customs Commissioner Weise too) t$ese %on%erns to >loyd Bentsen' t$en -e%retary o" t$e +reasury' #$i%$ is
in %$ar&e o" t$e Customs -ervi%e* Bentsen' too' t$ou&$t t$e plan #as dan&erous* Le and Weise met #it$ Attorney
Ieneral Janet <eno' top boss o" t$e !O-' but t$ey "ailed to %$an&e $er mind*
5,9
• • •
e(i%ans o" every politi%al persuasion82$ave3 yet more reason to suspe%t ne"arious plots' %overups and lies by
aut$orities in e(i%o and t$e United -tates*
As #it$ t$e 1973 assassination o" Eresident Jo$n F* Kennedy' even t$e most paranoid e(planations are &iven
%reden%e*
530
Earanoia runs deep* Oearly $al" t$e 2Ameri%an3 population believes t$e C!A #as involved in t$e
assassination o" Eresident Kennedy*
531
?+$ere are a lot o" vested interests involved in t$ese %rimes' but it4s very %ompli%ated'@ said a e(i%an
&overnment o""i%ial #$o as)ed not to be identi"ied* ?+$ere is a stru&&le "or po#er ; e%onomi% po#er' politi%al
po#er' dru& po#er* +$e really di""i%ult problem is to "i&ure out * * * #$o is #$o*@
53,
?+$e Clinton administration is so "o%used on prote%tin& t$e e%onomi% and politi%al status :uo t$at &ettin& t$e
trut$ ta)es a ba%) seat'@ 2said a dru& poli%y e(pert at t$e University o" Oe# e(i%o' Eeter >ups$a3*
533
?+$ree years o" investi&ations' and #e )no# 1ust as little as #e did at t$e start' i" not less'@ Fran%is%o Cardenas
Cru.' an in"luen%ial %olumnist "or t$e e(i%o City daily Kl Universal' #rote re%ently*
?+$e only result is in%reasin& %yni%ism and total disbelie" amon& all e(i%ans*@
53/
• • •
!ndeed' people seem to #ant to believe t$e #orst* +$ey don4t trust t$e net#or)s' t$e ne#spapers' t$e
&overnment* +$ey4re ready to believe t$e Clinton $aters*
535
2Kven3 E>J o""i%ials and protesters are #arnin& t$at
t$e United -tates is "ast losin& %redibility amon& Arabs as an $onest bro)er o" t$e pea%e pro%ess*
537
5,7
Te)e Wi&&les#ort$ FKnight-Ridder NewspapersG' Lo# to &et t$e most "rom "ren.ied +i1uana' The Seattle Times' ,7 Jan
1997' 15F/G' p* K7*
5,9
)&idem' p* K7*
5,9
+revor Armbrister' Jur dru&-pla&ued e(i%an border' Reader;s Digest' Jan 1997' 1/9F995G' p* 57*
530
<obert Collier' Unsolved s%andals mount in e(i%oH %overups "eared in $i&$-pro"ile assassinations' dru& %ases' San
"rancisco .hronicle' 9 April 1997' 133F70G' p* A1' A7*
531
E$ilip Weiss' Clinton4s ?%ra.ies@H no ot$er president $as be%ome su%$ a #ell -#orn tar&et #$ile in o""i%e' The Seattle
Times/ Seattle Post- )ntelligencer "ocus' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G' p* C1*
53,
<obert Collier' Unsolved s%andals mount in e(i%oH %overups "eared in $i&$-pro"ile assassinations' dru& %ases' San
"rancisco .hronicle' 9 April 1997' 133F70G' p* A1' A7*
533
)&idem' p* A7*
53/
Op. cit.
535
E$ilip Weiss' Clinton4s ?%ra.ies@H no ot$er president $as be%ome su%$ a #ell -#orn tar&et #$ile in o""i%e' The Seattle
Times:Seattle Post- )ntelligencer "ocus' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G' p* C1*
537
-torer L* <o#ley F.hicago Tri&uneG' Ealestinians doubt U*-* %loutH &ro#in& violen%e' %riti%ism over ina%tion on stalled
ne&otions' The Seattle Times' 17 June 1997' 1,0F1//G' p* A3*
/7
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
“+oliti!s is 'roken.”
93;
Ieor&e Was$in&ton le"t o""i%e to t$is %ommentary "rom t$e E$iladelp$ia Aurora=
?+$is day ou&$t to be a 1ubilee in t$e United -tates * * * "or t$e man #$o is t$e sour%e o" all t$e
mis"ortunes o" our %ountry' is t$is day redu%ed to a level #it$ $is "ello# %iti.ens*@
539
+$e "irst president o" t$e United -tates' Ieor&e Was$in&ton' used t$e o""i%e o" t$e presiden%y to en$an%e $is
personal "ortune* A pre%edent #as establis$ed t$at one #ay or anot$er $as %$ara%teri.ed every administration
sin%e* Curin& t$e administration o" Ulysses Irant' t$e o""i%ers o" t$e Union Ea%i"i% <ail#ay #ere %au&$t po%)etin&
money "rom &overnment bonds' and t$e vi%e president #as impli%ated in t$e plot* Curin& Irant4s se%ond term o"
o""i%e' "rauds totalin& some seventy-"ive million dollars #ere unveiled' and Irant4s se%retary o" #ar F#$o #as
"or%ed to resi&nG and $is personal se%retary #ere impli%ated in t$e "raud*
!n t$e 19/0s artin Man Buren #as so %orrupt t$at popular son&s eulo&i.ed $is #illin&ness to sell anyt$in& $e
%ontrolled "or a pri%e* As president $is %ontrol e(tended to t$e Cepartment o" Justi%e*
Warren Lardin& #as per$aps less "ortunate t$an $is prede%essors' sin%e $is administration4s s%andal F?+eapot
Come@G $as be%ome a pseudonym "or politi%al %orruption* +$e s%andal involved t$e leasin& o" &overnment land at
+eapot Come' Wyomin&' to t$e oil ma&nate L* F* -in%lair* !n t$e end' -e%retary o" t$e !nterior Albert B* Fall #as
proven to $ave personally bene"ited substantially "rom t$is and ot$er land leases* Fall #as eventually tried'
%onvi%ted' and senten%ed to 1ail F"or one yearG "or $avin& a%%epted a bribe* +$e +eapot Come -%andal #as only one
o" many durin& Lardin&4s administration' and $e #as spared mu%$ o" t$e torture o" t$e s%andal by $is
%onveniently-timed deat$*
Eresident <oosevelt4s administration #as relatively "ree "rom s%andal' alt$ou&$ t$is is probably more a result o"
%rises FCepression and World War !!G a%tin& as a smo)e s%reen t$at )ept ordinary &ra"t and %orruption "rom bein&
terribly si&ni"i%ant*
Larry +ruman4s administration sa# a W$ite Louse military &eneral' Larry L* Mau&$n' a%%eptin& a deep "ree.e
in return "or usin& $is in"luen%e* Conald Ca#son' a %lose +ruman aide' #as impli%ated in a s%andal involvin& t$e
misuse o" publi% "unds and in"luen%e by t$e <e%onstru%tion Finan%e Corporation* +$e !nternal <evenue -ervi%e
#as involved in yet anot$er +ruman-era s%andal #$i%$ %ulminated in a %onspira%y trial a&ainst +ruman4s "ormer
appointments se%retary*
-$erman Adams' one o" Eresident Kisen$o#er4s %losest asso%iates' a%%epted numerous &i"ts "rom an
industrialist' Bernard Iold"ine' #$o #as at t$e time tryin& to in"luen%e de%isions made by t$e Federal +rade
Commission* -$erman Adams #as "or%ed to resi&n as Kisen$o#er4s spe%ial assistant*
>yndon Jo$nson be&an $is politi%al %areer by sta""in& t$e ballot %ounters in rural +e(as #it$ people #$o
%ounted none(istent votes "or Jo$nson* Lis %areer as a senator' vi%e president and president #as sprin)led #it$
%lose asso%iations #it$ or&ani.ed %rime "i&ures li)e Kd >evinson and eyer >ans)y as #ell as blatant s$a)edo#n
ra%)ets %ondu%ted by $is %losest asso%iates su%$ as Bobby Ba)er F8G* 2FBoot$ ooney' !1J/ An )rre(erent .hronicle
FOe# 0or)= Cro#ell' 1977GG
539
3
<i%$ard Oi(on4s presiden%y represented a $i&$-#ater mar) in t$e e(posure o" publi% %orruption and misuse o"
o""i%e "or personal &ain*
5/0
atergate
Karly on June 17' 197,' bur&lars tied to <i%$ard Oi(on4s re-ele%tion %ampai&n bro)e into Cemo%rati%
$ead:uarters at t$e Water&ate o""i%e buildin& in Was$in&ton*
5/1
!t be&an' in t$e dead o" ni&$t*
5/,
+$ere #as a taped
door lo%)' an observant se%urity &uard' a radioed #arnin& t$at #ent un$eard be%ause a re%eiver $ad been s#it%$ed
o""' and' "inally' a s%ru""y plain%lot$es %op blin)in& in surprise as $is "las$li&$t beam trained on a &roup o"
#ell-tailored bur&lars*
5/3
537
Bill Bradley 2said'38Au&ust 21995'3 #$en $e announ%ed $e #ould not see) reele%tion to t$e U*-* -enate*
N Condensed "rom 8ashington Post F,7 Au& 1995G' !n Eaul +aylor' Oe# #$ine' old babble' Reader;s Digest' Jan 1997'
1/9F995G' p* 71*
539
Conald * <ot$ber&' Clinton a tar&et "o %olumnists o" all stripes' The Seattle Times:Seattle- Post )ntelligencer/ "ocus'
19 ay 1997' 15F,0G' p* K1*
539
William J* C$ambliss FEro"essor o" -o%iolo&y and C$air o" t$e -o%iolo&y Cept* at t$e Iero&e Was$* U*' and Eresident o"
t$e Am* -o%iety o" Criminolo&y F1999GG' On the Ta'e/ "rom Petty .roo's to Presidents F!ndiana= University Eress' 1999G'
p* ,,9*
5/0
)&idem' pp* ,01-,0,*
5/1
Calvin Wood#ard FThe Associated PressG' Co you remember Water&ateP Well' t$e details es%ape us' The Seattle Times'
17 June 1997' 1,0F1//G' p* A,*
5/,
Ken Fireman FNewsdayG' Water&ate4s le&a%y= a B%ulture o" s%andal4' The Seattle Times' 17 June 1997' 1,0F1//G' p* A,*
5/3
Op. cit.
/7
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$e "our-pound brass lo%) pi%)ed at t$e in"amous Water&ate brea)-in "et%$ed a $i&$ bid o" 613'000 at
an au%tion' less t$an $al" t$e su&&ested bid*
5//
Water&ate o""i%ials $ad t$e lo%) removed t$e day a"ter t$e
brea)-in* A lo%)smit$ )ept it "or a "e# years until 2retired Water&ate superintendent
5/5
Jim3 Lerraly as)ed
"or it as a souvenir*
5/7
+$ey #ere tryin& to repla%e a "aulty telep$one-bu&&in& devi%e installed durin& an earlier brea)-in* +$ey &ot
%au&$t*
5/7
Oi(on tried to %over up t$e &ro#in& s%andal'
5/9
82and on Oov* 7
5/9
$e #as3 re-ele%ted*
550
2K* Lo#ard Lunt'
Bernard Bar)er' Fran) -tur&is' Ku&enio artine.' and Mir&ilio Ion.ales pleaded &uilty to %onspira%y' bur&lary and
violatin& #iretappin& la#s on Jan* 9' 1973*
551
Iordon >iddy and James %Cord #ere "ound &uilty o" %onspira%y'
bur&lary' and #iretappin& on Jan* 30*
55,
3
2Jn April 30'
553
3 Oi(on announ%e2d t$e3 resi&nations o" 2L* <*3 Laldeman' domesti% adviser Jo$n K$rli%$man
and Attorney Ieneral <i%$ard Kleindienst* Counsel Jo$n Cean 2#a3s "ired*
55/
2Jn ay 17
555
t$e3 -enate Water&ate Committee open2ed t$eir3 $earin&s'
557
82and t$e "ollo#in& day
557
3
Ar%$iblad Co( 2#as3 named spe%ial prose%utor*
559
W$en 2t$e re%ently appointed Attorney Ieneral Klliot
<i%$ardson
559
3 and deputy attorney &eneral 2William <u%)els$aus
570
later3 re"used Oi(on4s order to "ire Water&ate
spe%ial prose%utor Ar%$ibald Co(' 2-oli%itor Ieneral
571
<obert3 Bor) ; t$en t$e t$ird ran)in& o""i%ial at t$e Justi%e
Cepartment ; did t$e dirty #or)*
57,
2Lomop$obi%3 Bor)8implemented Eresident Oi(on4s in"amous ?-aturday
Oi&$t assa%re@
573
82J%t* ,0*
57/
3
2Jne mont$ later' on Oov* 17'
575
3 Oi(on t2old $is3 +M audien%e' ?! am not a %roo)'@
577
82but on Oov* ,7
577
t$e3
W$ite Louse turn2ed3 over 2t$e3 e(istin& subpoenaed tapes* -e%retary <ose ary Woods s2aid3 s$e ?a%%identally@
%aused 2an 19 1R, minute
579
3 &ap
579
8on 2t$e3 )ey tape*
570
2Jn Jan* 15' 197/'
571
3 e(perts sa2id t$e3 &ap 2#as3 %aused
by erasures' re-re%ordin&s*
57,
2Jn Jan* 30'
573
3 Oi(on t2old t$e3 U*-* $e #o2uld3n4t resi&n*
57/
2Jn ar%$ 1
575
3 Jo$n it%$ell' Laldeman'
K$rli%$man' C$arles Colson' <obert ardian' Kennet$ Ear)inson and Iordon -tra%$an 2#ere3 indi%ted "or
5//
A%ross t$e Oation' >o%) pi%)ed in 197, brea)-in at Water&ate brin&s 613'000' The Seattle Times' ,7 ay 1997'
1,0F1,7G' p* A7*
5/5
Op. cit.
5/7
Op. cit.
5/7
Calvin Wood#ard FThe Associated PressG' Co you remember Water&ateP Well' t$e details es%ape us' The Seattle Times'
17 June 1997' 1,0F1//G' p* A,*
5/9
Op. cit.
5/9
3annett Newspapers' June 17' 197,= t$e be&innin& o" Oi(on4s do#n"all' The Seattle Times' 17 June 1997' 1,0F1//G' p*
A,*
550
Op. cit.
551
Op. cit.
55,
Op. cit.
553
Op. cit.
55/
Op. cit.
555
Op. cit.
557
Op. cit.
557
Op. cit.
559
Op. cit.
559
Op. cit.
570
Op. cit.
571
Op. cit.
57,
Alan Cers$o#it. FEro"essor o" >a#' Larvard >a# -%$ool F1999GG' Irim vie#s o" "uture 1usti%e F/ -ep 199/G' Ta'ing
!i&erties/ A Decade o- $ard .ases0 1ad !aws0 and 1um Raps F!llinois= Contemporary Boo)s' !n%*' 1999G' p* /0*
573
Op. cit.
57/
3annett Newspapers' June 17' 197,= t$e be&innin& o" Oi(on4s do#n"all' The Seattle Times' 17 June 1997' 1,0F1//G' p*
A,*
575
Op. cit.
577
Op. cit.
577
Op. cit.
579
Op. cit.
579
Op. cit.
570
Op. cit.
571
Op. cit.
57,
Op. cit.
573
Op. cit.
57/
Op. cit.
575
Op. cit.
/9
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
%onspirin& to $inder 2t$e3 investi&ationH
577
2on ay 9'
577
t$e3 Louse Judi%iary Committee open2ed3 impea%$ment
$earin&sH
579
82and on Jan* 1' 197/'
579
3 it%$ell' Laldemann' K$rli%$man and ardian 2#ere3 %onvi%ted in 2t$e3
%over-up*
590
W$en it rea%$ed a %lima('8an entire presidential administration #as in dis&ra%e' s%ores o" people #$o served
or supported it #ere %onvi%ted or %on"essed "elons*
591
Jn Au&* 9' 197/' under t$reat o" impea%$ment' 2Oi(on3
resi&ned'
59,
82and3 Ierald Ford su%%eed2ed3 $im*
593
2Jn -ept* 9'
59/
3 Eresident Ford un%onditionally pardon2ed3
Oi(on "or all "ederal %rimes $e 2$ad3 ?%ommitted or may $ave %ommitted or ta)en part in*@
595
2FAnd t$ere4s more*G3
A #ee) be"ore <i%$ard Oi(on resi&ned' a de"iant spee%$ #as prepared "or $im de%larin& $e $ad done not$in&
?t$at 1usti"ies removin& an ele%ted president "rom o""i%e@ and pled&in& to "i&$t to )eep $is presiden%y*
+$e spee%$ #as never delivered* !nstead' Oi(on put out a #ritten statement revealin& t$e e(isten%e o" t$e
"amous ?smo)in& &un@ tape ; s$o#in& $is %ompli%ity in t$e Water&ate %over-up ; and #aited to 1ud&e $o# t$e
nation rea%ted*
!n t$e ensuin& national ra&e' Oi(on sa# t$at $is presiden%y #as doomed and &ave up t$e "i&$t*
+$e re"usal-to-resi&n dra"t' a "ootnote to one o" t$e most dramati% #ee)s o" Ameri%a4s $istory' $as %ome to li&$t
amon& t$e /0 million pa&es o" Oi(on do%uments at t$e Oational Ar%$ives*
<aymond Eri%e' Oi(on4s %$ie" spee%$#riter' prepared t#o dra"ts on Au&* 3 and /' 197/ ; t$e undelivered te(t
and a resi&nation spee%$' mar)ed ?Jption B*@
?Jption B@ be%ame t$e basis o" t$e spee%$ Oi(on delivered on +$ursday' Au&* 9' in #$i%$ $e told t$e nation $e
#as resi&nin& be%ause ?! no lon&er $ave a stron& enou&$ politi%al base in Con&ress*@
597
Ale(ander Lai&' #$o #as Oi(on4s %$ie" o" sta""' said 2Friday 13' 1997'3 t$at $e ordered t$e dra"ts prepared at
an ?a&oni.in& and #ren%$in&@ time*
?Jne day $e #as &oin& to resi&n' t$e ne(t day $e #asn4t'@ Lai& said* ?+$at #ee)end #as about t$e t$ird time
as ! re%all t$at $e #as &oin& to and $e #asn4t &oin& to*@
+$e re"usal-to-si&n spee%$ $as Oi(on %on%edin& t$at $e made ?serious mista)e@ in #it$$oldin& )no#led&e o"
t$e dama&in& Water&ate tape a"ter listenin& to it t$e previous ay* Le &ave it up only #$en t$e -upreme Court
ordered $im to*
597
+$e undelivered spee%$ $as Oi(on say t$at' #$atever $is mista)es' ?! "irmly believe t$at ! $ave not %ommitted
any a%t o" %ommission or omission t$at 1usti"ies removin& a duly ele%ted president "rom o""i%e*
?!" ! did believe t$at ! $ad %ommitted su%$ an a%t' ! #ould $ave resi&ned lon& a&o*@
599
By t$at time' t$e term ?Water&ate@ $ad %ome to represent "ar more t$an t$e bur&lary at t$at do#nto#n
Was$in&ton %omple(*
599
!t en%ompassed a &rotes:ue panoply o" misdeeds and abuses o" po#er*
+$ey ran&ed "rom bur&laries to #iretaps to politi%al sabota&e o" Oi(on4s %riti%s and opponents' all "inan%ed by a
"lood o" ille&al %ampai&n %as$ and t$en %overed up #it$ $us$ money and more misuses o" aut$ority*
+oday' as t$e veterans o" Water&ate loo) ba%) a%ross ,5 years o" $istory and t$en "or#ard to t$e
s%andal-s%or%$ed lands%ape o" %ontemporary Was$in&ton' many are uneasy about #$at t$ey see*
590
?! t$in) even t$e Bs%andal4 triviali.es #$at Water&ate #as about'@ 2Carl3 Bernstein said* ?!t #as about #$at
#as revealed to be a %riminal presiden%y uni:ue in our $istory' a series o" de%isions by t$e president * * * And t$is
#$ole series o" ille&al a%tivities #as %ondu%ted to "urt$er t$e president4s poli%ies*@
591
7rans!am
Curin& t$e <ea&an administration' over a $undred and "i"ty <ea&an appointees #ere "or%ed to resi&n "or alle&ed
or proven %riminal a%ts* +$e %riminality o" <ea&an appointees e(tended to $is %losest "riends and %ontinued a"ter
577
Op. cit.
577
Op. cit.
579
Op. cit.
579
Op. cit.
590
Op. cit.
591
Ken Fireman FNewsdayG' Water&ate4s le&a%y= a B%ulture o" s%andal4' The Seattle Times' 17 June 1997' 1,0F1//G' p* A,*
59,
Calvin Wood#ard FThe Associated PressG' Co you remember Water&ateP Well' t$e details es%ape us' The Seattle Times'
17 June 1997' 1,0F1//G' p* A,*
593
3annett Newspapers' June 17' 197,= t$e be&innin& o" Oi(on4s do#n"all' The Seattle Times' 17 June 1997' 1,0F1//G' p*
A,*
59/
Op. cit.
595
Op. cit.
597
i)e Feinsilber FThe Associated PressG' +$e spee%$ Oi(on didn4t &iveH dra"t prepared near t$e end #as de"iant and
re"usin& to resi&n' Seattle Post- )ntelligencer' 17 Ce% 1997' 133F301G' p* A7*
597
Op. cit.
599
Op. cit.
599
Ken Fireman FNewsdayG' Water&ate4s le&a%y= a B%ulture o" s%andal4' The Seattle Times' 17 June 1997' 1,0F1//G' p* A,*
590
Op. cit.
591
Op. cit.
/9
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
t$ey #ere out o" o""i%e as #ell as #$ile t$ey #ere a%tive in &overnment* -ome #ent to prison' some #ere "ined'
and ot$ers #ere let &o #it$ only a slap on t$e #rist*
59,
Oo sin&le Cabinet appointment %an assure t$at s%andals #ill not re%ur' but an independent attorney &eneral %an
play an important role in )eepin& a president and $is administration #it$in t$e bounds o" t$e la#*
593
ost
Ameri%ans probably believed t$at presidents #$o #ere ele%ted a"ter t$e dis&ra%ed Eresident Oi(on #ould $ave
learned at least one important lesson "rom Water&ate= do not "ollo# t$e tradition o" appointin& %ronies' politi%al
operatives' or %lose relatives as attorney &eneral* +$e tradition' o" %ourse' $as a venerable linea&e*
59/
Water&ate devastatin&ly s$o#ed t$e dan&ers o" an attorney &eneral #$o pla%ed personal loyalty to t$e
individual in t$e Jval J""i%e above $is 2or $er3 obli&ation as %$ie" la# en"or%ement o""i%er* Oi(ons4s attorney
&eneral' Jo$n it%$ell' #as ; to put it bluntly ; a %roo)* Le #as eventually %onvi%ted o" obstru%tin& 1usti%e' rat$er
t$an "urt$erin& it' and $e #ent o"" to prison alon& #it$ ot$er W$ite Louse la#yers*
595
<onald <ea&an8ma2de3 t#o o" t$e #orst appointments ima&inable* First $e pi%)ed $is o#n personal la#yer'
William Fren%$ -mit$' a some#$at somnambulisti% so%ialite #$o seemed to spend most o" $is time at Was$in&ton
parties' leavin& t$e runnin& o" t$e department to youn&' ambitious pro"essionals*
597
Eresident <ea&an 2later3 nominated one o" $is %losest politi%al %ronies' Kd#in eese !!!' #$o $ad already
demonstrated an insensitivity to t$e et$i%s o" &overnment employment by a%%eptin& ?loans@ "rom people #$o #ere
see)in& appointments "rom t$e administration*
Follo#in& $is %on"irmation' t$in&s &ot #orse* +$e #$ole story o" $is involvement in t$e sellin& o" arms to !ran
and t$e divertin& o" t$e pro"its to t$e Contras ; at best le&ally :uestionable' at #orst in dire%t violation o" la# ; $as
yet to be told* Jliver Oort$4s testimony8%ertainly provides %ause "or believin& t$at eese did not be$ave in t$e
$i&$est traditions o" la# en"or%ement*
597
!n 1995' <ea&an tried to #in release o" seven Ameri%an $osta&es by aut$ori.in& sales t$rou&$ !srael o"
antitan) missiles to !ran* +$is transa%tion violated an e(istin& arms embar&o* <ea&an also "ailed to noti"y
Con&ress t$at !srael #as resellin& t$e U*-* #eapons' as t$e la# re:uired* W$en C!A o""i%ials reali.ed t$ey
$ad no aut$ori.ation "or t$eir a&en%y4s involvement' t$ey as)ed "or and &ot t$e Eresident4s si&nature on a
ba%)dated do%ument* +$ey later lied #$en testi"yin& to Con&ress t$at t$ey t$ou&$t t$e s$ipments %ontained
not #eapons' but oil e:uipment*
<ea&an also aut$ori.ed dire%t sales o" #eapons to !ran* Oational -e%urity Adviser Jo$n * Eoinde(ter
and $is aide' >ieutenant Colonel Jliver >* Oort$' set up a system t$at in%luded private arms dealers'
ta(-e(empt "oundations' retired C!A o""i%ers' and >iberian-re&istered o%ean "rei&$ters* Oort$ &ot #eapons at
%ost' t$en mar)ed t$em up t$ree"old #it$ t$e pro"its &oin& to t$e Contras' #$o #ere #a&in& a %ivil #ar in
Oi%ara&ua* Oort$ ran t$e Contra operation out o" t$e W$ite Louse' despite a %on&ressional ban a&ainst
"undin& t$eir operation* All t$is mis%$ie" #as revealed in t$e "all o" 1997' #$en a >ebanese 1ournal #rote
about t$e sales to !ran and #$en a plane %arryn& #eapons to t$e Contras #as s$ot do#n in Oi%ara&ua*
+$e s%andal put t$e entire %ountry on ed&e* +$e Eresident 2F<ea&anG3 #as at ris) o" impea%$ment "or
"ailin& to noti"y Con&ress o" t$e #eapons sales and "or violatin& t$e Contra-"undin& ban* Worse' 2>a#ren%e
K*3 Wals$ suspe%ts t$at t$e $osta&e ne&otiations #it$ !ran #ere deliberately dra&&ed out be%ause ea%$
missile sale produ%ed pro"its "or t$e Contras* But as Wals$ reveals' t$e &ravest dan&er to demo%ra%y #as
t$e or&ani.ed %over-up by t$e W$ite Louse and t$e national-se%urity %ommunity* Jne o" t$e #orst
moments' a%%ordin& to Wals$' #as #$en t$en-Attorney Ieneral Kd#in eese' put in %$ar&e o" an internal
investi&ation' instead turned a blind eye as Oort$ destroyed enou&$ do%uments to brea) $is s$redder*
599
Lis ?investi&ation@ #as a Keystone Kop parody o" Cra&net* F?Just &ive us t$e "a%ts' sir ; in a %ouple o" days'
unless you need more time to destroy t$e eviden%e*@G +$e ima&e o" Jliver Oort$ s$reddin& do%uments #$ile
Justi%e Cepartment o""i%ials sat nearby readin& ot$er do%uments is one t$at #ill remain "ro.en in t$e Ameri%an
mind "or years to %ome*
Wit$ all o" t$e on&oin& investi&ations o" $is %ondu%t' $e $ardly $a2d3 any time to do t$e #or) o" attorney
&eneral* But maybe t$at4s a blessin& in dis&uise' %onsiderin& #$at $e did #$en $e did $ave time on $is $ands*
599
59,
William J* C$ambliss FEro"essor o" -o%iolo&y and C$air o" t$e -o%iolo&y Cept* at t$e Iero&e Was$* U*' and Eresident o"
t$e Am* -o%iety o" Criminolo&y F1999GG' On the Ta'e/ "rom Petty .roo's to Presidents F!ndiana= University Eress' 1999G'
p* ,03*
593
Alan Cers$o#it. FEro"essor o" >a#' Larvard >a# -%$ool F1999GG' Attorney Ieneral must be "ree o" politi%al ties F10
Au& 1997G' Ta'ing !i&erties/ A Decade o- $ard .ases0 1ad !aws0 and 1um Raps F!llinois= Contemporary Boo)s' !n%*'
1999G' p* ,97*
59/
)&idem' p* ,95*
595
Op. cit.
597
)&idem' p* ,97*
597
Op. cit.
599
Eaula C#yer F-enior Correspondent %overin& !ran-ContraG' Eointin& a "in&er at <ea&an' 1usiness 8ee'' ,3 June 1997'
353,' p* ,,*
599
Alan Cers$o#it. FEro"essor o" >a#' Larvard >a# -%$ool F1999GG' Attorney Ieneral must be "ree o" politi%al ties F10
Au& 1997G' Ta'ing !i&erties/ A Decade o- $ard .ases0 1ad !aws0 and 1um Raps F!llinois= Contemporary Boo)s' !n%*'
1999G' pp* ,97-,97*
50
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
But si( years o" #or) %ame un&lued #$en Eresident Bus$ issued $is C$ristmas' 199,' pardon o"
e(-Ce"ense -e%retary Caspar W* Weinber&er' "ormer Oational -e%urity Advisor <obert C* %Farlane'
Assistant -e%retary o" -tate Klliott Abrams' and t$ree C!A o""i%ials* Bus$ by t$en $ad lost $is reele%tion to
Bill Clinton and blamed Wals$' #$ose ele%tion-eve indi%tment o" Weinber&er in%luded a "ootnote implyin&
Bus$ )ne# more t$an $e let on*
-ome o" t$e most surprisin& revalations %on%ern t$e attempts to prose%ute Weinber&er "or lyin& about
t$e e(isten%e o" notes $e $ad ta)en at W$ite Louse meetin&s* By t$e summer o" 199,' Wals$4s probe $ad
be%ome t$e sub1e%t o" "re:uent <epubli%an atta%)s ; o"ten led by t$en--enate inority >eader Bob Cole*
Wals$ #as a&$ast #$en <ea&an "riend and "ormer Oational -e%urity Adviser William Clar) approa%$ed
$im #it$ #$at $e des%ribes as a :uid pro :uo= A%%ept a no-%ontest plea "rom Weinber&er' and not only
#ould t$e polit%al atta%)s %ease but IJE $eavy#ei&$ts #ould also $eap praise on $im*
+o be sure' Wals$ made mista)es* Lis investi&ation too) too lon&' but Wals$ $ad to %ontend #it$
un%ooperative "orei&n &overnments and #itnesses* Le underestimated t$e impa%t o" t$e "ootnote implyin&
Bus$4s %ulpability*
700
Le "ailed to &o a"ter C!A do%uments' naively relyin& on a&en%y %omplian%e*
701
$illygate
+$e Cemo%rats %annot investi&ate %orruption in82%ities3 #$ere8<epubli%ans %ontrol t$e %rime net#or)s'
be%ause t$ey do not %ontrol t$e Cepartment o" Justi%e*
70,
2<e%ently'3 Cemo%rats $ave been embarrassed'8but an
aide to a top Cemo%rat released do%uments 2ar%$ 103 t$at $e said s$o#ed t$at <epubli%ans used some o" t$e same
pra%ti%es in re%ent years*
703
• • •
Former W$ite Louse %$ie" o" sta"" >eon Eanetta a%)no#led&ed 2ar%$ 93 t$at t$e 1997 Clinton re-ele%tion
%ommittee played a role in t$e spendin& o" 635 million to 6/0 million in ?so"t-money@ %ontributions on %ampai&n
%ommer%ials*
70/
?-o"t money@ re"ers to %ontributions to politi%al parties t$at are not sub1e%t to "ederal limits and
%annot be used "or a spe%i"i% ele%tion %ampai&n*
705
W$en as)ed #$et$er it #as ille&al ?"or t$e Clinton %ampai&n to
use so"t money'@ Eanetta replied it #as not be%ause t$e money #as spent as part o" an overall ?Cemo%rati% strate&y
in %on"rontin& t$e <epubli%an Con&ress*@
707
W$ite Louse do%uments s$o#23 t$e president' vi%e president and top aides 2are3 e(tensively involved in
%ontroversial "und-raisin& pra%ti%es su%$ as re#ardin& bi& donors #it$ W$ite Louse overni&$t visits*
707
+$e W$ite
Louse 2also3 provided trips on Air For%e Jne or presidential $eli%opters to 57 %ampai&n donors and "und-raisers in
1995 and B97' administration o""i%ials said 2April 1/3*
!n addition' leadin& %ampai&n "und-raisers appeared on a ?must %onsider@ list "or positions in t$e ne#ly ele%ted
Clinton administration in 199,' a%%ordin& to ne#ly released Cemo%rati% Oational Committee do%uments* -ome
later be%ame ambassadors and ot$er $i&$-level appointees*
709
Jo$n Luan&' a )ey "i&ure in t$e Cemo%rati% "und-raisin& s%andal' #on4t testi"y to %on&ressional %ommittees
unless $e4s &ranted immunity "rom prose%ution' Louse panel la#yer Jo$n <o#ley said* Le said Luan&4s la#yer
said ne#s reports :uotin& Luan& as sayin& $e #ould testi"y i" subpoenaed #ere #ron&*
709
• • •
700
Eaula C#yer F-enior Correspondent %overin& !ran-ContraG' Eointin& a "in&er at <ea&an' 1usiness 8ee'' ,3 June 1997'
353,' p* ,,*
701
Op. cit.
70,
Alan Cers$o#it. FEro"essor o" >a#' Larvard >a# -%$ool F1999GG' Attorney Ieneral must be "ree o" politi%al ties F10
Au& 1997G' Ta'ing !i&erties/ A Decade o- $ard .ases0 1ad !aws0 and 1um Raps F!llinois= Contemporary Boo)s' !n%*'
1999G' p* ,07*
703
Cavid -tout' Cemo%rats try to turn tables in "inan%e #ar' The New 9or' Times' 11 ar%$ 1997' CQ>M!F50' 7,9G' p*
A1,A*
70/
<obert -uro F8ashington PostG' Campai&n $elped dire%t t$e spendin& o" Bso"t money'4 The Seattle Times' 10 ar%$
1997' 1,0F59G' p* A,*
705
Op. cit.
707
Op. cit.
707
<obert -uro F8ashington PostG' <eno re1e%ts IJE on spe%ial probe o" "und raisin&H :uestion o" %redible eviden%e' San
"rancisco .hronicle' 15 April 1997' 133F77G' p* A3*
709
Alan iller FThe !os Angeles TimesG' W$o re%eived trips on Air For%e JneH W$ite Louse list o" donors' "und-raisers'
San "rancisco .hronicle' 15 April 1997' 133F77G' p* A5*
709
Was$in&ton' Finan%e probe' #SA Today' 19 June 1997' 15F19/G' p* 7A*
51
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Forei&n-servi%e o""i%ers dreamin& o" landin& t$e Bi& Ben o" diplomati% posts' or be%omin& t$e top envoy #it$
an Ki""el +o#er vie#' $ad better t$in) t#i%e*
U*-* ambassadors to >ondon and Earis are almost al#ays bi&-bu%)s politi%al donors or buddies o" t$e president'
#$ile pro"essional diplomats $ead to trouble spots #$ere e(perien%e is more important t$an %onta%ts*
710
?ost politi%al appointments #ouldn4t parti%ularly li)e to &o to <#anda'@ 2said "ormer alta Ambassador
Bru%e3 >ain&en' #$o #as t$e $i&$est-ran)in& U*-* diplomat $eld $osta&e by !ran and )no#s about $ards$ip
posts*
711
• • •
2-tep$en3 -mit$' an aide to 2t$en-Iov* Bill3 Clinton in 1979-90' pleaded &uilty to a misdemeanor %ount o"
%onspirin& to misapply a loan "rom Cavid Lale4s Capital ana&ement -ervi%es' !n%*
71,
-mit$' no# a
%ommuni%ations pro"essor at t$e University o" Ar)ansas' said W$ite#ater prose%utors initially told $im in 199/ t$at
$e #asn4t a tar&et o" t$e investi&ation*
713
Eleadin& &uilty to a lesser %$ar&e #as a %$eaper #ay out' 2-mit$3 testi"ied*
2Iov* Jim Iuy3 +u%)er and t$e 2%o-de"endents James and -usan3 %Cou&als' #$o #ere partners #it$ t$e
Clintons in t$e W$ite#ater land-development venture' are a%%used o" de"raudin& t$e %Cou&als4 savin&s and load
and Lale4s loan %ompany "or 63 million in loans*
71/
2W$ite#ater independent %ounsel Kennet$3 -tarr $as also a%%used -usan %Cou&al8o" see)in& a ?li%ense to
lie'@ by re"usin& to testi"y to a &rand 1ury unless s$e is &ranted immunity "rom per1ury %$ar&es*
715
• • •
Kennet$ -tarr told a "ederal %ourt 2April ,33 t$at $e $ad amassed ?e(tensive eviden%e@ o" obstru%tion o" 1usti%e'
in%ludin& #itness tamperin&' per1ury and %on%ealment and destru%tion o" eviden%e* +$e eviden%e' no# under
%onsideration by a &rand 1ury' su&&ests t$at t$e investi&ation is &at$erin& steam and poses potential serious polit%al
and %riminal ris) to t$ose involved' in%ludin& t$e president and "irst lady' #$o $ave testi"ied under oat$*
717
A W$ite#ater prose%utor told an appeals %ourt t$at "irst lady Lillary <od$am Clinton %ould be indi%ted' ABC
Oe#s reported 2ay 173*
717
Curin& a %losed-door session in a "ederal appeals %ourt in -t* >ouis' a -tarr deputy said an indi%tment #as
possible' a%%ordin& to an audio tape o" t$e purported dis%ussion obtained by ABC Oe#s*
?We %ertainly are investi&atin individuals' and t$ose individuals ; in%ludin& rs* Clinton ; %ould be indi%ted'@
deputy independent %ounsel Jo$n Bates told t$e %ourt*
719
ABC did not say $o# it obtained t$e tape re%ordin&*
719
Jverrulin& Clinton4s %laim t$at t$e %onversations are
prote%ted by attorney-%lient privile&e' t$e U*-* Court o" Appeals "or t$e 9t$ Cir%uit in -t* >ouis ruled t$at t$e notes
must be turned over to a "ederal &rand 1ury*
+$e W$ite Louse $as appealed t$e rulin& to t$e -upreme Court*
+$e notes in :uestion involve Clinton4s %onversations #it$ W$ite Louse la#yers %on%ernin& $er a%tions a"ter
t$e deat$ o" Min%ent Foster' "ormer deputy W$ite Louse %ounsel' and t$e mysterious reappearan%e o" $er
la#-"irm-billin& re%ords ; t#o )ey "o%uses o" t$e W$ite#ater investi&ation*
7,0
Eresident and rs* Clinton4s private attorney 2June 33 a%%used W$ite#ater prose%utor Kennet$ -tarr4s o""i%e o"
violatin& &rand 1ury se%re%y rules to in"li%t ?lea)-and-smear dama&e@ on $is %lients*
7,1
710
>aura yers FThe Associated PressG' Career diplomats sayin& B%4est la vie4 on %$oi%e lo%ationsH top ambassadors usually
bi& donors or #ell-%onne%ted' The Seattle Times' ,0 April 1997' 15F17G' p* A3*
711
Op. cit.
71,
Kelly E* Kissel FThe Associated PressG' K(-Clinton aide $ad loan #it$ de"endants in W$ite#ater %ase' The Seattle Times'
119F9,G' 17 April 1997' p* A5*
713
Op. cit.
71/
Op. cit.
715
Jo$n F* Larris F8ashington PostG' War o" #ords es%alades bet#een Clinton' -tarrH barbs be%ome personal as prose%utor
spars #it$ president on W$ite#ater' The Seattle Times' 11 ay 1997' 15F9G' p* A3*
717
Kditorials' W$ite#ater resur"a%es' 7astside Journal' ,/ April 1997' ,1F,/9G' p* A10*
717
>aura e%)ler FThe Associated PressG' <eport= prose%utor told %ourt "irst lady %ould be indi%ted' The Seattle Times' 19
ay 1997' 15F,0G' p* A3*
719
Op. cit.
719
Op. cit.
7,0
Op. cit.
7,1
Jo$n -olomon FThe Associated PressG' -tarr a%%used o" violatin& &rand 1ury se%re%y' The Seattle Times' 3 June 1997'
1,0F13,G' p* A9*
5,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
2An3 arti%le in +$e Oe# 0or) +imes a&a.ine :uoted unnamed prose%utors as sayin& t$at "ormer W$ite#ater
partner James %Cou&al4s %ooperation led to ne# do%uments about rs* Clinton4s le&al #or) "or %Cou&al4s
"ailed savin&s and loan and ?t$e trut$"ulness o" $er statements to "ederal investi&ators*@
+$e story also :uoted t$e unnamed prose%utors as sayin& t$at -tarr4s re%ent %ourt de%laration t$at a &rand 1ury
$ad $eard ?e(tensive eviden%e o" possible obstru%tion@ re"erred to t$e t#o-year disappearan%e o" rs* Clinton4s
la# "irm billin& re%ords*
7,,
!t also reports t$at ?la#yers in -tarr4s o""i%e ma)e no attempt to s:uel%$ spe%ulation
t$at t$ey $ave #ei&$ed t$e possibility o" indi%tin&@ t$e "irst lady*
7,3
• • •
Eresident Clinton lost part o" a "i&$t in a Was$in&ton "ederal appeals %ourt #$ere $e is %laimin& presidential
privile&e to #it$$old 9/ do%uments subpoenaed by a &rand 1ury investi&atin& "ormer A&ri%ulture se%retary i)e
Kspy* +$e %ourt said prose%utors ?demonstrated a su""i%ient need to obtain %ertain in"ormation in some o" t$e
do%uments'@ and ordered t$ose released* But t$e 1ud&es sent t$e %ase ba%) to a lo#er %ourt to determine' in t$e
%ase o" ot$er do%uments' i" t$e &rand 1ury4s need "or relevant in"ormation out#ei&$s t$e president4s interest in
preservin& t$e %on"identiality o" advi%e $e re%eives* Kspy :uit in 199/ amid a%%usations $e too) &i"ts "rom
businesses $e re&ulated* Le $as denied #ron&doin&*
7,/
• • •
Wals$ &ave a dense' t$ou&$ #ell-do%umented' %ounterpoint to t$e notion t$at $e #as biased a&ainst <ea&an
Administration o""i%ials ; or 1ust plain nutty* +$e boo) 2F"irewall/ The )ran- .ontra .onspiracy and .o(er- up'
Oorton' 6,9*95G3 is espe%ially use"ul no#' as anot$er independent %ounsel' Kennet$ -tarr' relives many o" Wals$4s
ni&$tmares* -tarr' too' is bein& portrayed as a partisan out to &et a Eresident* And #e are told t$at $is probe $as
2also3 ta)en too lon&' is too %ostly' and is mired in issues no one %ares about anymore* Funny t$in&' -tarr4s #or)
%enters not on t$e ori&inal #ron&doin& ; t$e W$ite#ater land deal ; but on #$at $e suspe%ts is a %over-up* +$is
time around it4s a Cemo%rati% Administration* Con4t t$ey ever learnP
7,5
7,,
Op. cit.
7,3
Op. cit.
7,/
Was$in&ton' Kspy probe' #SA Today' 19 June 1997' 15F19/G' p* 7A*
7,5
Eaula C#yer F-enior Correspondent %overin& !ran-ContraG' Eointin& a "in&er at <ea&an' 1usiness 8ee'' ,3 June 1997'
353,' p* ,,*
53
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
-ttorney 3eneral 7s :ot ReIuired %o $e “Learned at Law”
+$e "ederal &overnment is usually represented in t$e -upreme Court by t$e soli%iter &eneral' t$e only o""i%ial
re:uired to be ?learned at la#*@
A soli%itor &eneral4s boss' t$e attorney &eneral' is bound by no su%$ la#* -till' many try ar&uin& be"ore t$e
nation4s $i&$est %ourt*
7,7
• • •
Attorney Ieneral Janet <eno assi&ned t$e Justi%e Cepartment4s inspe%tor &eneral 2February ,73 to investi&ate
#$et$er t$e FB! %overed up alle&ations t$at one o" its %rime-lab a&ents testi"ied "alsely durin& t$e ouster o" a
"ederal 1ud&e
7,7
8a"ter <epubli%an -ens* C$arles Irassley o" !o#a and Arlen -pe%ter o" Eennsylvania said
7,9
8t$ey
#ould not be %ontent #it$ t$e internal investi&ation8by FB! Cire%tor >ouis Free$*
7,9
2Janet <eno also said t$at3 s$e sees no reason "or an independent %ounsel to investi&ate t$e Cemo%rati%
"und-raisin& %ontroversy involvin& Eresident Clinton*
730
!n a de%ision t$at seems %ertain to an&er 2t$e %$airmen o" bot$ t$e -enate and Louse 1udi%iary %ommittees'
731
3
Attorney Ieneral Janet <eno $as approved t$e dra"t o" a letter re1e%tin& t$eir %all "or
73,
8a W$ite#ater-type outside
%ounsel to loo) into alle&ed politi%al "und-raisin& abuses*
733
?+$e :uality o" eviden%e o" %riminal #ron&doin& may be in dispute'@ 2-en* Jo$n3 %Cain' 2<-Ari.*'3 said in a
statement* ?But t$e "a%t t$at abundant in"ormation $as %ome to li&$t about possible violations o" t$e la# by senior
o""i%ials is not*@
73/
• • •
>ast year' t$e FB! brei"ed at least si( members o" Con&ress8a"ter re%eivin& eviden%e t$at C$ina $ad tar&eted
t$em to re%eive laundered %ampai&n money t$rou&$ Asian donors*
735
-i( mont$s be"ore t$e ele%tion' t$e FB!
brie"ed midlevel Oational -e%urity Coun%il aides at t$e W$ite Louse about intelli&en%e reports out o" C$ina
737
8o"
an alle&ed C$inese plot to in"luen%e t$e ele%tion #it$ ille&al donations*
737
A%%ordin& to t$e report' sta"" members at
t$e Oational -e%urity Coun%il' #$i%$ 2r*3 >a)e $eaded' #ere in"ormed by t$e Justi%e Cepartment o" an FB!
investi&ation into t$e alle&ations %on%ernin& C$ina' but Eresident Clinton and ot$er senior W$ite Louse o""i%ials
#ere not brie"ed*
739
?+$e FB! )ne# t$at C$ina and ot$er Asian %ountries #ere tryin& to e(ert in"luen%e in our so%iety'@ 2-enate
Judi%iary Committee C$airman Jrrin3 Lat%$ said on Fo( Oe#s 2ar%$ 93*
739
!" top o""i%ials #ere alerted in
advan%e' ?t$at ma)es t$is a problem and t$ese alle&ations even more serious t$an be"ore'@ $e said*
7/0
2And3 it is
?ama.in&@ i" no #arnin& o" t$e FB!4s suspi%ions #ere passed on to t$e top levels o" t$e W$ite Louse*
7/1
7,7
+ony auro' Up$oldin& a tradition' #SA Today' 1, Ce% 1997' 15F73G' p* 3A*
7,7
The Associated Press' Justi%e Cept* to probe possible FB! %over-up' The Seattle Times' ,7 Feb 1997' 1,0F50G' p* A/*
7,9
Op. cit.
7,9
Op. cit.
730
James Mi%ini FReutersG' <eno says no need yet "or spe%ial "unds probe' The Seattle Times' ,7 Feb 1997' 1,0F50G' p* A5*
731
<obert >* Ja%)son FThe !os Angeles TimesG' <eno set to re"ust independent %ounsel in "unds probe' San "rancisco
.hronicle' 1/ April 1997' 133F75G' p* A3*
73,
Op. cit.
733
Op. cit.
73/
James Mi%ini FReutersG' <eno says no need yet "or spe%ial "unds probe' The Seattle Times' ,7 Feb 1997' 1,0F50G' p* A5*
735
The !os Angeles Times D The Associated Press' Clinton says FB! s$ould $ave #arned $im on C$ina moneyH <epubli%an
leaders say mystery #idens "und-raisin& %ontroversy' The Seattle Times' 10 ar%$ 1997' 1,0F59G' p* A,*
737
)&idem' p* A1*
737
<obert -uro F8ashington PostG' <eno re1e%ts IJE on spe%ial probe o" "und raisin&H :uestion o" %redible eviden%e' San
"rancisco .hronicle' 15 April 1997' 133F77G' p* A3*
739
James <isen FThe !os Angeles TimesG' W$ite Louse' IJE Con&ress about to butt $eads over C!AH Ant$ony >a)e4s
%on"irmation as $ead o" t$e C!A $as turned into a test o" #ills bet#een t#o men ba%)ed by po#er"ul partisan "or%es* +$e
ne#est t#ist= >a)e )ne# about C$ina4s attempts to "unnel money to U*-* la#ma)ers ; but $e did not tell t$e president' The
Seattle Times' 10 ar%$ 1997' 1,0F59G' p* A3*
739
The !os Angeles Times D The Associated Press' Clinton says FB! s$ould $ave #arned $im on C$ina moneyH <epubli%an
leaders say mystery #idens "und-raisin& %ontroversy' The Seattle Times' 10 ar%$ 1997' 1,0F59G' p* A,*
7/0
Op. cit.
7/1
Op. cit.
5/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Jt$er <epubli%an leaders su&&ested t$e W$ite Louse may $ave been )ept in t$e dar) be%ause it $ad already
%ome under suspi%ion*
7/,
Louse -pea)er Oe#t Iinri%$' #$o des%ribed W$ite Louse "und-raisin& pra%ti%es as ?t$e most systemati%
lar&e-s%ale e""ort to &et around t$e la# * * * sin%e Water&ate'@
7/3
82is puttin&3 in%reasin& pressure 2on Janet <eno3 to
name an independent %ounsel to investi&ate*
7//
-enate a1ority >eader +rent >ott sa2id3 $e4ll press "or an independent %oun%el eit$er by #ay o" a nonbindin&
-entate resolution or a vote o" t$e Judi%iary %ommittee*
>ott also said t$e -enate Iovernment A""airs Committee investi&ation into W$ite Louse and %on&ressional
"und-raisin& pra%ti%es #ill be narro#ed to "o%us on a%tivities by Eresident Clinton and Mi%e Eresident Iore*
• -en* Jo$n Ilenn' C-J$io' #rote to Committee C$airman Fred +$ompson' <-+enn*' listin& or&ani.ations
Cemo%rats #ant subpoenaed about %ontributions t$ey &ot "rom t$e <epubli%an Oational Committee or
be%ause t$ey are nonpro"it &roups t$at mi&$t $ave ille&ally en&a&ed in politi%al a%tivity* !n%luded= t$e
C$ristian Coalition and Oational <i&$t to >i"e Committee*
• +$ompson returned 63'000 %ontributed by Kansas businessman Far$ad A.ima and $is relatives*
+$ompson said A.ima' #$ose 690'000 donation to t$e Cemo%rati% Oational Committee is bein& returned'
mi&$t be a #itness*
• +$e Louse %ommittee investi&atin& %ampai&n "inan%e abuses issued subpoenas to t$e W$ite Louse and
Justi%e Cepartment to "ind out about alle&ed C$inese &overnment involvement in "unnelin& money to t$e
presidental ele%tion*
7/5
Louse -pea)er8Iin&ri%$' <-Ia*' said on ?Fo( Oe#s -unday@ t$at $e $oped <eno #ould as) a panel o" "ederal
1ud&es to appoint an independent %ounsel* !" s$e does not' Iin&ri%$ said' Con&ress mi&$t laun%$ an investi&ation to
determine #$et$er <eno $ersel" $ad a role in t$e "und-raisin&*
?!" s$e %an loo) at t$is mound o" eviden%e * * * loo) at t$e day-a"ter-day revelations' and not %on%lude it is time
"or an independent %ounsel' $o# %an any serious %iti.en $ave any "ait$ in $erP@ Iin&ri%$ as)ed*
!" s$e de%ides not to see) an independent %ounsel' Iin&ri%$ said' <eno needs to e(plain $er de%ision* ?-$e
needs to ans#er in publi%* -$e needs to ans#er' ! t$in)' under oat$'@ $e said*
+$e ran)in& Cemo%rat on t$e Louse Iovernment <e"orm Committee' <epresentative Lenry Wa(man o"
Cali"ornia' rea%ted on COO4s ?>ate Kdition@ by sayin& Iin&ri%$ and t$e <epubli%ans are see)in& to %over up ?a
partisan #it%$ $unt*@
7/7
-enate Judi%iary Committee C$airman8Lat%$' <-Uta$' said 2April 133 on ABC-+M4s ?+$is Wee)@ t$at <eno'
as a leadin& member o" t$e Clinton administration' $as a ?%on"li%t o" interest' bot$ apparent and real'@ i" $er o#n
department investi&ates t$e %ase*
7/7
-$e dismissed su&&estions t$at s$e su""ers a %on"li%t o" interest in tryin& to
investi&ate t$e president #$o appointed $er
7/9
82and3 said t$e 5-mont$-old 2Fas o" April 15G3 in:uiry by t$e Justi%e
Cepartment tas) "or%e #ill &o "or#ard*
7/9
-enate a1ority >eader8>ott' <-iss*' %alled <eno4s de%ision ?ine(%usable'@ assertin& s$e "a%es a ?%lear
%on"li%t o" interest*@
750
?+oni&$t' t$e Ameri%an people $ave a %risis o" %on"iden%e in t$e Clinton administration'@
$e said in a statement t$at de%ried t$e ?politi%i.ation o" t$e Clinton Justi%e Cepartment*@
751
2+$e3 Attorney Ieneral must be "ree o" politi%al ties*
75,
)uper(!omputing) +ower
2Jn ay ,7'3 Louse Judi%iary Committee C$airman Lenry Lyde' <-!ll*'8%alled on Attorney Ieneral Janet
<eno to investi&ate #$et$er ille&al Asian donations to Eresident Clinton4s %ampai&n %aused t$e administration to
allo# t$e e(port o" sensitive U*-* te%$nolo&y to C$ina*
7/,
Op. cit.
7/3
Was$in&ton' Iin&ri%$ 1oins %all "or probe' #SA Today' 5 ar%$ 1997' 15F1,0G' p* 7A*
7//
Op. cit.
7/5
Op. cit.
7/7
<obert >* Ja%)son FThe !os Angeles TimesG' <eno set to re"ust independent %ounsel in "unds probe' San "rancisco
.hronicle' 1/ April 1997' 133F75G' p* A3*
7/7
Op. cit.
7/9
<obert -uro F8ashington PostG' <eno re1e%ts IJE on spe%ial probe o" "und raisin&H :uestion o" %redible eviden%e' San
"rancisco .hronicle' 15 April 1997' 133F77G' p* A3*
7/9
Op. cit.
750
Op. cit.
751
Op. cit.
75,
Alan Cers$o#it. FEro"essor o" >a#' Larvard >a# -%$ool F1999GG' Attorney Ieneral must be "ree o" politi%al ties F10
Au& 1997G' Ta'ing !i&erties/ A Decade o- $ard .ases0 1ad !aws0 and 1um Raps F!llinois= Contemporary Boo)s' !n%*'
1999G' p* ,95*
55
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
!n a letter to <eno' Lyde and <ep* +illie Fo#ler' <-Fla*' said Justi%e Cepartment o""i%ials %urrently probin& t$e
donations s%andal s$ould also loo) into ?t$e possible lin)@ #it$ several re%ent e(amples o" te%$nolo&y trans"er to
C$ina*
753
+$e letter also %ited several sensitive te%$nolo&y trans"er %ases' in%ludin& t$e administration4s
%ontroversial de%ision to permit t$e C$inese to a%:uire ma%$inery "rom a %Connell Cou&lass missile and strate&i%
bomber "a%tory in J$io*
75/
2Additionally'3 t$e administration $as allo#ed t$e sale o" /7 super%omputers to C$ina in
t$e last 15 mont$s 2Fas o" ay ,9G'3 &ivin& t$e C$inese #$at Eenta&on o""i%ials believe to be more super%omputin&
%apa%ity t$an t$e U*-* Ce"ense Cepartment*
755
,oD 'elligerents
Journalists' politi%ians' and avera&e people o"ten use e(a&&erated %omparisons to e(press stron& opinions* We
o"ten $ear %onservatives des%ribed as ?"as%ists@ or ?%Cart$yites'@ liberals as ?%ommunists'@ opponents o"
a""irmative-a%tion :uotas as ?ra%ists'@ and %riti%s o" s%$ool prayer as persons ?intolerant o" reli&ion*@
757
+$e %ourtroom %an4t be%ome a substitute "or t$e editin& des)* !t isn4t t$e proper "un%tion o" &overnment to
determine t$e nature o" t$e r$etori% to be used in debatin& important publi% issues* As Justi%e Jo$n Larlan ; #$o
$ad a die$ard %onservative li"estyle ; on%e said in stri)in& do#n t$e %onvi%tion o" a dra"t opponent #$o %ame into
%ourt #earin& a 1a%)et embla.oned #it$ a "our letter des%ription o" #$at $e t$ou&$t o" t$e dra"t= ?-urely t$e state
$as no ri&$t to %leanse publi% debate to t$e point #$ere it is &rammati%ally palatable to t$e most s:ueamis$ amon&
us*@
757
W$en <alp$ Oadar8leveled a serious %$ar&e a&ainst t$e Justi%e Cepartment4s antitrust poli%ies' Attorney
Ieneral it%$ell responded by de%larin& t$at Oadar #as $avin& ?$allu%inations*@
2 7593
+$is "ollo#ed on t$e $eels o"
a similar Justi%e Cepartment retort to %$ar&es leveled a&ainst J* Kd&ar Loover by Con&ressman Lale Bo&&s*
Bo&&s' a%%ordin& to t$e Ceputy Attorney Ieneral' #as ?eit$er si%) or not in possession o" $is "a%ulties*@
759
+$is
)ind o" psy%$iatri% name-%allin& is not limited to national politi%s*
770
Ce%larin& one4s politi%al opponents insane $as a lon& and un"ortunate $istory* +$e -oviet Union4s use o"
?insanity@ as a eup$emism "or politi%al devian%e is #ell )no#n* FWitness t$e8%ase o" t$e Je#is$ <ed Army
Ieneral #$o' a"ter returnin& $is medals in protest o" $is %ountry4s treatment o" $is %oreli&ionists' #as %ommitted to
a mental $ospital on t$e &round t$at no sane man #ould do su%$ a t$in&*G
Jur o#n &overnment
771
8$a2s3 a tradition o" attemptin& to e(plain e(treme politi%al be$avior in psy%$iatri%
terms* We "ind it %om"ortable to believe' "or e(ample' t$at assassins li)e Js#ald and -ir$an #ere %ra.y* !ndeed'
a8report to t$e Oational Commission on t$e Causes and Erevention o" Miolen%e %on%luded t$at ?All t$ose #$o
$ave assassinated or attempted to assassinate presidents o" t$e United -tates F#it$ t$e possible e(%eption o" t$e
Euerto <i%an nationalist attempt upon Eresident +rumanG $ave been mentally disturbed persons #$o did not )ill to
advan%e any rational politi%al plan*@
77,
We are "ar more #illin& to a%%ept a nonpoliti%al Fand non%onspiratorialG e(planation "or an attempt on t$e li"e
o" a popular leader8t$an to lend any de&ree o" le&itima%y to t$e %rime by as%ribin& rational motives*
773
+$e undue
emp$asis #e $ave pla%ed on mental illness as a %ause o" assassinations may $elp to e(plain #$y almost $al" ;
ei&$ty-"ive out o" 179 ; o" t$e people #$o demanded to see Eresident Oi(on #it$out a prior appointment82in
1970
77/
3 #ere immediately s$ipped o"" to t$e lo%al mental $ospital*
775
We s$ould8be alert to any spread o" t$is %$ildis$ ; but potentially dan&erous ; p$enomenon* !t is "ar too easy
to be%ome t$e )ind o" so%iety t$at Kmily Ci%)inson on%e #rote about*
753
-ara Frit. FThe !os Angeles TimesG' >a#ma)ers #ant to )no# i" Asian donors #on "avors' The Seattle Times' ,9 ay
1997' 1,0F1,7G' p* A13*
75/
Op. cit.
755
Op. cit.
757
Alan Cers$o#it. FEro"essor o" >a#' Larvard >a# -%$ool F1999GG' Common-sense verdi%t on ?name-%allin&@ F19 -ep
199/G' Ta'ing !i&erties/ A Decade o- $ard .ases0 1ad !aws0 and 1um Raps F!llinois= Contemporary Boo)s' !n%*' 1999G' p*
/3*
757
)&idem' pp* /3-//*
759
it%$ell #as later to be%ome a %onvi%ted %riminal*
759
Alan Cers$o#it. FEro"essor o" >a#' Larvard >a# -%$ool F1999GG' +$e %$ildis$ politi%al name-%allers F,7 June 1971G'
Ta'ing !i&erties/ A Decade o- $ard .ases0 1ad !aws0 and 1um Raps F!llinois= Contemporary Boo)s' !n%*' 1999G' pp* //-
/5*
770
)&idem' p* /5*
771
Op. cit.
77,
Op. cit.
773
Op. cit.
77/
)&idem' p* /7*
775
)&idem' p* /5*
57
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Assent' and you are saneH
Cemur ; you4re strai&$ta#ay dan&erous
And $andled #it$ a %$ain*
777
• • •
+$e use o" or&ani.ed %rime "i&ures to plot assassinations' %oordinate t$e smu&&lin& o" dru&s and arms "or t$e
C!A' and &enerally stand in readiness to ?serve t$eir &overnment@ is a lon&standin& tradition*
777
+$e day be"ore t$e ele%tion last Oovember' >arry Oi%$ols met 2E$ilip Weiss3*
779
?+$ey mi&$t )ill me'@
2Oi%$ols3 said* ?0ou4ll read one day t$at ! &ot drun) and ran into a movin& brid&e* Jr >arry Oi%$ols &ot depressed
over everyt$in& and ble# $is $ead o""*@
779
?+$ey@ in Oi%$ols4 universe are s$ado#y Ar)ansas %$ara%ters #$o $ave
one #ay or anot$er been %onne%ted politi%ally to Clinton*
770
Oi%$ols $imsel" #as on%e a Clinton man* As &overnor' Clinton $ired $im to be t$e mar)etin& dire%tor "or t$e
Ar)ansas Cevelopment Finan%e Aut$ority* Clinton later "ired Oi%$ols' %$ar&in& t$at $e $ad made unaut$ori.ed
p$one %alls to Central Ameri%a*
Oi%$ols' "or $is part' be%ame %onvin%ed t$at Clinton $imsel" $ad some va&ue but sinister Central Ameri%an
%onne%tion durin& t$e time $e #as &overnor* !t4s a %onne%tion t$at in Oi%$ols4 vie# involved %o%aine s$ipments'
money-launderin& and &un-runnin&' all in and around t$e ena airport in #estern Ar)ansas #$ile Clinton #as
&overnor*
Oi%$ols sued Clinton to %ontest $is "irin&* Le %$ar&ed not only t$at Clinton #as remiss in not investi&atin&
ena but also t$at $e $ad misused state "unds to roman%e "ive #omen* +$e suit #as dropped' but later' a"ter
Clinton be%ame president' it #ould &ro# in si&ni"i%an%e*
!n January t$e W$ite Louse %ounsel4s o""i%e released a report %alled t$e ?Communi%ation -tream o" Conspira%y
Commer%e'@ #$i%$ %asti&ates Oi%$ols' amon& ot$ers' "or spreadin& vi%ious reports about Clinton t$at pla%e $im and
some o" t$ose %losest to $im in %riminal %onspira%ies*
Oo sittin& president $as been so vili"ied* Kennedy #as dead be"ore t$e stories about Judit$ K(ner and mob ties
#ere %ir%ulated* Clinton %an read t$e s%andalous stories about $imsel" in %ountless pamp$lets' boo)s and on
numerous Web sites*
+$ere are %laims t$at Clinton4s %ronies smu&&led dru&s t$rou&$ ena* +$ere are any number o" #omen $e is
said to $ave $ad se(ual relations #it$* +$ere are murders'
771
8as many as 57'
77,
8t$at $is politi%al ?ma%$ine@ is
said to $ave ordered or a%:uies%ed to or %overed up* J$' and t$ere is t$e %laim t$at $is mot$er #as involved in t#o
)illin&s at t$e $ospital #$ere s$e #or)ed as a nurse*
773
And t$ere is' most prominently' t$e July ,0' 1993 deat$ o"
W$ite Louse Ceputy Counsel Min%ent W* Foster Jr* ; #$i%$ no "ull-blooded Clinton %ra.y believes #as a simple
sui%ide*
+$e Clinton %ra.ies ; 2Weiss $ad3 "irst $eard t$e term used' #it$ ton&ue only sli&$tly in %$ee)' by Ambrose
Kvans-Erit%$ard' a Britis$ 1ournalist #$o is one o" t$em ; are o" di""erent types*
+$ere are $aters su%$ as Oi%$ols and Eat atris%iana' a "ilmma)er' #$o $ave developed a8vie# o" Clinton as
-atan4s nep$e#*
77/
artyrs are in anot$er %lass*
775
Finally t$ere are t$e "ree-lan%e obsessives' t$e people "or #$om
t$e !nternet #as invented' %erebral $obbyists #$o $ave &limpsed in t$e Clinton s%andals a $i&$ moral drama t$at
mi&$t s$a)e so%iety to its roots*
777
Kle%troni% %ommuni%ation $as been a )ey "a%tor in popular uprisin&s around t$e #orld durin& re%ent
years Ft$e role o" t$e "a( ma%$ine in publi%i.in& C$ina4s +iananmen demonstrations bein& per$aps t$e most
notable instan%eG*
777
2But3 most o" t$e #orld4s poor don4t $ave a%%ess to t$e #eb* 2si%3 !t4s a &ood day
#$en t$ey are able to "ind "ood' s$elter' #ater' medi%al %are and #or) in su""i%ient :uantity and :uality "or
t$eir "amilies to survive* any o" t$em don4t*
779
777
)&idem' p* /7*
777
William J* C$ambliss FEro"essor o" -o%iolo&y and C$air o" t$e -o%iolo&y Cept* at t$e Iero&e Was$* U*' and Eresident o"
t$e Am* -o%iety o" Criminolo&y F1999GG' On the Ta'e/ "rom Petty .roo's to Presidents F!ndiana= University Eress' 1999G'
p* ,0/*
779
E$ilip Weiss' Clinton4s ?%ra.ies@H no ot$er president $as be%ome su%$ a #ell -#orn tar&et #$ile in o""i%e' The Seattle
Times:Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ "ocus' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G' p* C1*
779
Op. cit.
770
Op. cit.
771
Op. cit.
77,
Op. cit.
773
Op. cit.
77/
Op. cit.
775
Op. cit.
777
Op. cit.
777
Ben Cavis' +$e %ulture ma%$ine= s%ien%e and art on t$e Web' Scienti-ic American' Au& 1997' ,75F,G' p* 107*
57
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$ere are 957 a%tive Bpatriot4 &roups in t$e U-A' up "rom 909 a year earlier' says t$e -out$ern Eoverty
>a# Center* +$e &roups are de"ined as militias' %ommon-la# %ourts' %$ur%$es' radio broad%asters'
publis$ers and ot$ers #$o identi"y t$emselves as anti-&overnment or as opposed to t$e BOe# World
Jrder*4
779
2FWas$in&ton -tate $a2d3 30H Jre&on' 19H Cali"ornia' 37H Ari.ona' /5H Colorado' 37H and +e(as'
$a2d3 /9*
790
G3
!n part be%ause o" $is #illin&ness to %redit vie#s su%$ as a belie" in ?deat$ s:uads@ in Ar)ansas'
Kvans-Erit%$ard $as be%ome a $ero in t$e anti-Clinton under&round*
791
?Jne doesn4t $ave to believe in bla%)
$eli%opters to see t$at t$e post-Cold-War era in t$is %ountry is a &old mine "or 1ournalists*@
79,
Anot$er su%$ $ero is Lu&$ -prunt' 57' an a%%ountant #it$ a ba%$elor4s de&ree and a master4s de&ree "rom !+
and a la# de&ree "rom -tan"ord* Lis report'
793
8?Citi.en4s !ndependent <eport'@
79/
8on ?omissions and %uriosa@ in
t$e Foster deat$ $as a true %ult "ollo#in& amon& anti-Clinton .ealots*
795
Le told 2Weiss3 $e $ad been trailed by people $e believes to be &overnment a&ents on t#o o%%asions ; on%e on
a plane #$en a man %ame and sat beside $im and $ad a lon& dis%ussion about #$o $e #as F?! t$in) $e #as in so"t
%lot$es "rom Air For%e intelli&en%e@G' anot$er time #$en a man #al)ed be$ind $im "or several blo%)s in
Was$in&ton*
?Basi%ally !4m a #imp'@ -prunt o""ered* ?!" someone %ame to me and said' BWe4re &oin& to burn your $ouse
do#n and )ill your #i"e and )ids unless you desist'4 !4d say' BWe4ve &ot a deal*4 @ 2W$at a #imp\3
A"ter several $ours o" listenin& to -prunt' 2Weiss3 su&&ested $e #as a %onspira%y t$eorist*
But -prunt said' in part= ?!4m not sure t$at4s a use"ul term* !n t$e pro&ression o" ideas' some )oo)s al#ays turn
out to be ri&$t*
797
-ome turn out to be a sour%e o" pro&ress* Abolitionists #ere probably %alled )oo)s*@
797
Federi%) Cou&lass' t$e &reat Ameri%an abolitionist' on%e said t$at' ?+$e li"e o" t$e nation is se%ure only
#$ile t$e nation is $onest' trut$"ul' and virtuous*@ Wit$ t$e da#n o" ea%$ day4s ne# %ampai&n "inan%e
s%andal' most Ameri%ans are outra&ed by t$e la%) o" $onesty' trut$"ulness and virtue t$ey see e($ibited by
our nation4s ele%ted leaders*
A%ross t$e %ountry' t$ere is #idespread sentiment t$at t$e president is blo#in& a smo)e s%reen over t$e
money launderin& s%$emes t$at $ave been e(posed at t$e W$ite Louse* any loo) at t$e president4s
belated %all "or %ampai&n "inan%e re"orm as a %al%ulated &esture to divert attention a#ay "rom apparent
W$ite Louse "und-raisin& ille&alities*
But t$e need "or la#s to %lean up t$e %orrupted %ampai&n "inan%e system s$ould be separated "rom t$e
"a%t t$at t$e president' t$e vi%e president and t$e W$ite Louse sta"" $ave appeared to sell poli%ti%al
in"luen%e* +$e president4s supporters may $ave even 1eopardi.ed our national se%urity by soli%itin& money
"rom "orei&n %ountries* Forei&n %ountries &ive %ampai&n money to U*-* politi%al leaders to obtain U*-*
poli%y bene"its ; su%$ as most-"avored-nation tradin& status*
+$e on&oin& revelations merit t#o responses* First' t$e president s$ould stop tal)in& and dire%t
Attorney Ieneral Janet <eno to appoint a spe%ial prose%utor to investi&ate* !" t$ere is no ille&al a%tivity' $e
s$ould en%oura&e t$is a%tion to %lear $is administration4s name and to restore t$e %on"iden%e o" t$e
Ameri%an people in t$eir ele%ted leaders* Already' t$e -enate $as appropriately ta)en t$e lead in
investi&atin& ille&al and improper pra%ti%es o" bot$ politi%al parties in t$e 1997 "ederal ele%tions*
-e%ond' #e must stop t$e perni%ious money-launderin& system* ?-o"t money@ is at t$e root o" most all
t$e money-launderin& s%$emes bein& revealed day a"ter day* -o"t money ; money %ontributed in unlimited
amounts to national party or&ani.ations "or t$e ostensible purpose o" ?party buildin&@ ; is t$e bi&&est
%orrupter in national %ampai&ns today*
+$e Ameri%an publi% $as a ri&$t to )no# #$ere %andidates &et t$eir %ampai&n "unds* +$ey are
dis&usted #$en t$ey "ind t$at bi& money' #$et$er %orporate or union' %an be laundered t$rou&$ politi%al
parties*
W$en #e blo# a#ay t$e smo)e' #e %an see t$at t$e president used t$e le&al so"t money system as a
train to %arry t$e ille&al %ar&o o" "orei&n money*
779
<obert A* -eiple' U*-* must ta)e lead in $elpin& #orld4s poor' The Seattle TimesRSeattle Post- )ntelligencer/ "ocus' ,,
June 1997' 15F,5G' p* K,*
779
-out$ern Eoverty >a# Center' Oumber o" Bpatriot4 &roups rises' !n Ienevieve >ynn' #SA Today' 5 ar%$ 1997'
15F1,0G' p* /A*
790
Op. cit.
791
E$ilip Weiss' Clinton4s ?%ra.ies@H no ot$er president $as be%ome su%$ a #ell -#orn tar&et #$ile in o""i%e' The Seattle
Times:Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ "ocus' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G' p* C3*
79,
Op. cit.
793
Op. cit.
79/
Op. cit.
795
Op. cit.
797
Op. cit.
797
Op. cit.
59
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
We %an blo# a#ay t$e smo)e* We must demand t$at= 1G Con&ress and t$e pesident pass a bill ma)in&
money launderin& ille&alH and ,G ele%ted leaders must %$an&e t$eir o#n be$avior* All ele%ted leaders must
raise t$e standard*
799
+$e W$ite Louse %alls t$ese various 2)oo)y3 people8parti%ipants in ?%onspira%y %ommer%e*@ -prunt $as $is
o#n name "or t$is loose allian%e= t$e ?%o-belli&erents*@
2Weiss3 mentioned t$at term to C$ris <uddy' a "ero%iously do&&ed reporter "or t$e +ribune-<evie#' a
ri&$t-#in& Eittsbur&$ paper*
799
But $e promptly disa&reed*
?! don4t see mysel" as bein& involved in a #ar'@ <uddy said*
-ome$o#' t$at seemed t$e %ra.iest statement o" all*
790
“)urrender1 instead of settling for a “!easeD fire.”


<J.
Brin& on t$e <o%)ets\
79,
O<A members say t$ey #ould rat$er not be in -eattle*
793
+$e %rime8ma)e2s3 many
o" t$em nervous* !t4s not t$e run-o"-t$e-mill' avoidable %rime t$at lur)s in t$e dar) alleys' but %rime t$at4s bra.en
enou&$ to 1ump you on t$e street in t$e middle o" t$e day*
79/
• • •
+$e "a%t t$at or&ani.ed %rime net#or)s are ubi:uitous and t$at la# en"or%ement a&en%ies as #ell as individual
politi%ians #or) $and in &love #it$ t$em unders%ores t#o o" t$e main %on%lusions to be dra#n "rom 2William J*
C$ambliss4s3 resear%$* First is t$at #$at 2$e3 "ound in -eattle is not uni:ue to t$at Oort$#estern %ity but is
%$ara%teristi% o" Ameri%a4s lar&e %ities and $as been sin%e at least t$e turn o" t$e %entury* -e%ond' is t$at t$e
e%posure o" %orruption is a political event and must be understood as su%$* +$is latter point #arrants elaboration*
Iiven t$e ubi:uitous nature o" %orruption and institutionali.ed %riminal pra%ti%es in Ameri%a' #$en it is
e(posed t$e :uestion to be as)ed is not ?$o# did it $appenP@ <at$er' t$e :uestion t$at must be as)ed is ?#$y is it
bein& e(posedP@
795
Corruption is e(posed #$en t$ose #$o %ontrol t$e la# en"or%ement a&en%ies #ill bene"it "rom
its e(posure* !n 1979' t$e %rime net#or) in -eattle #as e(posed as a #ay o" servin& t$e interest o" t$e <epubli%ans
#$en t$ey &ained %ontrol o" t$e W$ite Louse and )ey politi%al o""i%es in Was$in&ton -tate* +$at s%enario is
repeated every time t$ere is a %$an&e o" politi%al parties*
797
Corrupt o""i%ials' #ealt$y dru& tra""i%)ers and poverty pose t$e &reatest t$reats to demo%ra%y
797
82in >atin
Ameri%a
799
and else#$ere3* !t is imperative t$at #e are a#are o" #$at is &oin& on* !t is even more important'
$o#ever' t$at #e understand #$y* +$rou&$out t$is boo) as #e $ave moved "rom a des%ription o" t$e %rime
net#or)s in -eattle to t$ose o" t$e United -tates &overnment' #e $ave dis%overed "a%ts and un%overed relations$ips
t$at indi%ate $o# t$e politi%al' e%onomi%' and so%ial relations o" Ameri%a %reate inevitable tenden%ies to#ard
%orruption and t$e institutionali.ation o" %rime by &overnment o""i%ials' ra%)eteers' la#yers' and ordinary business
people*
799
Crime bosses enri%$ t$emselves at t$e e(pense o" t$eir vi%tims and t$e publi% in &eneral* Cru&s' violen%e'
prostitution' and e%onomi% e(ploitation enslave millions*
700
?-omeone is murdered in t$e United -tates every ,,
799
<ep* >inda -mit$ F3rd Con&ressional Cistri%tG' Knd Bso"t money4 #ay o" launderin& moneyH Eresident4s %all "or
%ampai&n "inan%e re"orm diverts attention' 7astside Journal' 31 ar%$ 1997' ,1F,,5G' p* A9*
799
E$ilip Weiss' Clinton4s ?%ra.ies@H no ot$er president $as be%ome su%$ a #ell -#orn tar&et #$ile in o""i%e' The Seattle
Times:Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ "ocus' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G' p* C3*
790
Op. cit.
791
8#it$ a &overnment $e didn4t believe in*
N ar) Babine%) FThe Associated PressG' -tando"" ends in +e(as' The Seattle Times' / ay 1997' 15F19G' p* A1*
79,
2FEointer to sports arti%le lo%ated immediately to t$e ri&$t o" t$e "ollo#in& O<A arti%le and above t$e previous stando""
arti%le*G3
N The Seattle Times' / ay 1997' 15F19G' p* A1*
793
C$ris -olomon' O<A %onvention= it4s #$ere &uys 1ust #anna $ave "un' The Seattle Times' / ay 1997' 15F19G' p* A1*
79/
Op. cit.
795
William J* C$ambliss FEro"essor o" -o%iolo&y and C$air o" t$e -o%iolo&y Cept* at t$e Iero&e Was$* U*' and Eresident o"
t$e Am* -o%iety o" Criminolo&y F1999GG' On the Ta'e/ "rom Petty .roo's to Presidents F!ndiana= University Eress' 1999G'
pp* ,0/-,05*
797
)&idem' p* ,05*
797
World' >atin summit' #SA Today' 11 Oov 1997' 15F/1G' p* 9A*
799
Op. cit.
799
William J* C$ambliss FEro"essor o" -o%iolo&y and C$air o" t$e -o%iolo&y Cept* at t$e Iero&e Was$* U*' and Eresident o"
t$e Am* -o%iety o" Criminolo&y F1999GG' On the Ta'e/ "rom Petty .roo's to Presidents F!ndiana= University Eress' 1999G'
p* ,07*
700
Ireed ; #$at is it doin& to usP' Awa'eH greedI how does it a--ect usJ' 9 Jan 1997' p* 5*
59
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
minutes' robbed every /7 se%onds and seriously assaulted every ,9 se%onds'@ reports Staying Ali(e > 9our .rime
Pre(ention 3uide*
701
Staying Ali(e #arns us= ?Be#are o" t$e #ol" in s$eep4s %lot$in&*@
70,
?Anyone ine(perien%ed
puts "ait$ in every #ord' but t$e s$re#d one %onsiders $is steps*@ FEroverbs 1/=15H ,7=1,G
703
?Wisdom8is "or a
prote%tion t$e same as money is "or a prote%tionH but t$e advanta&e o" )no#led&e is t$at #isdom itsel" preserves
alive its o#ners*@ N K%%lesiastes 7=1,*
70/
Avoid23 t$e traps o" money-&rubbin&8prea%$ers and po#er-$un&ry politi%ians*
705
• • •
By no#' most Ameri%ans $ave stopped e(pe%tin& t$eir politi%ians to be saintly* +$e o""i%ial trea%$eries o" t$e
1970s and B70s ; "rom t$e FB!4s $oundin& o" %ivil-ri&$ts leaders to t$e de%eit surroundin& Mietnam to t$e
%orruption at t$e $eart o" Water&ate ; %ould $ardly leave us anyt$in& but %yni%al*
707
Oobody but members o" t$e t$e
opposition party pretends to be s$o%)ed ; s$o%)ed ; to learn t$e president is sellin& $is soul' not to mention $is
in"luen%e' to #ealt$y %ampai&n %ontributors*
707
Con4t t$ey all do itP
Well' only i" #e let t$em*
0ou don4t $ave to be naive to believe t$e %urrent system is %orrupt* +$e president' t$e vi%e president and' yes'
$i&$-ran)in& <epubli%ans ; #$o $ad t$eir o#n s$a)edo#ns &oin& ; sold o"" lar&e pie%es8to t$ose #it$ enou&$
money to ma)e a pur%$a%e* +$at is a "undamental violation o" our system o" politi%s' #$i%$ $as one o" its abidin&
prin%iples t$e notion t$at ea%$ voter s$ould $ave an e:ual voi%e' #$et$er ri%$ or poor' bla%)' #$ite or bro#n'
native-born or naturali.ed*
709
Ameri%an demo%ra%y %annot #it$stand8t$e #$olesale buyin& and sellin& o" po#er and in"luen%e and a%%ess'
so t$at only t$e #ealt$y are represented in Was$in&ton* +$at lands us ri&$t ba%) at t$e rei&n o" Kin& Ieor&e' "rom
#$i%$ a "led&lin& nation rebelled*
709
2!n "a%t' June 17'
710
3 1775' t$e Battle o" Bun)er Lill too) pla%e near Boson*
711
!" you believe t$ere is not$in& you %an do to )eep t$e #ealt$y and po#er"ul "rom o#nin& politi%ians' you are
#ron&* !t is Ameri%a4s "atalisti% a%%eptan%e o" t$e system t$at $as allo#ed it to persist*
71,
Corruption is probably t$e best e(planation o" #$at $appened ele%tion day* Clinton $as more sorts o" alle&ed
and apparent s%andal under investi&ation ; problemati% real-estate "inan%e FW$ite#aterG' se(ual $arassment'
misuse o" t$e FB!' %orrupt %ampai&n "inan%e ; t$an any ot$er president' in%ludin& Warren I* Lardin&' >yndon B*
Jo$nson' and Oi(on*
713
Eerversion and %orruption mas:erade as ambi&uity*
71/
?Co #e $ave a nation o" )in&s or a nation #$ere t$ere are truly publi% servantsP@ 2Josep$3 Cammarata
as)ed* ?Jr do #e $ave a nation #$ere people are a%%ountable "or t$eir o#n personal' private %ondu%t' or
#$ere some' be%ause o" t$eir positions o" po#er' aren4t a%%ountableP@
2Iilbert3 Cavis ar&ues t$at temporary immunity #ould &ive every president a reprieve "or potentially
ei&$t years a&ainst %$ar&es su%$ as not $avin& paid personal debts' met a %ontra%t or ot$er#ise in1ured
someone* ?+o %reate a blan)et rule prote%tin& a president "rom liti&ation relatin& to $is uno""i%ial a%ts
#ould %ross a line t$at t$is %ourt $as never %rossed and t$at t$e "ramers For t$e ConstitutionG never
%ontemplated #ould be %rossed'@ Cavis asserts in Clinton v* Jones*
715
+$e Constitution does not s$ield t$e president "rom $avin& to "a%e la#suits over a%ts unrelated to $is o""i%ial
duties' t$e 2-upreme Court3 1usti%es ruled unanimously*
717
+$e -upreme Court 2also3 said t$e distri%t 1ud&e4s
701
)&idem' -urvivin& in a &reedy #orld' p* 7*
70,
)&idem' p* 7*
703
Op. cit.
70/
)&idem' pp* 7-9*
705
)&idem' p* 9*
707
Cynt$ia +u%)er FC$roni%le FeaturesG' Buy your o#n politi%ian' The Seattle Times' 10 ar%$ 1997' p* B/*
707
Op. cit.
709
Op. cit.
709
Op. cit.
710
Caily Brie"in&' The Seattle Times' 17 June 1997' 1,0F1//G' p* A5*
711
Op. cit.
71,
Cynt$ia +u%)er FC$roni%le FeaturesG' Buy your o#n politi%ian' The Seattle Times' 10 ar%$ 1997' p* B/*
713
Kevin E$illips F-pe%ial to The !os Angeles TimesG' W$y t$e ele%tion results do not re"le%t %ontentment' The Seattle
Times' ,1 Oov 1997' p* B7*
71/
Jo$n Wayne' :uoted by <andy <oberts D James -* Jlson' John 8ayne/ American FFree EressG' )n Auotable Auotes]'
Reader;s Digest' Jan 1997' 1/9F995G' p* 15*
715
8ashington Post D The New 9or' Times' Court to #ei&$ presidential immunityH Clinton pus$in& to delay $arassment
suit' The Seattle Times' 1, Jan 1997' 15F,G' p* A/*
717
>aurie Asseo FThe Associated PressG' -upreme Court denies Clinton prote%tion "rom Eaula Jones suitH but trial 1ud&e
%ould still delay %ase out o" B$i&$ respe%t4 "or o""i%e' The Seattle Times' ,7 ay 1997' 1,0F1,7G' p* A1*
70
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
de%ision to delay t$e 2Eaula Jones3 trial
2 7173
until a"ter Clinton leaves o""i%e #as an abuse o" dis%retion*
719
Clinton ;
already enmes$ed in W$ite#ater and "und-raisin& investi&ations ; ar&ued t$at dealin& #it$ Jones4 la#suit #ould
ta)e time a#ay "rom $is presidential duties* Lis la#yers also said t$at &ivin& a trial 1ud&e %ontrol over #$en
Clinton must be in %ourt #ould violate t$e %onstitutional separation o" po#ers bet#een t$e e(e%utive and t$e
1udi%iary*
719
Arro&ant and murderous leaders need a lesson in %ivility' and i" t$ey persist in bein& outla#s and
rene&ades' t$ey must be isolated "rom t$e #orld %ommunity*
7,0
2Kven Oe#t3 Iin&ri%$ said on "o% News Sunday t$at ?t$e eviden%e mounts every day o" la#brea)in& in t$is
2Clinton3 administration*@
7,1
717
Jones $as a%%used Clinton o" see)in& se( #it$ $er and82a"ter s$e attempted to leave'3 e(posin& $imsel" to $er on ay
9' 1991' in an Ar)ansas $otel room #$ile $e #as &overnor and s$e #as a lo#-level state employee*
N 8ashington Post D The New 9or' Times' Court to #ei&$ presidential immunityH Clinton pus$in& to delay $arassment
suit' The Seattle Times' 1, Jan 1997' 15F,G' p* A/*
719
>aurie Asseo FThe Associated PressG' -upreme Court denies Clinton prote%tion "rom Eaula Jones suitH but trial 1ud&e
%ould still delay %ase out o" B$i&$ respe%t4 "or o""i%e' The Seattle Times' ,7 ay 1997' 1,0F1,7G' p* A1,*
719
)&idem' p* A1*
7,0
Kditorials F"rom The 1lade' +oledo' J$ioG' >esson needed' 7astside Journal' ,/ April 1997' ,1F,/9G' p* A10*
7,1
-usan Ea&e' <eno de%ides today on "und-rasin&' #SA Today' 1/ April 1997' 15F1/9G' p* A1*
71
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
-fter -ll1 7t#s - )mall orld
! #itnessed Janet <eno' t$e Attorney Ieneral' %ommittin& se( %rimes a&ainst %$ildren at Cisney >and in
Ana$eim' Cali"ornia* Jn April ,' 1997' ! mailed a %opy o" my s#orn statement to t$e Federal Bureau o"
!nvesti&ation as re:uested' and later ! "iled anot$er %opy #it$ C$ild Erote%tive -ervi%es*
ore t$an one in t$ree &irls and one in si( boys $ave been vi%timi.ed by se(ual predation*
7,,
• • •
+$e very people t$at parents $ave traditionally tau&$t t$eir %$ildren to trust $ave been abusin& t$em in
suprisin& numbers*
?Oo# -usie'@ a parent mi&$t say' ?i" a stran&er bot$ers you on t$e #ay $ome "rom s%$ool' tell t$e "irst poli%e
o""i%er you see*@
+$e problem' in some %ases is t$at it4s t$e poli%e o""i%er #$o mi&$t vi%timi.e -usie*
7,3
Amon& t$ose "e# deviants in uni"orm' t$e %$ildren $ave no #ay o" tellin& t$e &ood "rom t$e bad*
?0ou 1ust don4t )no# #$om to trust today'@ said a mot$er #$o re%ently $eard a rumor about a s%$ool
1anitor
2 7,/3
in Oe# Jersey #$o $ad developed ?"riends$ips@ #it$ several boys appro(imately 7 to 10 years old*
7,5
?! loved tea%$in&' but it #asn4t #ort$ leavin& my %$ildren* !4d $eard so many stories about #$at &oes on in
some s%$ools' ! de%ided to :uit my 1ob and raise my )ids until t$ey4re able to "end "or t$emselves'@ 2a %on%erned
mot$er3 said*
7,7

?!t4s &ettin& so bad' t$ere4s $ardly a person you %an trust #it$ your youn&sters'@ said 2a %on%erned "at$er3*
7,7
• • •
C$ild abuse is a %at%$all term re"errin& to nona%%idental p$ysi%al atta%) on or in1ury to %$ildren Fin%ludin&
emotional and so%ial in1uryG by individuals %arin& "or t$em* C$ild abuse is "ound amon& "amili2y units3 "rom all
so%ial' reli&ious' e%onomi%' edu%ational' and ra%ial ba%)&rounds*
7,9
C$ild se(ual abuse "irst be%ame an issue #$en Freud t$eori.ed t$at most %ases o" $ysteria in #omen $ave been
%aused by Bpremature se(ual e(perien%es4* -tudies on %$ild molestation be&an in t$e 19,0s #$ile t$e "irst national
estimate o" %ases %ame out in 19/9* +$e C$ild Abuse Erevention and +reatment A%t #as en"or%ed in 197/ alon&
#it$ t$e %reation o" t$e Oational Center "or C$ild Abuse and Oe&le%t* +$e Oational C$ild Abuse Coalition #as
"ormed in 1979 to pressure t$e %on&ress to pass and implement la#s*
7,9
+$e on&oin& %on%ern about t$is problem $as led to ne# le&islation and re&ulation re:uirin& %riminal
ba%)&round %$e%)s "or %ertain inndividuals #or)in& #it$ %$ildren* Un"ortunately' t$ese la#s vary by state' and
sometimes t$e stru%ture "or &ettin& t$e in"ormation ba%) on a timely basis is la%)in&* For e(ample' some states
re:uired day %amps and %$ild %are %enters to %$e%) t$e %riminal ba%)&round o" employees' but resident %amps do
not $ave to do t$is* !n ot$er states' bot$ day and resident %amps are re:uired to investi&ate sta""* -everal ot$er
7,,
Jim Lopper FE$*C* %andidateG' 2C$ild Abuse -tatisti%s3' $ttp=RR###*1im$opper*%omRabstats*
7,3
Claude >e#is' Earents tea%$ t$eir %$ildren not to trust priest' poli%e' tea%$ers any lon&er' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News
Ser(ice' 7 J%t 1993*
7,/
+$e parents o" a 9-year-old &irl are suin& a 1anitorial servi%e t$at employed a %onvi%ted se( o""ender #$o subse:uently
raped t$eir dau&$ter #$ile %leanin& a day-%are %enter*8
Bert Iolla' operator o" t$e <ed Carpet Janitorial -ervi%e' t$is mornin& denied bein& ne&li&ent be%ause $e says $e did
not )no# t$e %riminal ba%)&round o" Ben Auerido' t$e 1anitor*
Iolla is also a senior auditor "or t$e etropolitan Kin& County Coun%il*8
+$e la#suit says Auerido raped t$e &irl repeatedly bet#een Au&ust 1993 and ar%$ 1995' #$en s$e #as bet#een 7
and 9*
+$e "amily and t$e attorney are %onsiderin& addin& ot$er de"endants to t$e suit' in%ludin& t$e day-%are %enterH t$e %ity
o" -eattle' #$i%$ o#ned t$e buildin& and %ontra%ted "or %leanin&' and even t$e state o" Was$in&ton be%ause Auerido #as
released on %ommunity supervision*
N Janitorial servi%e sued in &irl4s rape' The Seattle Times' / ar%$ 1997' 1,0F5/G' p* B5*
7,5
Claude >e#is' Earents tea%$ t$eir %$ildren not to trust priest' poli%e' tea%$ers any lon&er' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News
Ser(ice' 7 J%t 1993*
7,7
Op. cit.
7,7
Op. cit.
7,9
James W* Mander Tanden' Social Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= <andom Louse' 1991G' p* ,77*
7,9
Freud4s le&a%yH #or) on ?premature se(ual e(perien%e@ led to t$e study o" %$ild se(ual abuse' .K Researcher' 15 Jan
1993' 3F,G' p* 3/F,G*
7,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
states do not re:uired t$at %amps do any %riminal ba%)&round %$e%)s* W$ile t$e movement is de"initely to#ard
re:uirin& more businesses to %$e%) %riminal ba%)&rounds' t$ere is no %onsistent approa%$ at t$e state level*
730
Kansas' Was$in&ton -tate and Cali"ornia $ave re%ently ena%ted la#s t$at allo# state o""i%ials to )eep ?se(ual
predators@ lo%)ed up a"ter t$ey $ave served t$eir prison terms i" t$ey are deemed to still be dan&erous* A Kansas
%ourt %alled t$is approa%$ un"air and un%onstitutional' but a -upreme Court rulin& up$oldin& t$ese la#s %ould ma)e
it t$e rule in all 50 states*
731
“%rust no one.”
;3>
A "ormer state so%ial #or)er %$ar&ed #it$ /0 "elony %ounts o" possessin& %$ild porno&rap$y told $is boss $e
$ad intimate relations$ips #it$ youn& men in $is %are at t$e Cepartment o" -o%ial and Lealt$ -ervi%es 2FC-L-G'3
t$e $ead o" t$e department said 2June 1,' 19973*
-aid to be in $is 50s'
733
8Larold ?Larry@ Eit%o%)'
73/
8#it$ C-L-4s C$ild Erote%tive -ervi%es 2FCE-G3 "or
nearly ei&$t years'
735
8is a%%used by a ,,-year-old man o" abusin& $im and one ot$er yout$ #$ile t$ey #ere minors
under Eit%o%)4s supervision' a%%ordin& to %ourt papers*
737
+$e %ase a&ainst $im be&an ay ,9 #$en $is supervisor in t$e +a%oma C-L- o""i%e re%eived a #ritten
statement "rom a ,,-year-old man #$o $ad been in state "oster %are* Eit%o%) $ad been $is so%ial #or)er' in %$ar&e
o" "indin& t$e boy a "oster $ome and arran&in& %ounselin& and ot$er servi%es "or $im*
+$e man said t$at #$en $e #as 17' $e $ad ?en&a&ed in se(ually e(pli%it %ondu%t@ #it$ Eit%o%)' t$en $is C-L-
%ase#or)er' a%%ordin& to t$e %$ar&es*
+$e man also said Eit%o%) p$oto&rap$ed and videotaped $im and ot$er boys' and $ad s$o#n $im a %olle%tion o"
porno&rap$i% pi%tures and tapes*
+$e man also said $e )ne# o" at least one ot$er vi%tim #$o $ad been a "oster %$ild under Eit%o%)4s supervision'
2C-L- se%retary >yle3 Auasim said*
737
Eit%o%) #as arrested June 5 a"ter t$e -tate Eatrol sear%$ed $is Eier%e County $ome and "ound several
$omemade videotapes
739
8; one labeled ?Friends@ ;
739
8and 350 p$oto&rap$s s$o#in& youn& boys en&a&ed in
se(ual a%tivity' a%%ordin& to papers "iled by t$e Eier%e County prose%utor*
7/0
+$e tapes and p$oto&rap$s #ere revie#ed by an e(pert in se(ual assault' #$o told prese%utors t$e boys in t$e
pi%tures #ere under 19* Jne videotape also s$o#s Eit%o%) #as mannin& t$e %amera' a%%ordin& to t$e %$ar&es*
7/1
Eit%o%)4s supervisor' Jo$n Ieor&e' visited $im in 1ail*
7/,
2+$e "ollo#in& day'
7/3
3 a"ter Eit%o%) admitted to
$avin& relations$ips #it$ youn& men $e #as on%e %$ar&ed #it$ prote%tin&' $e #as "ired*
7//
+$e %ase is t$e most re%ent o" a number o" s%andals and embarrassments o" C-L-* +$e department $as been
under "ire "or poor supervision o" %$ildren in "oster %areH "or "ailin& to prote%t 3-year-old >ouria Ira%e' #$o #as
)illed by repeated abuse "rom $er mot$erH and "or "ailin& to address p$ysi%al and se(ual abuse at t$e J*K* Boys
<an%$' an Jlympia &roup $ome "or8yout$s*
7/5
?+$ere4s no dar)er institution in t$e $istory o" t$e state t$an t$e J*K* Boys <an%$'@ said attorney <i%$ard
Kelley*
7/7
!n %ourt papers' "ormer residents des%ribed t$e 2J*K*3 Boys <an%$ as ?a 1un&le'@ #$ere older boys beat and
molested youn&er residents
7/7
82and3 #ere sub1e%ted to p$ysi%al and se(ual abuse "rom8some sta"" members*
7/9

730
Kd -%$iri%)' -e(ual abuse and molestation %on%ern' .amping aga6ine' -ep-J%t 1997' 79F1G*
731
Cavid I* -ava&e FThe !os Angeles TimesG' -e( predators on $i&$ %ourt4s a&endaH internet porn' assisted-sui%ide la#s
amon& potential pre%edent-setters in -upreme Court4s busy season' The Seattle Times' ,7 ay 1997' 1,0F1,7G' p* A5*
73,
+$e L-"iles pro&ram' drama*
733
Cavid Eostman' Firin& at C-L- over se( %$ar&esH man is arrested on /0 %ounts o" %$ild porno&rap$y' The Seattle Times
871 AR.$)27' 13 June 1997*
73/
Op. cit.
735
Op. cit.
737
Op. cit.
737
Op. cit.
739
Op. cit.
739
Op. cit.
7/0
Op. cit.
7/1
Op. cit.
7/,
Op. cit.
7/3
Op. cit.
7//
Op. cit.
7/5
Op. cit.
7/7
Kery ura)ami' Boys <an%$ o""i%ials say t$ey4ve be%ome s%ape&oats "or state' The Seattle Times 871 AR.$)27' 1 July
1997*
7/7
Kery ura)ami' C-L- retains reprimanded bossH #oman played role in Boys <an%$ s%andal' The Seattle Times 871
AR.$)27' 17 Au& 1997*
73
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
-ome #ere %oer%ed into $avin& se(' and several boys #ere "ound $avin& an or&y at t$e 2J*K* Boys <an%$3 in July
199,*
7/9
!n a deposition "iled in t$e "irst o" t#o %ivil suits a&ainst t$e state' t$e 2J*K* Boys <an%$'3 and t$e Ki#anis
Club' #$i%$ oversa# t$e operation' one abused boy said $e as)ed 2t$e dire%tor o" t$e J*K* Boys <an%$3 "or $elp*
Le said $e #as told to learn $o# to "i&$t*
750

+$ey #ere "or%ed to "i&$t older boys' #it$ sta"" members %$eerin& t$em on and s$outin& instru%tions' a%%ordin&
to t$e %$ar&in& papers* !n an initiation rite' des%ribed as ?ni&$t terrorism'@ ne# residents #ere beaten in t$eir
beds*
751
A%%ordin& to t$e attorney &eneral4s %$ar&in& papers' 10-year-old Cavid #as initiated to t$e 2J*K* Boys <an%$3
by bein& t$rust into a %ir%le #it$ anot$er boy' and "or%ed to "i&$t until one #as )no%)ed out or %ried "or mer%y*
+#elve-year-old C$ris #as #el%omed to t$e 2J*K*3 Boys <an%$ by bein& t$ro#n in a pit #$ere ro%)s #ere
t$ro#n at $im* <yan' 11' #as sub1e%ted to ni&$tly se(ual assaults' a%%ompanied by severe beatin&s*
Luman "e%es #ere t$ro#n at one resident' a%%ordin& to t$e attorney &eneral4s investi&ation* 0oun& boys #ere
routinely beaten by sta"" and denied basi% medi%al %are*
!" t$ey %omplained' t$ey #ere told to ta)e %are o" t$emselves* +$ey #ere "or%ed to stand #it$ t$eir noses
a&ainst a #all "or as many as "our $oursH i" t$ey blin)ed' t$eir time started over*
75,
A number o" in%idents ; li)e t$e 199/ or&y and beatin&s ; are not in :uestion* +$ey #ere re%orded in a
be$avioral lo& )ept by sta"" at t$e 2J*K* Boys <an%$3*
Jne series o" entries' "or e(ample' noted atta%)s on a 13-year-old boy' in%ludin& ?-oap in a so%) in t$e s$o#er@
and ?Oi&$t terrorism*@
753
?2Former dire%tor o" t$e J*K* Boys <an%$' Man Woerden' 55'
75/
"ormer J*K* Boys <an%$ assistant dire%tor and
one-time interim dire%tor Colette Aueener'
755
and "ormer J*K* Boys <an%$ %ase#or)er' >aura <ussell' 39'
757
3 #ere
t$e &uardians o" t$ese boys #$o #ere raped "or 2more t$an3 15 years'@ said attorney Cavid Eaul*
757
+$ey $ave
denied any #ron&doin&*
759
+$ey a%)no#led&e t$ere #ere some in%idents* -ome boys &ot into "i&$ts' e(perimented se(ually and' in rare
%ases' #ere molested' t$ey said*
759
?! t$in) t$ere #ould be a lot o" parents #it$ be$avioral lo&s li)e ours'@ <ussell
said*
770
+$e state too) no serious a%tion until t$e 2J*K* Boys <an%$3 #as s$ut do#n in 199/*
771
!n 1999' 2Art3 Cantrell' t$e C-L- auditor' "ound "inan%ial problems and indi%ations o" se(ual abuse at t$e
2J*K* Boys <an%$3* +$e "ollo#in& year' 2C-L-4s -teven3 Knnett approved its reli%ensin&H $o#ever' $e never
loo)ed at be$avioral lo&s )ept by 2J*K* Boys <3an%$ sta""' #$ere Cantrell "ound notations about se(ual a%tivity
bet#een t$e boys*
77,
-everal %o-#or)ers and a supervisor $ad re%ommended to 2C-L-4s ar)3 <edal t$at Knnett
be removed be%ause o" s$oddy #or)* But <edal brus$ed aside t$e %omplaints ; a move t$at bars t$e state "rom
ta)in& stron&er a%tion no#*
773
East -tate Eatrol and C-L- investi&ations o" t$e 2J*K* Boys <3an%$ "ound inade:uate CE- investi&ations
$elped %ause t$e state to )eep t$e 2J*K* Boys <an%$3 open "or more t$an a de%ade*
77/
7/9
Cavid Eostman' J*K* Boys <an%$ %ase in doubtH de%ision undermines state4s %$ar&es' The Seattle Times 871
AR.$)27' 1/ Oov 1997*
7/9
Kery ura)ami' Boys <an%$ o""i%ials say t$ey4ve be%ome s%ape&oats "or state' The Seattle Times 871 AR.$)27' 1 July
1997*
750
Op. cit.
751
Op. cit.
75,
Op. cit.
753
Op. cit.
75/
Op. cit.
755
Cavid Eostman' J*K* Boys <an%$ %ase in doubtH de%ision undermines state4s %$ar&es' The Seattle Times 871
AR.$)27' 1/ Oov 1997*
757
Kery ura)ami' Boys <an%$ o""i%ials say t$ey4ve be%ome s%ape&oats "or state' The Seattle Times 871 AR.$)27' 1 July
1997*
757
Op. cit.
759
Cavid Eostman' J*K* Boys <an%$ %ase in doubtH de%ision undermines state4s %$ar&es' The Seattle Times 871
AR.$)27' 1/ Oov 1997*
759
Kery ura)ami' Boys <an%$ o""i%ials say t$ey4ve be%ome s%ape&oats "or state' The Seattle Times 871 AR.$)27' 1 July
1997*
770
Op. cit.
771
Kery ura)ami' C-L- retains reprimanded bossH #oman played role in Boys <an%$ s%andal' The Seattle Times 871
AR.$)27' 17 Au& 1997*
77,
Op. cit.
773
Op. cit.
77/
Op. cit.
7/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
2Kristy3 Ialt' Jlympia-area mana&er "or t$e Civision o" C$ildren and Family -ervi%es' #as des%ribed in t$e
-tate Eatrol report8as ?oblivious to situations*@
775
2And Cantrell3 des%ribed $er o""i%e as ?t$e #orst-mana&ed@
o""i%e in t$e state*
777
?Oo one in Ialt4s o""i%e #ould &o to $er be%ause t$ey )ne# Ialt #ould not &ive t$em any servi%e or $elp'@ said
Ciane Cote--mit$' #$o #or)ed "or Ialt in 1991*
777
Ialt #as reprimanded "or not ensurin& t$at investi&ations be done o" %$ild-abuse %omplaints' and "or not
%ompletin& re:uired annual per"orman%e evaluations o" #or)ers*
779
2-$e3 retains $er 2supervisin&
779
3 position
inside Cepartment o" -o%ial and Lealt$ -ervi%es*
770
+$e ot$er t#o employees reprimanded8#ere ar) <edal and -teven Knnett*
771
+$e one #or)er "ired #as
Ieor&e Lart#ell' a ,7-year CE- veteran' #$o #as a%%used o" &ivin& 2J*K*3 Boys <an%$ sta"" a %on"idential poli%e
report o" or&ies t$at o%%urred at t$e 2J*K* Boys <an%$3 in 199,*
77,
Be%ause some o" t$ose dire%tly responnsible "or t$e JK Boys <an%$ %onditions $ad already been demoted or
reprimanded' "urt$er a%tion' in%ludin& dismissal' appears impossible* +$e state loo)s as i" it is bundled so ti&$t by
its o#n re&ulations' responsible o""i%ials are smot$ered in bureau%ra%y* +$at4s %learly una%%eptable*
?+$ese #ere t$e ma(imum san%tions t$at #e %ould le&ally use'@ Iov* i)e >o#ry told a ne#s %on"eren%e*
But #$at about t$e system itsel"P W$at about a pro%ess #$ere one person is "ired but ot$ers dire%tly
responsible )eep t$eir 1obsP
773
Closin& t$e JK Boys <an%$ too) seven years a"ter t$e "irst report o" abuse and t#o
years a"ter poli%e %on%luded boys #ere bein& raped* W$at too) so lon&P
77/
!nstead o" a%%eptan%e o" bureau%ra%y as its o#n re#ard' >o#ry s$ould be e(plainin& #$at a s#eepin&
restru%turin& o" C-L- %ould a%%omplis$*
775
!nstead' it appears t$e &overnor #ill stroll to t$e end o" $is term
leavin& be$ind one o" t$e nastiest blemis$es on state &overnan%e in re%ent memory*
777
• • •
Oational e(perts are split on #$et$er t$e bene"it o" re%ordin&8statements out#ei&$s potential problems*
Kennet$ >annin&' t$e FB!4s %$ild-abuse spe%ialist' $as advised a&ainst tapin&' sayin& it %reates a ?$i&$ly sub1e%tive
pie%e o" eviden%e*@
777
• • •
+$e %ombat #as s$o%)in&ly brutal' brot$er a&ainst sister in a bloody battle s%ripted blo#-by-blo# and re%orded
on videotape' poli%e say' by t$eir parents*
W$en aut$orities sa# t$e tale o" t$e tape' t$ey %ould $ardly believe t$eir eyes ; 7-year-old t#ins' %ryin& and
bleedin&*
779
+$e parents' Iary and +ealisa Co#ns' $ave been %$ar&ed #it$ t#o %ounts o" "irst-de&ree %$ild abuse and #it$
e(tortin& t$eir %$ildren into t$e "i&$t*
779
!" %onvi%ted' bot$ Iary' ,9' and +ealisa' ,/'8%ould "a%e up to 15 years on
ea%$ %$ild abuse %$ar&e' and up to ,0 years on t$e e(tortion %$ar&e*
790
+#o ot$er %$ildren' 10 and 1,' #ere at
$ome durin& t$e "i&$t' but #ere not involved' poli%e said*
791
?!" it #ere not "or t$e videotape' t$is #ould be a %ase t$at #ould not $ave been %$ar&ed'@ 2a%omb County
Erose%utor Carl arlin&a3 said*
79,
775
Op. cit.
777
Op. cit.
777
Op. cit.
779
Op. cit.
779
Op. cit.
770
Kditorials' Boys <an%$ demonstrations s$ould not %lose t$e "ile' The Seattle Times 871 AR.$)27' 19 Au& 1997*
771
Kery ura)ami' C-L- retains reprimanded bossH #oman played role in Boys <an%$ s%andal' The Seattle Times 871
AR.$)27' 17 Au& 1997*
77,
Op. cit.
773
Kditorials' Boys <an%$ demonstrations s$ould not %lose t$e "ile' The Seattle Times 871 AR.$)27' 19 Au& 1997*
77/
Op. cit.
775
Op. cit.
777
Op. cit.
777
arla Williams D Cee Oorton' +$e unravelin& o" a monstrous se%retH se(-abuse s%andal $as #enat%$ee reelin&' FEart 1
o" ,G' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1995' p* A1*
779
Bobby C* Calvan' Eoli%e arrest parent o" 7-year-old-t#ins #$o "or%ed %$ildren to "i&$t #$ile bein& videotaped'
Knight- Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' ,5 June 1997*
779
Op. cit.
790
Op. cit.
791
Op. cit.
79,
Op. cit.
75
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$e &randmot$er a%%idently %ame a%ross t$e disturbin& "i&$t s%enes #$ile s%annin& t$rou&$ a tape borro#ed
"rom $er dau&$ter*
793
-everal times t$e %$ildren besee%$ t$eir parents to stop t$e "i&$t' only to be sternly
reprimanded and t$reatened #it$ violen%e' a%%ordin& to poli%e*
79/
• • •
J" all t$in&s Canadian' none is more %ulturally distin%tive "rom t$e U*-* sensibility t$an $o%)ey' parti%ularly
t$at played in t$e Oational Lo%)ey >ea&ue*
795
2-ome3 &ames %ame "rom aple >ea" Iardens in +oronto'
%onsidered a Canadian s$rine by some #$o re&ard t$e national sport a se%ular reli&ion* Eer$aps t$at is #$y8ne#s
"rom ?t$e Iardens@ le"t $o%)ey "ans on bot$ sides o" t$e border #it$ su%$ a sad' si%)ened "eelin&*
For it #as alle&ed t$at se(ual predators ; men molestin& boys ; operated out o" aple >ea" Iardens durin&
t$e81970s and81990s* +$ey #ere arena employees' enti%in& vi%tims #it$ &i"ts li)e "ree $o%)ey sti%)s and
abusin& t$em in ba%) rooms durin& &ames*
+$e %$ar&e' brou&$t by one o" t$e alle&ed vi%tims' %omes 1ust #ee)s a"ter an OL> player #ent publi% #it$ $is
$istory o" se(ual abuse by $is 1unior %oa%$ #$en $e #as a teena&e player in t$e Western >ea&ue*
-imilar %ases8$ave been revealed*
797
+oronto poli%e $ave arrested a "ormer Iardens employee' Iordon -tu%)less' /7' on %$ar&es t$at $e be"riended a
+oronto yout$ in t$e 1970s #it$ t$e promise o" "ree admission to $o%)ey &ames and %on%erts' t$en se(ually abused
$im $undreds o" times over t$e ne(t seven years*
-tu%)less8made no %omment sin%e $is arrest*
797
+$e abuse is alle&ed to $ave ta)en pla%e in empty o""i%es and maintenan%e rooms t$rou&$out t$e Iardens' as
#ell as at movie t$eaters and ot$er spots near t$e do#nto#n arena' o""i%ials said*
+$e arrest #as made a"ter -tu%)less4 a%%user8des%ribed years o" se(ual en%ounters #it$ -tu%)less and anot$er
Iardens employee' Ieor&e Lanna$' an arean e:uipment mana&er #$o82$as sin%e3 died*
799
2Boston Bruins player -$eldon3 Kennedy said Ira$am James' a "ormer -#i"t Current Bron%os %oa%$ #$o #as
senten%ed last mont$ to 3 1R, years in prison' abused $im more t$an 300 times*
!n82anot$er3 %ase' a "ormer Mi%toria' B*C*-area minor-lea&ue $o%)ey %oa%$ $as been %$ar&ed #it$ se(ually
abusin& a 13-year-old player*
799
“:o more tea!hers# dirty looks”
A veteran elementary-s%$ool tea%$er in t$e Li&$line -%$ool Cistri%t8$as been a%%used o" $avin& se(ual
%onta%t #it$ a 1/-year-old "ormer student*
+$e alle&ation a&ainst t$e #ell-respe%ted 35-year-old tea%$er $as been a 1olt to t$e distri%t' #$ere s$e #as $eld
in $i&$ re&ard by administrators and %o-#or)ers*
?-$o%)' total s$o%)'@ $as been t$e rea%tion #it$in t$e distri%t and t$e -$ore#ood Klementary -%$ool #$ere t$e
tea%$er as been a %ombination "i"t$- and si(t$-&rade tea%$er "or ei&$t years' said Oi%) >at$am' distri%t spo)esman*
?Ler $istory as a tea%$er $as been very &ood* -$e $as e(%ellent revie#s in $er tea%$in& "ile'@ and no re%ord o"
any mis%ondu%t' >at$am said*
790
+$e alle&ation %ame to li&$t8#$en an a%:uaintan%e o" t$e tea%$er4s "amily brou&$t t$e in"ormation to t$e
s%$ool o""i%ials' >at$am said*
791
• • •
2A Oe# 0or)3 tea%$er Jamel -$ari"' ,9' #as %$ar&ed #it$ se(ually abusin& a 1,-year-old &irl in $is %lass* Le
t$reatened to $arm $er i" s$e told anyone' prose%utors said*
79,
• • •
793
Op. cit.
79/
Op. cit.
795
Joe >aEointe FThe New 9or' TimesG' -e(-abuse %ases s$o%) $o%)ey #orld' The Seattle Times' ,3 Feb 1997' 15F7G' p* A9*
797
Op. cit.
797
Op. cit.
799
Op. cit.
799
Op. cit.
790
Cave Bir)land' Li&$line Cistri%t tea%$er a%%used o" se(ual %onta%t #it$ e(-student' The Seattle Times' , ar%$ 1997'
15F9G' p* B,*
791
Op. cit.
79,
Oe# 0or)' A%ross t$e U-A= ne#s "rom every state' #SA Today' ,/ Feb 1997' 15F113G' p* 9A*
77
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
A "ormer tea%$er says $is relations$ip #it$ a youn& "emale student dated to t$eir past lives in +ibet more t$an
1'000 years a&o' #$en s$e saved $is li"e by ta)in& an arro# meant "or $im and $e $ad to repay t$e debt o" love*
A 1ud&e didn4t buy it' and senten%ed <o&er Kat. to 1 1R, years in prison*
?Fran)ly' r* Kat.' a #ol" in s$eep4s %lot$in& is still a #ol"* 0ou sir' are a #ol"* 0ou preyed on a 1/-year-old
and violated all t$e la#s as "ar as ! am %on%erned'@ state Cistri%t Jud&e -teve Lerrera said at 2ay 94s3 senten%in&*
Lerrera also pro$ibited t$e 50-year-old Kat. "rom #ritin& to t$e &irl' no# 17' and "rom re%eivin& visits "rom $er
#$ile $e is in prison*
Kat. said $e is in love #it$ t$e &irl' #$o $ad been a student in $is so%ial studies %lass at CeMar&as Junior Li&$
-%$ool* Le said $e did not be&in $is a""air #it$ $er until a"ter s$e no lon&er #as in $is %lass*
Kat.4s attorney' Aaron Wol"' said= ?! $ope my dau&$ters "ind men #$o love t$em as mu%$ as $e loves $er*@
793
A -anta Fe County s$eri""4s deputy said $e arrested Kats a"ter "indin& a 1/-year-old &irl na)ed in a sleepin& ba&
in t$e ba%) o" Kat.4s van*
79/
?2Kat. $as3 &ot it in $is $ead t$at $e4s &oin& to marry $er* Le as)ed me #$et$er $e %ould %ome to our $ouse
and meet $er'@ t$e "at$er said* ?We #ould li)e to seem $im &o a#ay and not bot$er us a&ain*@
795
• • •
ar) Blilie' on%e voted one o" t$e t#o best tea%$ers at82a3 Junior Li&$' #as %onvi%ted o" %$ild rape yesterday
"or $avin& se( #it$ a "ormer student*
797
Blilie' /,' admitted to $avin& a romanti% relations$ip #it$ t$e &irl' #$o
#as 15 at t$e time*
797
+$ey #ould meet on par) ben%$es t$e $our be"ore Blilie #ould attend a re&ular boo) dis%ussion &roup*
799
+$eir
meetin&s be%ame more and more intimate' t$e &irl testi"ied' and sometimes in%luded oral se(* -$e said t$ey $ad
inter%ourse in82a3 restroom t#i%e' on Feb* 9 and Feb 1/ a"ter s%$ool*
+$e &irl testi"ied t$at t$ey also $ad se( t$e ni&$t o" Feb* 11 at t$e old8reservoir*
But $e denied t$ey ever $ad se(* Le said t$ey simply e(%$an&ed letters' )issed and embra%ed*
Jurors "ound Blilie &uilty o" t#o %ounts o" t$ird-de&ree %$ild molestation' one o" "our %ounts o" t$ird-de&ree
%$ild rape and one %ount o" %ommuni%atin& #it$ a minor "or immoral purposes*
799
Blilie %ould re%eive a ma(imum o" "ive years in prison #$en $e is senten%ed' probably in "our to si( #ee)s*
Le s$o#ed little rea%tion as t$e verdi%ts on ea%$ %$ar&e #ere announ%ed late yesterday mornin&* A"ter#ard' $e
dran) a "e# %ups o" #ater' $eld $is $ands be$ind $is ba%) and o%%asionally ro%)ed on $is tiptoes*
900
• • •
A la#suit "iled on be$al" o" a 7-year-old 2Cali"ornia3 boy8%laims $e #as se(ually molested by several
%lassmates durin& re%ess8and later blamed by t$e s%$ool prin%ipal "or t$e atta%)*
+$e suit' "iled8in -an ateo County -uperior Court a&ainst t$e Belmont -%$ool Cistri%t and8Erin%ipal
C$errie Lo' see)s unspe%i"ied dama&es "or t$e boy4s in1uries and emotional distress*
+$e suit alle&es t$at on April 7' several students #restled t$e boy to t$e &round' pulled $is pants do#n and
di&itally penetrated $im* Lo and t$e s%$ool distri%t )ne# or s$ould $ave )no#n t$at t$e boy4s atta%)ers en&a&ed in
su%$ be$avior' t$e suit said*
W$en t$e boy %omplained about t$e in%ident' Lo ?"urt$er en&a&ed in e(treme and outra&eous %ondu%t@ by
blamin& $im "or t$e assault' t$e suit said* Lo told t$e boy' a%%ordin& to t$e suit' t$at ?i" $e $ad &otten alon& better
#it$ t$e ot$er students' t$e assault #ould not $ave $appened*@
901
• • •
793
The Associated Press' K(-tea%$er says $is a""air #it$ &irl' 1/' dated to past lives' The Seattle Times' 11 ay 1997'
15F9G' p* A7*
79/
Op. cit.
795
Op. cit.
797
Kevin Kbi' Blilie &uilty o" %$ild rape' Journal American' ,9 -ep 1997' p* A1X*
797
Op. cit.
799
Op. cit.
799
Op. cit.
900
Op. cit.
901
Jo$n Wool"ol)' Cali"ornia s%$ool distri%t sued by boy #$o says %lassmates molested $im' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News
Ser(ice' ,5 Oov 199/*
77
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
?! $ad t$e impression "rom t$e !nter-Li&$ Board t$at ea%$ s%$ool $ad t$eir one or t#o tea%$ers t$at )ids $ave
been tryin& to &et rid o" "or a number o" years'@ 2a $i&$ s%$ool student representative3 said*
90,
• • •
Jne in seven >os An&eles $i&$-s%$ool students says $e $as %arried a #eapon to s%$ool "or prote%tion' a%%ordin&
to a detailed ne# study*
903
+$e survey depi%ts t$e s%$ools in t$e nation4s se%ond-lar&est distri%t as relatively sa"e
%ompared to t$eir surroundin& %ommunities' #$ere violen%e is pervasive* About /9 per%ent o" t$e students said
t$ey %ould ?easily@ &et a &un and ,5 per%ent said t$ey #ould $ave to pay less t$an 650 "or it*
90/
• • •
W$isperin& over a 1ail telep$one so ot$er inmates #ouldn4t $ear' Min%ent Biviano $ired a $it man to )ill t$e
#itness #$ose testimony %ould send $im to 1ail "or li"e' poli%e said onday*
Lis tar&et= a 5-year-old Eompano Bea%$ &irl $e #as %$ar&ed #it$ molestin&*
?! #ant $er dead* * * * !" t$e &irl is not dead' s$e %ould %ome ba%) and testi"y'@ a &ravelly voi%ed Biviano told a
$it man*
905
A "ormer deputy to#n mars$al and pi..a-s$op o#ner in ooresville' !nd*' Biviano #as %onvi%ted t#i%e t$ere
"or molestin& %$ildren*
907
+$ou&$ $e $ad only been in Eompano Bea%$ a "e# mont$s' $e appeared to "ollo# t$e same pattern #it$
%$ildren* Unemployed' Biviano lived "or a time durin& t$e summer in a #ee)ly rental apartment motel #$ere $e
be"riended t$e nei&$bors4 %$ildren by t$e pool' 2Eompano Bea%$ Cete%tive Crai&3 Arney said*
907
Le lured at least one little &irl into $is apartm1ent'8a%%ordin& to poli%e reports* -$e didn4t tell $er mot$er
about t$e abuse until J%t* ,, be%ause Biviano $ad said ?$e %ould &et into bi& trouble i" s$e told anyone about #$at
$appened*@
909
-in%e $is arrest' t$e "amilies o" t#o little boys in t$e same %omple( $ave also %ome "or#ard*
909
• • •
Fear )ept vi%tims o" se( abuse8"rom %omin& "or#ard*
910
• • •
+$e medi%al literature su&&ests t$at durin& a ?%areer@ o" abuse some vi%timi.ers may $ave as many as ,00 or
even 300 vi%tims* Jt$ers may $ave "e#er vi%tims*
911
+$e prevention o" se(ual abuse8is t$e responsibility o" a
so%iety t$at sees t$e %$ildren as its "uture*
91,
?A million )ids are born every #ee) on t$e planet'@ said Ire&ory Een%e' a medi%al et$i%ist at t$e University o"
Alabama in Birmin&$am*
913
90,
Ci%) >illy' -tudents #ant role in &radin& tea%$ers= $i&$-s%$ool board proposes evaluations "or -eattle distri%t' The
Seattle Times' 119F9,G' 17 April 1997' p* A1*
903
The !os Angeles Times' Jne in 7 >*A* $i&$-s%$oolers $as %arried a #eapon' survey "inds' The Seattle Times' 10 ar%$
1997' 1,0F59G' p* A5*
90/
Op. cit.
905
Karen <a"ins)i D Amy Cris%oll' Jailed suspe%t $ires $it man to )ill 5-year-old vi%tim o" molestation'
Knight- Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' 19 Ce% 199/*
907
Op. cit.
907
Op. cit.
909
Op. cit.
909
Op. cit.
910
-teven Komaro#' Army e(pands se( abuse investi&ation Farmy= "ear silen%ed vi%timsG' #SA Today' 11 Oov 1997'
15F/1G' p* 3A*
911
Andre# * Ireenley' Lo# serious is t$e problem o" se(ual abuse by %ler&yP' America' ,0 ar%$ 1993' 179F10G' p* 7F5G*
91,
Kd -%$iri%)' -e(ual abuse and molestation %on%ern' .amping aga6ine' -ep-J%t 1997' 79F1G*
913
-$an)ar Medantam FKnight-Ridder NewspapersG' A "e# rise to support t$e %lonin& o" $umans' The Seattle Times' 10
ar%$ 1997' 1,0F59G' p* A1*
79
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
%hou )halt :ot . . .
Eriest se(ual mis%ondu%t is a bi&&er problem t$an %$ur%$ leaders li)e to admit* Appro(imately 3'000 priests'
or one in 15 nation#ide' are probably &uilty o" mis%ondu%t* Oeit$er %leri%al %eliba%y nor &ay priests are ma1or
%auses o" t$e problemH
91/
8most abusers o" boys and youn& men are in "a%t married men*
915
+$e Cat$oli% C$ur%$ in re%ent years $as paid millions to settle many o" at least /00 reported %ases o" alle&ed
abuse by priests* Eope Jo$n Eaul !! said in Cenver in Au&ust 219933 t$at $e s$ared t$e %on%erns o" U*-* bis$ops "or
t$e ?pain and su""erin&@ %aused by t$e se(ual sins o" some priests*
917' 2 9173
2But t$e Mati%an
919
3 $as re"used t$e U*-*
bis$ops permission to dismiss vi%timi.ers "rom t$e priest$ood ; apparently "i&urin& t$at t$e problem is 1ust one
more mani"estation o" Ameri%an de&enera%y*
919
• • •
A8la#suit t$at ta)es aim at t$e moral "oundation o" t$e Cat$oli% Cio%ese o" Camden #as "iled8in a Oe#
Jersey state %ourt' %ontendin& t$e dio%ese and Ameri%an bis$ops %onspired "or $al" a %entury to %over up se(ual
abuse o" %$ildren by 30 priests*
+$e ,75-pa&e %ompilation o" abuse alle&ations' "iled in -uperior Court in Atlanti% City' portrays t$e Camden
dio%ese as a %riminal ra%)eteerin& enterprise and a $aven "or pedop$ile priests*
9,0
+$e suit' t$e "irst to ma)e su%$ s#eepin& a%%usations' %ontends t$at priests' "ormer priests' a nun and a %$ur%$
volunteer #ere involved in in%idents o" %$ild se(ual abuse as early as t$e "oundin& o" t$e dio%ese in 1937*
9,1
91/
Andre# * Ireenley' Lo# serious is t$e problem o" se(ual abuse by %ler&yP' America' ,0 ar%$ 1993' 179F10G' p* 7F5G*
915
Op. cit.
917
Claude >e#is' Earents tea%$ t$eir %$ildren not to trust priest' poli%e' tea%$ers any lon&er' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News
Ser(ice' 7 J%t 1993*
917
Fat$er 2<onald3 Fontenot #as ordained as a priest by8bis$op and vi%ar &eneral' Bis$op Frey and onsi&nor >arro:ue F%olle%tively re"erred to
as t$e Cio%eseG 2o" >a"ayette' >ouisiana'38on Ce%ember 7' 1975* Jn January 19' 199/' t$e Cio%ese suspended 2Fat$er Fontenot38"rom $is
priestly duties a"ter $e admitted to se(ual mis%ondu%t #it$ minors*8
Fat$er Fontenot made arran&ements to %ome to -po)ane' 2Was$in&ton'3 arrivin& on January 19* +$e Cio%ese paid $is transportation
e(penses and made arran&ements #it$ t$e Jesuit Louse to pay "or $is room and board #$ile $e resided t$ere* +$e Cio%ese %ontinued payin&
Fat$er Fontenot4s salary "or 3 mont$sH t$erea"ter it paid $im a subsidy "or in%idental and ot$er livin& e(penses*8
+$ere is some dispute as to #$et$er t$e money paid to Fat$er Fontenot #as a salary or subsidy* +$ere is also eviden%e in re%ord to
su&&est t$at it may $ave been a salary*8
A"ter $e arrived at t$e Jesuit Louse' Fat$er Fontenot told t$e re%tor about $is suspension and t$e reason "or it* +$e Jesuit Louse t$en
%onta%ted onsi&nor >arro:ue to %on"irm t$e a%%eptan%e o" Fat$er Fontenot and durin& t$at %onversation Fat$er Fontenot4s se(ual problems #ere
dis%ussed* Fat$er Fontenot #ent to Cr* %Allister' a -po)ane psy%$iatrist' "or treatment* onsi&nor >arro:ue made arran&ements "or t$e
Cio%ese to pay "or t$is treatment*8 Le #as under Cr* %Allister4s %are until ay #$en $e entered t$e Louse o" A""irmation*
Fat$er Fontenot #as a patient at t$e Louse o" A""irmation "rom ay until Oovember ,7' 199/* -$ortly be"ore $is dis%$ar&e' t$e onsi&nor
#rote $im a letter indi%atin& $is options "or a position in any ministry #ere ?severely limited i" not nil*@8
!n t$at letter' t$e onsi&nor told Fat$er Fontenot t$at additional instan%es o" $is se(ual mis%ondu%t $ad been brou&$t to li&$t*8
+$e Cio%ese re%eived a %opy o" Fat$er Fontenot4s dis%$ar&e summary "rom t$e Louse o" A""irmation #$i%$ stated in part=
Be%ause o" a lon& pattern o" se%re%y and denial %on%ernin& $is se(ual be$avior' it is important t$at $e dis%uss t$is problem #it$ t$ose in
aut$ority and t$at "or t$e prote%tion o" $imsel" and adoles%ents t$at $e re"rain "rom ministry t$at #ould involve #or) #it$ adoles%ent
boys*
Follo#in& $is dis%$ar&e' Fat$er Fontenot brie"ly returned to >ouisiana and dis%ussed $is situation #it$ t$e onsi&nor* Le returned to t$e Jesuit
Louse in January 1995* +$e Cio%ese %ontinued to pay $is subsidyRsalary' Cr* %Allister "or %ontinued treatment' and t$e Jesuit Louse "or $is
livin& e(penses*8
!n ar%$ t$e re%tor o" t$e Jesuit Louse8#$ere $e $ad stayed #$ile studyin& "or $is master4s de&ree at Ion.a&a University8#as told t$e
Cio%ese #anted to #ait until some o" t$e ot$er liability %ases in >ouisiana #ere settled be"ore &ivin& Fat$er Fontenot a "urt$er assi&nment*
Curin& a telep$one %onversation #it$ Fat$er Fontenot t$at sprin&' t$e onsi&nor indi%ated t$at on%e $e be%ame sel"-supportin&' t$e subsidy
#ould eventually be dis%ontinued*
!n ay Fat$er Fontenot #as employed by Cea%oness edi%al Center' "irst as a &uest le%turer and later as a te%$ni%ian in its adoles%ent %are
unit*8 Fat$er Fontenot remained employed in t$e adoles%ent %are unit until -eptember #$en $e be&an #or)in& #it$ CompCare in its adult unit
as an al%o$olRdru& %ounselor* Le remained t$ere until January ,9' 1997' #$en $e #as terminated be%ause o" %omplaints o" se(ual abuse by
"ormer patients o" t$e Cea%oness and CompCare* 8 +$is a%tion #as brou&$t by ei&$t adoles%ent males and one adult male alle&in& se(ual abuse
by Fat$er <onald Fontenot #$ile $e #as employed by Cea%oness Lospital and CompCare' !n%*' in -po)ane*8
Criminal %$ar&es #ere brou&$t a&ainst $im'8and t$e Cio%ese paid a portion o" $is %riminal de"ense %osts* +$e onsi&nor $elped $im
%onta%t a reli&ious %ommunity in Cali"ornia' #$ere $e resided until $is arrai&nment and senten%e* -ubse:uently' plainti""s %ommen%ed t$is a%tion*
8
N J* Ireen' John Does v* .omp.are0 )nc.' 5, Wn* App* 1,37 E*,d 799 F1999G*
919
Andre# * Ireenley' Lo# serious is t$e problem o" se(ual abuse by %ler&yP' America' ,0 ar%$ 1993' 179F10G' p* 7F5G*
919
Op. cit.
9,0
aureen Ira$am D >arry >e#is' >a#suit %$ar&es Camden' O*J*' dio%ese %onspired to %over up pedop$ilia'
Knight- Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' 31 J%t 199/*
9,1
Op. cit.
79
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
?As #as t$e %ustom' perpetrators #ould arran&e t$eir livin& :uarters #it$ ot$er perpetrators in order to trade
vi%tims or to maintain t$e se%re%y o" t$eir %riminal be$avior'@ t$e suit said*
9,,
?!n order to a%%omplis$ t$e &oals o" t$e %riminal %onspira%y' #$i%$ in%luded providin& a %ontinuous sour%e o"
%$ildren and teena&ers as alter boys and re%tory #or)ers' %ertain perpetrators and %o-%onspirators needed to be
ens%on%ed in t$e $ierar%$y* * * *@
9,3
?By 19538t$e &round#or) 2$ad been laid3 * * * to %ontinue and "oster its silent toleran%e "or t$e se(ual
e(ploitation o" %$ildren'@ t$e suit said o" t$e $ierar%$y*
9,/
• • •
By %onservative estimates' at least ,00 Cat$oli% priests $ave been a%%used o" %$ild se(ual abuse over t$e last
t#o de%ades*
9,5
ore t$an /00 Cat$oli% priest $ave been a%%used o" %$ild molestation sin%e 199,*
9,7
!nstead o"
&oin& to 1ail' most priests are sent to one o" t$ree %$ur%$-run treatment %enters in t$e %ountry*
9,7
Fat$er Andre# Ireeley estimates t$at t$e %$ur%$ a%ross t$e U*-* spends 650 million a year on t$erapy "or
priests and dama&e 1ud&ments to vi%tims ; and ,'000 to /'000 priests may $ave abused 100'000 undera&e vi%tims*
-ome Cat$oli%s #onder #$et$er t$e s%andals point to under lyin& problems in t$e priest$ood*
9,9
Eedop$ile priests8&et more mer%y "rom t$e %ourts t$an Erotestant %ler&y and mu%$ more t$an lay people* !n a
1999 study o" 190 pedop$ile %ases tried t$at year' Erotestant %leri%s re%eived' on avera&e' 11*5 years' #$ile
Cat$oli% %ler&y re%eived 1ust 3*7 years*
9,9
!n 1999' a 1ud&e in E$oeni( senten%ed a Cat$oli% priest to one year in prison "or molestin& t$ree %$ildren F$e
%on"essed to abusin& 1, %$ildrenG* But a lay person' senten%ed t$e year be"ore' re%eived a 1,-year senten%e #it$ no
%$an%e "or early parole* And in anot$er %ase in Ari.ona' tried 1ust t#o #ee)s a"ter t$e priest #as senten%ed to one
year in prison' a layman' a%%used o" molestin& a sin&le %$ild' #as senten%ed to 1,0 years*
930
+$e in%iden%e o" se(ual abuse o" %$ildren by Cat$oli% priests 2$as3 in%reased
931
82is due' in part' to3 t$e
#illin&ness o" parents and survivors to %ome "or#ard #it$ alle&ations o" se(ual mis%ondu%t and in t$e #illin&ness
o" t$e media to be%ome t$e %ourt o" last resort "or survivors and "amilies #$o $ave been stone#alled by t$e
%$ur%$*
93,
2Un"ortunately'3 ne#spapers and television ne#s reporters 2$ave3 s$ied a#ay "rom stories be%ause t$ey
#ere a"raid o" t$e reper%ussions "rom an&ry paris$ioners' priests and bis$ops*
933
+$ere is a vast ba%)lo& o"8%ases* Kven #$ere every attempt $as been made to remove &uilty priests' more
%ases8sur"a%e*
93/
• • •
ore priests #orld#ide' more %ountries #it$ Mati%an ties' more potential t$eolo&ians*
+$e Mati%an delivered its ne# $andboo) on %$ur%$ matters to Eope Jo$n Eaul !! 2February ,,3 and made publi%
some o" its statisti%s*
9,,
Op. cit.
9,3
Op. cit.
9,/
Op. cit.
9,5
Cavid Crumm' 23003 Bis$ops rally around %ollea&ue in se( %ase' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' 15 Oov 1993*
9,7
Ari% Eress' Eriests and abuse' Newswee'' 17 Au& 1993' 1,,F7G' p* /,F3G*
9,7
Menise Wa&ner FOrange .ounty RegisterG' Abuse by priests= Lo# best to $ealP' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' ,0
Au& 1993*
9,9
<i%$ard O* Jstlin&' +$e se%rets o" -t* >a#ren%eH investi&ation into %$ild molestation by priests at -t* >a#ren%e
-eminary' ount Calvary' Wis%onsin unders%ores ma1or problem o" se(ual mis%ondu%t in t$e priest$ood' Time' 7 June
1993' 1/1F,3G' p* //F1G*
9,9
Clar) orp$e#' Oe# boo) illustrates $o# many "or%es outside t$e %$ur%$ prote%ted pedop$ile priests'
Knight- Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' ,1 J%t 1993*
930
Op. cit.
931
Andre# * Ireenley' Lo# serious is t$e problem o" se(ual abuse by %ler&yP' America' ,0 ar%$ 1993' 179F10G' p* 7F5G*
93,
Op. cit.
933
Clar) orp$e#' Oe# boo) illustrates $o# many "or%es outside t$e %$ur%$ prote%ted pedop$ile priests'
Knight- Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' ,1 J%t 1993*
93/
Andre# * Ireenley' Lo# serious is t$e problem o" se(ual abuse by %ler&yP' America' ,0 ar%$ 1993' 179F10G' p* 7F5G*
70
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
• +$e number o" <oman Cat$oli% bis$ops rea%$ed /',,/' #it$ 171 ne# ones named in 1997*
• +$ere #ere ,99 more priests last year' brin&in& t$e total to /0/'750*
• +$e Mati%an no# $as "ull diplomati% ties #it$ 173 %ountries' #it$ +a1i)istan' +ur)menistan and -ierra
>eone 1oinin& t$e ran)s in 1997*
• +$e number o" seminarians studyin& p$ilosop$y and t$eolo&y rose 1*, per%ent' to 107'307*
935
• • •
+$e pastor o" 2t$e3 small 2Erotestant +emplo Bet$el Apostoli%o
937
3 %$ur%$ $as been %$ar&ed #it$ se(ually
molestin& a 13-year-old #$o attended $is %$ur%$*
937
Erose%utors said t$e &irl #as %leanin& t$e %$ur%$4s nursery
room #$en 2i%$ael M*3 iranda' 251'
939
3 e(posed $imsel" and rea%$ed under $er s)irt*
+$e &irl t$en $it iranda and ran out o" t$e room*
Erose%utors said iranda )issed and "ondled t$e &irl on several ot$er o%%asions*
939
• • •
A "ormer rabbi #as senten%ed 2April 93 in a -anta <osa %ourtroom to t$ree years in state prison "or "ondlin& a
1,-year-old &irl durin& reli&ious studies*
9/0
-idney Ioldenber&' 59' s$o#ed little remorse "or tou%$in& t$e &irl4s
breasts*
9/1
Fighting $a!k
Jn a sultry June a"ternoon' a &roup o" %$ildren played $ide-and-see) in t$eir8play&round #$ile t$e adults
#or)ed8nearby*
9/,
An 9-year-old &irl' blind"olded "or "or t$e &ame' stumbled over a stran&er* W$en t$e #oman tried to pi%) $er
up' t$e ot$er %$ildren s%reamed ; a"raid t$eir "riend #as about to be )idnapped*
en abandoned t$eir #or) and a8mob poun%ed on t$e /5-year-old stran&er' beatin& $er and t$e man #it$
$er*
9/3
Bot$ died8on t$eir #ay to t$e $ospital*
9//
Ki&$teen people $ave been beaten to deat$ in less t$an a mont$' poli%e say' and 50 more $ave been in1ured in
similar in%idents nation#ide* ost #ere #omen*
9/5
+$e "ear o" %$ild-snat%$in& "louris$es8#$ere8a #oman4s ri&$ts &roup8says as many as /00 #omen and
%$ildren are smu&&led out o" t$e %ountry and sold into prostitution or labor*
Eoli%e $ave no %entrali.ed re%ord o" $o# many #omen and %$ildren $ave be%ome vi%tims' and $ave blamed t$e
media "or "uelin& pani%*
A &eneral distrust o" poli%e $as prompted parents to )eep t$eir o#n vi&il' es%ortin& t$eir %$ildren to and "rom
s%$ools* -ome parents $ave stopped sendin& t$eir %$idlren to s%$oolH several %itites report a s$arp de%line in
attendan%e sin%e "res$ )idnap reports be&an %ir%ulatin&*
+$e &overnment $as ur&ed people not to pani%*
?!t $as been noti%ed t$at mob beatin&s are ta)in& pla%e in8parts o" t$e %ountry o"8%$ild abdu%tors'@ t$e
2&overnement3 said in a statement* ?+$e publi% must )no# it is ille&al to ta)e t$e la# in t$eir o#n $ands*@
Eoli%e' $o#ever' $ave $ad trouble ma)in& arrests "or mob beatin&s*
?!t4s not easy to ta)e a%tion #$en almost every one in an area is involved in su%$ atta%)s'@ said 2a3 poli%e
o""i%er*
9/7
2+$e Ban&lades$3 poli%e o""i%ers $ave %ir%ulated lea"lets meant to )eep travelers sa"e= ?!" you $appen to be a
stran&er in an un)no#n nei&$bor$ood' please don4t tal) to %$ildren or o""er t$em %andy*@
9/7
935
The Associated Press' ore priests "or Cat$oli%s' The Seattle Times' ,3 Feb 1997' 15F9G' p* A9*
937
The Associated Press' Eas%o pastor %$ar&ed #it$ molestin& &irl' 13' Seattle Post- )ntelligencer' 17 Jan 1997' 13/F15G' p*
C11*
937
Op. cit.
939
Op. cit.
939
Op. cit.
9/0
K(-<abbi &ets 3 years "or "ondlin& &irl' 1,' San "rancisco .hronicle' 9 April 1997' 133F71G' p* A17*
9/1
Op. cit.
9/,
The Associated Press' Kidnappin& "ears set o"" atta%)s in Ban&lades$' The Seattle Times' ,9 June 1997' 15F,7G' p* A9*
9/3
Op. cit.
9//
Op. cit.
9/5
Op. cit.
9/7
Op. cit.
9/7
Op. cit.
71
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
• • •
As -out$ A"ri%a tries to ma)e t$e transition "rom a totalitarian poli%e state ruled by a #$ite minority to
demo%ra%y' it $as &otten %au&$t in a %y%le o" violen%e in #$i%$ #omen and &irls are notable amon& t$e 2rape3
vi%tims*
-out$ A"ri%a $as t$e $i&$est in%iden%e o" reported 2Femp$asis addedG3 rape in t$e #orld' 10 rapes per 1'000
population per year' a%%ordin& to a re%ent report and a U*O* o""i%ial* By %omparison' !nterpol reported' nei&$borin&
Oamibia $as about /*/ per 1'000' #$ile t$e United -tates8re%ords about 3*9 %ases per 1'000*
9/9
0oun& %$ildren are atta%)ed by relatives or people )no#n to t$e "amily* +eena&e &irls are atta%)ed by &an&s o"
teena&e boys*
+$e problem is %ompounded by s$oddy poli%e #or)' #$i%$ allo#s t$e vast ma1ority o" t$ese %rimes to &o
unpunis$ed* !n a number o" %ases' poli%emen $ave been a%%used o" rape*
9/9
-ome anti-rape or&ani.ations $ave resorted to %ondu%tin& %iti.ens arrests' "ollo#ed by t$e p$ysi%al t$ras$in& o"
suspe%ts' be"ore $andin& t$em over to poli%e*
950
“-tta'oy”
H9.
2ay 11=3 -ome :uestioned #$y poli%e #ere %onsiderin& an assault %$ar&e a&ainst 2a3 ,5-year-old 2man3 #$o
"ra%tured bur&lary suspe%t Cavid Boot$4s s)ull a"ter "indin& t$e man brea)in& into $is $ome*
95,
+$e %ase tou%$ed a
nerve in Eetaluma' $ome to#n o" )idnap-murder vi%tim Eolly Klaas*
?ost o" t$e people around $ere are sayin&' BAttaboy'4

@ said Jon -nyder o" K-<J-A' #$ere %alls #ere
runnin& $eavily in "avor o" 2t$e $omeo#ner3*
953
Boot$' /1' #as paroled 2ay 73 "rom state prison' #$ere $e $ad been servin& time "or bur&lary*
95/
9/9
Cele Jlo1ede FNewsdayG' <ape epidemi% &ro#s in -out$ A"ri%aH -out$ A"ri%a $as &otten %au&$t in a %y%le o" violen%e in
#$i%$ #omen and &irls are notable amon& t$e vi%tims* +$e %ountry no# $as t$e $i&$est in%iden%e o" reported rate in t$e
#orld' The Seattle Times' , Feb 1997' 15F5G' p* A17*
9/9
Op. cit.
950
Op. cit.
951
i%$elle >o%)e FThe Associated PressG' an #$o beat suspe%t #it$ bat may be %$ar&ed' The Seattle Times' 11 ay
1997' 15F19G' p* A7*
95,
Op. cit.
953
Op. cit.
95/
Op. cit.
7,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
%he ,ir!le
+$ere is ri&$t' and t$ere is #ron&*
!n C$erie +o#n4s boo)' it #as #ron& "or $er $usband to be messin& around #it$ ot$er #omen* -o #$en $e
started bra&&in&' s$e pi%)ed up t$e p$one and %alled t$e <ape Crisis Center*
955
-o be&an t$e pain"ul unravelin& o" a monstrous se%ret*
+$at se%ret alle&edly #as s$ared by at least t#o do.en adults and some 50 %$ildren said to be members o" ?+$e
Cir%le*@ A loosely or&ani.ed %ir%le o" "riends %onsisted o" t#o e(tended "amilies and a pastor' $is #i"e and a
%$ur%$ bus driver ; t$eir lives interse%tin& by %$an%e on t$e #al) to s%$ool' at t$e #el"are o""i%e' at %$ur%$ and in
lo%al taverns*
957
Follo#in& is t$e status o" t$ose a%%used in t$e Wenat%$ee %$ild-abuse %ase 2as o" -eptember ,,' 19953*
CJOM!C+KC J< E>KACKC IU!>+0
eredit$ ?Iene@ +o#n ; member' C$ur%$ o" Iod= Eleaded &uilty to %$ild rape Fo#n %$ildrenG ; ,0 years
C$erie +o#n' !A 77 ; member' C$ur%$ o" Iod= Eleaded &uilty to %$ild rape Fo#n %$ildrenG ; 10 years' 10 mont$s
>aura Lolt ; member' C$ur%$ o" Iod= Eleaded &uilty to %$ild rape Fo#n %$ildrenG ; /0 years
-eli& Lolt ; member' C$ur%$ o" Iod= Eleaded &uilty to %$ild rape Fo#n %$ildrenG ;
Coris Ireen ; member' C$ur%$ o" Iod= Convi%ted o" molestin& Lolt )ids ; ,3 years' 3 mont$s
i%$ael <ose ; Convi%ted o" molestin& Ireen )ids
!dela Kverett' illeterate' !A 79 ; re%anted %on"ession ; member' C$ur%$ o" Iod= Eleaded &uilty to molestin& o#n %$ildren
; / years' 9 mont$s
Larold Kverett' illiterate ; member' C$ur%$ o" Iod= Eleaded &uilty to %$ild rape ;,3 years / mont$s
Iary Filbe%) ; disabled by brain tumor ; member' C$ur%$ o" Iod= Eleaded &uilty to molestin& Kverett )ids ; senten%e pendin&
-$arlan Filbe%) ; member' C$ur%$ o" Iod= Eleaded &uilty to molestin& ; senten%e pendin&
Abel Fonse%a >ope.= Convi%ted o" molestin& Kverett %$ild
anual Lidal&o <odri:ue.= Convi%ted o" molestin& Kverett %$ild
>inda iller ; member' C$ur%$ o" Iod ; re%anted= Convi%ted o" molestin& o#n )ids ; senten%e pendin&
Alan Lu&$es= Eleaded &uilty to molestin& iller %$ild
-ara Lu&$es FAlan4s #i"eG = Eleaded &uilty to molestin& iller %$ild
Bob Cu:uette= Eleaded &uilty to molestin& t#o )ids
<andall <eed ; liver and brain dama&e= Eleaded &uilty to molestin& several %$ildren
Jeannie Bendt= Eleaded &uilty
+im Curst= Eleaded &uilty
Connie Cunnin&$am= Convi%ted o" molestin& o#n )ids
Lenry Cunnin&$am= Convi%ted o" molestin& o#n )ids
ar) Co&&ett= Convi%ted o" molestin& o#n dau&$ter
Carol Co&&ett= Convi%ted o" molestin& o#n dau&$ter
>a#ren%e ?>eo@ Cat%$e#ay= Eleaded &uilty to molestin& t$ree )ids
+<!A>- EKOC!OI
Eastor <obert <oberson
Connie <oberson
-usan Kverett ; Conna Kverett4s %ousin
Karen >ope.
William Cavis ; bus driver' C$ur%$ o" Iod
<alp$ Iausvi) ; ember' C$ur%$ o" Iod
Barabara Iaraas F<alp$4s #i"eG ; ember' C$ur%$ o"o Iod
Conna Lidal&o
Kerri Kno#les
>arry -teinborn ; member' C$ur%$ o" Iod
C!-!--KC J< ACAU!++KC
Lona -imms ; -unday s%$ool tea%$er' C$ur%$ o" Iod= A%uitted o" molestin& )ids at %$ur%$
Bob Ceverau(= Cismissed ; pleaded &uilty to one %ount o" span)in& a "oster %$ild
Kat$ryn >an%aster= Cismissed
Oorberto a%ias= Cismissed
+ra%y Lo%)ett= A%:uitted o" molestin& "oster sister
Jerome Bu%)ley= Cismissed
Conna <odri:ue. ; Kim Allbee4s mot$er= Cismissed
Kd Kno#les Jr*= Cismissed
Kd Kno#les -r*= Cismissed
Eam Kimble ; Conna Kverett4s aunt= Cismissed
ACCU-KC' OJ+ CLA<IKC
Eaul Ilassen ; moved to Canada
Irampa -poonmore ; Conna Kverett4s &rand"at$er
Irandma -poonmore ; Conna4s &randmot$er
Conna Kverett4s un%le
anuel <eyna
955
arla Williams D Cee Oorton' +$e unravelin& o" a monstrous se%retH se(-abuse s%andal $as Wenat%$ee reelin&' FEart 1
o" ,G' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1995' p* A1*
957
Op. cit.
73
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Jon Campbell
Bob Ceverau(4s son
Anna Ooles Fpossibly Anna OielsonG
UO!CKO+!F!KCROJ+ >JCA+KC
?Cu)e@
A bla%) lady ; Cu)e4s #i"e
A &uy in mid 30s
+i&&er Fa&e 19-,0G
Cavid F15-17G
Anna4s sister Fpossibly +abit$a OielsonG ; no %$ar&es "iled
Cavid4s aunt
957
2As o" June ,9' 1997'3 all but one o" t$e trials #as over in #$at $as been des%ribed as t$e lar&est -ever
%$ild-se(-rin& prose%ution* J" ,9 adults %$ar&ed #it$ rape and molestation' 1/ pleaded &uilty' "ive #ere %onvi%ted'
t$ree #ere a%:uitted and "ive $ad t$eir %ases dismissed* Oineteen are servin& prison senten%es*
959
-nd )o %he )tory 3oes . . .
Jn a :uiet street in t$e Columbia <iver valley' 150 miles east o" -eattle' Eastor <obert F<obyG <oberson4s Kast
Wenat%$ee Eente%ostal C$ur%$ o" Iod Louse o" Erayer sits ba%) "rom t$e road' its yard %luttered #it$ old buses
and vans* At one end o" t$e lo#-slun& buildin& stands a "ood ban) "or t$e poorH ma)es$i"t slides and s#in&s are out
ba%)* !t seems to be 1ust #$at it loo)s li)e= a $ards%rabble %$ur%$ doin& Iod4s #or)* And it loo)ed 1ust t$is #ay
on t$e re%ent sprin& a"ternoon #$en poli%e raided t$e %$ur%$ to arrest <oberson and $is #i"e' ?-ister Connie'@ on
,, %ounts o" alle&edly rapin& and molestin& %$ildren ; bot$ at t$e pastor4s $ouse and durin& Friday-ni&$t Bible
%lasses*
!" poli%e and prose%utors are ri&$t' Wenat%$ee' an apple-&ro#in& valley o" 55'000' is $ome to do.ens o"
in%estuous pedop$iles tan&led up in a )id-s#appin&' adult-led se( rin&*
959
+$ey #ere 2pedop$ili%3 "amilies' poli%e
say' in #$i%$ adults treated %$ildren as %ommodities' ?tradin& t$em li)e party "avors@ ; not "or "inan%ial &ain' but
"or se(ual &rati"i%ation and illusions o" po#er and %ontrol
970
8"or nearly a de%ade*
971
A )id-s#appin&' adult-led se( rin& su%$ as t$at alle&ed in Wenat%$ee #ould be ?rare indeed'@ said Cr* Fred
Berlin' "ounder o" t$e Jo$ns Lop)ins -e(ual Cisorders Clini% in Baltimore*
But it #ouldn4t be impossible*
?Clearly' t$ere is ris) o" embellis$ment'@ Berlin said* ?But ! believe t$ere is a possibility t$at people #$o
s$are su%$ %ommon' aberrant needs %ould be dra#n to&et$er be%ause t$e mainstream o" t$eir e(isten%e %enters on
t$e "re:uent need to be se(ual*
?+$e di""i%ulty in su%$ situations is teasin& out t$e trut$*@
97,
But i" you believe t$e a%%used' %$ar&es a&ainst Eastor <oby ; a 50-year-old me%$ani% #$o "ound Jesus 1, Fread=
1/G years a&o ; %ap a rene&ade %op4s %onspira%y to "rame inno%ent people on $orri"i% se( %$ar&es* ?At t$is point'@
says <u"us Woods' editor o" +$e Wenat%$ee World ne#paper' ?t$e only t$in& t$at surprises me is t$at BLard Copy4
$asn4t opened a bureau out $ere*@
973
+$e idea t$at t$e same 50 %$ildren %ould be routinely sodomi.ed by t$e same t#o do.en adults year a"ter year is
so $orri"i% it &ives rise to disbelie"*
97/
J" %ourse' it4s not un$eard o" "or a brutal %rime or spe%ta%ular s%andal to
un"old in a small to#n* But #$at aut$orities say is $appenin& in Wenat%$ee brea)s 1ust about every se(ual and
so%ial taboo you %an t$in) o"* !s t$is depressin&ly lon& strea) o" %ivi% bad lu%) a %oin%iden%e' or is t$ere a reason so
many bad t$in&s seem to be &oin& on $ereP
975
ore t$an /00'000 reports o" veri"iable %$ild abuse are "iled nation#ide #it$ aut$orities ea%$ year*
977
For %riti%s to be ri&$t t$at la#-en"or%ement o""i%ers are manu"a%turin& %$ar&es means believin& t$ere is
%ollusion bet#een poli%e' prose%utors and so%ial-servi%e #or)ers in t$e Wenat%$ee area4s t#o %ounties* But it is
also di""i%ult to believe t$at a s%ore o" adults and %$ildren %ould $ave ro#dy' "re:uent se( to&et$er "or so lon&
#it$out bein& noti%ed* ?Oone o" it is true ; not$in& t$ey $ave said about us'@ <oberson' sittin& in 1ail' told
957
Armin Brott' -tatus o" t$ose a%%used in t$e Wenat%$ee %$ild-abuse %ase' Knight- Ridder:Tri&une Ser(ice' ,, -ep 1995*
959
Ale( +i.on' Wenat%$ee bra%es "or se(-rin& la#suits' The Seattle Times' ,9 June 1997' p* A1*
959
Jo$n ea%$am' +rials and troubles in Lappy Malley' Newswee'' 9 ay 1995' 1,5F19G' p* 59F3G*
970
arla Williams D Cee Oorton' +$e unravelin& o" a monstrous se%retH se(-abuse s%andal $as Wenat%$ee reelin&' FEart 1
o" ,G' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1995' p* A1*
971
Op. cit.
97,
Op. cit.
973
Jo$n ea%$am' +rials and troubles in Lappy Malley' Newswee'' 9 ay 1995' 1,5F19G' p* 59F3G*
97/
arla Williams D Cee Oorton' +$e unravelin& o" a monstrous se%retH se(-abuse s%andal $as Wenat%$ee reelin&' FEart 1
o" ,G' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1995' p* A1*
975
Jo$n ea%$am' +rials and troubles in Lappy Malley' Newswee'' 9 ay 1995' 1,5F19G' p* 59F3G*
977
arla Williams D Cee Oorton' +$e unravelin& o" a monstrous se%retH se(-abuse s%andal $as Wenat%$ee reelin&' FEart 1
o" ,G' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1995' p* A1*
7/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Oe#s#ee)* ?And ! )no# t$e >ord is &oin& to allo# us to be $is instruments in &ettin& to t$e root o" t$is*@ -u%$
tal) $eartens <oberson partisans li)e arv -par)s' #$o4s %ertain t$e poli%e $ave overrea%$ed* ?+$ere are a lot o"
very ni%e people $ere #$ose lives are bein& destroyed by t$is'@ says -par)s' an unemployed tru%)driver #$o
attends <oberson4s /0-member %$ur%$* -par)s $ad $is t#o little &irls e(amined on%e t$e story bro)eH t$ey #ere
un$armed*
977
2+$e dete%tives3 $ad no idea' o" %ourse' o" t$e di""i%ulties t$at lay a$eadH no $int o" %onspira%yH no %lue t$at an
in%estuous rin& o" pedop$iles' t$e li)es o" #$i%$ $as never been proved in t$is %ountry' mi&$t be operatin& in
Wenat%$ee*
979
!nvesti&ations into %ases o" in%est blossomed into lurid tales o" overlappin& rin&s o" se(ual abuse*
Eeople4s lives and "ortunes and t$e %$ara%ter o" a %ommunity #ere %au&$t up in a 1umble o" plea-bar&ained %ases'
1ury %onvi%tions' prose%ution retreats "rom spe%ta%ular %$ar&es and 1ury a%:uittals in t$e most notorious %ases*
979
eredit$ +o#n admitted to 7, %ounts o" %$ild rape and "our %ounts o" inde%ent liberties* By t$e time $e
stopped tal)in&' poli%e #ere pretty sure C$erie +o#n )ne# more t$an s$e $ad led on*
970
-$e reportedly be&an to
$ave se( #it$ $er youn&er son #$en $e #as 9*
971
C$erie and $er $usband #ere rarely intimate ; alt$ou&$' on
o%%asion t$ey #ould $ave se( to&et$er #it$ t$e boys* Alon& #it$ drin)in&' se( #as t$e "amily4s primary diversion*
But never one' C$erie +o#n said' did s$e ?)eep t$e boys $ome "rom s%$ool to $ave se(*@
97,
FA%%ordin& to %ourt
doo%uments' C$erie +o#n $as an !A o" 77H 90 to 110 is %onsidered normal*G
973
Kventually' bot$ C$arie and eredit$ +o#n bo#ed to punis$ment* +$ey entered Al"ord pleas' t$e pro%ess by
#$i%$ de"endants maintain inno%en%e but a%)no#led&e t$ey #ould be "ound &uilty at trial*
97/
+al)in& #it$ t$e %$ildren made 2t$e dete%tive3 believe >aura Lold ; also )no#n as Be%)y ; $ad molested not
only $er %$ildren but %ountless ot$ers*
975
A $al"-$our a"ter s$e #as arrested' >aura Lolt stopped ar&uin& $er
inno%en%e and be&an to %on"ess*
977
>aura Lolt later re%anted $er %on"ession' %laimin& s$e $ad been ?bro#beat*@
977
2<andall3 <eed' /3 at t$e time' pleaded &uilty to t#o %ounts o" %$ild molestation* !n a si&ned statement to t$e
%ourt' $e #rote= ?Be%ause o" liver dama&e t$at $as a""e%ted my brain and memory' ! $ave no re%olle%tion Fo" t$e
%rimeG* ! #ant to ma)e sure it doesn4t $appen a&ain' and ! believe t$e state %ould %onvi%t me at a trial*@ Le #as
senten%ed to 90 mont$s*
979
2i%$ael3 <ose' t$en ,7' maintained $is inno%en%e* Ce"ense attorneys :uestioned t$e "oundation o" t$e
%$ar&es' %itin& t$e p$ysi%ian dia&noses t$at revealed ?t$e alle&ed vi%tims su""ered "rom various "orms o"
psy%$olo&i%al problems in%ludin& attention-de"i%it disorder' post-traumati% stress disorder' psy%$oti% disorders and
ot$er impairments*@
979
<ose #as senten%ed to ,3 years*
990
!n #$at seemed at "irst to be a #$olly unrelated in%ident' <obert Cevereau( lost $is li%ense to operate a "oster
$ome
991
8s$ar2in&3 t$eir $ome #it$ up to si( s%$ool-a&e %$ildren' pre"ereably a&es 7 to 1,'
99,
8a"ter $e be%ame t$e
sub1e%t o" se(ual-abuse alle&ations*
993
CE- re%ords indi%ate alle&ations o" se(ual abuse #ere leveled at Cevereau( at least seven times over "our
years* ost #ere investi&ated' some #ere not ; t$e in"ormation lost in a s$u""le o" supervisors*
99/
J""erin& lurid re%olle%tions o" t$e abuse' 2a vi%tim3 des%ribed $o#' at one $ome' &ro#n-ups #ould ta)e
%$ildren' si( at a time' to a room #it$ si( sin&le beds* ?We $ad to undress and lay do#n on t$e bed' a )id on ea%$
bed'@ s$e said* ?+$e adults undressed and &ot in line and too) turns #it$ everybody* !t #as t$e tou%$in& t$in&' t$e
B#ild t$in&*4

@
995
977
Jo$n ea%$am' +rials and troubles in Lappy Malley' Newswee'' 9 ay 1995' 1,5F19G' p* 59F3G*
979
arla Williams D Cee Oorton' +$e unravelin& o" a monstrous se%retH se(-abuse s%andal $as Wenat%$ee reelin&' FEart 1
o" ,G' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1995' p* A1*
979
Kditorial' -$oddy poli%e pra%ti%es #ill %ost Wenat%$ee' The Seattle Times' 7 Feb 1997' p* B/*
970
arla Williams D Cee Oorton' +$e unravelin& o" a monstrous se%retH se(-abuse s%andal $as Wenat%$ee reelin&' FEart 1
o" ,G' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1995' p* A1*
971
Op. cit.
97,
Op. cit.
973
Op. cit.
97/
Op. cit.
975
Op. cit.
977
Op. cit.
977
Op. cit.
979
Op. cit.
979
Op. cit.
990
Op. cit.
991
Op. cit.
99,
Op. cit.
993
Op. cit.
99/
Op. cit.
995
Op. cit.
75
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
2Anot$er vi%tim3 %laimed t$at on one o%%asion' ?Eastor <oby@ as)ed t$e &irl into $is s$a&-%arpeted o""i%e o"" t$e
san%tuary* +$ere' t$e pastor and t$ree ot$er adults alle&edly raped $er*
• • •
A#are o" &ro#in& unease in t$e %ommunity ; and )no#in& t$is %ase %ould be $u&e ; Cou&las County o""i%ials
pro%eeded #it$ %aution* +$e s$eri""4s o""i%e obtained sear%$ #arrents and sou&$t p$ysi%al eviden%e*
997
?!t4s a #it%$ $unt' pure and simple'@ said Bob Kin)ade' sel"-appointed leader o" t$e lo%al %$apter o" Mi%tims o"
C$ild Abuse >a#s* MJCA>' as t$e &roup is more %ommonly )no#n' is a national or&ani.ation establis$ed to
?prote%t t$e "alsely a%%used*@
997
+$e speedy a%:uittal o" an Kast Wenat%$ee pastor and $is #i"e by yet anot$er $i&$ly s)epti%al 1ury rein"or%es
t$e need "or independent revie# o" t$at un$appy valley4s 19-mont$-old %$ild se(-abuse s%andal*
999
+$e U*-* Justi%e
Cepartment o"ten steps in at times o" a %ommunity dispute to determine i" a violation o" "ederal %ivil -ri&$ts la# $as
o%%urred*
999
+$e Lolts4 dau&$ter even told o""i%ers #$ere t$e videos #ere )ept' but 2t$e o""i%ers3 did not "ind any tapes*
2J""i%ers3 said t$e tapes #ere probably ta)en by a suspe%t' >eo Cat%$e#ay' #$o "led Wenat%$ee and remains at
lar&e*
990
?0ou )no#' #e need to t$in) o" t$em and say t$at no matter #$i%$ #ay it #ent' Jesus died on t$e %ross "or all
o" us'@ 2substitute prea%$er' <oy3 -elby e($orted* ?-o let4s remember everybody involved and pray t$at Iod #ill
tou%$ t$eir $earts*@
991
0.K.1 'ut “the !ir!le grows.”
HJ>
?+$is is not a typi%al %ase o" %$ild se(ual abuse'@ Kitsap County -uperior Court Jud&e James <oper said8as $e
senten%ed Cebbie >* <unyan to 17, mont$s ; 1, 1R, years ; in prison "or se(ually abusin& "ive &irls s$e %ared "or
in $er Bainbrid&e !sland day-%are %enter*
<unyan #as "ound &uilty Jan* 17' 21997'3 o" se(ually abusin& $er t#o youn& dau&$ters and t$ree ot$er &irls' all
o" #$om s$e %ared "or at Cebbie4s Cay Care*
993
+$e standard ran&e o" senten%in& "or all o" <unyan4s %rimes is 77
to 10, mont$s' but <oper #ent above t$at' %itin& several a&&ravatin& "a%tors* Amon& t$em #as t$e a&e o" t$e
%$ildren ; t$e youn&est o" #$om #as 3 ; t$e "a%t t$at t$ey #ere repeatedly se(ually assaulted' and t$e "a%t t$at
<unyan violated #$at t$e 1ud&e termed $er position o" trust as t$eir %areta)er*
99/
• • •
?W$en ! arrived at t$e &ame' ! "elt dru&&ed and di..y'@ t$e %$eerleader #rote in a statement "or poli%e' ?but !
"elt it #as "rom t$e -uda"ed t$at my boy"riend $ad &iven me earlier "or a $ead %old*@
995
-ome Bainbrid&e Li&$
-%$ool %$eerleaders 2$ad3 tried to disable a s:uad member by spi)in& $er drin) #it$ a vomit-indu%in& potion 1ust
be"ore t$e "irst $ome &ame o" t$e "ootball season*
997
?+$e %$eerleader mentality'@ 2t$e vi%tim4s mot$er said3*
997
997
Op. cit.
997
Op. cit.
999
Kditorial' -e(-rin& verdi%t rene#s need "or outside revie#' The Seattle Times' 13 Ce% 1995' p* B9*
999
Op. cit.
990
arla Williams D Cee Oorton' +$e unravelin& o" a monstrous se%retH se(-abuse s%andal $as Wenat%$ee reelin&' FEart 1
o" ,G' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1995' p* A1*
991
Jo$n ea%$am' +rials and troubles in Lappy Malley' Newswee'' 9 ay 1995' 1,5F19G' p* 59F3G*
99,
arla Williams D Cee Oorton' +$e unravelin& o" a monstrous se%retH se(-abuse s%andal $as Wenat%$ee reelin&' FEart 1
o" ,G' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1995' p* A1*
993
Kli.abet$ <$odes' 13 1R,-year term "or %$ild-abuser' The Seattle Times' 1, ar 1997' p* A1*
99/
Op. cit.
995
Cu"" Wilson' C$eerleaders spi)e drin) to si%)en teammateH t#o on Bainbrid&e Li&$ s:uad ben%$ed "or season' The
Seattle Times0 5 Oov 1997' 119 F,77G' p* A17*
997
)&idem0 p* A1*
997
)&idem' p* A17*
77
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
W$en t$e syrup o" ipe%a%
2 9993
didn4t put $er out o" a%tion' $er teammates ; #$o didn4t t$in) s$e #as a &ood
enou&$ %$eerleader ; laid plans to try a&ain' #it$ an in%reased dosa&e*
999
+$e $ead %$eerleader e(posed t$e plot*
900
+$e $ead %$eerleader #as &iven a one-&ame suspension "rom t$e s:uad*
901
Oo one on t$e ei&$t-member s:uad
#as suspended "rom s%$ool*
90,
+$e episode #as $andled :uietly to avoid embarrassin& t$e %$eerleaders*
903
• • •
-eventy-t$ree Kitsap County &overnment o""i%ials $ad 1ust returned "rom a drill at t$e Oational Kmer&en%y
+rainin& Center in aryland #$en t$eory almost be%ame reality*
2June ,33 t$ey "ound t$emselves near t$e epi%enter o" a /*9 eart$:ua)e t$at 1olted Eu&et -ound residents "rom
t$eir lun%$es*
90/
At /*9' 2June ,34s3 :ua)e apparently $ad little e""e%t on t$e Eu&et -ound-area in"rastru%ture*
905
+$e 1,=13 p*m* eart$:ua)e emanated "rom under Eoint W$ite' a :uiet bea%$ on t$e sout$#est tip o" Bainbrid&e
!sland' about 3 1R, miles east o" Bremerton*
907
!n !ssi:ua$' Burien' Kverett' and even Eoulsbo' many people
reported "eelin& no :ua)e at all*
907
999
2FAn overdose o" ipe%a% %an be "atal*G3 !pe%a% is used in emer&en%ies to indu%e vomitin& in someone #$o $as in&ested
%ertain types o" poison' and t$e &irls )ne# t$at it is also used by bulimi%s* -old over t$e %ounter in small bottles' it %arries
a #arnin& t$at it s$ould be &iven only on t$e advi%e o" a do%tor or poison-%ontrol %enter*
N Op. cit.
999
)&idem0 p* A1*
900
)&idem' p* A17*
901
Op. cit.
90,
Op. cit.
903
Op. cit.
90/
-teven Ioldsmit$ D Jo$n !#asa)i' Kart$:ua)e 1olts re&ion ; and peopleH dama&e sli&$t' but one drill is &iven ur&en%y'
Seattle Post- )ntelligencer' ,/ June 1997' 13/F150G' p* A1*
905
)&idem' p* A3*
907
)&idem' p* A1.
907
)&idem' p* A3*
77
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Gimi
Apparently oni)a Canneman "elt it #as all ri&$t to &o to t$e store "or %i&arettes #$en s$e a#o)e at
10=00 A**
909
W$en oni)a returns
909
8s$e rus$es over to Jimi and tries to #a)e $im a&ain* +$e vomit s$e $ad seen be"ore
s$e #ent to t$e store $ad dried' but no# t$ere is more*
910
+$e e""e%ts o" t$e sleepin& pill s$e $ad ta)en earlier
:ui%)ly #ear o"" as s$e reali.es Jimi is in trouble*
As Alvenia Brid&es re%alls= s$e a#o)e to t$e p$one rin&in&* Kri% Burdon pi%)ed it up*
911
!t #as oni)a
Canneman on t$e p$one* -$e #as sayin& t$at Jimi #ould not #a)e up* Kri% s$outed into t$e telep$one' ?CA>>
+LK F---!OI ABU>AOCK*@ Alvenia &rabbed t$e p$one* oni)a #as "ranti%' s$e did not )no# i" s$e s$ould'
s$e #as #orried t$at Jimi mi&$t &et mad*
91,
Alvenia said' ?!4ll be ri&$t over* Lan& up and %all t$e ambulan%e*@
Alvenia $un& up and be&an dressin& $urriedly* Clot$es on' s$e dialed oni)a ba%)*
913
oni)a $ad not %alled t$e
ambulan%e yet* Alvenia #as astounded* ?CA>> +LK ABU>AOCK*@
91/
oni)a did not )no# i" s$e s$ould*
915

Alvenia'8$er voi%e on an emotional par #it$ oni)a4s' <There;s no time to lose. 9ou ha(e to call an
am&ulance*=
+$en $e sees $is o#n body on t$e bed* +$e door is #ide open and oni)a tear"ully admits several men
in #$ite %oats* +$ey roll $im onto a stret%$er*
Le "eels $imsel" bein& %arried t$rou&$ t$e door into t$e outside air* !ts bris)ness s$o%)s $im* +$ey
%arry $im up t$e #indin& stairs #it$ &reat di""i%ulty* As t$ey rea%$ t$e top o" t$e stairs $e be&ins to "eel
si%) to $is stoma%$ a&ain* +$ey %arry $im into t$e ambulan%e* !nstead o" layin& $im do#n' t$ey sit $im in
a %$air and strap $im upri&$t* Le tries to bend over so $e %an vomit but one o" t$e attendants :ui%ly pus$es
$is $ead ba%) and straps $im even ti&$ter* Jimi4s $ead lolls ba%) as t$e ambulan%e ta)es o""' t$e )nell -li)e
#ail o" its siren %learin& t$e busy streets* +$e speedin& ambulan%e presses $is body ba%) in t$e %$air and
ma)es it even more di""i%ult "or $im to &et $is $ead do#n* Le "eels bile and vomit near $is Adam4s apple*
Le tries "ranti%ally to &et $is $ead "or#ard' but one o" t$e attendants is ma)in& sure it does not tip "or#ard*
Jimi is unable to spea)* Kven i" $e %ould' t$e ball o" vomit in $is t$roat #ould prevent $im* ore vomit
#ells up "rom $is stoma%$* Le %annot breat$e*
917
Jimi4s lun&s be%ome %on&ested* Lis $eart be&ins to pump $arder and $arder' t$e ri&$t ventri%le dilates*
Fluid be&ins to seep into $is lun&s* Le is rus$ed "rom t$e ambulan%e into -t* ary4s Abbot Lospital*
917

Lendri( mana&ed to $old on to li"e until $e &ot to t$e $ospital* But t$ere $is $eart s#elled up and t$e
menin&es in $is spinal %olumn %on&ested* Lis $eart #as too slo#ed by t$e barbiturates and al%o$ol in $is
blood to meet t$e emer&en%y in $is system*
919
At 11=,5 A**' -eptember 19' 1970' Jimi Lendri( #as pronoun%ed dead at -t* ary4s Abbot Lospital in t$e
Kensin&tonRC$elsea se%tion o" >ondon* !mmediately t$e >ondon o""i%es o" t$e ma1or #ire servi%es reported
#orld#ide t$at Lendri( died o" a dru& overdose* >ater' t$e in:uest returned an ?open verdi%t'@ #$i%$' a%%ordin& to
t$e New 9or' Times' ?meant t$at t$e %ourt #as unable to de%ide t$e e(a%t reason "or r* Lendri(4s deat$* * * *@
Jimi $endri% did not die o- a drug o(erdose.
+$e deat$ %erti"i%ate listed as ?%ause o" deat$@=
!n$alation o" vomit
Barbiturate into(i%ation F:uinalbarbitoneG
!nsu""i%ient eviden%e o" %ir%umstan%es
open verdi%t
W$ile Iavin >* B* +$urston' %oroner "or !nner West >ondon' is listed as in"ormant' $e did not si&n t$e deat$
%erti"i%ate*
919
Furt$er analysis o" t$e pat$olo&ist4s report indi%ated t$at Lendri( $ad a very $i&$ level o" al%o$ol in $is blood*
u%$ more t$an t$e bottle o" #ine $e and oni)a dran) #it$ t$eir meal* !t #ould seem' a%%ordin& to Canneman4s
909
Cavid Lenderson' BScuse e 8hile ) Kiss the S'y/ The !i-e o- Jimi $endri% F+oronto= Bantam Boo)s' 1993F1979GG' p*
399*
909
)&idem' p* 399*
910
Op. cit.
911
Op. cit.
91,
Op. cit.
913
Op. cit.
91/
Op. cit.
915
Op. cit.
917
)&idem' pp* 399-390*
917
)&idem' p* 390*
919
)&idem' pp* 399-/00*
919
)&idem' p* 397*
79
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
testimony' t$at $e $ad not$in& to drin) a"ter t$eir meal and a"ter t$e dinner party' yet t$e al%o$ol blood level
remained unusally $i&$*
9,0
2An3ot$er version23 o" Lendri(4s deat$ #2as3 to sur"a%e* 2!t3 $ad to do #it$ t$e ?Cointelpro@ pro&ram o" t$e
Federal Bureau o" !nvesti&ation' #$i%$ sou&$t to neutrali.e an array o" bla%) leaders #$o #ere %onsidered to be
potential messia$s* F+$ere are do%uments o" FB! a%tivity around Lendri(*G
9,1
+$e t#o persons %losest to $im on a personal and a business level' Cevon Wilson and i%$ael Je""ery' bot$
died stran&e and violent deat$s soon a"ter $e le"t t$is #orld' Cevon in an ambi&uous plun&e "rom t$e upper stories
o" t$e C$elsea Lotel in Oe# 0or) City and Je""ery in an e(plodin& %ommer%ial airliner* Jt$er %lose asso%iates
died' &ot strun& out' or #ent mad soon a"ter $is deat$*
9,,
• • •
?+$e "irst o""i%ially re%orded deat$ #as' ! t$in)' in Ce%ember o" 1999' and t$ey %on%luded t$at t$e &uy died o"
an overdose o" bad #$is)ey in t$e %ounty 1ail* +$at #as t$e "irst reported deat$ in t$is %ounty'@ 2says Kin&
County4s C$ie" edi%al !nvesti&ator' Jerry Webster3*
9,3
2!n "a%t'3 t$e most %ommon type o" non-tra""i% a%%idental
deat$ in Kin& County is dru& overdose ; in 1995 t$ere #ere 1/, o" t$emH t$at4s /1 per%ent o" non-tra""i% a%%idents*
!n B91 t$ere #ere /9' in B93 t$ere #ere 99' in B9/ t$ere #ere 109*
9,/
• • •
A Kin& County poli%e ser&eant "a%in& murder %$ar&es #as named in t#o la#suits in t$e 1990s t$at %ost t$e
%ounty 6175'000' in%ludin& one in #$i%$ $e alle&edly stru%) a man in t$e "a%e #it$ $is ni&$tsti%) and slammed $im
onto t$e trun) o" a %ar*
2+$e ser&eant3 #an4t dis%iplined as a result o" t$e %ases*
9,5
• • •
Four ro&ue8poli%emen #ere senten%ed8"or robbin& dru& dealers and "alsi"yin& poli%e reports* Anot$er #as
senten%ed "or rou&$in& up a %olle&e student in an in%ident t$at led to t$e dis%overy o" t$e t$e"ts and %over-up*
9,7

+$e admitted rin&leader' re%eived a 13-year "ederal prison senten%e*
9,7
• • •
-ystems o" ille&al payo""s and bribery in various "orms $ave e(isted in t$e -eattle Eoli%e Cepartment "or many
years*
9,9
9,0
)&idem' p* 399*
9,1
)&idem' p* 399*
9,,
)&idem' pp* /03-/0/*
9,3
-%ot Au&uston' A &uided tour= deat$ in -eattle' The Stranger' 1/ Au& 1997' 7F9G' p* 11*
9,/
)&idem' p* 13b*
9,5
-teve ileti%$' Ba%$meier named in ot$er in%idents' Seattle Post- )ntelligencer' ,7 Oov 1997' p* B1*
9,7
5 E$illy o""i%ers senten%ed on dru& and ri&$ts violations' The Seattle Times' 17 April 1997' 119F9,G' p* A/*
9,7
Op. cit.
9,9
William J* C$ambliss FEro"essor o" -o%iolo&y and C$air o" t$e -o%iolo&y Cept* at t$e Iero&e Was$* U*' and Eresident o"
t$e Am* -o%iety o" Criminolo&y F1999GG' On the Ta'e/ "rom Petty .roo's to Presidents F!ndiana= University Eress' 1999G'
p* ,70*
79
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
“%he @mpire ne5er ended.”
J>J
W$en most people t$in) o" Bel&ium' t$ey %onsider its $earty beer and deli%ious %$o%olate'
930
8but sin%e t$e
summer 2o" 1997'3 it $as been ro%)ed by a series o" lurid revelations* +$ey in%lude tales o" an e(%eptionally
repellent %$ild-se( torture-murder rin&' t$e arrest o" a "ormer minister "or t$e a"ia-style politi%al assassination o"
a rival' o""i%ial %orruption and bribery' all topped o"" by la#-en"or%ement bun&lin& on a &rand s%ale* Eubli% an&er
and dis&ust are so $i&$ t$at #$en %iti.ens4 &roups last mont$ or&ani.ed a demonstration to demand a &overnment
%lean-up' silent' #$ite-%lad protesters numberin&8"ully 3V o" t$e %ountry4s population8t$ron&ed t$e streets o"
Brussels*
+$e W$ite ar%$ #as a %at$arti% moment "or a badly troubled so%iety' but t$e respite "rom dismayin& ne#s
ended*
931
+$is time a popular and tele&eni% Ceputy Erime inister'8Klio Ci <upo' /5' #as a%%used by lo%al
prose%utors ; #$o petitioned Earliament to li"t $is o""i%ial immunity so $e %ould be "ormally %$ar&ed ; o" $avin&
se( #it$ undera&e boys* At t$e same time' similar %$ar&es #ere leveled a&ainst Jean-Eierre Ira""e' 7/' a re&ional
minister*
93,
Bot$ men denied t$e a%%usations* +$e %ase o" Ci <upo' a )ey insider' %ould lead to t$e brea)up o" t$e
%oalition &overnment*
933
Ci <upo %laims to be t$e vi%tim o" ?a #it%$-$unt' a %Cart$yism o" t$e #orst sort*@
Follo#in& intense politi%al $a&&lin&' Earliament last #ee) voted a&ainst strippin& Ci <upo o" $is immunity*
93/
But
t$e reprieve #as only temporaryH t$e %ountry4s $i&$est %ourt #as ordered to %ontinue investi&atin& t$e minister' and
la#ma)ers #ill a&ain %onsider li"tin& $is immunity*
935
?+$e problem is' $e4s an o""i%ial' and t$ere are alle&ations o" pedop$ilia* +$ose are t$e t#o most sensitive
topi%s8ri&$t no#'@ says politi%al s%ientist Kris Ces%$ou#er* -ensitive s%ar%ely be&ins to des%ribe it* +$e %ountry
is still s$a)en by t$e dis%overy8o" a %$ild-)idnappin& rin& t$at preyed on youn& &irls* A 1,-year-old and a
1/-year-old #$o $ad been abdu%ted and raped #ere "reed "rom a ma%abre under&round dun&eon in a $ome o" t$e
a%%used rin&leader' ar% Cutrou(' near t$e sout$ern %ity o" C$arleroi* Eoli%e du& up t$e bodies o" "our ot$er &irls'
a&es 9 to 19' missin& "or more t$an a year*
937
-$o%) t$en turned to outra&e #$en it #as dis%losed t$at Cutrou( #as
a %onvi%ted )idnapper-rapist' released8"rom prison*
937
Worse' vital in"ormation about t$e ori&inal abdu%tions #as
#it$$eld by %ompetin& investi&ators' and Cutrou( alle&edly $ad $i&$-level prote%tion*
!n t$at atmosp$ere o" revulsion and suspi%ion' a "e# #ee)s later' t$e "ormer inister o" Eensions' Alain Man
der Biest' #as %$ar&ed #it$ $irin& $it men to )ill anot$er po#er"ul politi%an' Andre Cools*
939
>on&-$eld suspi%ions
resur"a%ed o" a politi%al %over-up in t$e murder probe*
939
?We eat #ell' #e )no# $o# to en1oy ourselves* We al#ays )ne# t$in&s #ere #ron& $ere' but as lon& as #e
didn4t really "eel it' t$at #as J*K*'@ said Ces%$ou#er*
9/0
+$e in:uiry is pain"ul and t$e taste bitter*
9/1
0.K.1 . . .
A number o" Ameri%ans8$ave #or)ed t$emselves into $i&$ dud&eon over %redible alle&ations t$at C$inese
orp$ana&es systemati%ally )ill un#anted %$ildren*
9,9
E$ilip K* Ci%)' 2alis FO0= Minta&e Boo)s' 1991G' pp* /9' 70' 7,' 93' 97' 11,' 1,1' 13/' ,,9' ,30' ,31' ,3,' ,33' ,35'
,37' ,39' ,39*
2+$e Kmpire is a %orrupt &overnment*3
A Bla%) !ron Erison* +$is is #$at t$e dream re"erred to as ?t$e Kmpire*@ 2Fat3 )ne# it be%ause' upon seein& t$e Bla%)
!ron Erison' $e $ad re%o&ni.ed it* Kveryone d#elt in it #it$out reali.in& it* +$e Bla%) !ron Erison #as t$eir #orld*
W$o $ad built t$e prison ; and #$y ; $e %ould not say* But $e %ould dis%ern one &ood t$in&= t$e prison lay under
atta%)* An or&ani.ation o" C$ristians' not re&ular C$ristians su%$ as t$ose #$o attended %$ur%$ every -unday and prayed'
but se%ret C$ristians #earin& li&$t &ray-%olored robes' $ad started an assault on t$e prison' and #it$ su%%ess 2F)&idem' p*
/9G3*
Kveryone #$o $ad ever lived #as literally surrounded by t$e iron #alls o" t$e prisonH t$ey #ere all inside it and none o"
t$em )ne# it ; e(%ept "or t$e &ray-robed se%ret C$ristians 2F)&idem' p* /7G3*
930
Jay Brane&an' +$e ni&$tmare &oes on= a "res$ s%andal "urt$er s$a)es up t$e Bel&ians' Time' , Ce% 1997' 1/9F,5G' p*
50F1G*
931
Op. cit.
93,
Op. cit.
933
Op. cit.
93/
Op. cit.
935
Op. cit.
937
Op. cit.
937
Op. cit.
939
Op. cit.
939
Op. cit.
9/0
Op. cit.
9/1
Op. cit.
90
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Oo# %omes a %ounterpun%$ in t$e o""i%ial Eeople4s Caily in Bei1in& assertin& t$at Ameri%an youn&sters are
#orse o""*
9/,
!t is di""i%ult to dismiss t$e %ontention*
+$e arti%le presents %$ildren in t$e United -tates as vi%tims o" violen%e' ne&le%t' se(ual and dru& abuse' teen
pre&nan%y' A!C-' $omelessness and divor%e*
!t %on%ludes t$at t$e United -tates ?is t$e #orld4s only superpo#er F#$ereG t$e so%ial tra&edies o" ill -treatin&
and %ruelly in1urin& %$ildren' as #ell as $urtin& t$em p$ysi%ally and psy%$olo&i%ally in various #ays' ta)e pla%e
every day*@
9/3
• • •
+$ere #ere t#o "riends studyin& under a tea%$er' and t$eir tea%$er said t$at t$e essen%e o" $is tea%$in& #as
spontaneous #isdomH even i" a person #ere to indul&e $imsel" in e(treme a%tions' t$ey #ould be%ome li)e %louds in
t$e s)y and be "reed by "undamental spontaneity* +$e t#o dis%iples understood it entirely di""erently* Jne o" t$em
#ent a#ay and be&an to #or) on t$e spontaneous #ay o" relatin& to $is o#n %$ara%teristi%s' positive and ne&ative'
and be%ame able to "ree t$em spontaneously #it$out "or%in& anyt$in&' neit$er en%oura&in& nor suppressin& t$em*
+$e ot$er one #ent and built a brot$el' and or&anised a bi& &an& o" $is "riends #$o all a%ted in a spontaneous #ay'
ma)in& raids on t$e nearby villa&es' )illin& t$e men and %arryin& o"" t$e #omen*
A"ter some time t$ey met a&ain' and bot$ #ere s$o%)ed by ea%$ ot$er4s )ind o" spontaneity' so t$ey de%ided to
&o and see t$eir tea%$er* +$ey bot$ presented t$eir e(perien%e to $im' and $e told t$e "irst t$at $is #as t$e ri&$t
#ay' and t$e se%ond t$at $is #as t$e #ron& #ay* But t$e se%ond "riend %ould not bear to see t$at all $is e""ort and
ener&y $ad been %ondemned' so $e dre# a s#ord and )illed t$e tea%$er on t$e spot*
9//
9/,
Philadelphia Daily News' C$ina %orre%t t$at U*-* doesn4t treat %$ildren #ell eit$er' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News
Ser(ice' 5 ar%$ 1997*
9/3
Op. cit.
9//
)&idem' pp* ,/-,5*
91
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
“)ome !hild 5i!tims show the symptoms of posttraumati! stress.”
JE9
2C$ild vi%tims3 demonstrated diminis$ed responsiveness to t$eir environment' $yperalertness' and 1umpiness
F2Bur&ess' A* W*' Lartman' C* <*' %Causland' * E*' Eo#ers' E* F199/G* <esponse pattern in %$ildren and adoles%ents e(ploited
t$rou&$ se( rin&s and porno&rap$y* American Journal o- Psychiatry' 1/1' 757-77,
9/7
3G*
9/7
2-ymptoms also3 in%lude
disso%iation' partial amnesia' numbin& o" a""e%t' "las$ba%)s F#$i%$ may sometimes present as pani% atta%)sG'
ni&$tmares'
2 9/93
and p$obi% or avoidan%e be$avior*
9/9
Mi%tims may e(perien%e psy%$olo&i%al distress' p$obi%
rea%tions' and se(ual dys"un%tion*
950
asters and Jo$nson "ound8patients su""ernin& "rom dyspareunia 2Fpain"ul inter%ourseG3 due to8rape*
951
!n
some %ases va&inismus 2Fpain"ul' spasti% va&inal %ontra%tionG3 is a result o" prior episodes o" pain"ul inter%ourse'
#$i%$ may itsel" be %aused by or&ani% "a%torsH in su%$ %ases' va&inismus may be %onsidered to be %aused indire%tly
by t$e same p$ysi%al "a%tors t$at %ause dyspareunia*
95,
Fears8#ere 2also3 sele%tive and involved t$in&s su%$ as dar)ness and en%losed pla%es ; %onditions li)ely to be
asso%iated #it$ t$e rape F2Cal$oun' K* -*' At)eson' B* *' D <esi%)' E* A* F199,G* A lon&itudinal e(amination o" "ear rea%tions in
vi%tims o" rape* Journal o- .ounseling Psychology' ,9' 755-771
953
3G* Atta%)s in %ir%umstan%es t$at t$e 2vi%tim3 $ad de"ined
as ?sa"e@ $ad a &reater emotional impa%t t$an atta%)s in pla%es t$at 2t$ey3 "elt #ere dan&erous*
95/
Flas$ba%)s #ere reported by 50 per%ent o" t$e se(ually a%tive vi%tims* +$ese in%luded "leetin& memories t$at
%ould not be repressed' relivin& t$e e(perien%e' and asso%iatin& t$e present se( partner #it$ t$e rapist*
955
Eeople8
2also3 may #it$dra# emotionally and may avoid anyt$in& t$at mi&$t remind t$em o" t$e events*
957
Oeedless to say' rape 2Feven under t$e in"luen%e o" memory repressin& dru&sG3 is $i&$ly traumati%*
957
• • •
A year to t$e day a"ter t$e state "iled %riminal %$ar&es a&ainst t$e "ormer top sta"" member o" t$e J*K* Boys
<an%$' a rulin&8by a +$urston County 1ud&e $as put t$e %ase in 1eopardy*
959
-uperior Court Jud&e Caniel Bers%$auer said t$at post-traumati%-stress disorder ; #$i%$ t$e state %laims
"ormer 2J*K* Boys <3an%$ residents su""er "rom ; did not %onstitute bodily $arm under t$e %riminal -mistreatment
la# t$e t$ree sta"" members $ad been %$ar&ed #it$*
959
2Was$in&ton -tate3 Attorney Ieneral C$ristine Ire&oire said i" Bers%$auer4s de%ision stands' t$e t$ree sta""
members %ould not be prose%uted "or t$eir part in t$e alle&ed abuses t$at too) pla%e at t$e no#-%losed Jlympia
2J*K* Boys <an%$3* -$e said t$e state #ill appeal t$e rulin&*
970
Ire&oire said t$at i" t$e state loses its appeal' s$e #ill as) t$e >e&islature to %$an&e t$e la# so t$at it %overs
post-traumati%-stress disorder*
?! t$in) t$e avera&e person #ould %on%lude t$at t$e system $as "ailed i" alle&ed %ondu%t as e&re&ious as t$is
%an4t be prose%uted'@ Ire&orie said in a prepared statement*
971
• • •
9/5
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*' 199/G'
p* 3,9*
9/7
)&idem' p* A-,7*
9/7
)&idem' p* 3,9*
9/9
)&idem' p* 190*
9/9
Art$ur J* Felitti' Ami >a#s' D Kd#ard A* Wal)er' Women abused as %$ildren' Patient .are' 15 Oov 1993' ,7F19G' p*
179F9G*
950
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*' 199/G'
p* 335*
951
Janet -$ibley Lyde' #nderstanding $uman Se%uality' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill Eublis$in& Co*' 1990G' p* 5,5*
95,
Op. cit.
953
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*' 199/G'
p* A-,7*
95/
)&idem' p* 335*
955
)&idem' p* 335*
957
)&idem' p* 190*
957
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*' 199/G'
p* 335*
959
Cavid Eostman' J*K* Boys <an%$ %ase in doubtH de%ision undermines state4s %$ar&es' The Seattle Times 871
AR.$)27' 1/ Oov 1997*
959
Op. cit.
970
Op. cit.
971
Op. cit.
9,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
A%%ordin& to statisti%s "or 1993 "rom U*-* Cepartment o" Lealt$ and Luman -ervi%es' t$ere #ere nearly 9'000
reports 2Femp$asis addedG3 o" %$ild abuse and ne&le%t ea%$ day* +$at4s ,*9 million reports durin& t$e year* J"
t$ese' more t$an 1 million #ere substantiated andRor indi%ated as vi%tims o" maltreatment* J" t$e total number o"
reported in%idents' ,/ per%ent #ere p$ysi%ally abused' 1/ per%ent #ere se(ually abused' /5 per%ent #ere ne&le%ted'
7 per%ent #ere emotionally maltreated' and 15 per%ent #ere vi%tims o" ot$er types o" abuse*
97,
C$ildren / years old
or youn&er #ere MN times more li'ely to su""er %$ild abuse in "amilies #it$ a stepparent t$an in "amilies #it$ bot$
&eneti% parents present\
973
Miolen%e in Ameri%a $as $it %$ildren $ard= !n 1995' a %$ild died o" ne&le%t or abuse every seven $ours*
97/

A%%ordin& to t$e 1995 <eport o" +$e United -tates Advisory Board on C$ild Abuse and Oe&le%t' at least ,'000
%$ildren ea%$ year' more t$an "ive per day' die at t$e $ands o" parents or %areta)ers* And o" t$ose #$o do not die
"rom abuse and ne&le%t ea%$ year' 19'000 %$ildren are le"t permanently disabled and 1/,'000 are seriously
in1ured*
975
A Iallup poll ta)en last year 2F1995G'3 and based on parents4 o#n responses' estimated t$at t$ree million
Ameri%an %$ildren are p$ysi%ally abused every year' and t$at 1*3 million are se(ually abused*
977
!t4s li)ely t$at
abuse #as underreported and t$at some o" t$e parents #ere not entirely trut$"ul*
977
W$at t$e la# re&ards as %$ild abuse' some parents %onsider dis%ipline*
?+$ey brin& me t$e Bible and :uote t$e passa&e' BBeat t$e devil out o" t$e %$ild'4

@ says Cr* Carolyn Wri&$t'
%oordinator o" early %$ild$ood edu%ation at t$e iami-Cade Community Colle&e Oort$ Campus' iami'
979
82but3
?%$ildren #ill rise a&ainst parents and $ave t$em put to deat$*@
979
Jesus #as a realist*
970
+$ere are some instan%es in #$i%$ blindly $onorin& one4s parents is inappropriate be$avior*
971
A parent #$o is
outri&$t evil or destru%tive ; one #$o molests or p$ysi%ally abuses a %$ild or en&a&es in ot$er a%tivities $arm"ul to
t$e %$ild4s #el"are ; $as brea%$ed $is or $er side o" t$e parental %ovenant' and t$us %an 1ustly be re&arded as an
e(%eption to t$e %ommandment*
97,
?W$oever %auses one o" t$ese little ones #$o believe in me to sin' it #ould be better "or $im to $ave a &reat
millstone "astened round $is ne%) and to be dro#ned in t$e dept$ o" t$e sea*@
973' 97/
ho -'uses4
Badly troubled men 2and #omen3 #it$ po#er"ul and sometimes irresistible %ompulsions*
975
Un"ortunately' t$ere is mu%$ se(ual abuse' su%$ as t$at %ommitted by older brot$ers' un%les' and nei&$bors*
977

!n order "or se(ual abuse to o%%ur' a potential o""ender not only needs to be motivated to %ommit abuse' but t$e
o""ender must over%ome internal in$ibitions a&ainst a%tin& on t$ose motives*
977
Kmotional %on&ruen%e' se(ual
arousal' and blo%)a&e are sour%es "or t$e motivation to se(ually abuse* Cisin$ibition is not in itsel" a sour%e o"
motivation' but t$e reason t$e motivation is unleas$ed* !t is not su""i%ient in itsel" to %reate abuse* A person #$o
$as no in$ibitions a&ainst se(ual abuse' but also no in%lination to do so' #ill not abuse*
979
ot$ers appear to be espe%ially %ru%ial in prote%tin& %$ildren "rom abuse*
979
2Un"ortunately'3 mot$ers may be
unable to prote%t %$ildren be%ause t$ey t$emselves are abused and intimidated by tyranni%al and domineerin&
men*
990
!t $as been estimated t$at t$e in%iden%e o" battered #ives ran&es "rom /V to /0V o" all #ives F2<esi%)' E* A*
97,
Jan Collins -tu%)er D Jan >* Warner' C$ild-abuse statisti%s are astoundin&' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice0 ,9
Au& 1995*
973
Jo$n Al%o%)' Animal 1eha(ior/ An 7(olutionary Approach' 5t$ ed* Fass= -inauer Asso%iates' !n%*' 1993G' p* 579*
97/
2A%%ordin& to arian Wri&$t Kdelman and t$e C$ildren4s Ce"ense Fund' #$i%$ s$e $eads3*
N i%$ael <yan' Lo# to stand "or %$ildren' The Seattle Times D Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ Parade' 9 Feb 1997' p* 9*
975
Jan Collins -tu%)er D Jan >* Warner' C$ild-abuse statisti%s are astoundin&' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice0 ,9
Au& 1995*
977
Juliet Wittman' C$ildren are everyone4s business' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice0 5 April 1997*
977
Op. cit.
979
Jo$n Barry' -ome parents may not re%o&ni.e %$ild abuseH $ere are some e(amples' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice0
11 July 1995*
979
att$e# 10*,1-,, D ar) 13*1,-13' The 1i&le' <evised -tandard Mersion FO0= Ameri%an Bible -o%iety' 1970G*
970
Jesus' t$e realistH U*-* Cat$oli% C$ur%$ %on"ronts se(ual abuse s%andal' .ommonweal' 17 Ce% 1993' 1,0F,,G*
971
>aura -%$lessin&er' ot$er and dau&$ter= not e:uals' The Seattle Times' , Feb 1997' 15F5G' p* ,*
97,
Op. cit.
973
att$e# 19*7' ar) 9*/,' D >u)e 17*,' The 1i&le' <evised -tandard Mersion FO0= Ameri%an Bible -o%iety' 1970G*
97/
Jesus' t$e realistH U*-* Cat$oli% C$ur%$ %on"ronts se(ual abuse s%andal' .ommonweal' 17 Ce% 1993' 1,0F,,G*
975
Andre# * Ireenley' Lo# serious is t$e problem o" se(ual abuse by %ler&yP' America' ,0 ar%$ 1993' 179F10G' p* 7F5G*
977
Cavid Fin)el$or' Se%ual )nteractions FFree Eress' 1999G' p* 53*
977
)&idem' p* 55*
979
)&idem' pp* 57-59*
979
)&idem' p* 59*
990
)&idem' p* 59*
93
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
F1993G* -e(-role stereotypes and violen%e a&ainst #omen* !n M* Fran)s' D K* <ot$blum FKds*G' The stereotyping o- women/ )ts e--ects
on mental health Fpp* ,30-,57G* Oe# 0or)= -prin&er
991
3G* !t is di""i%ult to &et pre%ise estimates o" t$e number o" #omen
a""e%ted be%ause most %ases are not reported to t$e poli%e*
99,
Kven lar&e po#er imbalan%es t$at may stem "rom
di""eren%es in edu%ation may under%ut a #oman4s ability to be an ally "or $er %$ildren*
Just #$at are all t$e "orms o" prote%tion t$at a mot$er provides is not entirely %lear* -upervision does not mean
simply bein& present #it$ a %$ild at all times* !t also in%ludes )no#in& #$at is &oin& on "or a %$ild' )no#in& #$en
a %$ild is troubled' and bein& someone to #$om t$e %$ild %an readily turn to "or $elp* !t %an be seen $o# a
potential o""ender mi&$t #ell be in$ibited "rom abusin& a %$ild i" $e reali.ed t$at t$e mot$er #ould :ui%)ly suspe%t
or )no# #$at #as &oin& on* Judit$ Lerman F1991G $as "ound t$at t$e main di""eren%e bet#een "amilies #$ere
"at$er and 2%$ild
993
3 $ave a ?sedu%tive@ relations$ip and "amilies #$ere t$at relations$ip be%omes a%tual in%est is
t$at in t$e in%estuous "amilies' t$e mot$er is in%apa%itated in some #ay* !n t$e sedu%tive relations$ip situation'
mot$ers seem to e(ert some in$ibitin& "or%e*
Jt$er people besides mot$ers a%t as deterrents to se(ual abuse* +o t$e de&ree t$at nei&$bors' siblin&s' "riends'
2#ould-be %riminal masterminds'3 and tea%$ers intera%t %losely #it$ a %$ild and are "amiliar #it$ $is or $er
a%tivities' t$ey also in$ibit abuse* +$is idea #ould appear to be supported by "indin&s t$at %$ildren #$o live in
isolated settin&s or #$o $ave "e# "riends and "e# so%ial %onta%ts are at &reater ris) to abuse F8Lenderson' 197,G*
+$e absense o" &eneral publi% s%rutiny o" "amily and %$ildren may be one o" t$e "a%tors t$at a%%ounts "or t$e
reportedly $i&$ level o" abuse in t$e stereotypi%al ?ba%)#oods@ "amily environments F-ummit D Kryso' 1979G*
Jne ot$er "orm t$at e(ternal in$ibition may ta)e is simply t$e absen%e o" p$ysi%al opportunity "or abuser and
%$ild to be alone to&et$er* !n situations #$ere su%$ opportunities are more available' abuse is more li)ely to o%%ur*
+$e literature on se(ual abuse $as' "or e(ample' mentioned $ouse$old %onditions as "a%tors #$i%$ may "a%ilitate
abuse* W$en "amily members are re:uired to sleep to&et$er in t$e same bed or in t$e same room' abuse may be
"a%ilitated* -imilarly' one o" t$e reasons #$y a "at$er4s unemployment may pre%ipitate abuse is t$at' in addition to
lo#erin& $is internal in$ibitions be%ause o" emotional stress' it leaves $im at $ome alone #it$ a %$ild "or e(tended
periods* W$en a potential abuser and a %$ild are le"t alone in t$e absen%e o" supervisin& persons' it may $elp to
over%ome t$e e%ternal inhi&itions t$at o"ten e(ist a&ainst se(ual abuse*
99/
C$ildren4s ability to resist or avoid abuse may be under%ut be%ause t$ey are 2dru&&ed' are3 youn&' are naive' or
la%) in"ormation* !t may also be under%ut be%ause t$ey $ave a spe%ial relations$ip to t$e potential o""ender* A
%$ild #$o mi&$t ob1e%t to a se(ual &ame #$en proposed by a stran&er may %omply be%ause t$e proposal %omes "rom
a 2peer or3 "amily member' a person t$e %$ild trusts* Be%ause t$e adult )no#s t$e %$ild' t$e adult may "rame t$e
proposal in su%$ a #ay t$at t$e %$ild #ill a&ree* +$at same "amiliarity may allo# t$e adult to "ormulate a t$reat
#$i%$ #ill t$#art any resistan%e by t$e %$ild*
995
Jne o" t$e most persistent %riti%isms o" e(planations o" se(ual abuse is t$at t$ey tend to ta)e responsibility "or
t$e abuse o"" t$e o""enders and displa%e it onto eit$er vi%tims' t$ird parties' or so%iety as a #$ole FArmstron&' 1979'
1993H Conte' 199,G* For e(ample' t$e "amily-systems model' #$i%$ "inds t$at mot$ers are unsupportive and
unprote%tive o" dau&$ters in many in%estuous "amilies' is "re:uently %riti%i.ed "or blamin& t$e mot$er F%!ntyre'
1991H Oelson' 199,G* -imilarly' resear%$ t$at $as "ound t$at emotionally deprived %$ildren are more vulnerable to
abuse $as been %riti%i.ed "or puttin& unne%essary blame on t$e vi%tims*
997
Four %raumageni! 2ynami!s
Traumatic se%uali6ation re"ers to a pro%ess in #$i%$ a %$ild4s se(uality Fin%ludin& bot$ se(ual "eelin&s and
se(ual attitudesG is s$aped in a developmentally inappropriate and interpersonally dys"un%tional "as$ion as a result
o" t$e se(ual abuse* +$is %an $appen in a variety o" #ays in t$e %ourse o" t$e abuse* +raumati% se(uali.ation %an
o%%ur #$en a %$ild is repeatedly re#arded by an o""ender "or se(ual be$avior t$at is inappropriate to $is or $er
level o" development* !t o%%urs t$rou&$ t$e e(%$an&e o" a""e%tion' attention' privile&es' and &i"ts "or se(ual
be$avior' so t$at a %$ild learns se(ual be$avior as a strate&y "or manipulatin& ot$ers to &et $is or $er ot$er
developmentally appropriate needs met* !t o%%urs #$en %ertain parts o" o" a %$ild4s anatomy are "etis$i.ed and
&iven distorted importan%e and meanin&* !t o%%urs t$rou&$ t$e mis%on%eptions and %on"usions about se(ual
be$avior and se(ual morality t$at are transmitted to t$e %$ild "rom t$e o""ender* And it o%%urs #$en very
"ri&$tenin& memories and events be%ome asso%iated in t$e %$ild4s mind #it$ se(ual a%tivity*
997
991
-usan A* Baso#' 3ender Stereotypes/ Traditions and Alternati(es' ,nd ed* FCA= Broo)sRCole Eubl* Co*' 1997G' p* 375*
99,
)&idem' p* ,91*
993
-ome men "o%us on %$ildren re&ardless o" &ender*
N Andre# * Ireenley' Lo# serious is t$e problem o" se(ual abuse by %ler&yP' America' ,0 ar%$ 1993' 179F10G' p*
7F5G*
99/
Cavid Fin)el$or' Se%ual )nteractions FFree Eress' 1999G' pp* 59-70*
995
)&idem' p* 71*
997
)&idem' pp* 73-7/*
997
Cavid Fin)el$or D An&ela Bro#ne' !nitial and lon&-term e""e%ts= a %on%eptual "rame#or)' A Source&oo' on .hild
Se%ual A&use' ed* Cavid Fin)el$or' 1997' p* 191*
9/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
1etrayal re"ers to t$e dynami% in #$i%$ %$ildren dis%over t$at someone on #$om t$ey are vitally dependent $as
%aused t$em $arm* +$is may o%%ur in a variety o" #ays in a molestation e(perien%e* For e(ample' in t$e %ourse o"
abuse or its a"termat$' %$ildren may %ome to t$e reali.ation t$at a trusted person $as manipulated t$em t$rou&$ lies
or misrepresentations about moral standards* +$ey may also %ome to reali.e t$at someone #$om t$ey loved or
#$ose a""e%tion #as important to t$em treated t$em #it$ %allous disre&ard* C$ildren %an e(perien%e betrayal not
only at t$e $ands o" o""enders' but also #it$ "amily members #$o #ere not abusin& t$em* A "amily member #$om
t$ey trusted but #$o #as unable or un#illin& to prote%t or believe t$em ; or #$o $as a %$an&ed attitude to#ard
t$em a"ter dis%losure o" t$e abuse ; may also %ontribute to t$e dynami%s o" betrayal*
999
Powerlessness ; or #$at mi&$t also be %alled ?disempo#erment'@ t$e dynami% o" renderin& t$e vi%tim
po#erless ; re"ers to t$e pro%ess in #$i%$ t$e %$ild4s #ill' desires' and sense o" e""i%a%y are %ontinually
%ontravened* any aspe%ts o" t$e se(ual abuse e(perien%e %ontribute to t$is dynami%*
999
A basi% )ind o"
po#erlessness o%%urs in se(ual abuse #$en a %$ild4s territory and body spa%e are repeatedly invaded a&ainst t$e
%$ild4s #ill* +$is is e(a%erbated by #$atever %oer%ion and manipulation t$e o""ender may impose as part o" t$e
abuse pro%ess* Eo#erlessness is t$en rein"or%ed #$en a %$ild sees $is or $er attempts to $alt t$e abuse "rustrated*
!t is in%reased #$en t$e %$ild "eels "ear' #$en $e or s$e is unable to ma)e adults understand or believe #$at is
$appenin&' or #$en $e or s$e reali.es $o# %onditions o" dependen%y $ave $im or $er trapped in t$e situation*
990
Stigma6ation' t$e "inal dynami%' re"ers to t$e ne&ative %onnotations ; "or e(ample' badness' s$ame' and &uilt ;
t$at are %ommuni%ated to t$e %$ild about t$e e(perien%es and t$at t$en be%ome in%orporated into t$e %$ild4s
sel"-ima&e* +$ese ne&ative meanin&s are %ommuni%ated in many #ays* +$ey %an %ome dire%tly "orm t$e abuser'
#$o may blame t$e vi%tim "or t$e a%tivity' deni&rate t$e vi%tim' or' simply t$rou&$ $is "urtiveness' %onvey a sense
o" s$ame about t$e be$avior* W$en t$ere is pressure "or se%re%y "rom t$e o""ender' t$is %an also %onvey po#er"ul
messa&es o" s$ame and &uilt* But sti&mati.ation is also rein"or%ed by attitudes t$at t$e vi%tim in"ers or $ears "rom
ot$er persons in t$e "amily or %ommunity* -ti&mati.ation may t$us &ro# out o" t$e %$ild4s prior )no#led&e or
sense t$at t$e a%tivity a"ter dis%losure' people rea%t #it$ s$o%) or $ysteria' or blame t$e %$ild "or #$at $as
transpired* +$e %$ild may be additionally sti&mati.ed by people in $is or $er environment #$o no# impute ot$er
ne&ative %$ara%teristi%s to t$e vi%tim Floose morals' spoiled &oodsG as a result o" t$e molestation*
991
+$ese "our trauma&eni% dynami%s' t$en' a%%ount in our vie# "or t$e main sour%es o" trauma in %$ild se(ual
abuse* +$ey are not in any #ay distin%t' separate "a%tors' or narro#ly de"ined*
99,
+$ey are best t$ou&$t o" as broad
%ate&ories use"ul "or or&ani.in& and %ate&ori.in& our understandin& o" t$e e""e%t o" se(ual abuse*
993
Alt$ou&$ t$e se(ual abuse itsel" is assumed to be t$e main traumati% a&ent in vi%tims' it is important to
emp$asi.e t$at any assessment approa%$ to understandin& trauma must ta)e into a%%ount t$e %$ild4s e(perien%es
prior to and su&seCuent to t$e abuse* Abuse #ill $ave di""erent e""e%ts on %$ildren dependin& on t$eir prior
ad1ustment* And abuse #ill $ave di""erent e""e%ts dependin& on $o# ot$ers respond to it*
99/
+$e "our trauma&eni% dynami%s #e $ave been dis%ussin& are not dynami%s t$at apply soley to t$e abuse event*
+$ey are on&oin& pro%esses t$at $ave a $istory prior to and a "uture subse:uent to t$e abuse* +$ey %an be assessed
in ea%$ p$ase* !n t$e preabuse p$ase' t$e trauma&eni% dynami%s need to be understood parti%ularly in relation to a
%$ild4s "amily li"e and personality %$ara%teristi%s prior to t$e abuse* For e(ample' i" t$e %$ild #as a previous vi%tim
o" p$ysi%al or emotional abuse' $e or s$e may already $ave been su""erin& "rom a disempo#erin& dynami% be"ore
t$e abuse o%%urred*
995
999
)&idem' p* 19,*
999
)&idem' p* 193*
990
Op. cit.
991
)&idem' p* 19/*
99,
Cavid Fin)el$or D An&ela Bro#ne' !nitial and lon&-term e""e%ts= a %on%eptual "rame#or)' A Source&oo' on .hild
Se%ual A&use' ed* Cavid Fin)el$or' 1997' p* 19/*
993
)&idem' p* 195*
99/
)&idem' pp* 195-197*
995
)&idem' p* 197*
95
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$e operation o" o" t$e trauma&eni% dynami%s %an also be assessed in t$e events subse:uent to t$e se(ual
abuse* +#o main %ate&ories o" subse:uent events $ave parti%ular importan%e= F1G t$e "amily rea%tion to dis%losure'
i" and #$en it o%%urs' and F,G t$e so%ial and institutional response to t$e dis%losure* For e(ample' mu%$ o" t$e
stigmati6ation a%%ompanyin& abuse may o%%ur a-ter t$e e(perien%e itsel"' as a %$ild en%ounters "amily and so%ietal
rea%tions* A %$ild #$o #as relatively unsti&mati.ed by t$e molestation itsel" may under&o serious sti&mati.ation i"
"riends8re1e%t $er' i" $er "amily blames $er' or i" t$e "a%t o" $er bein& abused remains a "o%us in $er li"e "or a lon&
time*
997
!"' "or instan%e'8aut$orities be%ome involved in t$e e(perien%e' t$e %$ild is "or%ed to testi"y' "or%ed to
leave $ome' "or%ed to tell t$e story on repeated o%%asions' and sub1e%ted to a &reat deal o" un#anted attention' t$is
%an also &reatly in%rease t$e8sense o" po#erlessness* !" t$e 2individual'3 on t$e ot$er $and' $as a sense o" $avin&
been able to end t$e abuse and obtain support and prote%tion' t$is may &reatly miti&ate any sense o" po#erlessness
t$at resulted "rom t$e e(perien%e itsel"*
997
• • •
<esear%$ers $ave identi"ied a $ost o" medi%al and psy%$olo&i%al symptoms t$at are asso%iated #it$ a $istory o"
%$ild$ood se(ual abuse in #omen* Jne o" t$e best predi%tors o" t$is $istory is somati.ation or a $i&$ number o"
medi%ally une(plained symptoms*
999
Adoles%ents #$o are abused $ave a $i&$er ris) o" un#anted pre&nan%y'
emotional problems' eatin& disorders' substan%e abuse and delin:uent be$avior*
999
any patients #$o $ave been
abused $ave problems su%$ as obesity' %$roni% depression or an(iety' and multiple symptoms #it$ psy%$osomati%
potential ; "or e(ample' $eada%$es and %$roni% abdominal' pelvi%' and lo#-ba%) pain*
1000
Women #$o reported %onta%t se(ual abuse8$ad voluntary se(ual inter%ourse 15*/ mont$s earlier t$an #omen
#it$ non%onta%t8or no abuse* >i)e#ise' #omen #it$ %onta%t abuse en&a&ed in ne%)in& and pettin& be$aviors at
earlier a&es' and $ad more se(ual partners durin& adoles%en%e and brie"er se(ual relations$ips t$an #omen #it$
non%onta%t or no abuse*
1001
997
)&idem' pp* 197-197*
997
)&idem' p* 197*
999
Art$ur J* Felitti' Ami >a#s' D Kd#ard A* Wal)er' Women abused as %$ildren' Patient .are' 15 Oov 1993' ,7F19G' p*
179F9G*
999
Coun%il on -%ienti"i% A""airs' Ameri%an edi%al Asso%iation' Adoles%ents as vi%tims o" "amily violen%e' Journal o- the
American edical Association' ,0 J%t 1993' ,70F15G' p* 1950F7G*
1000
Art$ur J* Felitti' Ami >a#s' D Kd#ard A* Wal)er' Women abused as %$ildren' Patient .are' 15 Oov 1993' ,7F19G' p*
179F9G*
1001
I* K* Wyatt' +$e relations$ip bet#een %$ild se(ual abuse and adoles%ent se(ual "un%tionin& in A"ro-Ameri%an and
#$ite Ameri%an #omen' Annual o- New 9or' Academy Science' 5,9' 1999*
97
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
“)oft people 'e!ome hard !riminals.”
.//>
+$rou&$out $is years as a %$ild molester' 2Westley Allan3 Codd s$o#ed a &i"t "or rebu)in& t$e 1usti%e system*
Wit$ ea%$ arrest' $e passed li)e a %old bree.e t$rou&$ t$e %ourt system and mental $ealt$ institutions and #ound
up ba%) #$ere $e $ad started= $untin& %$ildren in publi% par)s and devisin& ne# s%$emes to )idnap' mutilate'
dro#n' stran&le or su""o%ate t$em* +ime and a&ain' t$e %ourts redu%ed t$e %$ar&es' suspended t$e senten%e' o""ered
t$erapy over in%ar%eration* ?Ka%$ time ! entered treatment' ! %ontinued to molest %$ildren'@ $e told t$e %ourt* ?!
li)ed molestin& %$ildren and did #$at ! $ad to do to avoid 1ail so ! %ould %ontinue molestin&*@
1003
• • •
C$roni% antiso%ial be$avioral patterns su%$ as irresponsibility' lyin&' usin& ot$er people' and a&&ressive se(ual
be$avior indi%ate antiso%ial personality disorder*
100/
+$eir relations$ips #it$ ot$ers are super"i%ial and "leetin&'
and little loyalty is involved* Antiso%ial personality disorder8is "ar more prevalent amon& men t$an amon&
#omen*
1005
+$e medi%al literature is not $ope"ul about re%overy "or8vi%timi.ers' espe%ially t$ose #$ose "o%us is
%$ildren*
1007
2And3 parents #$o abuse adoles%ent %$ildren o"ten $ave di""erent %$ara%teristi%s t$an t$ose
#$o mistreat youn&er %$ildren* +$ey are more li)ely to be edu%ated and "rom a $i&$er so%ioe%onomi%
%lass*
1007
100,
-een in my dreams amid addendums "rom a Cead a"i%ionado*
1003
Oan%y Iibbs' +$e devil4s di%iple' Time' 11 Jan 1993' 1/1F,G' p* /0F1G*
100/
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* ,71*
1005
Op. cit.
1007
Andre# * Ireenley' Lo# serious is t$e problem o" se(ual abuse by %ler&yP' America' ,0 ar%$ 1993' 179F10G' p*
7F5G*
1007
Coun%il on -%ienti"i% A""airs' Ameri%an edi%al Asso%iation' Adoles%ents as vi%tims o" "amily violen%e' Journal o- the
American edical Association' ,0 J%t 1993' ,70F15G*
97
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Jn psy%$olo&i%al tests su%$ as t$e innesota ultip$asi% Eersonality !nventory FE!G' %$ild molesters tend
to $ave pro"iles indi%atin& passive-dependent personality'
2 10093
dis%om"ort in so%ial situations'
2 10093
impulsiveness'
2 10103
and al%o$olism 2FBur&ess' A* W*' Lartman' C* <*' %Caulsand' * E*' Eo#ers' E* F199/G* <esponse pattern in %$ildren and
adols%ents e(ploited t$rou&$ se( rin&s and porno&rap$y* American Journal o- Psychiatry' 1/1' 757-77,G
1011
3*
101,
ore t$an 50
per%ent o" one sample o" %$ild molesters reported usin& ?$ard %ord@ porno&rap$y to e(ite t$emselves in preparin&
to %ommit an o""ense 2Fars$all' W* > F1999G' Be$avioral indi%es o" $abituation and sensiti.ation durin& e(posure to p$obi%
stimulit* 1eha(iour Research and Therapy' ,7' 77-77
1013
G3*
101/
+$ey also display a si&ni"i%antly $i&$er "ear o" ne&ative
evaluation 2FJver$olser' J* C*' D Be%)' -* F1997G* ultimet$od assessment o" rapists' %$ild molesters' and t$ree %ontrol &roups in
be$avioral and psy%$olo&i%al measures* Journal o- .onsulting and .linical Psychology' 5/' 79,-797G
1015
3*
1017' 2 10173
And' %ontrary
to t$e popular vie# o" t$e pedop$ile For %$ild molesterG as a stran&er' most pedop$iles #ere relatives' "riends' or
%asual a%:uaintan%es o" t$eir vi%tims 2FAlter-<eid' K*' Iibbs' * -*' >a%$enmeyer' J* <*' -i&al J*' D assot$' O* A* F1997G*
-e(ual abuse o" %$ildren= a reive# o" t$e empiri%al "indin&s' .linical Psychology Re(iew' 7' ,/9-,77
1019
G3*
1019
J"ten t$ey #ere
vi%timi.ed t$emselves in %$ild$ood*
10,0
2-ome3 ta)e pleasure in $umiliatin& t$e vi%tim rat$er t$an in t$e se(ual
pleasure itsel"*
10,1
• • •
A distin%tion s$ould be made bet#een t$e be$avior patterns asso%iated #it$ antiso%ial personality disorder and
be$aviors involvin& so%ial protest or %riminal li"estyles* Eeople #$o en&a&e in %ivil disobedien%e or violate t$e
%onventions o" so%iety or its la#s as a "orm o" protest are not as a rule persons #it$ antiso%ial personalities*
10,,

+$ey may per%eive t$eir violations o" rules and norms as a%ts per"ormed "or t$e &reater &ood* -imilarly' en&a&in&
in delin:uent or adult %riminal be$avior is not a ne%essary or su""i%ient %ondition "or dia&nosin& antiso%ial
personality* Alt$ou&$ many %onvi%ted %riminals $ave been "ound to $ave antiso%ial %$ara%teristi%s' many ot$ers do
not* +$ey may %ome "rom a sub%ulture t$at en%oura&es and rein"or%es %riminal a%tivityH $en%e' in perpetratin& su%$
a%ts t$ey are ad$erin& to &roup mores and %odes o" %ondu%t*
10,3
-ome t$eorists believe t$at relations$ips #it$in t$e "amily ; t$e primary a&ent o" so%iali.ation ; are paramount
in t$e development o" antiso%ial patterns F2%Cord' W*' D %Cord' J* F197/G* The psychopath/ An essay on the criminal
mind* Erin%eton' OJ= Man Oostrand
10,/
3G* >oeber F1990G "ound t$at so%ioe%onomi% status o" t$e "amily #as a #ea)
1009
Eeople #$o are un#illin& to assume responsibity be%ause o" an inability to "un%tion and to ma)e de%isions
independently s$o# dependent personality disorder* +$ese people la%) sel"-%on"iden%e' and t$ey subordinate t$eir needs to
t$ose o" t$e people on #$om t$ey depend* Oevert$eless' t$eir dependen%y and inability to ma)e de%isions may &o
unre%o&ni.ed or may be misinterpreted by %asual observers* For e(ample' a dependent personality may allo# $is or $er
spouse to be dominant or abusive "or "ear t$at t$e spouse #ill ot$er#ise leave*
N Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior0 /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' pp* ,73-,7/*
1009
A so%ial p$obia is an intense' e(%essive "ear o" bein& s%rutini.ed in one or more so%ial situations* +$ere is no "ear #$en
t$e person en&a&es in any o" t$ese a%tivities in private*
N )&idem' p* 173*
1010
!mpulse %ontrol disorders s$are t$ree %$ara%teristi%s* First' su%$ people "ail to resist an impulse or temptation to
per"orm some a%t* Eeople #it$ t$e disorder )no# t$at t$e a%t is %onsidered #ron& by so%iety or is $arm"ul to t$em* +$e
impulse may or may not be %ons%iously resisted' and its per"orman%e may or may not be premeditated* -e%ond' tension or
arousal is e(perien%ed be"ore t$e a%t* +$ird' a"ter %ommittin& t$e a%t' a sense o" e(%itement' &rati"i%ation' or release is "elt*
N )&idem' p* ,77*
1011
)&idem' p* A-,7*
101,
)&idem' p* 3,9*
1013
)&idem' p* A-57*
101/
)&idem' p* 330*
1015
)&idem' p* A-7/*
1017
)&idem' p* 3,9
1017
+$e essential "eature o" avoidant personality disorder is a $ypersensitivity to potential re1e%tion' $umiliation' and
s$ame* Eersons #it$ avoidant personality disorder tend to $ave lo# sel"-esteem and are relu%tant to enter so%ial
relations$ips #it$out a &uarantee o" un%riti%al a%%eptan%e by ot$ers*
N )&idem' p* ,73*
1019
)&idem' p* A-19*
1019
)&idem' p* 3,9*
10,0
Andre# * Ireenley' Lo# serious is t$e problem o" se(ual abuse by %ler&yP' America' ,0 ar%$ 1993' 179F10G' p*
7F5G*
10,1
Op. cit.
10,,
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* ,77*
10,3
Op. cit.
10,/
)&idem' p* A-59*
99
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
predi%tor #$ereas "amily "a%tors su%$ as poor parental supervision and involvement #ere &ood predi%tors*
<e1e%tion or deprivation by one or bot$ parents may provide little opportunity to learn so%ially appropriate
be$aviors or may diminis$ t$e value o" people as so%ially rein"or%in& a&ents* Earental separation $as been
%orrelated #it$ antiso%ial personality* C$ildren may $ave been traumati.ed or sub1e%ted to a $ostile environment
durin& t$e parental separation F2Maillant' I* K*' D Eerry' J* C* F1995G* Eersonality disorders* !n L* !* Kaplan D B* J* -ado%) FKds*G'
.omprehensi(e te%t&oo' o- psychiatry F/t$ ed*' pp* 959-997G* Baltimore= Williams D Wil)ins
10,5
3G* illon and Kverly F1995G
believe t$at $ostility in su%$ "amilies may result in interpersonal $ostility amon& t$e %$ildren* Len%e 2so%io3pat$s
may "ind little satis"a%tion in %lose or meanin&"ul relations$ips #it$ ot$ers*
10,7
A distin%tion is also made bet#een
primary and se%ondary 2so%io3pat$s* A primary 2socio3path la%)s an(iety or &uilt over antiso%ial be$avior but a
secondary 2socio3path reports &uilt over su%$ be$aviors*
10,7
>y))en F199,G ar&ued t$at $eroes and 2so%io3pat$s are t#o sides o" t$e same %oin* For e(ample' C$u%)
0ea&er' a $eroi% test pilot' on%e %on%ealed bro)en ribs t$at $e $ad su""ered in a #ild midni&$t $orseba%) ride so
t$at $e %ould &o alo"t in t$e belly o" a B-,9' #ed&e $imsel" in a tiny %o%)pit o" t$e Q-1 ro%)et plane' and let $imsel"
be 1ettisoned at an altitude o" ,7'000 "eet to be%ome t$e "irst person to travel "aster t$an t$e speed o" sound* And
+ed Bundy #as a %$armin&' intelli&ent' and arti%ulate 2so%io3pat$ #$o le"t a %oast-to-%oast trail o" brutal and
sadisti% murders o" youn& #omen* >y))en believes t$at $eroes and 2so%io3pat$s s$are one %$ara%teristi% ; namely'
"earlessness*
10,9
Alt$ou&$ very "earless %$ildren are di""i%ult to brin& up' %ir%umstan%es and "amily environment may play
%ru%ial roles* +$ose #$o $ave t$e opportunity to %$annel t$eir "earlessness into so%ially approved a%tivities Fsu%$
as bein& a test pilotG and #$o are so%iali.ed in "amilies t$at emp$asi.e #arm and lovin& relations$ips rat$er t$an
punis$ment te%$ni:ues may be less li)ely to be%ome 2so%io3pat$s*
10,9
Eeople #$o are relatively "earless' su%$ as
$eroes and 2so%io3pat$s' may 2also3 $ave a &reater tenden%y to %$oose t$e "ri&$tenin& or embarrassin& alternative
t$an do "ear"ul people*
1030
6onkey )ee1 6onkey 2o
JoAnn >ou)aitis testi"ied t$at in mid-January' 21997' t$at38s$e and $er $usband "iled "or divor%e and s$e
%on"ided to t$eir son t$at s$e #as %onsiderin& sui%ide*
rs* >ou)aitis said s$e #as %onvin%ed $er $usband #as $avin& an a""air*
-$e planned to drive to t$eir Kllensbur& restaurant and tie $im and $is &irl"riend to %$airs*
?+$ey destroyed my li"e' and ! #as &oin& to s$oot mysel" and ma)e t$em #at%$'@ said rs* >ou)aitis' /7*
?! told Barry all t$at*@
1031
Barry >ou)aitis 2t$en3 be&an $avin& emotional problems'8and $is %ondition #orsened in t$e #ee)s be"ore $e
s$ot to deat$ a tea%$er and t#o %lassmates' $is parents testi"ied 2-eptember ,73*
103,
Le #as 1/ #$en t$e s$ootin&s o%%urred*
1033
Erose%utors #ant $im tried as an adult*
103/
• • •
A%%ordin& to 2Jre&on -o%ial >earnin& Center4s arion -*3 For&at%$' t#o e(periments in Ku&ene' Jre*' s$o#ed
t$at tea%$in& parents better monitorin& and more %onsistent' less %oer%ive dis%ipline te%$ni:ues redu%es t$eir )ids4
misbe$avior* ?We s$ould ma)e parentin& s)ills %lasses %ompulsory "or $i&$ s%$ool students'@ ar&ues 2psy%$olo&ist
Adrian3 <aine o" t$e University o" -out$ern Cali"ornia*
1035
• • •
10,5
)&idem' p* A-91*
10,7
)&idem' p* ,79*
10,7
)&idem' p* ,77*
10,9
)&idem' p* ,7,*
10,9
Op. cit.
1030
Op. cit.
1031
The Associated Press' Earents say >ou)aitis #as troubled lon& be"ore )illin&s at s%$ool' Journal American' ,7 -ep
1997' p* A7*
103,
Op. cit.
1033
Op. cit.
103/
The Associated Press' Earents say >ou)aitis #as troubled lon& be"ore )illin&s at s%$ool' Journal American' ,7 -ep
1997' p* A7*
1035
W* Wayt Iibbs' -ee)in& t$e %riminal element' Scienti-ic American/ ysteries o- the ind' -pe%ial KditionR1997' 7F1G'
pp* 10/-105*
99
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
any parents verbali.e one set o" values and e($ibit :uite anot$er*
A ?do as ! say' not as ! do@ approa%$ to so%iali.ation is ine""e%tive* !" t$e %$ild sees a %$ur%$-&oin&'
platitude-spoutin&' morali.in& parent lie about $is &ol" s%ore' %$eat on $is in%ome ta(' bully $is %$ildren'
and pay substandard #a&es to $is $elp' t$e %$ild may emulate $is parent4s be$avior rat$er t$an $is
$ypo%riti%al #ords F2Let$erin&ton' K* *' D orris' W* O* F1979G* +$e "amily and primary &roups* !n W* L* Lolt.man
FKd*G' )ntroductory psychology in depth/ De(elopmental topics* Oe# 0or)= Larper D <o#'
1037
3 p* ,G*
1037
C$ildren play a relatively passive role in t$eir o#n developement* Just as t$e %omputer %an do only as mu%$ as
t$e pro&rammer dire%ts it to do' so %$ildren do only #$at t$e environment dire%ts t$em to do*
1039
C$ildren learn not
only t$rou&$8%onditionin& but also by observin& and imitatin& ot$ers F2Bandura' A* F1999G* Co&nitive so%ial learnin&
t$eory* !n <* Masta FKd*G' Annals o- .hild De(elopment FMol* 7G* Ireen#i%$' C+= JA! Eress
1039
3G* !n a series o" %lassi% studies'
Bandura s$o#ed t$at %$ildren4s a&&ressive be$avior %ould be in%reased by e(posin& t$em to anot$er person
be$avin& a&&ressively* Oursery s%$ool %$ildren #at%$ed an adult pun%$' )i%)' and pummel a lar&e in"lated Bobo
doll* !n %ontrast to %$ildren #$o $ad not seen t$e model' t$e %$ildren #$o #at%$ed t$e adult assault t$e doll #ere
more a&&ressive #$en &iven t$e %$an%e to play #it$ t$e in"lated toy* oreover' many o" t$e bi.arre and novel
responses t$at t$e adult model $ad e($ibited #ere a%%urately reprodu%ed by t$e %$ild observers*
10/0
2A #oman3 $eard anot$er youn& "emale s$opper tell $er %$ild' ?Iet your a-- over $ere\@
10/1
; t#o
%ommon mista)es ; parents &ettin& too emotional andRor mista)in&ly assumin& t$eir %$ildren #ill respond
to rational ar&uments be%ause t$ey4re 1ust little adults*
10/,
any %$ildren #ill ta)e yellin&' na&&in& and ar&uin& as a %$allen&e'
10/3
8mi(2in& it3 up #it$ t$e rest o"
a parent4s ?verbal &arba&e*@
10//
+$e parent #$o spea)s %rudely to $er %$ild' re&ardless o" $o# annoyed s$e
may be' is in "or a rude a#a)enin&' be%ause in a "e# years $er %$ild #ill be respondin& to $er in t$e same
manner*
10/5
!" parents use met$ods o" dis%ipline su%$ as p$ysi%al punis$ment' t$reats' or $umiliation t$at are $eavily reliant
on t$e superior po#er o" t$e parent or are demeanin& to t$e %$ild' %$ildren may %ome to vie# t$emselves as
$elpless or un#ort$y* Furt$ermore' alt$ou&$ po#er-assertive te%$ni:ues may be e""e%tive in &ainin& immediate
%ontrol o" t$e %$ild4s be$avior' in t$e lon& run t$ey are li)ely to be deleterious* W$en po#er-assertive met$ods
su%$ as p$ysi%al punis$ment are used to %ontrol a&&ression' t$e $ostile parent is also in t$e anomalous situation
bot$ o" "rustratin& t$e %$ild' #$i%$ may lead to arousal o" an&er' and o" o""erin& an a&&ressive model to t$e %$ild*
!n addition' t$e %$ild may attempt to avoid %onta%t #it$ t$e punis$in& parent' #$i%$ &ives t$e parent less
opportunity to so%iali.e t$e %$ild* As mi&$t be e(pe%ted under su%$ %ir%umstan%es' t$e %$ild o"ten e($ibits little
overt a&&ression in t$e $ome to#ard t$e t$reatenin& parents' but displa%es it to ot$ers outside t$e $ome #$ere t$e
%$ild is less "ear"ul o" retaliation*
10/7
C$ild abusers "re:uently #ere raised in t$e same aut$oritarian style t$at t$ey later re%reate #it$ t$eir o#n
%$ildren* +$ey possess an intense "ear o" spoilin& t$eir %$ildren' o" s$o#in& t$em &entleness' tenderness' and
)indness* All o" t$is su&&ests t$at t$e pattern o" abuse is un#ittin&ly transmitted "rom parent to %$ild' &eneration
a"ter &eneration F2-teele' B* I*' and Eollo%)' C* B* 1979* A psy%$iatri% study o" parents #$o abuse in"ants and small %$ildren* !n
Lel"er' <* K*' and Kempe' C* L* Feds*G' The 1attered .hild* C$i%a&o= University o" C$i%a&o Eress
10/7
3G*
10/9
• • •
1037
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* <-,9*
1037
)&idem' p* /,7*
1039
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* 9*
1039
)&idem' p* <-3*
10/0
)&idem' pp* 9' 1,*
10/1
Abi&ail van Buren' Cear Abby' The Seattle Times' 10 ar%$ 1997' 1,0F59G' p* K7*
10/,
Cebora$ #$ite FThe Femp$isG .ommercial AppealG' Cis%ipline problems &o poo" #it$ 1-,-3 a&i%' many parents
"ind' Seattle Post- )ntelligencer' ,/ June 1997' 13/F150G' p* C/*
10/3
)&idem' p* C1*
10//
Op. cit.
10/5
Abi&ail van Buren' Cear Abby' The Seattle Times' 10 ar%$ 1997' 1,0F59G' p* K7*
10/7
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* /,9*
10/7
James W* Mander Tanden' Social Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= <andom Louse' !n%*' 1991G' p* /75*
10/9
)&idem' p* ,77*
90
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
2-i&mund3 Freud made a solid %ontribution to %onventional neuropat$olo&y* Lis "irst boo) #as Aphasia'
publis$ed in 1991* !t8presented a synt$eti% vie# o" t$e %ondition* Freud re"uted t$e vie#' prevalent amon&
Ierman-spea)in& neurolo&ists' t$at t$e losses o" "un%tion in ap$asia #ere due to lesions in anatomi%ally
%ir%ums%ribed %enters %orrespondin& to t$e various "un%tions involved in lan&ua&e* Le demonstrated t$at t$e
anatomi%al postulates #ould not "it #it$ spe%i"i% %ase studies and t$at it #as ne%essary to assume t$at t$e %erebral
areas involved in lan&ua&e #ere less %ir%ums%ribed* Freud also in%orporated into $is synt$esis t$e vie# t$at
"un%tion %ould be redu%ed in an area' not simply %an%eled*
10/9
• • •
?+$e &reat pleasure o" a do& is t$at you may ma)e a "ool o" yoursel" #it$ $im and not only #ill $e not s%old
you' but $e #ill ma)e a "ool o" $imsel" too*@ N -amuel Butler
1050
10/9
Dictionary o- Scienti-ic 1iography' ed* in %$ie" C$arles Coulston Iillispie FO0= C$arles -%ribner4s -ons' 1990G' 5' p*
173*
1050
Continuum' Omni' Ce% 1991' 1/F3G' p* 37*
91
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+harma!ologi!al Lo'otomy
Ameri%ans #ould be $orri"ied to learn t$at , million %$ildren a%ross t$e nation are bein& &iven %o%aine by t$eir
parents and do%tors to ma)e t$em be$ave better in s%$ool'
1051
82but3 about , million Ameri%an s%$ool %$ildren and
.oomin& numbers o" adults are ta)in& t$e %o%aine-li)e medi%ation to %ontrol t$eir t$ou&$ts*
105,
“7t#s a lu!rati5e market for pharma!euti!al !ompanies.”
./93
Competition and e""orts to %ap $ealt$ %are %osts mean t$e 2dru&3 industry #ill "a%e a pro"itability %li"" a"ter
,000' as J^r&en Cre#s' $ead o" &lobal resear%$ at Lo""man->a <o%$e 2Fmanu"a%turers o" <o$ypnolG'3 re%ently
opined* +o maintain a 10V annual &ro#t$ rate' t$e industry4s top 50 %ompanies must more t$an triple t$eir output
o" novel dru&s*
105/
A lar&e 2t$ese3 number o" medi%ations are bein& pres%ribed to treat %$ild$ood disorders* +$ey
in%lude tran:uili.ers' stimulants' and antipsy%$oti% medi%ation*
1055
>i)e $alitosis in t$e 1970s' impoten%e in t$e B70s and $erpes in t$e B90s'
1057
8ACLC is one o" t$e "astest
&ro#in& disorders bein& dia&nosed today*
1057' 2 10593
And it is' a%%ordin& to believers as #ell as s)epti%s' possibly t$e
most misdia&nosed disorder*
1059
2-o' 1ust3 $o# does a $ypera%tive %$ild di""er "rom ot$er %$ildrenP
1070
ost %$ildren #it$ ACLC $ave been
treated #it$ dru& t$erapy
1071
82alt$ou&$3 opponents des%ribe t$e use o" medi%ation as a ?Band Aid@ approa%$ or a
?%$emi%al strai&$t1a%)et@ to ensure ease o" mana&ement F2Lut%$ens' A* >*' D Lynd' I* W* F1997G* edi%ations and t$e
s%$ool-a&e %$ild and adoles%ent= A revie#* School Psychology 1ulletin' 17' 5,7-5/,
107,
3G*
1073
+$e medi%al and edu%ation establis$ments insist t$e disorder is real'
107/
82but3 none %an point to a part o" t$e
brain and say t$ere4s t$e problem* As t$e Food and Cru& Administration #rote to a %on%erned do%tor' ?We
a%)no#led&e * * * t$at as yet no distin%t pat$op$ysiolo&y "or disorder $as been delineated*@
1075
2+$ou&$'3 it %an mean bi& money "or s%$ool systems t$at %laim disabled students' and "or some parents #$o
%laim disabled )ids*
1077
Kdu%ators disa&ree t$ey are pus$in& t$e dru&'
1077
82alt$ou&$ t$e U*-* Cepartment o" Kdu%ation
1079
3 publis$es a
dire%tory o" support &roups' do%tors #$o spe%iali.e in t$is "ield' and #$ere to &et in"ormation on dru& treatment*
1079
1051
)&idem' p* A1*
105,
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH ACC= t$e dia&nosis o" t$e de%ade' 7astside
Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C1*
1053
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin Oation= t#o million little )ids use a Bsmart pill4 t$at4s %$emi%ally
similar to %o%aine' 7astside Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* A1*
105/
Cavid -tipp' +$e business o" &eneti%s' "ortune' 31 ar%$ 1997' 135F7G' p* 77*
1055
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 51,*
1057
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH ACC= t$e dia&nosis o" t$e de%ade' 7astside
Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C1*
1057
Op. cit.
1059
ACLC' o"ten re"ered to as hyperacti(ity' is a %on"usin& term*8 +#o ma1or types8e(ist* Jne is %$ara%teri.ed
primarily by attentional problems 2Fo"ten re"erred to as ACCG3 and t$e ot$er involves $ypera%tivity 2Fno# %alled ACLCG3*
Bot$ o" t$ese problems may o%%ur in t$e same individual* !t is not %lear i" t$ese types are di""erent de&rees o" t$e same
disorder or i" t$ey are unrelated disorders t$at s$ould be listed separately*
N Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 509*
1059
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH ACC= t$e dia&nosis o" t$e de%ade' 7astside
Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C1*
1070
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* 7,7*
1071
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 511*
107,
)&idem' p* A-/5*
1073
)&idem' p* 51,*
107/
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH ACC= t$e dia&nosis o" t$e de%ade' 7astside
Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C3*
1075
Op. cit.
1077
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin Oation= t#o million little )ids use a Bsmart pill4 t$at4s %$emi%ally
similar to %o%aine' 7astside Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* A1*
1077
)&dem' p* A9*
1079
Op. cit.
1079
Op. cit.
9,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
W$at4s &oin& on $ereP
1070
C$ild psy%$olo&ist2s38believe23 t$e dru& is bein& over-pres%ribed by do%tors #it$ limited e(perien%e8#$o
"eel pressured by insuran%e %ompanies*
1071
-pe%ialists insist t$e real problem is t$at t$e disorder isn4t dia&nosed
enou&$' and t$at maybe only $al" t$e people #$o need treatment are &ettin& it*
107,
Fe# parents #ill resist su%$ pressure to do somet$in&' say %riti%s* +$e "re:uent result is
met$ylp$enidate
1073
8; or <italin by its most popular brand name*
107/
“- sho!k to many parents.”
./;9
Eres%riptions "or8met$ylp$enidate8are estimated to be up 700 per%ent'
1077
82and3 some aut$orities #orry it is
bein& &iven to %$ildren "or t$e #ron& reasons*
1077
?Cia&nosis $as &otten looser and looser* Cia&noses are bein& made over t$e telep$one'@ reports 2a do%tor'
1079
3 a
%ommunity medi%ine spe%ialist*
1079
?ACC $as &otten so mu%$ attention t$at parents are %omin& in and sayin&' By
)id needs <italin*4 Earents s$op around "or a pres%ribin& do%tor*@
1090
Lis %on%ern is #it$ liberal dosin& o"
met$ylp$enidate' #$i%$ $e %alls ?t$e p$arma%olo&i%al e:uivalent o" %o%aine*@
1091
+$e United Oations !nternational Oar%oti%s Control Board $as t#i%e voi%ed #arnin&s about t$is %ountry4s
dependen%e on met$ylp$enidate*
109,
+$e United -tates %onsumes "ive times more o" t$is dru& t$an all t$e rest o"
t$e #orld %ombined*
1093
!" t$e %urrent rate o" in%rease "or pres%ription use %ontinues' by ,000 some 9 million Ameri%an s%$ool %$ildren
#ill be on t$e dru&*
+$ey are Ieneration <(* Oearly all are #$ite' "rom middle and upper-%lass "amilies' typi%ally #it$ t#o
#or)in& parents* -%$ool bells rin&' and lon& lines o" pupils "orm at t$e nurses4 stations or prin%ipals4 o""i%es "or
pills to slo# t$em do#n and blo%) out distra%tions*
109/
2And3 youn& men and #omen a%ross t$e %ountry are dis%overin& t$at t$e <italin8is stoppin& t$em no# "rom
servin& t$eir %ountry in t$e armed "or%es*
1095
“:onD pres!ription a'use is soaring.”
./H<
Eopular as it is #it$ tea%$ers' do%tors and parents' it $appens t$at %o%aine addi%ts love it' too* +ests s$o# t$ey
%an $ardly tell t$e di""eren%e*
+$e mole%ular ma)eup is di""erent but studies %ited by t$e CKA s$o# <italin and %o%aine %ause nearly identi%al
rea%tions in t$e same brain %ells*
1070
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH ACC= t$e dia&nosis o" t$e de%ade' 7astside
Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C3*
1071
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH #$y does usa&e varyP' 7astside Journal' ,3
June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C3*
107,
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH ACC= t$e dia&nosis o" t$e de%ade' 7astside
Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C3*
1073
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin Oation= t#o million little )ids use a Bsmart pill4 t$at4s %$emi%ally
similar to %o%aine' 7astside Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* A9*
107/
)&idem' p* A1*
1075
Cenise Toldan FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin teens %an "or&et about t$e military' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p*
C1*
1077
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH ACC= t$e dia&nosis o" t$e de%ade' 7astside
Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C1*
1077
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH #$y does usa&e varyP' 7astside Journal' ,3
June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C1*
1079
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH ACC= t$e dia&nosis o" t$e de%ade' 7astside
Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C3*
1079
Op. cit.
1090
Op. cit.
1091
Op. cit.
109,
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin Oation= t#o million little )ids use a Bsmart pill4 t$at4s %$emi%ally
similar to %o%aine' 7astside Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* A9*
1093
Op. cit.
109/
Op. cit.
1095
Cenise Toldan FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin teens %an "or&et about t$e military' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p*
C1*
1097
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin Oation= t#o million little )ids use a Bsmart pill4 t$at4s %$emi%ally
similar to %o%aine' 7astside Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* A9*
93
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$is %omparison outra&es proponents o" t$e dru&* Jne o" t$e "oremost is Cr* <ussell Bar)ley #$o runs a
%lini%8at t$e University o" assa%$usetts edi%al Center*
1097
?<italin is not addi%tive ; #$en ta)en orally'@ says Bar)ley* ?For t$is dru& to be potentially addi%tive' it $as to
be %rus$ed and in$aled nasally' or in1e%ted' and t$at $as to be done repeatedly*@
1099
• • •
Albert Kinstein' Beet$oven' o.art' >eonardo Ca Min%i' Winston C$ur%$ill' Ieor&e Bernard -$a#' +$omas
Kdison and Ialieo $ad somet$in& #ron& #it$ t$eir brains*
0ou believe t$atP
And $o# about C$er' +om Cruise' <obin Williams' W$oopi Ioldber& and Erin%e C$arlesP
W$atP Attention de"i%it disorders*
1099
+$at4s t$e unsubstantiated %laim' any#ay' by C$ildren and Adults #it$ Attention Ce"i%it Cisorders FCLACCG'
t$e "oremost support &roup "or t$is relatively ne# malady*
!" CLACC t$e dru& %ompanies and some top s%ientists are %orre%t' as mu%$ as 7 per%ent o" t$e Kart$4s
population $as t$is neurolo&i%al mal"un%tion* +$at #ould be 399 million people 2Falmost /00 million potential
dru& usersG'3 more t$an t$e %ombined populations o" t$e United -tates' e(i%o and Canada*
1090
C$ildren and Adults #it$ Attention Ce"i%it Cisorders FCLACCG' $as lobbied to ma)e t$e dru& more available'
ar&uin& t$e potential "or abuse is slim*
Oot so' says t$e CKA' %itin& t$e "ollo#in& #arnin& si&ns=
• et$ylp$enidate no# ran)s in t$e top 10 %ontrolled dru&s stolen "rom do%tors and p$arma%ies*
• Jr&ani.ed dru& tra""i%)ers are sellin& it ille&ally' and ?lar&e :uantities $ave been obtained * * * t$rou&$
%ooperation& p$ysi%ians or p$arma%ists*@
• ?-tudents are sellin& t$eir medi%ation to %lassmates #$o are %rus$in& and snortin& t$e po#der li)e
%o%aine*@ !n 1995' t#o deat$s #ere blamed on t$is )ind o" abuse*
1091
A nurse pra%titioner in8s%$ools' believes <italin %an be a &ate#ay to ot$er dru&s*
?+$ey &o loo)in& "or dru&s to repla%e it so t$ey4ll "eel &ood*@
0et s$e sees parents and tea%$ers loo)in& desperately "or #ays to %ontrol8%$ildren= ?We4re a pill -oriented
so%iety* +$e pill is a :ui%) "i(* We4re very an(ious to &et to "eelin& better*@
109,
A2not$er3 %$ild psy%$iatrist'8#orries t$at #e are %reatin& an entire &eneration #it$ a s#eet -toot$ "or
%o%aine*
1093
Karly e(posure to a stimulant ma)es t$e brain more re%eptive to ot$er dru&s' 2t$e %$ild psy%$iatrist
109/
3 says'
and t$e youn& user "eels %om"ortable' even better' #$en ta)in& t$e substan%e*
?W$y #ould #e #ant to be initiatin& all t$ese brains into more e""i%ient responsiveness to t$is #$ole %lass o"
li%it and illi%it stimulantsP@ 2t$e %$ild psy%$iatrist3 as)s*
?And our %ountry %laims to $ave a #ar on dru&s*@
1095
e#5e $een . . . &
K
-22
ACLC is relatively %ommon'
1097
82but3 most $ypera%tive %$ildren8&o undia&nosed until t$ey enter s%$ool or
some similar' $i&$ly stru%tured environment* Lo#ever' t$is is not be%ause t$eir $ypera%tive be$avior "irst appears
around t$e a&es o" 7' 7' and 9*
1097
any %$ildren #$o are later dia&nosed as $ypera%tive $ave a $istory o" bein&
1097
Op. cit.
1099
Op. cit.
1099
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH ACC= t$e dia&nosis o" t$e de%ade' 7astside
Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C1*
1090
Op. cit.
1091
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin Oation= t#o million little )ids use a Bsmart pill4 t$at4s %$emi%ally
similar to %o%aine' 7astside Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* A9*
109,
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH #$y does usa&e varyP' 7astside Journal' ,3
June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C1*
1093
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin Oation= t#o million little )ids use a Bsmart pill4 t$at4s %$emi%ally
similar to %o%aine' 7astside Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* A9*
109/
Op. cit.
1095
Op. cit.
1097
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 510*
1097
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' pp* 7,7-7,9*
9/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
a%tive in"ants #$ose biolo&i%al "un%tions su%$ as sleepin& and eatin& #ere irre&ular and #$o pro&ressed to be%ome
tireless and "earless pres%$oolers F2<oss' C* *' D <oss' -* A* F199,G* $yperacti(ity* Oe# 0or)= Wiley
1099
3G*
1099
A %on"usin& aspe%t o" attention de"i%it $ypera%tive disorders is t$eir in%onsisten%y* Attentional de"i%it or
e(%essive motor a%tivity are not ne%essarily al#ays evident' nor are t$ey displayed in all situations* !n one study'
ACLC boys s$o#ed &reater motor a%tivity durin& a%ademi% tas)s but didn4t di""er "rom %ontrol boys durin& lun%$'
re%ess' and p$ysi%al edu%tiaon a%tivities F2Eorrino' >* J*' <apoport' J* >*' Be$ar' C*' -%reery' W*' !smond' C* <*' D Bunney' W*
K* F1993G* A naturalisti% assessment o" t$e motor a%tivity o" $ypera%tive boys* Archi(es o- 3eneral Psychiatry' /0' 791-797
1100
3G*
+$us a %$ild mi&$t be identi"ied as $ypera%tive in one situation but not in ot$ers*
1101
Lo#ever' alt$ou&$
$ypera%tive %$ildren do $ave $i&$er levels o"8a%tivity t$an t$eir8peers' t$e di""eren%e bet#een t$e t#o &roups is
not a simple one*
110,
<esear%$ers $ave been espe%ially %on%erned re&ardin& t$e use o" stimulants "or attention de"i%it $ypera%tvity
disorder*
1103
A number o" resear%$ers report t$at amp$etamines and a related stimulant' <italin' in%rease
sel"-%ontrol in $ypera%tive %$ildren' in%rease t$eir attention span' de%rease "id&etin&' and lead to a%ademi% &ains
F2Bar)ley' <* A*' Karlsson' J*' -tr.ele%)i' K*' D urp$y' J* M*' F199/G* K""e%ts o" a&e and <italin dosa&e on t$e mot$er-%$ild intera%tions
o" $ypera%tive %$ildren* Journal o- .onsuling and .linical Psychology' 5,' 750-759H
110/
Kavale' K* F199,G* F199,G* +$e e""i%a%y o"
stimulant dru& treatment "or $ypera%tivity= A meta-analysis* Journal o- !earning Disa&ilities' 15' /79-/7,H
1105
attes' J* A*' D
Iittelman' <* F1993G* Iro#t$ o" $ypera%tive %$ildren on maintenan%e re&imen o" met$ylp$enidate* Archi(es o- 3eneral Phychiatry'
/0' 317-3,1H
1107
J4>eary' K* C* F1990G* Eills or s)ills "or $ypera%tive %$ildren* Journal o- Applied 1eha(ior Analysis' 13'
191-,0/H
1107
<apport' * C* F199/G* Lypera%tiviy and stimulant treatment= A&usus not tollit usum* The 1eha(ior therapist' 7'
133-13/
1109
3G*
1109
-timulants in parti%ular in%rease attention span and improve a%ademi% per"orman%e F2Fis%$er' *' D
Oe#by' <* F* F1991G* Assessment o" stimulant response in in ACLC %$ildren usin& a re"ined multimet$od %lini%al proto%ol* Journal o-
.linical .hild Psychology' ,0' ,3,-,//H
1110
Iado#' K* C* F1991G* Clini%al issues in %$ild and adoles%ent psy%$op$arma%olo&y*
Journal o- .onsulting and .linical Psychology' 59' 9/,-95,
1111
3G* Lo#ever' only 70 per%ent o" t$e %$ildren #it$ ACLC
respond positively to stimulant medi%ationH 30 per%ent do not s$o# any response or be%ome #orse #$en ta)in&
medi%ation* +$e dru&s seem to treat t$e symptoms o" ACLC rat$er t$an t$e %auses' so t$at dru& t$erapy alone
does not produ%e any lon&-term bene"its* C$an&es tend to be s$ort-lived or only persist as lon& as medi%ation
%ontinues' and only a subset o" ma1or problems is a""e%ted F2W$alen' C* K*' D Len)er' B* F1991G* +$erapies "or $ypera%tive
%$ildren= Comparisons' %ombinations' and %ompromises* Journal o- .onsulting and .linical Psychology' 59' 1,7-137
111,
3G*
1113

2Bot$ t$e symptoms to be treated and t$e #it$dra#al symptoms in%lude3 mental depression FsevereGH unusual
be$aviorH unusual tiredness or #ea)ness*
111/
W$en t$e manu"a%turer "irst %ame out #it$ <italin in t$e 1970s' it advertised t$at it #as t$e ans#er "or
everyt$in& "rom %$roni% "ati&ue and mild depression to menopause and senility* !t did voi%e a %aution= ?-$ould not
be used to in%rease mental or p$ysi%al %apa%ities beyond normal limits*@
1115
1099
)&idem' p* <-5,*
1099
)&idem' p* 7,9*
1100
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* A-77*
1101
)&idem' p* 509*
110,
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* 7,9*
1103
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 51,*
110/
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Winston' 1997G' pp* <,-<3*
1105
)&idem' p* <-,0*
1107
)&idem' p* <-,/*
1107
)&idem' p* <-,9*
1109
)&idem' p* <-31*
1109
)&idem' p* 197*
1110
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* A-35*
1111
)&idem' p* A-37*
111,
)&idem' p* A-9/*
1113
)&idem' p* 511*
111/
United -tates E$arma%opeia' .omplete Drug Re-erence' 1997 ed* FO0= Consumers Union' 1997G' p* 1091*
1115
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin Oation= t#o million little )ids use a Bsmart pill4 t$at4s %$emi%ally
similar to %o%aine' 7astside Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* A9*
95
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
“%ake two and !all me in the morning”
-in%e t$e 1950s dru& t$erapy $as been a ma1or "a%tor in allo#in& t$e early dis%$ar&e o"8patients*
1117
Cru&
treatment is no# #idely used t$rou&$out t$e United -tates= more8patients re%eive medi%ation t$an re%eive all
ot$er "orms o" t$erapy %ombined F2Kovel' J* F1977G* A complete guide to therapy* Oe# 0or)= Cro#n
1117
3G' and it is estimated
t$at #e spend more t$an 6500 million annually on antian(iety dru&s alone F2Baldessarini' <* J*' D Cole' J* J* F1999G*
C$emot$erapy* !n A* * Oi%$oli' Jr* FKd*G' The new $ar(ard guide to psychiatry* Cambrid&e' A= Larvard University Eress
1119
3G*
1119
Esy%$iatrists and ot$er *C*4s are in%reasin&ly pres%ribin& medi%ation rat$er t$an ?tal) t$erapy@ ; a term t$at
embra%es8all8psy%$ot$erapies ; "or su%$ %ommon ailments as depression and an(iety* -ales o" t$e
antidepressant "luo(etine $ydro%$loride' #$ose brand name is Ero.a%' $ave more t$an doubled in t$e past t#o years
2F1997G'3 and more t$an ,0 million people #orld#ide are no# ta)in& t$e dru&' a%%ordin& to its manu"a%turer' Kli
>illy*
11,0
Claims about t$e ?#onder dru&@ Ero.a% not#it$standin&' numerous independent studies $ave "ound t$at
dru&s are not si&ni"i%antly more e""e%tive t$an ?tal)in& %ures@ at treatin& t$e most %ommon ailments "or #$i%$
people see) treatment' in%ludin& depression' obsessive-%ompulsive disorder and pani% atta%)s*
11,1
any ostensibly %ontrolled' double-blind studies o" antidepressants are a%tually biased in "avor o" s$o#in&
positive e""e%ts* -u%$ studes usually provide t$e %ontrol &roup #it$ an inert pla%ebo* But be%ause all
antidepressants usually %ause side e""e%ts ; su%$ as dry mout$' s#eatin&' %onstipation and se(ual dys"un%tion ;
bot$ patients and p$ysi%ians %an o"ten determine #$o $as re%eived t$e dru&' t$us tri&&erin& an e(pe%tation o"
improvement t$at be%omes sel"-"ul"illin&*
11,,
+#o vo%i"erous %riti%s o" t$e &ro#in& use o" antidepressants are
-eymour Fis$er and <o&er E* Ireenbber&' bot$ psy%$olo&ists at t$e -tate University o" Oe# 0or) Lealt$ -%ien%e
Center at -yra%use*
11,3
!n an overvie# o" t$eir "indin&s in t$e -eptemberRJ%tober 1995 issue o" Psychology Today'
Fis$er and Ireenbur& %on%luded t$at ?most past studies o" t$e e""i%a%y o" psy%$otropi% dru&s are' to un)no#n
de&rees' s%ienti"i%ally untrust#orty*@
+$e "indin&s o" Fis$er and Ireenber& $ave been roundly "aulted by psy%$iatrists' #$o %ontend t$at as
psy%$olo&ists ; #$o %annot pres%ribe dru&s ; t$ey are biased in "avor o" 2?tal)in& %ures@3 and a&ainst medi%ation*
But t$e assertion t$at t$e pla%ebo e""e%t mi&$t e(plain mu%$ o" t$e e""e%tiveness o" medi%ations "or emotional
disorders $as been supported by Walter A* Bro#n' a psy%$iatrist at Bro#n University and an aut$ority on t$e
pla%ebo e""e%t*
11,/
6edi!aton ,auses 2elinIuen!y
edi%ation $as also been "ound to redu%e proso%ial be$aviors in ACLC boys and did not mar)edly redu%e
aversive be$aviors F2Bu$rmester' C*' W$alen' C* K*' Len)er' B*' %Conald' M*' D Lins$a#' -* E* F199,G* Eroso%ial be$avior in
$ypera%tive boys= K""e%ts o" stimulant medi%ation and %omparison #it$ normal boys* Journal o- A&normal .hild Psychology' ,0'
103-1,1
11,5
3G* !n "a%t' -atter"ield' Looppe' and -%$ell F199,G believe t$at usin& medi%ation alone may be $arm"ul
be%ause problems su%$ as antiso%ial be$evior' poor peer relations$ips' and learnin& di""i%ulties are not addressed*
Cru& t$erapy may tend to %on%eal a need "or ot$er types o" t$erapies*
11,7
Clini%ians $ave su&&ested t$at bot$
p$ysi%ians and t$erapists s$ould pay more attention to "amily dynami%s and %$ild mana&ement problems F2Erior' *'
>eonard' A*' D Wood' I* F1993G* A %omparison study o" pres%$ool %$ildren dia&nosed as $ypera%tive* Journal o- Pediatric
Psychology' 9' 191-,07
11,7
3G*
11,9
A s%$ool %ounselor8reports' ?!t seems to be an easy dru& to &et and t$ere4s not t$e "ollo#-up #it$ %ounselin&
and a be$avior mana&ement plan t$at4s supposed to &o alon& #it$ it*@
11,9
1117
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 5/0*
1117
)&idem' p* A-51*
1119
)&idem' p* A-19*
1119
)&idem' p* 5/0*
11,0
Jo$n Lor&an F-enior #riterG' W$y Freud isn4t dead' Ce% 1997' ,75F7G' p* 107*
11,1
Op. cit.
11,,
Op. cit.
11,3
Op. cit.
11,/
Op. cit.
11,5
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* A-,7*
11,7
)&idem' p* 511*
11,7
)&idem' p* A-77*
11,9
)&idem' p* 511*
11,9
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH #$y does usa&e varyP' 7astside Journal' ,3
June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C1*
97
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
!n Ieor&ia' a mot$er #it$ an ACLC %$ild "iled suit a&ainst t$e I#innett County -%$ool Cistri%t*
1130

-$e %$ar&ed t$at t$e s%$ool $ad insisted t$at $er son be &iven <italin and t$at t$e medi%ation made $im
sui%idal and violent*
1131
!n anot$er %ase' involvin& a "i"teen-year-old boy %onvi%ted o" )illin& a %lassmate #it$ a baseball bat' t$e
de"ense attorney %laimed t$at <italin %ontributed to t$e boy4s a%t* !n addition' "ive ot$er suits involvin&
medi%al malpra%ti%e "or pres%ribin& <italin #ere "iled in assa%$usetts F2Co#ard' M* -* F1999G* +$e ritalin
%ontroversy= W$at made t$is dru&4s opponents $ypera%tive* Journal o- the American edical Association' ,59'
,5,1-,5,3
113,
3G*
1133
?<italin tends to e(%use a lot o" be$aviors* !t4s s%ary'@ says
113/
2t$e s%$ool %ounselor*
1135
3
• • •
2Anot$er3 psy%$olo&ist8"eels many do%tors are overloo)in&8"a%tors*
1137
2For e(ample'3 ?!" 10 to 15 per%ent $ave an al%o$oli% parent' t$at %an produ%e depression* And %$ildren o"ten
s$o# depression t$rou&$ a%tin&-out be$avior*@
Earents' $e believes' sometimes press "or an ACC dia&nosis*
1137
?+$ey4re "eelin& &uilty*8 -i(-year-olds'
7-year-olds*8@
1139
As a Eenta&on spo)esman e(plains it' ?Lypera%tivity s$ould be %orre%ted by a&e 1,* !" t$ey4re usin& <italin
a"ter t$at' t$ere4s probably some underlyin& problems*@
1139
1130
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 51,*
1131
Op. cit.
113,
)&idem' p* A-31*
1133
)&idem' p* 51,*
113/
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH #$y does usa&e varyP' 7astside Journal' ,3
June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C1*
1135
Op. cit.
1137
Jo$n >an& FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin= t$e debate speeds onH ACC= t$e dia&nosis o" t$e de%ade' 7astside
Journal' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p* C3*
1137
Op. cit.
1139
Op. cit.
1139
Cenise Toldan FScripps $oward News Ser(iceG' <italin teens %an "or&et about t$e military' ,3 June 1997' ,1F309G' p*
C1*
97
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
)uperpredator
-tudies s$o# t$e teen %riminals o" tomorro# are ?literally bein& manu"a%tured' pro&rammed' $ard#ired to
be$ave in a %ertain #ay*@
11/0
+$e 7-year-old boy t$at 2a parental unit3 #anted to adopt "rom t$e state #as ?a $and"ul'@ Cepartment o"
-o%ial and Lealt$ -ervi%e #or)ers told t$e "amily*
Le4d been ne&le%ted* Lis mot$er dran) #$ile pre&nant* Le4d been %ruel to animals* Le4d been $ard
to toilet-train* But t$e so%ial #or)ers said in April 1990 t$at t$e boy #ould be a &ood mat%$ "or t$e8
"amily' "rom #$om $e %ould &et t$e love and se%urity $e needed*
W$at t$e so%ial #or)ers didn4t say #as t$at t#o years earlier a psy%$iatrist $ad des%ribed t$e boy as ?a
potentially buddin& so%iopat$@ #$ose devian%y #as li)ely irreversible* +$at report lay undis%losed in
C-L- "iles* W$at t$ey also didn4t say #as t$at one o" t$e boy4s "ormer "oster mot$ers $ad said t$e boy #as
?seriously disturbed@ and obsessed #it$ se( and t$at s$e $ad demanded C-L- remove $im "rom $er $ouse*
+$e 2adoptive "amily3 didn4t learn #$at #as in t$e state4s "iles until 1995 ; a"ter t$e boy molested t$e
dau&$ter o" a "amily "riend and #as sent to a &roup $ome*
And it #asn4t until 1990 t$at t$ey learned t$e true %ost o" #$at 2t$e adoptive "at$er3 said #as t$e state4s
de%eption= +$e boy $ad repeatedly raped t$eir dau&$ter' be&innin& #$en s$e #as / and %ontinuin& until t$e
boy le"t $ome "ive years later*
11/1
At least 1/ Was$in&ton "amilies say C-L- "ailed to report' and in some %ases %overed up' t$eir adopted
%$ildren4s deep psy%$olo&i%al dama&e' serious medi%al %onditions and disabilities*
11/,
0oun& la#brea)ers are at $i&$ ris) o" turnin& into #$at %onservatives li)e to %all t$e ?superpredators@ o"
tomorro#*
11/3
An estimated 110'000 %$ildren under 13 2#ere3 arrested in 199/ "or a%ts %onsidered "elonies8
in%ludin& 39 murders' "ederal statisti%s s$o#*
11//
Curin& t$e past de%ade t$e number o" murders %ommitted by
teena&ers $as leaped "rom rou&$ly 1'000 a year to nearly /'000*
11/5
By &ettin& arrested at 7 or 7' some say' t$ese )ids are soundin& an alarm on t$e teen t$u&s t$ey may be%ome*
11/7
Oe# resear%$ s$o#s t$at %$ildren arrested be"ore t$e a&e o" 1, are li)ely to $ave $ad $istories o" abuse and ne&le%t
and are more li)ely to &o on to %ommit more numerous and more serious %rimes t$an %$ildren "irst arrested as
teen-a&ers*
11/7
Juveniles #$o %ommit se( %rimes on ot$er %$ildren are o"ten vi%tims t$emselves*
11/9
E$ysi%al abuse is indeed a ris) "a%tor "or later a&&ressive be$avior even #$en t$e ot$er e%olo&i%al and
biolo&i%al "a%tors are )no#n*
11/9
Abused %$ildren tend23 to a%:uire deviant patterns o" pro%essin& so%ial
in"ormation' and t$ese may mediate t$e development o" a&&ressive be$avior*
1150
K(perts say %$ildren #$o $ave
been se(ually abused "or years a%%ept it as ?normal'@ and o"ten #ill repeat t$e be$avior in situations ot$er t$an t$e
$ome*
1151
!n $er 199, #or)' ?+$e Cy%le o" Miolen%e'@ Cat$y -pat. Widom %ompared %$ildren born in t$e same
$ospitals and livin& in t$e same %ommunities and "ound t$at t$ose #$o #ere abused or ne&le%ted #ere
si&n"i%antly more li)ely to be arrested "or violent %rimes t$an t$eir better-raised peers*
?+$e ne# data is so $ard to i&nore'@ said Widom' a pro"essor o" %riminal 1usti%e and psy%$olo&y at t$e
University o" Albany in Oe# 0or)* ?We no# )no# t$at abused and ne&le%ted )ids are at demonstrably
in%reased ris) "or t$ese problems* And #e need to intervene*@
115,
11/0
>ori ont&omery' 0oun& la#brea)ers li)ely to be%ome older %riminals' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' 10 April
1997*
11/1
Cavid Eostman' -ins o" silen%eH one a"ter anot$er' adopted %$ildren #ere %ausin& turmoil in t$eir ne# "amilies* +$e
parents "ranti%ally sou&$t ans#ers' only to learn' too late in some %ases' t$at state so%ial #or)ers $ad )no#n #$at #as
#ron& "rom t$e be&innin&' The Seattle Times' 1/ Jan 1997' p* A1*
11/,
Op. cit.
11/3
>ori ont&omery' 0oun& la#brea)ers li)ely to be%ome older %riminals' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' 10 April
1997*
11//
Op. cit.
11/5
aria K"timiades' -usan C$ristian Iouldin&' Ant$ony Cui&an-Cabrera' Con Campbell' D Jane -ims Eodesta' W$y are
)ids )illin&P' People 8ee'ly' ,3 June 1997' /7F,/G' p* /7*
11/7
>ori ont&omery' 0oun& la#brea)ers li)ely to be%ome older %riminals' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' 10 April
1997*
11/7
Op. cit.
11/9
Crai& Loro#it.' Kids #$o prey on )idsH 1uveniles #$o %ommit se( %rimes' 3ood $ouse'eeping' J%t 1997' ,,3F/G' p*
9/F/G*
11/9
K* A* Cod&e' J* K* Bates' D I* -* Eettit' e%$anisms in t$e %y%le o" violen%e' Science' 1990' ,50F/999G' ,1*
1150
Op. cit.
1151
arla Williams D Cee Oorton' +$e unravelin& o" a monstrous se%retH se(-abuse s%andal $as Wenat%$ee reelin&' FEart 1
o" ,G' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1995' p* A1*
99
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
• 2A 7-year-old boy
1153
3 set "ire to a nei&$bor4s &ara&e*
115/
-in%e t$en' 2$e3 $as tan&led t#i%e #it$ poli%e'
on%e "or bur&lari.in& a nei&$bor4s $ome and most re%ently "or stealin& a 6150 CC player "rom a store
s$el"*
1155
/- and 5-year-olds #ere most o"ten reported "or arson= a disturbin& "indin& &iven t$at "ire-settin&
is %ommon amon& se(ual abuse vi%tims*
1157
• 2A 7-year-old boy
1157
3 t$reatened %lassmates #it$ a table )ni"e 2and3 investi&ators later learned 2$e3 $ad
been se(ually abused and #as' in turn' se(ually abusin& $is little sister*
1159
• ?We4ve &ot 9-year-olds #$o $old )nives to t$e t$roat o" t$e little ones #$ile t$ey se(ually assault t$em'@
said Oan Beaman' a Lennepin 2County' innisota'3 so%ial #or)er*
1159
• ?We $ad a 9-year-old $omi%ide suspe%t'@ 2Jo$n3 Benbo# 2o" t$e -a%ramento County s$erri""4s o""i%e3 said*
?And it #asn4t an a%%ident*@
1170
• A boy' 10' %$ared #it$ se(ually assaultin& "our playmates' $as been "ound in%ompetent to parti%ipate in
$is prose%ution' t$e New $ampshire Sunday News reported*
1171
• W$en t$ey brou&$t t$e 210-year-old
117,
3 &irl $ome'8?All $ell bro)e loose'@ 2t$e adoptive "at$er3 said*
+$e &irl beat up ot$er %$ildren' $urt $ersel" #it$ pins and needles' and be%ame so obsessed #it$ )nives t$at
t$e 2adoptive parents3 )ept t$eir )it%$en )nives in a lo%)ed sa"e*
1173
+$e &irl $ad 2also3 se(ually assaulted
and tortured $er adopted baby sister*
117/
• +#o boys' a&es 10 and 11' dropped a 5-year-old to $is deat$ "rom t$e 1/t$ "loor o" a publi% $ousin&
$i&$-rise in 199/* +$e youn&er boy is reportedly t$e youn&est %$ild in Ameri%a in t$e %ustody o" a state
prison system*
1175
• 2An 11-year-old boy
1177
#as3 a%%used o" s$ootin& to deat$ a 1/-year-old &irl durin& a &an& initiation* A
"e# days later' t$e &an& )illed $im*
1177
• A 1,-year-old boy a%%used o" settin& "ire to a $omeless man8#ill be tried as a 1uvenile' not as an
adult*
1179
+$e boy and a 13-year-old #ere a%%used o" settin& "ire to 2t$e vi%tim3 as $e slept on a do#nto#n
bus ben%$*
1179
2+$e vi%tim3 su""ered t$ird-de&ree burns*
1170
• A boy' 7' says a

teena&er se(ually assaulted $im #$en Oort$#est Airlines put t$em in t$e same $otel
room a"ter t$ey missed %onne%tin& "li&$ts' aut$orities said 2February ,73*
1171
+$e 1/-year-old boy denied
any #ron&doin&' poli%e said*
117,
Oort$#est put t$em up at t$e Lilton Lotel $ere' #it$ a se%urity &uard
outside t$e door* +$ey #ere amon& several stranded %$ildren sent to t$e $otel t$at ni&$t*
1173
115,
>ori ont&omery' 0oun& la#brea)ers li)ely to be%ome older %riminals' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' 10 April
1997*
1153
Op. cit.
115/
Op. cit.
1155
Op. cit.
1157
Op. cit.
1157
Op. cit.
1159
Op. cit.
1159
Op. cit.
1170
Op. cit.
1171
Oe# Lamps$ire' A%ross t$e U-A= ne#s "rom every states' #SA Today0 11 Oov 1997' 15F/1G' p* 9A*
117,
Cavid Eostman' -ins o" silen%eH one a"ter anot$er' adopted %$ildren #ere %ausin& turmoil in t$eir ne# "amilies* +$e
parents "ranti%ally sou&$t ans#ers' only to learn' too late in some %ases' t$at state so%ial #or)ers $ad )no#n #$at #as
#ron& "rom t$e be&innin&' The Seattle Times' 1/ Jan 1997' p* A1*
1173
Op. cit.
117/
Op. cit.
1175
>ori ont&omery' 0oun& la#brea)ers li)ely to be%ome older %riminals' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' 10 April
1997*
1177
Op. cit.
1177
Op. cit.
1179
Around t$e -ound' Burn suspe%t #on4t be tried as an adult' The Seattle Times' 17 June 1997' 1,0F1//G' p* B,*
1179
Op. cit.
1170
Op. cit.
1171
A%ross t$e Oation' Boy' 7' says teen assaulted $im durin& $otel stay' The Seattle Times' ,7 Feb 1997' 1,0F50G' p* A7*
117,
Op. cit.
1173
Op. cit.
99
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
• Ant$ony Clemente' /9' and $is ,,-year-old son' Camian' #ere senten%ed to mandatory li"e terms
a"ter
117/
8t$e 1995 lun%$time massa%re o" "our "amily enemies in a %ro#ded restaurant*
1175
Clemente
"amily members said 2t$e "eud
1177
3 stemmed "rom a per%eived la%) o" respe%t by t$e vi%tims*
1177
!n -a%ramento County' $al" o" t$e 13, arrested )ids a&es 9 t$rou&$ 1, $ad been t$e sub1e%t o" reports o" abuse
or ne&le%t* !n inneapolis' #$ere t$e %$ildren studied #ere youn&er' %$ild #el"are #or)ers $ad investi&ated
"amilies o" 91 per%ent o" t$e %$ildren*
1179
2But3 many o" t$e %$ildren #$o are brutali.ed and battered in t$is %ountry never %ome to t$e attention o"
prote%tion a&en%ies at all*
1179
any people are relu%tant to report maltreatment o" adoles%ents to %$ild prote%tive
servi%es* Adoles%ents are also "re:uently per%eived as bein& responsible "or t$eir o#n abuse* <eported abuse is
more li)ely to involve adoles%ent &irls t$an adoles%ent boys' espe%ially %ases o" se(ual abuse*
1190
• • •
Lorri"i% %rimes li)e t$e )idnap and murder o" Eolly Klaas in Cali"ornia by a se(ual predator in 1993 and
prote%tive measures li)e Oe# Jersey4s ?e&an4s >a#'@ #$i%$ in"orms nei&$bor$oods o" %onvi%ted se(ual
o""enders' in%rease t$e sense t$at pedop$iles lur) by every s%$oolyard "en%e and under every open #indo#*
1191
A man slipped into t$e $ouse t$rou&$ a #indo# and snat%$ed t$e &irl "rom $er bed* Lours later' a
motorist "ound t$e %$ild' #earin& not$in& but a ni&$t&o#n' standin& alon& a busy8street* Eoli%e later
determined t$at s$e $ad been se(ually assaulted*
A re&istered se( o""ender' <aymond <obert eier' 3/' o" Ois:ually $as been arrested in t$e %ase* Le
$as pleaded not &uilty in Eier%e County -uperior Court to %$ar&es o" %$ild rape' )idnappin& and bur&lary*
119,
>aura %Collum' 39' #as %ommitted in January to t$e -pe%ial Commitment Center F-CCG in onroe*
1193
-$e
is t$e "irst #oman in t$e state and only t$e se%ond in t$e nation to be %lassi"ied as a se(ual preadator*
119/
Curin&
$er %ivil-%ommitment trial' %Collum admitted molestin& do.ens o" youn& %$ildren' bot$ male and "emale* -$e
$as told t$e state s$e #ants to be %on"ined "or treatment be%ause s$e "ears s$e mi&$t $arm %$ildren a&ain*
1195
Fi"ty men and one #oman are %on"ined under Was$in&ton4s la#* J" t$ose' /7 are at onroe' t$ree are in
%ounty 1ails and t#o are at $ome under ele%troni% monitorin&*
1197
+$e U*-* -upreme Court le"t 2t$ose3 51 se(ual predators be$ind bars in Was$in&ton 2June ,33 #$en it ruled
t$at states may )eep dan&erous se( o""enders lo%)ed up even a"ter t$ey $ave served t$eir senten%es*
+$e lon&-a#aited de%ision brou&$t e(pressions o" relie" "rom state la#ma)ers and publi% o""i%ials' #$o #ere
ready to %all an emer&en%y le&islative session i" t$e Was$in&ton la# $ad been t$ro#n out*
1197
?+$e t$ou&$t o" all t$ose people bein& set loose on t$e streets ma)e me si%) to my stoma%$'@ state <ep* !da
Ballasiotes' <-er%er !sland' said*
1199
+$e %ase also #as #at%$ed %losely by Ari.ona' Cali"ornia' innesota and Wis%onsin' #$i%$ $ave similar
la#s*
1199
A -pe%ial Commitment Center inmate' spea)in& on %ondition o" anonymity' said "e# o""enders t$ere are ta)in&
part in treatment* But in t$e "a%e o" t$e -upreme Court rulin&' t$ey may do some ret$in)in&*
117/
A%ross t$e Oation' Fat$er and son %onvi%ted o" )illin& / "amily enemies' The Seattle Times' 11 ay 1997' 15F19G' p*
A9*
1175
Op. cit.
1177
Op. cit.
1177
Op. cit.
1179
>ori ont&omery' 0oun& la#brea)ers li)ely to be%ome older %riminals' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' 10 April
1997*
1179
Juliet Wittman' C$ildren are everyone4s business' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' 5 April 1997*
1190
Coun%il on -%ienti"i% A""airs' Ameri%an edi%al Asso%iation' Adoles%ents as vi%tims o" "amily violen%e' Journal o- the
American edical Association' ,0 J%t 1993' ,70F15G' p* 1950F7G*
1191
Karen Ce Witt FThe New 9or' TimesG' urder %ase o""ers a &limpse o" &irls4 beauty pa&eants' The Seattle Times' 1, Jan
1997' 15F,G' p* A3*
119,
The Associated Press' -ense o" se%urity $as vanis$ed "or a 7-year-old &irl' The Seattle Times' ,7 Feb 1997' p* B5*
1193
The Associated Press' -e( predator4s pla%ement %riti%i.ed' The Seattle Times' ,0 April 1997' 15F17G' p* B10*
119/
Op. cit.
1195
Op. cit.
1197
Oeil odie' -e(ual predators %an stay lo%)ed upH -upreme Court rulin& relieves state la#ma)ers' Seattle
Post- )ntelligencer' ,/ June 1997' 13/F150G' p* A7*
1197
)&idem' p* A1*
1199
Lal -pen%er FThe Associated PressG' Was$in&ton plans "or t$e #orst as se(-predator rulin& a#aited' The Seattle Times'
9 June 1997' 15F,3G' p* B,*
1199
Oeil odie' -e(ual predators %an stay lo%)ed upH -upreme Court rulin& relieves state la#ma)ers' Seattle
Post- )ntelligencer' ,/ June 1997' 13/F150G' p* A7*
100
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
?W$at t$ey4re tal)in& about $ere is t$at t$e only #ay to &et out o" $ere is &oin& into t$erapy'@ $e said*
As)ed t$e inmates4 rea%tion' t$e man replied' ?Kveryone is stunned*@
1190
“- nai5e $elle5ue !itizenL”
..J.
!n Bellevue' Was$*' a %om"ortable -eattle suburb' it4s easy to miss t$e po%)ets o" despair amid t$e
prosperity*
119,
Cespite 219-year-old Ale( Baranyi4s
1193
3 antiso%ial appearan%e'82$e and a "riend' Cavid Anderson'
19'
119/
alle&edly )illed a "amily3 ?"or t$e s$eer e(perien%e o" )illin&'@ 2said Kin& County prose%utor Oorm
alen&3*
1195
+o Kevin Wul""' t$e prin%ipal at Bellevue Li&$' t$e lo%al out%ry over t$e slayin&s is a %ase o" too little too late*
?We i&nore ?2@t$ese )ids?3@ and $ope t$ey &o a#ay'@ says Wul""' ?and t$en #e are $orri"ied #$en t$ey %ommit
t$ese %rimes*@
1197
• • •
+eena&ers #$o )ill are o"ten so%ial out%asts #$o believe murder #ill &ive t$em t$e superiority t$ey $aven4t
a%$ieved at $ome or in s%$ool' a noted %riminolo&ist said 2January 173*
1197
?A lot o" t$e )ids #$o are t$e most
dan&erous are mar&inal youn&sters' not doin& #ell #it$ t$eir "amilies and not doin& #ell in s%$ool'@ 2Ja%)3 >evin'
2dire%tor o" t$e Ero&ram "or t$e -tudy o" Miolen%e at Oort$eastern University in Boston'
1199
3 said*
1199
!n 199,' "ive teena&ers in Cli"ton' O*J*' #ere %$ar&ed #it$ %arryin& out a plot to )ill a "ormer "riend in
#$at $as be%ome )no#n as t$e ?Lail ary urder@ ; named a"ter t$e prayer t$e 17-year-old vi%tim
reportedly re%ited 1ust be"ore $e #as &arroted in $is %ar* !nvesti&ators said t$e teens planned t$e murder
durin& #ee)ly prayer meetin&s*
!n t$at %ase' >evin said' teena&ers apparently #ere $idin& be$ind Cat$oli%ism to %ommit a murder*
?0ou #ouldn4t blame t$is on t$e Cat$oli% %$ur%$* !nstead o" loo)in& at -atanism or vampirism' you4ve &ot
to loo) at t$ese youn&sters*@
1,00
?<eally' 2t$ou&$'3 t$e problem $ere is adults $ave to &et ba%) into t$e business o" raisin& teena&ers' o" %arin&
about teens'@ >evin said* ?We need to "ind some $ealt$y alternatives "or our %$ildren*@
1,01
)udden 7nfant 2eath )yndrome
-!C-' or %rib deat$' is t$e dia&nosis "or a baby #$o stops breat$in& #it$out any medi%ally dete%table %ause* !t
is t$e leadin& %ause o" deat$ o" in"ants*
1,0,
W$ile t$e in%iden%e o" -!C- and in"ant mortality amon& t$e &eneral population is de%linin&' t$e rate rose
amon& %$ildren on CE- rolls*
1,03
C$ildren #$o #ere supposed to be )ept sa"e by Was$in&ton4s %$ild-prote%tive
1190
Lal -pen%er FThe Associated PressG' Was$in&ton plans "or t$e #orst as se(-predator rulin& a#aited' The Seattle Times'
9 June 1997' 15F,3G' p* A1*
1191
-teve Jo$nston' Just As) Jo$nstonH an ans#er %olumnist )no#s #$at4s really on Kastsider4s minds' The Seattle Times/
Paci-ic aga6ine' 17 Feb 1997' p* ,9*
119,
aria K"timiades' -usan C$ristian Iouldin&' Ant$ony Cui&an-Cabrera' Con Campbell' D Jane -ims Eodesta' W$y are
)ids )illin&P' People 8ee'ly' ,3 June 1997' /7F,/G' p* 51*
1193
Op. cit.
119/
Op. cit.
1195
)&idem' pp* 51-5,*
1197
aria K"timiades' -usan C$ristian Iouldin&' Ant$ony Cui&an-Cabrera' Con Campbell' D Jane -ims Eodesta' W$y are
)ids )illin&P' People 8ee'ly' ,3 June 1997' /7F,/G' p* 5,*
1197
Oan%y <oberts +rott' 0out$s #$o )ill may need to "eel superior' says top %riminolo&ist' Seattle Post- )ntelligencer' 17
Jan 1997' 13/F15G' p* A1,*
1199
Op. cit.
1199
Op. cit.
1,00
Op. cit.
1,01
Op. cit.
1,0,
Cu"" Wilson' ore %ases o" %rib deat$ o%%ur under state #at%$H 1/ babies died in 495 #$ile on rolls' The Seattle Times'
5 Au& 1997' p* A1*
1,03
Op. cit.
101
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
pro&rams died at a re%ord rate*
1,0/
+$e 1995 rate #as "our times $i&$er "or %$ildren #it$ open %ases at C$ild
Erote%tive -ervi%es t$an ot$er %$ildren in Was$in&ton -tate*
1,05
!n 1991 t$ere #ere // deat$s amon& Was$in&ton -tate %$ildren #it$ open or re%ently %losed %ases in C$ild
Erote%tive -ervi%es' C$ild Wel"are -ervi%es or Family <e%on%iliation -ervi%es' or livin& in "oster %are or &roup
%areH in 199,' /0 deat$sH 1993' 59 deat$sH 199/' 99 deat$sH and in 1995' t$ere #ere 1,, deat$s amon& t$ese
%$ildren*
1,07
!n most %ases' parents or &uardians $ad been reported to t$e state "or dan&erous a%ts o" ne&le%t and abuse ;
some as many as 19 times' over as lon& as a de%ade' and one as re%ently as an $our and a $al" be"ore t$e %$ild #as
"ound dead*
1,07
Kin& County C$ie" edi%al K(aminer Cr* Conald <eay observe2d3 t$at ?separatin& a -!C- deat$ "rom a
bona "ide smot$erin& deat$ %an be di""i%ult i" not impossible*
?! don4t t$in) in all t$e years !4ve been $ere #e4ve identi"ied a deat$ #e say is t$e result o"
smot$erin&'@ <eay %ontinues* ?We4ve $ad some suspi%ions sometimes' sure* But #e simply $ave to
re%o&ni.e t$e trade-o"" $ere*
?Co you put all t$ese parents #$o4ve $ad a -!C- deat$ in t$eir "amily under a %loud o" suspi%ion in t$e
$ope o" un%overin& one $omi%ideP@
1,09
2A3 issouri study "ound t$at many %$ild deat$s attributed to ot$er %auses' su%$ as sudden in"ant deat$
syndrome' a%tually #ere t$e result o" abuse or ne&le%t*
1,09
Bernard K#i&man' a "amily p$ysi%ian and asso%iate
pro"essor at t$e University o" issouri #$o #as t$e prin%ipal resear%$er o" t$e study*
1,10
?+$ere are some real problems #it$ t$e #ay our %$ildren are bein& raised'@ 2K#i&man said3*
1,11
• • •
A ,-year-old boy died -unday mornin& 2Far%$ 9G3 a"ter bein& run over as $is "at$er ba%)ed out o" t$e
&ara&e*
1,1,
%een )ui!ide
?We4re very prote%tive o" t$e "amily* We #or) %losely #it$ t$e poli%e and t$e %ourts and t$e media' but t$ey
all ta)e se%ond pla%e to t$e "amily'@ 2states Kin& County4s C$ie" edi%al !nvesti&ator' Jerry Webster3*
1,13
1,0/
Cu"" Wilson' Kids dyin& under state #at%$H last year' over 100 died #$ile bein& monitored by C-L-' FEart 1 o" ,G' The
Seattle Times' / Au& 1997' p* A1*
1,05
Cu"" Wilson' Kids dyin& under state #at%$H last year' over 100 died #$ile bein& monitored by C-L-' FEart , o" ,G' The
Seattle Times' / Au& 1997' p* A1*
1,07
)&idem' -our%e= Cepartment o" -o%ial and Lealt$ -ervi%es' Seattle Times resear%$' p* A1*
1,07
Cu"" Wilson' Kids dyin& under state #at%$H last year' over 100 died #$ile bein& monitored by C-L-' FEart 1 o" ,G' The
Seattle Times' / Au& 1997' p* A1*
1,09
Kli.abet$ <$odes' Killin& $er o#nH t$e %ase o" arybet$ +innin& may "o%us more attention o" a taboo sub1e%t=
in"anti%ide' The Seattle Times' ,5 April 1999' p* B1*
1,09
Clint Williams' E$oeni( is ran)ed deadliest lar&e %ity "or %$ild-abuse %ases' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice' 1/
Jan 199/*
1,10
Op. cit.
1,11
Op. cit.
1,1,
Ea%i"i% Oort$#est' Boy' ,' )illed by "at$er4s %ar' The Seattle Times' 10 ar%$ 1997' 1,0F59G' p* B,*
1,13
-%ot Au&uston' A &uided tour= deat$ in -eattle' The Stranger' 1/ Au& 1997' 7F9G' p* 1,*
10,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
6un!hausen
?!4m "our'@ s$e said and s$o#ed me t$ree "in&ers*
1,1/
?-$ut up'@ s$e said* ?-$ut up' s$ut up' s$ut up*@
1,15
+$e little &irl turned to $er brot$er and &ave $im a s$ove* ?-$ut up' you stupid #$ore'@ s$e said* ?Iet me a
beer*@
1,17
inor p$ysi%al anomalies appear to be stron&ly related to $ypera%tivity and later %riminal involvement'
but only i" t$e o""ender #as reared in an unstable' noninta%t "amily*
1,17
!t $as re%ently been "ound t$at
%$ildren #it$8$ypera%tivity8$ave de"i%ien%ies in rule- go(erned &eha(ior* <ules are %onstru%ted by t$e
individual or by ot$ers su%$ as parents or tea%$ers to des%ribe relations$ips amon& be$avior' ante%edents'
and %onse:uen%es* For e(ample' ?W$en your little brot$er ta)es one o" your toys' don4t $it $im' or you #ill
be sent to your room*@ !n respondin& to su%$ rules #$i%$ des%ribe %ontin&en%ies ; t$at is' #$at #ill $appen
i" %ertain t$in&s o%%ur ; $ypera%tive %$ildren $ave spe%ial problems in trac'ing* Alt$ou&$ t$ese %$ildren
may be able initially to in$ibit undesirable be$aivor in response to a rule' t$ey are unable to use rules to
tra%) or maintain t$eir be$avior over time F2Bar)ley' <* A*' F1990G* Attention de"i%it disorders* !n * >e#is D -* iller
FKds*G' $and&oo' o- de(elopmental psychopathology* Oe# 0or)= Elenum
1,19
3G* Erobably as a result o" t$eir
di""i%ulties8%$ildren su""er a%ademi%ally*
1,19
C$ild abuse' %$ild ne&le%t* For a do%tor one o" t$e most di""i%ult parts o" treatin& abused %$ildren is simply
ma)in& t$e dia&nosis* !n t$e K< t$is %an be even more di""i%ult be%ause a dia&nosis must o"ten be made a"ter only
a minute or t#o o" observation* Jne rule o" t$umb' !4ve learned' is to be suspi%ious o" any parent #$o arrives in an
K< #it$ an in1ured %$ild and #ants to leave too :ui%)ly*
Jne $ot summer ni&$t it $appened 1ust t$at #ay* A mot$er $ad $er son by t$e arm ; $e #as about "ive ; and
s$e dra&&ed $im up to me*
?Lo# mu%$ lon&er is t$is &oin& to beP@ s$e demanded*
!t s$ould $ave been obvious t$at #e #ere all #or)in& as "ast as #e %ould* ! $ad 1ust intubated someone #$o
$ad ta)en an overdose o" antidepressants' and #as rus$in& o"" to see a #oman #it$ $eart "ailure* From #$ere ! #as
standin& ! %ould see into t$e room #$ere t$e #oman lay on $er bed stru&&lin& to breat$ #$ile a burly-loo)in& man
sat ne(t to $er' $oldin& $er $and*
?a4'am'@ ! said' ?!t4s &oin& to be a little #$ile*@
?Well' ! don4t $ave a little #$ile* y son is $urt*@ -omet$in& in $er tone made me pause "or a moment and
loo) at $er*
?Cear'@ ! said' ?everyone $ere is very si%) toni&$t*@
?Con4t you Bdear4 me* !4m &oin& to anot$er K<* !4ve #aited over t#o $ours* ! #ant some servi%e*@
Kd' t$e %$ar&e nurse' %ame $ustlin& over* ?! put you in t$at room e(a%tly ten minutes a&o*@ Le pointed
emp$ati%ally at $is #at%$* ?-o don4t tell $er you4ve been #aitin& "or $ours*@ Le stopped ne(t to me and
#$ispered in my ear' ?!4m #orried about t$is )id*@
! )nelt do#n to loo) at t$e #$imperin& %$ild* Le $ad obviously bro)en $is "orearm ; t$e radius* +$ere #as
s#ellin& at t$e mids$a"t o" t$e radius' and t$e arm beyond %anted a#ay at an an&le* +$is #as odd* W$en people
"all' t$ey &enerally "ra%ture t$e "orearm near t$e #rist* A "ra%ture in t$e middle o" t$e bone is mu%$ rarer and
usually o%%urs "rom a dire%t blo#* +$ey4re %alled ni&$tsti%) "ra%tures be%ause people $ave &otten t$em "rom
de"endin& t$emselves a&ainst blo#s "rom a poli%e o""i%er4s ni&$tsti%)* +$is )id $ad su%$ a "ra%ture*
?Lo# did t$is $appenP@ ! as)ed t$e boy*
Le loo)ed up at $is mot$er and t$en at me and silently dre# a#ay*
?!4m leavin&'@ t$e mot$er said' &ivin& t$e %$ild4s ot$er arm a tu&* Le 1ust stood t$ere' rooted to t$e "loor*
?Wait'@ ! said* ?! need to )no#*@
?Con4t you B#ait4 me* !4m ta)in& my son and !4m leavin&*@
! loo)ed at $er* ! $ad seen a t$ousand #omen #$o #ere "ine mot$ers and #$o loo)ed 1ust li)e $er' but loo)s
mean not$in&* As ! &a.ed up at $er "rom #$ere ! )nelt' ! #as sure ; #ell' pretty sure ; t$at s$e $ad $urt $er %$ild*
! s:uatted t$ere "or a moment' debatin& t$is* A"ter all' #$at proo" did ! $aveP Besides' s$e #as &oin& to
anot$er K<* -$e said so* But ! #as an&ry* ! #as an&ry at $er "or yan)in& $er %$ild around and "or bein& so damn
unreasonable*
?!4m sorry'@ ! said' standin& up* ! #as %ons%ous t$at ! #as standin& bet#een t$is #oman and t$e e(it* ?0ou
%an4t &o any#$ere #it$ t$at %$ild*@
1,1/
Eamela Irim' +a)in& a standH an K< rule o" t$umb= be suspi%ious o" parents #it$ an in1ured %$ild #$o #ant leave
:ui%)ly' Disco(er' July 1997' 19F7G' p* 37*
1,15
Op. cit.
1,17
Op. cit.
1,17
-* A* edni%) D K* -* Kandel FUC>AG' Con&enital determinants o" violen%e' 1ulletin o- the American Academy o-
Psychiatry and !aw' 1999' 17F,G*
1,19
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* <-3*
1,19
)&idem' p* 7,9*
103
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
-$e &lared at me* ?W$at do you meanP@
?0ou %an4t leave'@ ! said* Any parent' %$ild abuser or saint' #ould be an&ry #it$ t$is order' but t$is #asn4t t$e
time "or se%ond t$ou&$ts* ! $ad ta)en my stand*
?0ou mean ! %an4t leaveP@
?0ou %an' but t$e %$ild %an4t*@
?0our4re %ra.y*@ -$e s$oo) $er "in&er in my "a%e and yan)ed t$e boy4s arm*
1,,0
+$e boy #as #ailin& and tryin& to ba%) a#ay "rom $er* -$e yan)ed at $is arm a&ain*
1,,1
?Eoli%e\@ s$e s$outed*
1,,,
• • •
+$e disorder' named a"ter an 19t$-%entury Austrian
2 1,,33
mer%enary )no#n "or tellin&

2tall tales
1,,/
3 and lies'
involves an adult' usually a parent' indu%in& illness in a %$ild to &ain attention "or t$emselves*
1,,5
First identi"ied in
1977'
1,,7
810 per%ent o" t$e %$ildren involved died'
1,,7
82and3 it apparently $as no medi%al or psy%$olo&i%al
solution*
1,,9
Cr* Ja:ueline Far#ell' a pediatri% neurolo&ist at 2-eattle4s C$ildren4s Lospital and edi%al Center'3 said no
one is sure $o# %ommon t$e disorder is but a%)no#led&ed it is mu%$ $arder to dete%t t$an standard %$ild-abuse
%ases*
?!n most %ases o" p$ysi%al abuse t$e parent #ill usually admit it #$en %on"ronted and say' B! "eel bad' and t$is
is #$at $appened*4 But t$e psy%$opat$olo&y o" un%$ausen %ases is t$at t$e parent #ill %ontinue to maintain s$e
didn4t do it even i" s$e $as been "ilmed in t$e a%t*@
any un%$ausen by pro(y %ases involve only e(a&&erations and lies about t$e %$ild4s %ondition and do not
involve a%tual assaults*
1,,9
Cr* Kennet$ Feldman' a %$ild-abuse e(pert #$o $as analy.ed about 50 un%$ausen %ases' said people #it$ t$e
syndrome "re:uently atta%) t$eir vi%tims a&ain*
1,30
• • •
+$e #oman $ad an FUJ Fa "ever o" un)no#n ori&inG and not$in& seemed to $elp*
1,31
Co%tors tried a $ealt$y
dose o" s)epti%ism* -$e #as #$is)ed o"" "or (-rays and $er belon&in&s #ere sear%$ed' and in $er purse #as "ound
t$e sour%e o" $er ba""lin& si%)ness= t$ree used syrin&es and a %up #it$ tra%es o" spittle* -$e $ad been in1e%tin&
$ersel" #it$ tra%es o" spittle* F2Adler' J*' D Iosness' * F1979' Ce%ember 31G* A :uestion o" "raudulent "ever* Newswee'' p*
75
1,3,
3G
1,33
• • •
1,,0
Eamela Irim' +a)in& a standH an K< rule o" t$umb= be suspi%ious o" parents #it$ an in1ured %$ild #$o #ant leave
:ui%)ly' Disco(er' July 1997' 19F7G' pp* 37' 39*
1,,1
)&idem' p* 39*
1,,,
Op. cit.
1,,3
Ierman mer%enary
N <i%$ard -even' ot$er senten%ed "or %$ild assault $as rare disordor' The Seattle Times' 17 Ce% 1995' p* A13*
1,,/
Op. cit.
1,,5
<i%$ard -even' Court restri%ts visits #it$ sonH mentally ill mot$er poisoned $im' The Seattle Times' ,3 ay 199,' p*
A1/*
1,,7
Op. cit.
1,,7
Op. cit.
1,,9
Op. cit.
1,,9
<i%$ard -even' ot$er senten%ed "or %$ild assault $as rare disordor' The Seattle Times' 17 Ce% 1995' p* A13*
1,30
<i%$ard -even' Court restri%ts visits #it$ sonH mentally ill mot$er poisoned $im' The Seattle Times' ,3 ay 199,' p*
A1/*
1,31
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* ,13*
1,3,
)&idem' p* A-17*
1,33
)&idem' p* ,13*
10/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
A -eattle Ea%i"i% University student #as %$ar&ed #it$ assault in 199, #$en it #as dis%overed t$at s$e #as
&ivin& $er t$ree-year-old son near-"atal doses o" ipe%a% Fa dru& used to indu%e vomitin&G* Oo motive #as "ound
ot$er t$an t$e attention s$e re%eived "rom $ospital sta"" "or t$e ?illness@ o" $er %$ild* F2Seattle Post-)ntelligencer F199,'
January 17G' p* C,
1,3/
3G
1,35
• • •
Bradley Wood #as / years old and $ad overdosed "or t$e se%ond time in a #ee) on +ylenol #$en $e #as
airli"ted "rom ontana to -eattle4s C$ildren4s Lospital and edi%al Center*
Lis mot$er' Oes$ele Wood' #as never "ar "rom $is side and told do%tors t$at t$e boy may $ave tried to %ommit
sui%ide* !n "a%t' t$is #as t$e latest in a strin& o" %lose %alls "or t$e boy' $avin& overdosed on OyAuil %old medi%ine
#$en $e #as ,*
+$e %ase &ot more perple(in&* Cespite a #ee) o" treatment and in"usion o" stron& antibioti%s' t$e boy #as
&ettin& si%)er and in%$in& to#ard deat$* Urine sample s$o#ed $e #as %arryin& t$e K* %oli ba%teria*
1,37
Lis mot$er
$ad been in1e%tin& $is !M tube #it$ "e%es %olle%ted "rom toilet #ater*
1,37
Wood' ,5' still denies $urtin& $er %$ild' alt$ou&$ s$e pleaded &uilty*
1,39
?Le #as so per"e%t'@ Wood said*
1,39
Alt$ou&$ do%tors at C$ildren4s #ere initially suspi%ious o" Wood4s story about $er son overdosin& on $is o#n'
s$e #asn4t %au&$t until Bradley told do%tors $is mot$er $ad been in1e%tin& ?medi%ine@ into $is !M line* Co%tors
%alled poli%e' #$o arrested Wood and "ound $er to be %arryin& a syrin&e %ontainin& tra%e amounts o" "e%es*
1,/0
• • •
Jenni"er Bus$' t$e Coral -prin&s' Fla*' &irl #$o spent mu%$ o" $er 9 years beneat$ sur&eon4s )nives' tet$ered to
tubes and pumped "ull o" medi%ine' #ill remain in state %are until a 1ud&e de%ides #$et$er t$e %$ild4s mot$er
intentionally made $er ill*
1,/1
Erose%utors and so%ial #or)ers believe Kat$y Bus$ lied about $er dau&$ter4s symptoms' #$i%$ led to
unne%essary removal o" $er &all bladder' appendi( and part o" $er intestines*
1,/,
Cat$eters $ave been implanted
into $er stoma%$' intestines and %$est*
1,/3
+$e %$ild $as $ad more t$an ,00 $ospital stays and /0 sur&eries*
1,//
Ler
,5'000 pa&es o" medi%al re%ords "ill t$ree "ile %abinets*
1,/5
Jn April 1/' 1995' poli%e state investi&ators "rom t$e Cepartment o" Lealt$ and <e$abilitative -ervi%es started
loo)in& into Jenni"er4s ba%)&round*
1,/7
Jud&e Bir)en $eard testimony82one year later3 "rom Kli Oe#ber&er' a p$ysi%ian at C$ildren4s Lospital in
Boston and e(pert in un%$ausen -yndrome* Oe#ber&er said $e ?$ad no doubt@ t$e %ase %on"orms to
un%$ausen*
?Oo pla%e is &ood enou&$ "or Jen but $er $ome'@ $er "at$er said' pullin& a pi%ture o" Jenni"er' dressed in a8
baseball out"it' "rom $is #allet*
Oe#ber&er ; #$o re%eived "our %artons o" t$e %$ild4s medi%al re%ords' in%ludin& s#orn statements "rom ,5
nurses and 10 p$ysi%ians ; %$ara%teri.ed t$e %ase as %lassi%' e(treme and severe*
?+$is %$ild is in dan&er in $er $ome'@ Oe#ber&er said*
Kat$y Bus$ told do%tors $er dau&$ter su""ers "rom sei.ures' balan%e problems' %onstant vomitin& and bladder
problems* Alt$ou&$ no medi%al pro"essional ever obseved a sei.ure' do%tors pres%ribed anti-sei.ure dru&s and
per"ormed invasive dia&nosti% tests' Oe#ber&er said*
1,3/
)&idem' p* A-73*
1,35
)&idem' p* ,13*
1,37
<i%$ard -even' ot$er senten%ed "or %$ild assault $as rare disordor' The Seattle Times' 17 Ce% 1995' p* A13*
1,37
Op. cit.
1,39
Op. cit.
1,39
Op. cit.
1,/0
Op. cit.
1,/1
TR)S' C$roni%ally ill &irl4s mot$er %$ar&ed #it$ deliberately ma)in& $er si%)' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice'
17 April 1997*
1,/,
Op. cit.
1,/3
Conna >ein#and' -i%) &irl4s mot$er arrested' %$ar&ed #it$ deliberately %ausin& illnesses' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News
Ser(ice' 17 April 1997*
1,//
TR)S' C$roni%ally ill &irl4s mot$er %$ar&ed #it$ deliberately ma)in& $er si%)' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice'
17 April 1997*
1,/5
Conna >ein#and' -i%) &irl4s mot$er arrested' %$ar&ed #it$ deliberately %ausin& illnesses' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News
Ser(ice' 17 April 1997*
1,/7
Op. cit.
105
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
>ab tests revealed eviden%e o" anti-sei.ure medi%ine even a"ter do%tors $ad stopped &ivin& it to t$e %$ild*
Ourses o"ten noted t$e %$ild be%ame a%utely ill s$ortly a"ter t$e mot$er4s visits' Oe#ber&er said*
1,/7
Crai& Bus$ testi"ied8t$at $e believes t$e nurses are retaliatin& a&ainst $im and $is #i"e be%ause t$e %ouple
sued Coral -prin&s edi%al Center o" malpra%ti%e in 1991*
1,/9
?We4ve &ot probable %ause beyond reason'@ Bro#ard County Cir%uit Jud&e Art$ur Bir)en said +uesday as $e
ordered t$e state so%ial-servi%e a&en%y to )eep t$e %$ild in prote%tive %ustody*
1,/9
!n addition to abuse alle&ations "rom 2Cepartment o" Lealt$ and <e$abilitative -ervi%es FL<-G'3 Jenni"er4s
mot$er' Kat$y Bus$' 39' "a%es %riminal %$ar&es o" a&&ravated %$ild abuse and attemptin& to de"raud $ealt$-%are
providers
1,50
8and %$arities o" more t$an 650'000 on be$al" o" $er dau&$ter*
1,51
Oo %riminal %$ar&es $a2d3 been
"iled a&ainst Crai& Bus$' Jenni"er4s "at$er' but prose%utors say t$ey $a2d3 not ruled t$at out*
1,5,
Bus$ $as ve$emently denied s$e $as $armed $er dau&$ter*
A /0-pa&e #arrant a%%uses Bus$ o" a "orm o" severe %$ild abuse %alled
1,53
8un%$ausen -yndrome by Ero(y' a
psy%$olo&i%al %ondition in #$i%$ a parent' usually a mot$er' purposely ma)es a %$ild ill to &et attention*
1,5/
K(perts outline a $ost o" un%$ausen %$ara%teristi%s t$at t$ey say Kat$y Bus$ e($ibits*
!n &eneral' "at$ers are univolved in t$e %$ild4s %are but tend to prote%t t$e mot$er*
un%$ausen mot$ers o"ten misrepresent t$e %$ildren4s medi%al $istory' pus$ p$ysi%ians to %ondu%t dia&nosti%
pro%edures' report symptoms t$at %annot be %orroborated' stay %lose to t$e %$ild4s bedside' $ave better t$an avera&e
)no#led&e o" medi%al terminolo&y and $an)er "or media attention*
1,55
J"ten t$e mot$er $as #or)ed in t$e medi%al "ield*
1,57
J"ten' t$e %$ild4s illnesses do not ma)e s%ienti"i% sense*
1,57
?!t4s probably one o" t$e most de"initive %ases !4ve ever seen'@ said psy%$iatrist Lerbert -%$reier' a national
e(pert in t$e syndrome and %$ie" o" psy%$iatry at C$ildren4s Lospital in Ja)land' Cali"*
+$e Bus$ "amily attorney' C$arles Jamieson' dis%ounted -%$reier4s opinion*
?Jenni"er is repeatedly ill in #ays t$at don4t ma)e sense'@ said -%$reier' t$e psy%$iatrist* ?+$ere are an
over#$elmin& number o" re"eren%es #it$ t$is %$ild %omin& into t$e $ospital loo)in& #ell until a visit by t$e
mot$er*@
1,59
Co%tors believe t$at Bus$' a %leri%al #or)er at a $ome-$ealt$ a&en%y' may $ave poisoned Jenni"er #it$
medi%ations and %ontaminated $er "eedin& tubes #it$ "e%es*
1,59
Jn t$ree o%%asions' Jenni"er #as $ospitali.ed #it$ a sepsis in"e%tion %aused by ba%teria in t$e blood* Co%tors
"ound t$e ba%teria mat%$ed or&anisms %ommonly "ound in "e%es* +$ey also "ound eviden%e o" "e%es at t$e entran%e
to t$e %$ild4s "eedin& tubes*
1,70
L<- #itnesses did not re%ount any suspi%ious in%idents sin%e t$e investi&ation be&an in April 1995' Jamieson
said*
1,71
?!t4s been a #it%$ $unt*@
?+$e pattern is in%redibly %lear'@ said 2L<- representative Assistant Attorney Ieneral Bob3 Julian' #$o %alled
t$e mot$er a ?media maven*@
1,7,
• • •
1,/7
Op. cit.
1,/9
TR)S' C$roni%ally ill &irl4s mot$er %$ar&ed #it$ deliberately ma)in& $er si%)' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice'
17 April 1997*
1,/9
Op. cit.
1,50
Op. cit.
1,51
Conna >ein#and' -i%) &irl4s mot$er arrested' %$ar&ed #it$ deliberately %ausin& illnesses' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News
Ser(ice' 17 April 1997*
1,5,
TR)S' C$roni%ally ill &irl4s mot$er %$ar&ed #it$ deliberately ma)in& $er si%)' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice'
17 April 1997*
1,53
Conna >ein#and' -i%) &irl4s mot$er arrested' %$ar&ed #it$ deliberately %ausin& illnesses' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News
Ser(ice' 17 April 1997*
1,5/
TR)S' C$roni%ally ill &irl4s mot$er %$ar&ed #it$ deliberately ma)in& $er si%)' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice'
17 April 1997*
1,55
Op. cit.
1,57
Conna >ein#and' -i%) &irl4s mot$er arrested' %$ar&ed #it$ deliberately %ausin& illnesses' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News
Ser(ice' 17 April 1997*
1,57
TR)S' C$roni%ally ill &irl4s mot$er %$ar&ed #it$ deliberately ma)in& $er si%)' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice'
17 April 1997*
1,59
Op. cit.
1,59
Conna >ein#and' -i%) &irl4s mot$er arrested' %$ar&ed #it$ deliberately %ausin& illnesses' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News
Ser(ice' 17 April 1997*
1,70
Op. cit.
1,71
Op. cit.
1,7,
TR)S' C$roni%ally ill &irl4s mot$er %$ar&ed #it$ deliberately ma)in& $er si%)' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une News Ser(ice'
17 April 1997*
107
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Alt$ou&$ arybet$ +innin& is suspe%ted o" )illin& all $er %$ildren e(%ept Jenni"er' #$ose deat$ #as a
%on"irmed %ases o" menin&itis' s$e $as been "ound &uilty only o" murderin& t$e last' +ami >ynne* All lived in
-%$ene%tady' O*0* Lere4s $o# medi%al personnel ruled arybet$ +innin&4s %$ildren o""i%ially died* Autopsies
#ere %ondu%ted on some' but not all*
JKOO!FK< ; January 197,' a&e 9 days= meni&itis' #it$ multiple brain abs%esses*
JJ-KEL ; January 197,' a&e ,= <eye4s syndrome*
BA<BA<A ; ar%$ 197,' a&e /= <eye4s syndrome*
+!J+L0 ; Ce%ember 1973' a&e 3 #ee)s' sudden in"ant deat$ syndrome F-!C-G*
A<0 F<AOCK- ; February 1979' a&e 3 1R, mont$s= -!C-*
JJOA+LAO ; ar%$ 1990' a&e / mont$s= %ardiopulmonary arrest' %ause un)no#n*
!CLAK> FadoptedG ; ar%$ 1991' a&e , 1R,= viral pneumonia Flater disputed by p$ysi%ians #$o said $is
pneumonia #as too mild to be "atalG*
+A! >0OOK ; Ce%ember 1995' a&e / mont$s= su""o%ation*
?A "e# $ours be"ore s$e )illed $er in"ant dau&$ter +ami >ynne' arybet$ +innin& bou&$t $er a :uantity o"
C$ristmas presents@ 2FJoy%e K&&inton' "rom .radle to 3ra(e' William orro# and Co*' 619*95
1,73
G3*
1,7/
arybet$ +innin&' #$o bou&$t one %$ild C$ristmas presents be"ore smot$erin& $er #it$ a pillo#' #$o as s$e
#at%$ed anot$er baby die a tortured deat$ on li"e-support ma%$ines announed s$e4d de%ided to be%ome a "uneral
dire%tor' ultimately $ad nine %$ildren*
Oe# 0or) poli%e suspe%t $er o" smot$erin& ei&$t o" t$em*
1,75
Just as Fait$ %Oulty4s ?+$e Burnin& Bed@ raised national %ons%iousness about #i"e batterin&' so K&&inton4s
#or) may raise a#areness o" a little-understood' seldom-admitted taboo= in"anti%ide' or t$e )illin& o" in"ants by
t$eir mot$ers*
1,77
-naps$ots "rom $er li"e=
arybet$ +innin&' per$aps an abused %$ild' &ro#s up in -%$ene%tady' O*0*' under t$e t$umb o" a stern'
disapprovin& "at$er*
arybet$ marries a s$ado# o" a man' an eni&ma named Joe #$o sometimes bo#ls' sometimes drin)s beer'
rarely tal)s' de"ers to $is #i"e and #or)s "or Ieneral Kle%tri%*
-$e spends $is money #ildly and tries to poison $im #it$ an overdose o" pres%ription medi%ine*
Le stands by $er' as $e does even today #$ile s$e serves a ,0-years-to-li"e senten%e in t$e Oe# 0or) -tate
Erison "or Women*
arybet$ and Joe $ave t$ree %$ildren* +$e t$ird' Jenni"er' dies s$ortly a"ter birt$ o" brain abs%esses and
meni&itis* Wit$in t#o mont$s' t$e ot$er t#o youn&sters are dead' too*
+$ey $ave more %$ildren* All are #ell %ared "or' beauti"ully %lot$erd' $ealt$y and t$rivin&* Oobody ever says
arybet$ mistreates $er )ids*
But as ea%$ baby dies' people start to tal)*
-omebody as)s $er #$y s$e )eeps $avin& %$ildren*
?Be%ause !4m a #oman' and t$at4s #$at #omen are supposed to do'@ s$e tells a #aitress at t$e suburban mall
restaurant #$ere t$ey bot$ #or)*
1,77
Joy%e K&&inton believes our la#s must %$an&e*
1,79
?+$ere4s no pla%e in t$e le&al system "or a #oman #$o
%ommits in"anti%ide* !t4s su%$ a motiveless %rime to produ%e a %$ild only to )ill it ; i" s$e4s in a normal state o"
mind 2Fe(%ept' o" %ourse' "or t$e li"e insuran%eG3*@
K&&inton #ould li)e to see states adopt somet$in& a)in to Ireat Britain4s in"anti%ide la#* !t says t$at "or a year
a"ter birt$' a #oman may not be #$olly rational in $er attitude to#ard $er baby* +$ose "ound &uilty re%eive stri%t
probation and psy%$iatri% %are*
Was$in&ton $as no in"anti%ide statuteH most people #$o )ill t$eir %$ildren are %$ar&ed #it$ se%ond-de&ree
murder*
A"ter $er %onvi%tion' a"ter turnin& do#n all press intervie#s' arybet$ +innin& a&reed to meet Joy%e K&&inton*
?-$e said' B0ou )no#' ! #at%$ed you in %ourt' and ! really li)ed you*4

@
1,79
?-$e #as very li)able*@
1,70
?+$en
s$e loo)ed me strai&$t in t$e eye and said' B0ou )no# ! didn4t do it*4

@
1,71
• • •
1,73
Kli.abet$ <$odes' Killin& $er o#nH t$e %ase o" arybet$ +innin& may "o%us more attention o" a taboo sub1e%t=
in"anti%ide' The Seattle Times' ,5 April 1999' p* B1*
1,7/
Op. cit.
1,75
Op. cit.
1,77
Op. cit.
1,77
Op. cit.
1,79
Op. cit.
1,79
Op. cit.
1,70
Op. cit.
1,71
Op. cit.
107
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
A suburban $ouse#i"e #$o %laimed an intruder stabbed $er t#o sons to deat$ be"ore slas$in& $er t$roat #as
%onvi%ted 2February 13 o" )illin& one o" t$e boys*
Carlie <outier' ,7' sobbed be"ore t$e verdi%t and %ontinued %ryin& a"ter#ard' insistin&' ?! did not )ill my
babies*@ Ler $usband and ot$er relatives' many #earin& s$irts #it$ pi%tures o" t$e boys' also #ept*
1,7,
2Erose%utors3 said s$e slas$ed $ersel" in an attempt to "ool poli%e*
1,73
• • •
A Britis$ nurse #as senten%ed to li"e imprisonment 2ay ,9' 1993'3 "or a series o" %$ild murders and maimin&s
t$at made $er Britain4s #orst "emale seriel )iller t$is %entury*
Beverley Allitt' ,/' #as %onvi%ted8o" murderin& "our in"ants in $er %are and attemptin& to )ill nine ot$ers*
1,7/
!n Britain' a ?li"e senten%e@ need not mean li"e in prison i" t$e person is re%ommended "or parole* Capital
punis$ment #as abolis$ed in t$e 1970s*
1,75
• • •
A Bron( #oman #as %$ar&ed #it$ murder 2ar%$ 303 a"ter ta)in& $er 5-year-old son ; $is small' bruised boy
already li"eless "rom #ee)s o" starvation and abuse ; to Union Lospital' %ity o""i%ials said* +$e #oman' Joy%elyn
Bennett' ,7' is a%%used o" )illin& $er son' Cayt#on' #$o #it$ "ive siblin&s $ad been in and out o" "oster %are "or
years*
1,77
“)a5ing a life is more important than following a work rule1
the state )upreme ,ourt ruled.”
.>;;
An Ameri%an %ouple brin&in& t$eir ne#ly adopted <ussian %$ildren ba%) to t$e United -tates #ere %$ar&ed
#it$ $ittin&' %$o)in& and s%reamin& at t$e t#o /-year-old &irls durin& t$e 10-$our "li&$t "rom os%o#*
1,79
?We love t$ese %$ildren'@ 2t$e adoptive "at$er'3 loo)in& da.ed and uns$aven' said a"ter bein& "reed* Le said $e
and $is #i"e #aited t#o years to adopt t$e &irls*
1,79
+$e 2adoptive parental unit3 "a%e2d3 a8%ourt date on %$ar&es o" assault' $arassment and endan&erin& t$e
#el"are o" a %$ild ; all punis$able by up to a year in 1ail*
1,90
?Apparently' t$e "li&$t attendants and passen&ers tried to intervene but #ere rebu""ed by t$e de"endents'@
2ary CeBourbon o" t$e Aueens Cistri%t Attorney4s J""i%e said3*
-ome outra&ed #itnesses missed %onne%tin& "li&$ts #$ile #aitin& to ma)e sure t$e %ouple #ere arrested and
t$e %$ildren sa"e' s$e said*
1,91
• • •
-tep$en L* Mor%e' 39' o" Bin&en' Was$*' is %$ar&ed #it$ 17 %ounts o" %onspira%y to se(ually abuse %$ildren*
A mistrial #as de%lared a"ter $is "irst trial in January*
Clatsop County Cistri%t Attorney Jos$ ar:uis said in openin& statements8t$at Mor%e met an under%over -an
Cie&o poli%e o""i%er on April 1' 199/' in a -easide motel' intendin& to abuse t$e o""i%er4s t$ree %$ildren*
But t$e %$ildren' t#o &irls 1, and 7' and a 9-year-old boy' #ere simply names made up "or t$e Jre&on -tate
Eoli%e stin& operation*
+$e %ase $in&es on #$et$er Mor%e #as entrapped by poli%e or #$et$er t$e state prevented %$ild abuse*
Mor%e responded to a personal ad pla%ed in t$e J%tober 1993 edition o" ?-li&$tly Kin)y'@ a se(ual "etis$
ma&a.ine*
1,7,
A%ross t$e nation' +e(as $ouse#i"e %onvi%ted o" )illin& 5-year-old son' The Seattle Times' , Feb 1997' 15F5G' p* A5*
1,73
Op. cit.
1,7/
WorldROe#s in Brie"' Ourse &ets li"e senten%e "or )illin& %$ild patients' The Seattle Times' ,9 ay 1993' p* A10*
1,75
Op. cit.
1,77
Oation D World' Oe# 0or) #oman %$ar&ed in son4s deat$' 7astside Journal' 31 ar%$ 1997' ,1F,,5G' p* A7*
1,77
The Associated Press' Criver4s a%tions up$eld= res%ue more pressin& t$an rules' %ourt says' Seattle Post-)ntelligencer0 5
April 1997' p* C1*
1,79
+om Lays FThe Associated PressG' Couple "lyin& adopted )ids to U*-* are 1ailed "or abuse' Seattle Post-)ntelligencer' 31
ay 1997' 13/F130G' p* A,*
1,79
Op. cit.
1,90
Op. cit.
1,91
Op. cit.
109
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$e ad said= ?-o%iety does not understand my needs or t$ose o" my %$ildren* >oo)in& "or a man #$o does*
Elease be dis%reet*@
Mor%e #rote 13 e(pli%it letters' in%ludin& detailed des%riptions o" #$at $e #anted to do #it$ t$e %$ildren'
durin& si( mont$s o" %orresponden%e #it$ t$e under%over o""i%er*
Mor%e4s la#yer' Jo$n Lenry Lin&son !!! o" Jre&on City' said t$e stin& operation #as entrapment*
1,9,
2Lin&son3 said Mor%e' #$o #as %onvi%ted o" murder in 199/ and served si( years in prison' $as no prior re%ord
o" se( %rimes*
1,93
• • •
Abuse may8o%%ur23 at su%$ an early a&e t$at t$e memory is lar&ely sensory and pre%o&nitive*
1,9/
?+$e
youn&est $omi%ide ! ever $ad #as only 5/ days old* +$at little &uy #as se(ually assaulted and murdered by $is
"at$er'@ 2stated Kin& County4s C$ie" edi%al !nvesti&ator' Jerry Webster3*
1,95
7nsured4
Erose%utors 2in Williamsport' EA'3 say Cavid Crist pus$ed $is dea" dau&$ter into tra""i%' $anded $is /-year-old
a $i&$-volta&e #ire and $ired $it men to )ill $is brot$er*
1,97
2Cavid Crist'38an ?abusive drin)er@
1,97
82a%%ordin& to $is #i"e4s mot$er'
1,99
3 %olle%ted 6133'000 "rom a li"e
insuran%e poli%y in $is brot$er4s 199, deat$ and stood to &ain 6,00'000 i" $is t#o dau&$ters $adn4t survived*
1,99
?Le $ad several poli%ies "rom several %ompanies on all o" $is )ids "rom pra%ti%ally t$e day t$ey #ere born'@
2someone %lose to t$e %ase3 said*
1,90
Aut$orities also reopened investi&ations into t$e deat$s o" Crist4s "at$er in 1997' $is mot$er4s "ian%e in 1977
and $is mot$er in 1991' alt$ou&$ no %$ar&es $ave resulted*
1,91
1,9,
The Associated Press' +rial be&ins "or man a%%used o" abusin& "i%titious %$ildren' Journal American' 1997*
1,93
Op. cit.
1,9/
Art$ur J* Felitti' Ami >a#s' D Kd#ard A* Wal)er' Women abused as %$ildren' Patient .are' 15 Oov 1993' ,7F19G' p*
179F9G*
1,95
-%ot Au&uston' A &uided tour= deat$ in -eattle' The Stranger' 1/ Au& 1997' 7F9G' p* 1,a*
1,97
Cave !vey FThe Associated PressG' Erose%utors say Ea* man tried to pro"it "rom deat$= &reed is %ited in attempts on lives
o" $is dau&$ters' #SA Today' 11 Oov 1997' 15F/1G' p* 11A*
1,97
Op. cit.
1,99
Op. cit.
1,99
Op. cit.
1,90
Op. cit.
1,91
Op. cit.
109
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+atient#s $ill of Rights
ost $ospitals &ive ne# arrivals a %opy o" t$e Eatient4s Bill o" <i&$ts* !t sets "ort$ &uidelines to t$e
relations$ip you s$ould $ave #it$ your do%tor and t$e $ospital* But t$at4s t$e t$eory* !n pra%ti%e' you $ave to
assert yoursel" to prote%t yoursel"*
1,9,
Con4t let do%tors $arm i" you %an $elp it*
1,93
• Find out #$o is in %$ar&e o" your stay ; "amily do%tor' sur&eon' intern' #$oever ; and &et $is or $er p$one
numbers and pa&er numbers* Just in %ase*
• a)e sure everyone understands t$at you #ant to )no# immediately about any %$an&es in your %ondition'
your treatment or your prospe%ts*
• Find out #$en your do%tor and sur&eon plan to visit' so you4re not nappin& #$en t$ey arrive*
• Con4t be a ?&ood patient@ #$o a%%epts pain and une(pe%ted medi%ines or pro%edures #it$out %omplaint*
Cru&s to relieve pain are your ri&$t* <e"usin& surprise treatments is your ri&$t* !t is your ri&$t to demand
t$at do%tors and $ealt$-%are #or)ers #as$ t$eir $ands be"ore tou%$in& you* FA%%ordin& to t$e Centers "or
Cisease Control and Erevention' in"e%tions )ill 19'000 $ospital patients a year*G !t is your ri&$t to "ire your
do%tor and $ire a ne# one*
1,9/
Jne out o" 10 Ameri%ans #ill be%ome a $ospital patient t$is year* ore t$an ever' patients need to )no# #$at
to e(pe%t and $o# to %ope #it$ it* +$e $ealt$-%are industry is in a period o" transition' and soarin& %osts $ave
"or%ed many $ospitals to lay o"" nurses and ot$er aides* ean#$ile' insuran%e %ompanies are %allin& "or "e#er
medi%al tests and s$orter $ospital stays*
1,95
Iet over t$e a#e in #$i%$ most people $old t$e medi%al pro"ession and be%ome a smart %onsumer*
1,97
?!t is
more and more important "or patients to be%ome t$eir o#n $ealt$ mana&ers ; partners #it$ t$eir do%tors'@ says Cr*
Ja%) >ord' a senior adviser to t$e Ameri%an Lospital Asso%iation* ?0ou must not be 1ust a potato in a bed t$at
people are doin& t$in&s to*@
1,97
Be"ore you &o into t$e $ospital=
1,99
• Iet a se%ond opinion*
2 1,993
• eet your sur&eon a$ead o" time= +a)e notes*
• Find out your $ospital4s su%%ess rate #it$ t$e pro%edure*
• Iive your anest$esiolo&ist your medi%al $istory*
• Cis%uss aller&i% rea%tions you4ve $ad ; in advan%e*
• Kno# #$o #ill be in %$ar&e o" your stay at every sta&e*
• Con4t si&n advan%ed dire%tives until you absolutely understand your treatment options*
• Ea%) a list o" p$one numbers you4ll #ant in an emer&en%y*
• Keep a%%urate re%ords' startin& #it$ your dia&nosis' in %ase o" a problem #it$ your billin& or insuran%e*
• Elan "or your re%overy &e-ore you &o in*
1300
•2<e:uest a si&ni"i%ant ot$er to be present at every sta&e*3
• • •
1,9,
Caryl -tern' Be"ore you &o into t$e $ospital' The Seattle Times:Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ Parade aga6ine' / ay
1997' p* 9*
1,93
!n"o C$ips' First' do no $arm' The Seattle Times' 17 Feb 1997' 15F7G' p* F1*
1,9/
Caryl -tern' Be"ore you &o into t$e $ospital' The Seattle Times:Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ Parade aga6ine' / ay
1997' p* 9*
1,95
)&idem' p* 7*
1,97
Op. cit.
1,97
Op. cit.
1,99
Op. cit.
1,99
About 13 per%ent o" t$e time #$en sur&eons remove a person4s appendi( "or presumed appendi%itis' t$e or&an appears
normal' a%%ordin& to a re%ent arti%le in Annals o" -ur&ery*
N -tuart I* ar%us Fspe%ial "or The Associated PressG' C+ s%an %an avoid unneeded sur&ery' 7astside Journal' ,3 June
1997' ,1F309G' p* C7*
1300
Caryl -tern' Be"ore you &o into t$e $ospital' The Seattle Times:Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ Parade aga6ine' / ay
1997' p* 7*
110
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
!n1ury is t$e Oo* 1 )iller o" Ameri%an %$ildren a&ed 1/ and youn&er* Ka%$ year' in "a%t' 7900 %$ildren in t$is
%ountry are )illed and 50'000 are permanently disabled as a result o" motor ve$i%le and bi)e %ras$es' dro#nin&s'
"ires' poisonin&s' "alls and ot$er mis$aps*
1301
+o in%rease a#areness o" #$at you %an do to prevent in1uries to your
%$ild and all %$ildren' t$e Oational -a"e Kids Campai&n named ay 10 to 19 ?Oational -a"e Kids Wee)*@
130,
• • •
+$e deat$ rate tripled at a $ospital4s intensive %are unit #$en a parti%ular nurse #as on duty' and poli%e are
usin& a detailed %omputer analysis to determine i" t$at4s more t$an a %oin%iden%e*
1303
Jrville >ynn a1ors #as
suspended last year a"ter t$e $opital "ound t$at t$e deat$ rate in t$e unit tripled #$en $e #as on duty*
130/
?! $ave to alle&e a patient #as )illed by a parti%ular person on a parti%ular date and %an4t 1ust say BLey' loo)'
t$is person #as present in 99*9 per%ent o" t$e deat$s4 and prose%ute $im' 2Mermillion County Erose%utor ar)
Ireen#ell3 said*
1305
• • •
An anest$esiolo&ist a%%used o" do.in& durin& an ill-"ated sur&ery on an 9-year-old boy #as %onvi%ted o"
ne&li&en%e82J%tober ,,3 but a mistrial #as de%lared on t$e more serious %$ar&e o" re%)less manslau&$ter*
1307
+$e
Colorado Board o" edi%al K(aminers revo)ed 2Cr* Josep$3 Mebru&&e4s li%ense in 199/ a"ter an administrative la#
1ud&e ruled t$e do%tor "ell asleep and "ailed to noti%e t$e boy4s distress* +$e operatin& room nurses testi"ied durin&
t$e trial t$at Merbru&&e nodded o""*
Merbru&&e admitted $e #as %on"ronted about sleepin& durin& ot$er sur&eries' but said $e #as a#a)e durin& t$e
boy4s operation*
1307
• • •
+$e state -upreme Court today t$re# out a re%all e""ort a&ainst -po)ane County Coronor Ce(ter Amend' #$o
$ad been a%%used o" violatin& medi%al %on"identially by publi%aly dis%ussin& autopsy results*
1309
+$e %$ar&es
stemmed "rom Amend4s dis%ussions #it$ reporters in Au&ust 1995 about results o" an autopsy on <a%$el Carver'
#$o #as beaten to deat$ by an un%le*
1309
+$e mot$er o" <a%$el Carver' a 9-year-old &irl #$o #as "ound murdered
at a par) in June 21995'3 said s$e #as $umiliated #$en Amend tal)ed publi%ally about $er dau&$ter4s autopsy
report*
1310
Amend dis%losed t$at t$e &irl previously $ad been sodomi.ed
1311
8"or a lon& period o" time'
131,
8alt$ou&$
se(ual abuse #as not a "a%tor in $er8deat$*
1313
Ler un%le' #$o $as been %$ar&ed #it$ t$e murder'8pleaded not
&uilty*
131/
+$e $i&$ %ourt a&reed #it$ Amend4s %ontention t$at $e $ad permission "rom t$e &irl4s natural "at$er to
dis%uss t$e autopsy results' in%ludin& se(ual abuse*
1315
1301
i%$ael J4-$ea' Earade4s &uide to better "itness' The Seattle Times:Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ Parade aga6ine' /
ay 1997' p* 11*
130,
Op. cit.
1303
The Associated Press' Ourse "a%es probe over $ospital4s $i&$ deat$ rate' Seattle Post-)ntelligencer' Ce% 1997' 133F303G'
p* A,3*
130/
Op. cit.
1305
Op. cit.
1307
The Associated Press' Jury %onvi%ts do.in& do%tor o" a misdemeanor in "atal sur&ery' Seattle Post-)ntelligencer' ,3 J%t
1997' 133F,55G' p* A/*
1307
Op. cit.
1309
The Associated Press' Court )ills %oroner re%all e""ortH -po)ane do%tor bro)e no la#s' rulin& says' The Seattle Times' 1/
ar%$ 1997' p* B7*
1309
Op. cit.
1310
Carol * Jstrom' Coroner stirs up %ontroversy in -po)ane CountyH anti-&ay "o%us dra#s suits' re%all try' The Seattle
Times' 11 ar%$ 1997' p* A1*
1311
The Associated Press' Court )ills %oroner re%all e""ortH -po)ane do%tor bro)e no la#s' rulin& says' The Seattle Times' 1/
ar%$ 1997' p* B7*
131,
Carol * Jstrom' Coroner stirs up %ontroversy in -po)ane CountyH anti-&ay "o%us dra#s suits' re%all try' The Seattle
Times' 11 ar%$ 1997' p* A1*
1313
The Associated Press' Court )ills %oroner re%all e""ortH -po)ane do%tor bro)e no la#s' rulin& says' The Seattle Times' 1/
ar%$ 1997' p* B7*
131/
Carol * Jstrom' Coroner stirs up %ontroversy in -po)ane CountyH anti-&ay "o%us dra#s suits' re%all try' The Seattle
Times' 11 ar%$ 1997' p* A1*
111
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
?!" Ce(ter Amend is anyt$in&' $e4s a person #$o is #or)in& $is butt o"" to do t$in&s ri&$t' but $e tal)s too
mu%$* Le #ears $is $eart on $is sleeve'@ 2Commissioner E$il3 Larris says*
1317
?+$e only t$in& t$at man #ants to do is save lives ; $is Lippo%rati% oat$ meant more to $im t$an any ot$er
t$in&s* FLe #antsG to save lives' espe%ially little %$ildren'@ 2retired Cat$oli%-s%$ool tea%$er Jim3 ertens says*
1317
But some lo%al observers say t$e trouble #it$ 2$omop$obi%3 Amend &oes beyond an apparent problem #it$
$omose(uality to in%lude $is pro"essionalism*
Criti%s say Amend leaps to %on%lusions about deat$s' based on pre1udi%es* A re%ent t#o-mont$ investi&ation by
t$e -po)esman-<evie# ne#spaper %on%luded $e too o"ten doesn4t order autopsies #$en $e s$ould' dia&nosin&
some deat$s as ?al%o$oli% "atty liver@ even t$ou&$ e(perts say su%$ a dia&nosis re:uires an autopsy*
-ome say $e also orders inappropriate autopsies*
1319
1315
The Associated Press' Court )ills %oroner re%all e""ortH -po)ane do%tor bro)e no la#s' rulin& says' The Seattle Times' 1/
ar%$ 1997' p* B7*
1317
Carol * Jstrom' Coroner stirs up %ontroversy in -po)ane CountyH anti-&ay "o%us dra#s suits' re%all try' The Seattle
Times' 11 ar%$ 1997' p* A1*
1317
Op. cit.
1319
Op. cit.
11,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+rison )u!ks
W$at to do #it$ an old pair o" snea)ersP Just toss t$em out * * * or tie t$e la%es to&et$er and toss t$em over a
telep$one #ireP
As t$e millennium approa%$es and many Ameri%ans remain preo%%upied #it$ #orld pea%e' t$e inte&rity o"
politi%al leaders and t$e $i&$ %ost o" edu%ation' ot$ers are loo)in& s)y#ard' into t$e #orn soles o" $i&$-tops'
lo#-%uts and %ross-trainers t$at $ave been $un& out to die*
And t$ey are #onderin& #$y*
!n small to#ns and %ities all a%ross t$e United -tates' used s$oes dan&le over $i&$#ays' streets and %ountry
roads li)e "ootnotes to personal $istories' bot$ testament and tribute to t$e #ear and tear in li"e* !n some areas' a
p$one or po#er line t$at $as not been "estooned #it$ at least one pair o" old snea)ers is an open invitation*
1319
+$e pra%ti%e o" strin&in& s$oes "rom over$ead utility #ires is a pop %ulture p$enomenon t$at $as been noted "or
years around t$e %ountry but remains little understood*
-ure' t$eories $ave been advan%ed* A%%ordin& to re"eren%es in various ne#spapers and ma&a.ines' drapin&
over$ead #ires #it$ #orn snea)ers is a #ay &an&s mar) territories' memoriali.e a "allen %omrade or simply
torment someone*
aybe* And maybe s$oe-tossin& $as deep so%ial si&ni"i%an%e a%ross all so%ial strata* And maybe t$e
pra%titioners obey an in"ormal %ode t$at &overns #$ose s$oes &et tossed' #$ere t$ey are strun& up' even $o# one
s$oe is )notted to its mate*
And t$ere may be pre"erred slin&in& te%$ni:ues' attendant rituals and even a sub%ultural vernna%ular asso%iated
#it$ t$e a%tivity*
13,0
+$e "a%t is' #$en it %omes to slin&in& s$oes over #ires' no one seems to )no# $o# it started' #$at it means or
#$ere it is $eaded* +ry to e(plore s$oe-tossin&' by surveyin& some o" t$e nation4s leadin& %ultural ant$ropolo&ists
and "ol)lorists' and t$e mystery only deepens*
13,1
2F! le"t mine $an&in& "or "riends*G3
2is!arded +eople
!n an e(periment by E$ilip I* Timbardo and $is asso%iates F2Timbardo' E* I*' Laney' C*' and Ban)s' W* C* 1973* A
Eirandellian prison* The New 9or' Times aga6ine' April 9' 1973H
13,,
Laney' C*' Ban)s' C*' and Timbardo' E* I* 1973* !nterpersonal
dynami%s in a simulated prison* )nternational Journal o- .rime and Penology' 1=79-97
13,3
3G
13,/
8to investi&ate t$e
%onse:uen%es o" bein& a prisoner or a prison &uard' t$e resear%$ers %onverted t$e basement o" t$e -tan"ord
University psy%$olo&y buildin& into a mo%) prison* -ome seventy-"ive male student volunteers #ere &iven
intensive %lini%al intervie#s and personality tests' and t#enty-one #ere sele%ted "or t$eir maturity and stability*
About $al" o" t$ese #ere assi&ned at random to serve as ?&uards'@ $al" to serve as ?inmates*@ +o en$an%e t$e
realism o" t$e e(periment' t$e prisoners #ere une(pe%tedly pi%)ed up at t$eir $omes by %ity poli%e in a s:uad %ar*
Ka%$ sub1e%t #as %$ar&ed #it$ a "elony' told o" $is Constitutional ri&$ts'
2 13,53
spread-ea&led a&ainst t$e %ar' and
sear%$ed' $and%u""ed' and delivered to t$e station "or "in&erprintin& and preparation o" an in"ormation "ile*
At t$e mo%) prison t$e men #ere stripped na)ed' s)in-sear%$ed' sprayed "or li%e' issued a uni"orm' beddin&'
soap' and to#el' and pla%ed in a 7- by 9-"oot barred %ell #it$ t#o ot$er ?%onvi%ts*@ +$e prisoners #ere re:uired to
obtain permission "rom t$e &uards to per"orm routine a%tivities su%$ as #ritin& letters' smo)in& a %i&arette' or usin&
t$e toilet*
?Iuards@ #or)ed on t$ree ei&$t-$our s$i"ts and #ent $ome #$en t$ey #ere not on duty* +$ey #ere instru%ted
not to use p$ysi%al violen%e' alt$ou&$ t$ey #ere &iven %onsiderable latitude to improvise and develop strate&ies "or
maintainin& ?la# and order@ in t$e prison* +$ey #ore )$a)i uni"orms and %arried billy %lubs' #$istles' and
$and%u""s as symbols o" po#er*
Jver a si(-day period' a ?perverted@ symbioti% relations$ip developed* As t$e &uards be%ame more a&&ressive'
t$e prisoners be%ame more passive* +$e &uards4 assertion led to t$e prisoners4 dependen%y' t$e &uards4
sel"-a&&randi.ement to t$e prisoners4 sel"-depre%iation' and t$e &uards4 aut$ority to t$e prisoners4 $elplessness*
1319
ile Clary Fspe%ial to t$e !os Angeles TimesG' -nea)ers on telep$one lines= "ootnotes to somebody4s li"e' The Seattle
Times' 17 Feb 1997' 15F7G' p* >7*
13,0
Op. cit.
13,1
Op. cit.
13,,
James W* Mander Tanden' Social Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= <andom Louse' !n%*' 1991G' p* /79*
13,3
)&idem' p* /70*
13,/
)&idem' p* ,73*
13,5
+$e %ourt4s 1977 rulin& in iranda vs* Ari.ona 2Firanda v* Ari6ona' 39/ U*-* /37 F1977GG3 and later de%isions re:uire
poli%e :uestionin& to stop #$en %riminal suspe%ts invo)e t$eir ri&$t to $ave a la#yer4s $elp' and bar t$e poli%e "rom
initiatin& any subse:uent interro&ation*
N >aurie Asseo FThe Associated PressG' urder-%ase rulin& re"ines meanin& o" iranda de%ision' The Seattle Times' ,/
June 199/' p* A7*
113
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$e &uards4 sense o" mastery and %ontrol #as inversely related to t$e $opelessness and depression amon& t$e
prisoners*
As t$e &uards "ell into t$eir roles' t$ey be%ame in%reasin&ly aut$oritarian* +$ey made t$e prisoners obey petty'
meanin&less' and even in%onsistent rules* +$ey "or%ed t$e prisoners to underta)e tedious and useless #or)*
13,7

+$ey made t$e prisoners sin& son&s' lau&$' or re"rain "rom smilin& on %ommand* +$ey re&ularly %alled prisoners
out o" t$eir %ells and %ounted t$em' and t$ey en%oura&ed t$e prisoners to %urse and vili"y one anot$er publi%ly
durin& some o" t$e %ounts* Jne &uard said later=
! #as surprised at mysel"* * * * ! made t$em %all ea%$ ot$er names and %lean t$e toilets out #it$ t$eir bare
$ands* ! pra%ti%ally %onsidered t$e prisoners %attle' and ! )ept t$in)in&= ! $ave to #at%$ out "or t$em in %ase
t$ey try somet$in&* F2Timbardo' E* I*' Laney' C*' and Ban)s' W* C* 1973* A Eirandellian prison* the New 9or' Times
aga6ine' April 9' 1973
13,7
3= /,G
13,9
2+$e prisoners3 be%ame resi&ned to t$eir "ate and be$aved in #ays t$at $elped 1usti"y t$eir de$umani.in&
treatment* +ape-re%orded private %onversations amon& t$em revealed t$at 95 per%ent o" t$e evaluative statements
prisoners made about one anot$er #ere un%omplimentary* Alt$ou&$ t$e e(periment $ad been or&ani.ed to run "or
t#o #ee)s' it $ad to be dis%ontinued a"ter only si( days in order to prevent permanent psy%$i% dama&e to t$e
sub1e%ts* Four o" t$e ten prisoners $ad to be released #it$in t$e "irst "ive days as a result o" "its o" ra&e' %ryin&'
a%ute an(iety' and symptoms o" severe depression* A "i"t$ $ad to be released #$en $e developed a psy%$osomati%
ras$ all over $is body* Alt$ou&$ t$e prisoners #ere pleased #$en t$e e(periment #as terminated' t$e &uards #ere
relu%tant to &ive up t$eir positions o" po#er*
+$e study revealed t$at normal' $ealt$y' edu%ated %olle&e men %an be radi%ally trans"ormed under t$e
institutional pressures o" a prison environment* Lad psy%$iatrists dia&nosed t$e &uards a"ter observin& t$eir
be$avior' t$e men #ould undoubtedly $ave been labeled ?psy%$opat$i%'@ #$ile t$e prisoners #ould $ave been
dia&nosed as su""erin& "rom %$ara%ter de"e%ts and personality malad1ustment* 0et t$e bi.arre so%ial and personal
rea%tions o" t$e sub1e%ts %annot be attributed to pree(istin& personality di""eren%es or pat$olo&ies' sin%e su%$
"a%tors #ere eliminated by t$e %are"ul sele%tion pro%esses and t$e random assi&nment*
13,9
W$at #ould ot$er#ise
$ave been termed ?pat$olo&i%al@ be$avior be%ame ?appropriate@ be$avior in t$e prison*
1330
• • •
Be$avioral pro&rams t$at %on%entrate23 on tea%$in& 1ob s)ills and re#ardin& proso%ial attitudes %ut rearrest
rates to about 35 per%ent*
1331
A tea%$er at +$ur&ood ars$all Klementary -%$ool $as been pla%ed on paid leave #$ile t$e -eattle
-%$ool Cistri%t investi&ates alle&ations t$at $e punis$ed t#o "ourt$-&rade boys by lo%)in& t$em in a
%$ain-lin) en%losure*
133,
?-%ared strai&$t@ and boot %amp pro&rams' on t$e ot$er $and' tended to in%rease re%idivism sli&$tly*
1333
• • •
Land%u""s le"t bruises on 2an individual4s3 #rists* A body sear%$ made $er "eel violated* W$en poli%e tossed
$er in 1ail #it$ suspe%ted murderers' dru& users and se( %riminals' s$e trembled in "ear*
Ler %rimeP
Wal)in& a#ay "rom an outdoor bea%$ bar #it$ a %o%)tail in $er $and*
Eoli%e $auled 2$er3 and do.ens o" ot$ers to 1ail "or t$e same o""ense durin& Ja%)sonville Bea%$4s annual
bea%$-openin& %elebration earlier t$is mont$*
2+$e individuals3 snared in t$e bea%$4s ?.ero-toleran%e@ poli%y to#ard publi% drin)in& spent a ni&$t in 1ail and
#ere "ined 6100 ea%$*
?+$e prisoners #ere t$e most $umane people in t$is #$ole ordeal'@ 2t$e individual3 says*
13,7
James W* Mander Tanden' Social Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= <andom Louse' !n%*' 1991G' pp* ,73-,7/*
13,7
)&idem' p* /79*
13,9
)&idem' p* ,7/*
13,9
Op. cit.
1330
Op. cit.
1331
W* Wayt Iibbs' -ee)in& t$e %riminal element' Scienti-ic American/ ysteries o- the ind' -pe%ial KditionR1997' 7F1G'
p* 10/*
133,
Brie"s' +ea%$er put on leave over alle&ed lo%)-up o" t#o boys' Seattle Post-)ntelligencer' 31 ay 1997' 13/F130G' p*
A3*
1333
W* Wayt Iibbs' -ee)in& t$e %riminal element' Scienti-ic American/ ysteries o- the ind' -pe%ial KditionR1997' 7F1G'
p* 10/*
11/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
!n t$e past' poli%e used #arnin&s and ti%)ets'8but t$eir e""orts #ere mostly unsu%%ess"ul* -o t$is year' t$ey4re
bustin& people*
?We #ant people to %ome to Ja%)sonville Bea%$ and $ave a &ood time'@8says 2t$e Ja%)sonville Bea%$' Florida'
poli%e %$ie"
133/
3*
2+$e individual'3 a "inan%ial-servi%es and ta( e(pert' #as en1oyin& t$e end o" a lon& ta( season ay 3 #$en s$e
and $er boy"riend #ent to 2a bar3*
?2+$e bar3 #as loud and %ro#ded' so #e stepped o"" t$e patio'@ s$e said*
+$ey #al)ed over to a nearby ben%$ and #erre tal)in& :uietly #$en poli%e %ame over and as)ed t$em i" t$e
drin)s8belon&ed to t$em*
W$en t$ey said yes' t$ey #ere arrested' $and%u""ed and ta)en to t$e Ja%)sonville Bea%$ Eoli%e Cepartment and
later transported to t$e Cuval County Jail*
A 1ail matron #it$ rubber &loves e(amine 2$er3 breasts and rea%$ed into $er pants to ma)e sure s$e #asn4t
%arryin& #eapons or dru&s*
?+$ey said ! %ouldn4t )eep my bra be%ause it #as a potential #eapon'@ s$e says* -$e #as "ro%ed to dress in
prison under#ear and put on prison %lot$es* -$e #as p$oto&rap$ed and "in&erprinted*
A"ter t$e pro%essin&' s$e #as t$ro#n in #it$ t$e &eneral prison population*
?! #as s%ared and terri"ied'@ 2s$e3 says*
1335
?We spent nearly 19 $orri"yin&' $umiliatin& $ours t$rou&$ t$is
ordeal'@ s$e says* ?Jn%e t$e $and%u""s #ere on us' #e #nt "rom bein& $uman bein&s to $ardened %riminals*@
1337
2Anot$er #oman3 #as #indin& up $er Florida va%ation #$en s$e #as arrested outside t$e same bar*
?!t #as e(tremely loud' so #e moved a "e# "eet a#ay'@ t$e ,9-year-old8#oman said* +$at4s #$en poli%e
arrested $er and a "riend*
Ler 1ail e(perien%es #ere similar to 2t$e ot$er4s'3 but as a result o" $er arrest' 2s$e3 missed $er plane and #as
"or%ed to pay "or $er rental %ar and8room "or an e(tra day*
?!t4s a bad e(perien%e* ! am never %omin& ba%) $ere'@ s$e says* ?!t #as li)e #e #ere %ommon %riminals*@
1337
“)heriff arns 0ff %ourists”
.33H
A Florida s$eri""4s #arnin&s on national +M a&ainst va%ationin& in t$e state %reated a publi% relations $eada%$e
"or tourism o""i%ials*
1339
any visitors usually %ome "rom Britain ; #$ere $eadlines s%reamed= ?-ee Florida at 0our
Eeril FsaysG Eoli%e Boss*@
13/0
About 300 rapists' robbers and ot$er 2violent
13/1
3 "elons #ere "reed8be%ause o" a U*-* -upreme Court de%ision
t$at restored ?&ain time@ ; time o"" t$at t$e state &ranted to prisoners to relieve over%ro#din&* +#o $undred more
prisoners #ill probably be released 2ar%$ 17' 1997'3 and an additional ,',00 #ill &o "ree early in t$e %omin&
mont$s and years*
13/,
2Iovernor >a#ton3 C$iles said'8?We release ,0'000 prisoners ea%$ year*@
13/3
• • •
Contendin& t$at Ari.ona and i%$i&an "ailed to prote%t "emale inmates "rom rape and se(ual assault by prison
&uards and sta"" members' t$e Justi%e Cepartment "iled la#suits8in t$e Federal Cistri%t Courts in E$oeni( and
Cetroit a&ainst t$e states*
13//
?Oo one s$ould be e(posed to t$e ris) o" se(ual assault under any %ir%umstan%es'@
said !sabelle Kat. Ein.ler' a%tin& assistant attorney &eneral "or %ivil ri&$ts*
13/5
i%$i&an re"used to allo# Justi%e Cepartment investi&ators a%%ess to its prisons and #ould not ne&otiate to
resolve t$e %omplaints' t$e department said*
133/
<on Word FThe Associated PressG' Woman spends "ear"ul ni&$t in 1ail "or #al)in& o"" #it$ a drin)' The Seattle Times'
,9 June 1997' 15F,7G' p* A5*
1335
Op. cit.
1337
Op. cit.
1337
Op. cit.
1339
The Associated Press' Florida s$eri"" #arns o"" tourists' The Seattle Times' 15 ar%$ 1997' p* A,*
1339
Newsday' -$eri""4s #arnin& %reates a Florida tourism sna"u' The Seattle Times' / ay 1997' 15F19G' p* K13*
13/0
Op. cit.
13/1
Op. cit.
13/,
Op. cit.
13/3
Op. cit.
13//
The Associated Press' Federal la#suit says t#o states "ailed to prote%t "emale inmates' The New 9or' Times' 11 ar%$
1997' CQ>M! F50' 7,9G' p* A10*
13/5
Op. cit.
115
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Ari.ona re"used to allo# department la#yers to intervie# prison sta"" members and prisoners about t$e
%omplaints' and e(tensive ne&otiations bet#een t$e t#o parties "ailed to produ%e a resolutions' t$e department
said*
13/7
• • •
A "ormer FB! $ead:uarters mana&er #as a%%used 2J%tober ,,3 o" obstru%tin& 1usti%e by destroyin& all tra%es o"
an internal %riti:ue o" t$e bureau4s deadly 199, sie&e at <uby <id&e' !da$o*
+$e apparent plea bar&ain #it$ i%$ael Ka$oe mi&$t lead to %over-up %$ar&es a&ainst some o" t$e "our ot$er
suspended FB! o""i%ials #$o remain under investi&ation "or t$eir role in t$e s$ootin&s*
13/7
+$ese in%lude "ormer
Ceputy Cire%tor >arry Eotts' #$o supervised t$e %ase "rom $ead:uarters*
13/9
Curin& t$e FB!4s Au&ust 199, stando"" #it$ 2<andy3 Weaver' a bureau sniper s$ot and )illed Weaver4s #i"e'
Mi%)i' and #ounded Weaver and a "riend' Kevin Larris* +$e FB! &ot involved a"ter Weaver4s son' -amuel' and a
deputy U*-* mars$al' William Ce&an' #ere )illed in &un"ire Au&* ,1 as mars$als s%outed "or a #ay to arrest t$e
elder Weaver "or "ailin& to appear in %ourt on &un-sale %$ar&es*
13/9
At <uby <id&e' t$ere #as one &uy in a %abin on top o" t$e mountain* Was it ne%essary to "or "ederal
a&ents to &o up t$ere' s$oot a 1/-year old in t$e ba%) and s$oot a #oman #it$ a %$ild in $er armsP W$at
)ind o" mentality does t$atP W$en #ill t$e a&ents o" t$e FB! say' ?Wait a se%ond\ ! don4t #ant to s$oot
people ; #e %an #ait t$em out' be%ause eventually t$ey4re &oin& to $ave to &o to t$e mar)etP@
1350
+$e &overnment %$ar&ed t$at bet#een January and April 1993' Ka$oe destroyed a #ritten FB! ?a"ter a%tion
%riti:ue@ so t$at it #ould not be available to prose%utors #$en Weaver and Larris #ere tried on %$ar&es o" )illin&
Ce&an* +$ey #ere later a%:uitted*
+$e Constitution re:uires prose%utors to &ive t$e de"ense any &overnment in"ormation t$at mi&$t $elp %lear
de"endants ; in t$is %ase' Weaver and Larris*
+$e &overnment %$ar&ed t$at Ka$oe not only destroyed $is %opies o" t$e report but ordered an unidenti"ied
subordinate at FB! $ead:uarters ?to destroy all %opies o" t$e <uby <id&e a"ter a%tion %riti:ue and to ma)e it appear
as i" t$e <uby <id&e a"ter a%tion %riti:ue never e(isted*@
A )ey issue is #$o approved t$e ?s$oot on si&$t@ poli%y "or snipers at t$e sie&e*
1351
“7t#s a hard kno!k life1 for us. 7t#s a hard kno!k life1 for M)N”
.39>
!" money-$un&ry states are #illin& to routinely send 15-year-olds to adult %ourt and entertain t$e possibility o"
doin& t$e same to 13-year-olds' Con&ress #ill divvy up a bi& pot o" %as$*
Finan%ial in%entives are "undamental to &ettin& states to &o alon& #it$ t$e Juvenile Crime Control A%t o" 1997'
#$i%$ $as passed t$e Louse and is no# in t$e -enate*
+$is is mean-spirited le&islation t$at essentially says to $ell #it$ re$abilitation and %rime prevention' and 1ust
%omes do#n $ard on yout$"ul o""enders*
Unt$in)able "ear is t$e primary motivator* >a#ma)ers see a demo&rap$i% bul&e o" teens %omin& in t$e ne(t si(
years ; 5, million sons and dau&$ters o" t$e baby boom &eneration ; and t$ey translate into a %rime #ave &ainin&
stren&t$ on t$e $ori.on*
!nstead o" investin& in prevention and early intervention to $elp )ids #$o $ave a brus$ #it$ t$e la#' t$e
le&islation ta)es a#ay 1udi%ial dis%retion on %ourt 1urisdi%tion' senten%in&' and in some %ases' $ousin& o" youn&
%riminals #it$ adults*
-tates t$at %ra%) do#n #ould s$are 61*5 billion in blo%) &rants t$at %ould be spent on 1ails and prisons' $irin&
prose%utors' and establis$in& in"ormation net#or)s to tra%) youn& %riminals*
A nasty impatien%e is redi"inin& and narro#in& t$e o""i%ial vie# o" %$ild$ood* Advo%ates "or spendin& money
to )eep teens in s%$ool' monitor and supervise t$e troublema)ers8are bein& i&nored*
1353
13/7
Op. cit.
13/7
i%$ael J* -ni""en FThe Associated PressG' Cover-up a%%usations in <uby <id&e %ase' Seattle Post-)ntelligencer' ,3 J%t
1997' 133F,55G' p* A3*
13/9
Op. cit.
13/9
Op. cit.
1350
Clint Kast#ood' Absolute po#er' The Seattle Times D Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ Parade' 1, Jan 1997' p* 5*
1351
i%$ael J* -ni""en FThe Associated PressG' Cover-up a%%usations in <uby <id&e %ase' Seattle Post-)ntelligencer' ,3 J%t
1997' 133F,55G' p* A3*
135,
Oli(er
1353
Kditorials' Con&ress tries bribery to %$an&e so%ial poli%y' The Seattle Times' 19 ay 1997' 15F,0G' p* B7*
117
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Adults %onvi%ted o" a&&ravated "irst-de&ree murder "a%e only t#o penalties= e(e%ution or li"e in prison
#it$out possibility o" parole*
135/
Con&ress is tryin& to ma)e a brutis$' one-si.e-doesn4t-"it-anyone le&islation more attra%tive #it$ money* !t4s
lousy publi% poli%y*
1355
• • •
2!n 1979'3 Eresident Oi(on $a2d3 re%ommended tou&$er-t$an-ever penalties and a %ontroversial ne# ?no-)no%)@
la# under #$i%$ nar%oti%s a&ents %an obtain a sear%$ #arrant and t$en burst into a suspe%t4s apartment #it$out
#arnin&' t$rou&$ ?outer or inner door or #indo#*@
1357
2And in 197, a Ces oines 1ud&e predi%ted'
1357
3 ?! %an see a
day in t$e not-too-distant "uture #$en' as 1ud&es pass senten%es' t$ere #ill be private vendors t$ere' biddin& "or
prisoners*@
1359
135/
The Associated Press' Earents say >ou)aitis #as troubled lon& be"ore )illin&s at s%$ool' Journal American' ,7 -ep
1997' p* A7*
1355
Op. cit.
1357
Forum Oe#s"ront' Play&oy' Ce% 1979' 17F1,G' p* 7,*
1357
Iary Fields' Erivati.ed prisons pose problems= not a pana%ea' states dis%over' despite savin&s' #SA Today' 11 Oov
1997' 15F/1G' p* 3A*
1359
Op. cit.
117
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+ri5atized +risons
Erivately run prisons are one o" t$e nation4s ne#est &ro#t$ industries*
1359
?Ero"it motive is &oin& to &uide
privati.ation'@ says +$omas Blomber&' a %riminolo&ist at Florida -tate University*
1370
Corre%tions Corporation o" Ameri%a' "or instan%e' not only provides su%$ private prisons' it provides a
subsidiary ; +ransCor Ameri%a !n%* ; #it$ 100 ve$i%les t$at #ill transport inmates* >ast year' +ransCor earned
610*7 million*
1371
2Fu&itive Jne +ransport Co*
137,
3 $ad one van and a "our-door %ar and #ere doin& ?&reat'@ 2Josep$
A*3 Ja%)son said' earnin&' in $is estimation' %lose to a million dollars over a t$ree-year period* But in 1995 a
"emale inmate 2Arnold L* Faul$aber and Ja%)son3 #ere transportin& "rom Conne%ti%ut to Callas a%%used bot$ men
o" se(ually assaultin& $er*
1373
+$e %ompany $as sin%e "olded and bot$ men are no# a#aitin& trial in onmout$
County' O*J*' on multiple %ounts o" se(ual assault*
137/
?+$e best %arrier #e4ve used is t$e U*-* ars$al4s -ervi%e'@
said Eerrin Camon' spo)esman "or t$e Jre&on Cepartment o" Corre%tions*
1375
+$e number o" inmates in U*-* prisons
2 13773
$as &ro#n "rom 500'000 in 1990 to 1*7 million today*
1377
Bet#een
1991 and 1995 t$e number o" inmates in -tate and Federal prison in%reased 37V' "rom 79,'535 to 1'079'5/5
prisoners*
1379
<elative to t$e number o" adults in t$e U*-* population' t$e prison population rose "rom /19 per
100'000 adult residents in 1991 to 550 per 100'000 in 1995*
1379
!" t$e annual 9V annual &ro#t$ trend %ontinues'
t$ere #ill be 3*1 million inmates by ,007*
1370
An estimated 5*1V o" all persons in t$e United -tates #ill be %on"ined in a -tate or Federal prison durin& t$eir
li"etime*
1371
At %urrent levels o" in%ar%eration a bla%) male in t$e United -tates today $as &reater t$an a 1 in /
%$an%e o" &oin& to prison durin& $is li"etime' #$ile a Lispani% male $as a 1 in 7 %$an%e and a #$ite male $as a 1 in
,3 %$an%e o" servin& time*
137,
!nmates senten%ed "or a dru& o""ense $ave a%%ounted "or in%reasin& per%enta&es o" t$e state and "ederal prison
populations*
1373
-tates $ave t$eir o#n senten%in& la#s "or dru& %rimes prose%uted in state %ourts' but prose%utors
are ta)in& ever-in%reasin& numbers o" dru& %ases to "ederal %ourt be%ause sti""er senten%es are available*
137/

J""enders in "ederal prisons are almost t$ree times as li)ely as state prisoners to be in%ar%erated "or a dru& o""ense'
a%%ordin& to a Cepartment o" Justi%e study released 2J%tober ,' 199/3*
1375
1359
Op. cit.
1370
Op. cit.
1371
Josep$ +* Lallinan FNewhouse News Ser(iceG' ovin& %onvi%ts= %ostly' dan&erous and %ommonH Bmom-and-pop4 "irms
provide some inmate transport' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1997' 15F,3G' p* A15*
137,
Op. cit.
1373
Op. cit.
137/
Op. cit.
1375
Op. cit.
1377
W$y li"etime estimates e(%lude admissions to lo%al 1ails2=3
Jails are lo%ally operated %orre%tional "a%ilities t$at %on"ine persons be"ore and a"ter ad1udi%ation* Unli)e prisons' 1ails
admit persons #it$ senten%es o" a year or less* Jails also $old a #ide variety o" %ate&ories o" inmates ; in%ludin& t$ose
persons a#aitin& arrai&nment or trialH t$ose #it$ senten%es o" more t$an a year and a#aitin& trans"er to -tate or Federal
"a%ilitiesH and t$ose temporarily detained' under prote%tive %ustody' or a#aitin& trans"er to appropriate $ealt$ "a%ilities*8
• !n 1993' #$en t$e most re%ent Census o" >o%al Jails #as %ondu%ted' t$e annual number o" ne# admissions to
lo%al 1ails totaled 9*9 million ; nearly 30 times t$e number o" ne# %ourt %ommitments to -tate and Federal prison
durin& t$at year* F-ee Jails and Jail !nmates 1993-9/' OCJ-151751' April 1995*G +$e %ensus did not %olle%t any
data on t$e number o" persons admitted to 1ail "or t$e "irst time*
N U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' -pe%ial report= li"etime li)eli$ood o"
&oin& to state or "ederal prison Far%$ 1997G' 30 April 1997' $ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRas%iiRll&s"p*t(t*
1377
Iary Fields' Erivati.ed prisons pose problems= not a pana%ea' states dis%over' despite savin&s' #SA Today' 11 Oov
1997' 15F/1G' p* 3A*
1379
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' -pe%ial report= li"etime li)eli$ood o"
&oin& to state or "ederal prison Far%$ 1997G' 30 April 1997' $ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRas%iiRll&s"p*t(t*
1379
Op. cit.
1370
Op. cit.
1371
Op. cit.
137,
Op. cit.
1373
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' Comparin& Federal and -tate prison
inmates' 1991' 10R,R9/= ost "ederal prisoners are dru& o""enders' but almost $al" o" state prisoners are servin& time "or
violent %rimes' 30 April 1997' $ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRpressR%"aspi91*pr*
137/
The Associated Press' -upreme Court #on4t revie# %o%aine senten%in&' San "rancisco .hronicle' 15 April 1997'
133F77G' p* A,*
1375
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' Comparin& Federal and -tate prison
inmates' 1991' 10R,R9/= ost "ederal prisoners are dru& o""enders' but almost $al" o" state prisoners are servin& time "or
violent %rimes' 30 April 1997' $ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRpressR%"aspi91*pr*
119
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
ost 2F70*19V
1377
FApril 30GG3 "ederal prisoners are dru& o""enders*
1377
+#o-t$irds o" all "ederal prisoners and
one-"i"t$ o" state inmates are in%ar%erated on dru&-related %rimes*
1379
Bureau o" Erisons data "or 199/ indi%ate dru&
o""enders 2#ere3 about 7, per%ent o" all senten%ed "ederal inmatesH
1379
82in%reasin& "rom3 71V8in 1993'
1390
8
259V in 1991'
1391
3 39V in 1997 and ,5V in 1990*
139,
Cru& o""enders made up almost a t$ird o" t$e 97,',00 "elons %onvi%ted in state %ourts durin& 199/' t$e Justi%e
Cepartment announ%ed 2January 1,3* Eroperty %rimes a%%ounted "or anot$er t$ird and violent %rimes "or about a
"i"t$*
1393
Cru& o""enders %omprised a t$ird o" all persons %onvi%ted o" a "elony in -tate %ourts in 1990* Cru&
tra""i%)ers a%%ounted "or ,0V o" all %onvi%ted "elonsH dru& possessors also a%%ounted "or 13V o" all %onvi%ted
"elons*
139/
Cru& o""enders #ere89 per%ent o" state o""enders in 1997' %ompared to8,1 per%ent 2F9V #ere
senten%ed "or dru& possession and 13V #ere senten%ed "or dru& tra""i%)in&G
1395' 1397
3 in
1397
81991*
1399
J" -tate prisoners in 1991'8#omen #ere more li)ely to be in%ar%erated "or a dru& o""ense t$an men F33V
versus ,1VG*
1399
Eeople in t$eir t#enties %omprised about ,0 per%ent o" t$e adult population in t$e United -tates
2in 199/3 but /3 per%ent o" t$e state %onvi%ted "elons* Lal" o" t$e %onvi%ted state "elons #ere ,9 years old or
older*
1390
Federal inmates in &eneral #ere older' better edu%ated and "rom a more stable "amily ba%)&round t$an
#ere state inmates*
1391
• • •
?!nvariably #e see t$e #orst o" t$e #orst o" ot$er states4 inmates bein& dumped into private "a%ilities #it$ no
)no#led&e on t$e part o" our state &overnment'@ 2said Allan Eoluns)y F+e(as Board o" Criminal Justi%eG3*
139,
A
soon-to-be publis$ed study "or t$e Oational !nstitute o" Justi%e and anot$er released last "all by t$e Campai&n "or an
K""e%tive Crime Eoli%y "ound t$at mandatory ,5-year-to-li"e senten%es "or t$ree-time "elons
1393
8rounded up lots o"
%roo)s'
139/
82but3 o" t$e ,'750 "elons sent a#ay "or ,5 to li"e t$rou&$ Ce%ember' 95V #ere "or non-violent
1377
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRFederal Bureau o" ErisonsRJ""i%e o" <esear%$ and Kvaluation' 30 April 1997'
$ttp=RR###*bop*&ovR"a%ts*$tml[J""ense*
1377
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' Comparin& Federal and -tate prison
inmates' 1991' 10R,R9/= ost "ederal prisoners are dru& o""enders' but almost $al" o" state prisoners are servin& time "or
violent %rimes' 30 April 1997' $ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRpressR%"aspi91*pr*
1379
indy Cameron' <e%ent turbulen%e #on4t t$ro# dru& %.ar o"" %ourse' The Seattle Times' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G' p* B7*
1379
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' Comparin& Federal and -tate prison
inmates' 1991' 10R,R9/= ost "ederal prisoners are dru& o""enders' but almost $al" o" state prisoners are servin& time "or
violent %rimes' 30 April 1997' $ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRpressR%"aspi91*pr*
1390
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' Cru&s and Crime Fa%ts 199/ FJune
1995G' 30 April 1997' $ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRas%iiRd%"a%ts*t(t*
1391
Op. cit.
139,
Op. cit.
1393
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' Felony -enten%es in -tate Courts'
199/' 1R1,R97= Almost a t$ird o" all %onvi%ted -tate "elons #ere senten%ed "or dru& tra""i%)in& or possession' 30 April 1997'
$ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRpressR"ss%9/*pr*
139/
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' Cru&s and Crime Fa%ts 199/ FJune
1995G' 30 April 1997' $ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRas%iiRd%"a%ts*t(t*
1395
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' Comparin& Federal and -tate prison
inmates' 1991' 10R,R9/= ost "ederal prisoners are dru& o""enders' but almost $al" o" state prisoners are servin& time "or
violent %rimes' 30 April 1997' $ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRpressR%"aspi91*pr*
1397
Op. cit.
1397
Op. cit.
1399
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' Cru&s and Crime Fa%ts 199/ FJune
1995G' 30 April 1997' $ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRas%iiRd%"a%ts*t(t*
1399
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' Comparin& Federal and -tate prison
inmates' 1991' 10R,R9/= ost "ederal prisoners are dru& o""enders' but almost $al" o" state prisoners are servin& time "or
violent %rimes' 30 April 1997' $ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRpressR%"aspi91*pr*
1390
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' Felony -enten%es in -tate Courts'
199/' 1R1,R97= Almost a t$ird o" all %onvi%ted -tate "elons #ere senten%ed "or dru& tra""i%)in& or possession' 30 April 1997'
$ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRpressR"ss%9/*pr*
1391
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' Comparin& Federal and -tate prison
inmates' 1991' 10R,R9/= ost "ederal prisoners are dru& o""enders' but almost $al" o" state prisoners are servin& time "or
violent %rimes' 30 April 1997' $ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRpressR%"aspi91*pr*
139,
Iary Fields' Erivati.ed prisons pose problems= not a pana%ea' states dis%over' despite savin&s' #SA Today' 11 Oov
1997' 15F/1G' p* 3A*
1393
Cavid a..arela FKditorG' Miolent %rime do#n' no t$an)s to t$ree stri)es' #SA Today' ,/ Feb 1997' 15F113G' p* 10A*
139/
Op. cit.
119
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
%rimes*
1395
+$e load is so $eavy t$at 1ud&es needin& room on t$eir do%)ets and in prison and 1ail are $andin& out
minimum senten%es to ot$er "elons #$o4ve %ommitted #orse %rimes t$an t$ree stri)ers' a%%ordin& to resear%$ers at
t$e <and !nstitute' #$i%$ also is investi&atin& t$ree-stri)es la#s*
1397
-tates #it$ t$ree-stri)es la#s82in%lude3 Ar)ansas' Cali"ornia' Colorado' Conne%ti%ut' Florida'
Ieor&ia' !ndiana' >ouisiana' aryland' ontana' Oevada' Oe# Jersey' Oe# e(i%o' Oort$ Carolina'
Eennsylvania' -out$ Carolina' +ennessee' Uta$' Mermont' Mir&inia' Wis%onsin and Was$in&ton*
1397
ari1uana possession #as "our times as li)ely to lead to a t$ird stri)e as murder' rape and )idnappin&
%ombined*
1399
And t$e pri%e ta& is $u&e* +$ree stri)es #ill add ,5'000 additional prisoners by ,001 at a %ost o"
61 billion a year* +$ree-stri)es %ases also are addin& 6300 million annually in %ourt and ot$er %osts*
1399
• • •
+$e -upreme Court steered %lear 2April 1/' 1997'3 o" t$e national debate over t$e diverse senten%in& la#s "or
%ra%) and po#dered %o%aine' an issue #it$ ra%ial and %lass overtones*
1/00
+$e %ourt' #it$out %omment' re1e%ted an
appeal t$at %$allen&ed as ra%ially dis%riminatory "ederal senten%in& la#s t$at punis$ %ra%) %o%aine o""enders more
$ars$ly t$an people %au&$t #it$ po#dered %o%aine*
1/01
Crime statisti%s indi%ate t$at %ra%) is an inner-%ity dru& and %o%aine po#der is used more o"ten in t$e
suburbs*
1/0,
+$e appeal noted t$at it ta)es 100 times more %o%aine po#der t$an %ra%) to dra# t$e same 10-year
minimum senten%e "or dru& tra""i%)in&*
1/03
Kvery "ederal appeals %ourt t$at $as studied su%$ a %$allen&e $as re1e%ted it' but t$e U*-* -enten%in&
Commission "avors ma)in& t$e penalties t$e same "or bot$ )inds o" %o%aine*
Attorney Ieneral Janet <eno opposes su%$ a move' sayin& t$at prison senten%es must re"le%t t$e ?$ars$ and
terrible impa%t@ o" %ra%) on U*-* %ommunities*
1/0/
“0ff with her headN”
.E/9
+$e -upreme Court seems to be relyin& t$ese days more on Alice in 8onderland t$an on t$e Bill o" <i&$ts as
pre%edent "or %riminal 1usti%e de%isions* !n its most re%ent tras$in& o" %onstitutional prote%tions' a ma1ority o" t$e
$i&$ %ourt ruled t$at an arrested de"endant ; even one #it$out a re%ord o" violen%e ; %an be sent to 1ail &e-ore $e is
even tried* +$is reversal o" our presumption o" inno%en%e is reminis%ent o" a dialo& bet#een >e#is Carroll4s Ali%e
and t$e Aueen=
?+$ere4s t$e Kin&4s essen&er' $e4s in prison no#' bein& punis$edH and t$e trial doesn4t even be&in
till ne(t WednesdayH and o" %ourse t$e %rime %omes last o" all*@
?-uppose $e never %ommits t$e %rimeP@ as)ed Ali%e*
?+$at #ould be all t$e better' #ouldn4t itP t$e Aueen responded* * * *
Ali%e "elt t$ere #as no denyin& t$at* ?J" %ourse it #ould be all t$e better'@ s$e saidH ?but it #ouldn4t
be all t$e better $is bein& punis$ed*@
?0ou4re #ron& * * *@ said t$e Aueen* ?Were you ever punis$edP@
?Jnly "or "aults'@ said Ali%e*
?And you #ere all t$e better "or it' ! )no#\@ t$e Aueen said triump$antly*
?0es' but t$en ! $ad done t$e t$in&s ! #as punis$ed "or'@ said Ali%e* ?+$at ma)es all t$e di""eren%e*@
?But i" you $adn4t done t$em'@ t$e Aueen said' ?t$at #ould $ave been better stillH better' and better'
and better\@ Ler voi%e #ent $i&$er #it$ ea%$ ?better'@ till it &ot :uite to a s:uea)* * * *
Ali%e t$ou&$t' ?+$ere4s a mista)e $ere some#$ere* * * *@
1395
Op. cit.
1397
Cavid a..arela FKditorG' Miolent %rime do#n' no t$an)s to t$ree stri)es' #SA Today' ,/ Feb 1997' 15F113G' p* 10A*
1397
Campai&n "or an K""e%tive Crime Eoli%y' A loo) at t$e states' #SA Today' ,/ Feb 1997' 15F113G' p* 10A*
1399
Cavid a..arela FKditorG' Miolent %rime do#n' no t$an)s to t$ree stri)es' #SA Today' ,/ Feb 1997' 15F113G' p* 10A*
1399
Op. cit.
1/00
The Associated Press' -upreme Court #on4t revie# %o%aine senten%in&' San "rancisco .hronicle' 15 April 1997'
133F77G' p* A,*
1/01
Op. cit.
1/0,
Op. cit.
1/03
Op. cit.
1/0/
Op. cit.
1/05
>e#is Caroll' Alice in 8onderland*
1,0
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$ere are several mista)es in t$e Aueen4s lo&i% and in t$e -upreme Court4s de%ision* +$e "irst lies in t$e
belie" t$at 1ud&es are %apable o" predi%tin& #$i%$ arrested suspe%ts are li)ely to %ommit "uture %rimes*
1/07
!"82t$e $i&$ %ourt3 is %orre%t in assurin& us t$at 1ud&es %an predi%t #$o #ill be dan&erous' t$en #$at is to
prevent t$e ena%tment o" le&islation aut$ori.in& preventative detention o" ?dan&erous@ people #$o $ave not yet
been a%%used o" any %rime* ! %an $ear t$e la#-and-order dema&o&ues invo)in& t$e old proberbs about ?A stit%$ in
time@ and ?An oun%e o" prevention*@ 0ears a&o %artoonist Walt Kelly $ad a $ound do& s$eri"" #$o #ould s$out
?Aui%)' put Bem in 1ail &e-ore t$ey do somet$in&\@
1/07
Cespite its Alice in 8onderland :uality' t$e -upreme Court4s de%ision #ill probably prove :uite popular #it$ a
publi% t$at is "ri&$tened o" %rime and impatient #it$ %onstitutional sa"e&uards* +$e publi% identi"ies "ar more
%losely #it$ t$e potential vi%tims o" %rime t$an #it$ potential vi%tims o" in1usti%e*
1/09
Oo sin&le -upreme Court de%ision %an %reate a poli%e state in Ameri%a* But i" t$e %urrent trend %ontinues' #e
#ill $ave ta)en a dan&erous step in t$e dire%tion o" Alice in 8onderland 1usti%e' #$ere t$e senten%e %omes "irst and
trial ; i" it is $eld at all ; is an a"tert$ou&$t*
1/09
• • •
Bot$ Eresident 2<onald3 <ea&an and Mi%e Eresident 2Ieor&e3 Bus$ $ave %laimed partisan %redit "or t$e
#el%ome redu%tion in %rime t$at t$e United -tates $a2d3 e(perien%ed*
1/10
2An3 FB! report do%uments an overall
redu%tion o" 7 per%ent in serious %rimes and 5 per%ent in violent %rimes in 1993* +$ese statisti%s re"le%t only %rimes
a%tually reported 2Femp$asis addedG3 to t$e poli%e' and are sub1e%t ; as are most statisti%s ; to a de&ree o" politi%al
manipulation* Anot$er &overnment report $as s$o#n an in%rease in t$e same year t$e FB! report s$o#s a
de%rease*
1/11
2Former a%tor and3 Eresident <ea&an en1oyed $is role as ra%onteur*
1/1,' 2 1/133
Ameri%ans 2also3 e(perien%ed si&ni"i%antly "e#er 2reported3 violent %rimes in 1995 t$an in 199/' #it$
2reported3 rates "or su%$ a%ts as rape' robbery and assault do#n by 1,*/ per%ent' t$e Justi%e Cepartment said
2April 133*
+$e broadest de%line $appened in t$e suburbs' #$ere %rime rates dropped in all areas o" personal vi%timi.ation
e(%ept rape and se(ual assault*
1/1/
Attorney Ieneral Janet <eno said t$e "i&ures %ontinued a do#n#ard trend in violent %rime t$at $as been
re"le%ted in every year o" t$e Clinton administration*
1/15
Ereliminary "i&ures #ere released in -eptember' and
Clinton boasted t$em durin& $is presidential re-ele%tion %ampai&n*
1/17
+$e president and t$e rest o" t$e "ederal &overnment $as little to do #it$ su%$ %rimes as murder' robbery' rape
and t$e ot$er stats t$e FB! tra%)s*
1/17
!" t$ere are more poli%e on t$e street' it isn4t due to bold tal) "rom Eresident
Clinton or Janet <eno*
1/19
<epubli%ans said %rime "i&ures remain mu%$ too $i&$* And some e(perts said t$e
administration is reapin& t$e bene"it o" a baby boomer &eneration mello#in& #it$ a&e*
1/19
Marious a%ademi% %riminolo&ists $ave peered at t$e statisti%s' stirred t$e numbers and sent do#n t$ese
e(planations=
• A"ter a period o" turbulen%e and disarray in t$e dope trade' t$e street &an&s $ave )illed or "ri&$tened o""
t$eir %ompetitors' t$e dru& trades and territories $ave been stabili.ed' and t$ere is less need "or may$em*
!n ot$er #ords' t$e "ree-mar)et system and %ompetition $as brou&$t about a so%ial &ood*
1/,0
1/07
Alan Cers$o#it. FEro"essor o" >a#' Larvard >a# -%$ool F1999GG' Alice in 8onderland repla%es %onstitution F, June
1997G' Ta'ing !i&erties/ A Decade o- $ard .ases0 1ad !aws0 and 1um Raps F!llinois= Contemporary Boo)s' !n%*' 1999G'
pp* ,79-,79*
1/07
)&idem' pp* ,79-,70*
1/09
)&idem' p* ,70*
1/09
Op. cit.
1/10
Alan Cers$o#it. FEro"essor o" >a#' Larvard >a# -%$ool F1999GG' W$o &ets %redit "or redu%in& %rimeP F,3 J%t 199/G'
Ta'ing !i&erties/ A Decade o- $ard .ases0 1ad !aws0 and 1um Raps F!llinois= Contemporary Boo)s' !n%*' 1999G' p* /9*
1/11
Op. cit.
1/1,
Eeter Fun)' !t pays to enri%$ your Word Eo#er]' Reader;s Digest' June 1997' 1/9F990G' p* ,0*
1/13
<onald <ea&an #as %$ara%teri.ed as a storyteller in a so%iolo&y %lass' !ntrodu%tion to Cevian%e' at t$e University o"
Was$in&ton*
1/1/
Cassandra Burrell FThe Associated PressG' Miolent %rime drops s$arply a%ross t$e U*-*H rates "or rape' robbery' assault
do#n 1,*/ per%ent' San "rancisco .hronicle' 1/ April 1997' 133F75G' p* A,*
1/15
Op. cit.
1/17
Op. cit.
1/17
i)e <oy)o FThe .hicago Tri&uneG' Erisons are unpopular' espe%ially to %riminals' The Seattle Times' 10 Jan 1997' p*
B5*
1/19
Op. cit.
1/19
Op. cit.
1/,0
Op. cit.
1,1
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
• Be%ause o" a past drop in t$e birt$ rate' t$ere are "e#er youn& males roamin& t$e streets' #$i%$ translates
into "e#er %riminals and "e#er vi%tims*
1/,1
• Alle&edly stri%ter &un la#s $ave ta)en many #eapons o"" t$e streets' so #e4re less li)ely to be s$ot* J"
%ourse'8#$ere t$e la# permits8$onest %iti.ens to %arry %on%ealed #eapons' some #ill ar&ue t$at t$e
%rime rate $as dropped t$ere be%ause %riminals "ear t$at potential vi%tims mi&$t blo# t$em a#ay*
1/,,
hen 7t 7s :ot Right %o $ear -rms
2A %on&ressional la# passed in -eptember
1/,3
3 bars anyone ever %onvi%ted o" misdemeanor domesti% abuse "rom
le&ally o#nin& or %arryin& "irearms*
1/,/
+$e domesti% abuse &un ban #as initiated by -en* Fran) >autenber&'
C-O*J*' as a #ay to %lose a loop$ole in t$e Iun Control A%t o" 1979*
W$ile t$e 1979 la# automati%ally barred %onvi%ted "elons "rom le&ally o#nin& "irearms' most states %onsidered
domesti% abuse o""enses involvin& p$ysi%al violen%e or t$e t$reatened use o" a deadly #eapon less-serious
misdemeanors*
1/,5
Cops %onvi%ted o" abuse even be"ore t$ey be%ame poli%e o""i%ers #ould be "or%ed to &ive up t$eir #eapons*
1/,7
?We do re%eive a lot o" %alls "rom spouses o" la# en"or%ement o""i%ers and t$ey are very relu%tant to &et
$elp'@ says Iail Jones' e(e%utive dire%tor o" t$e Cali"ornia-based advo%a%y &roup Women Ks%apin& a
Miolent Knvironment*
Jones says &ettin& t$ose #omen to %ome "or#ard is di""i%ult be%ause t$ey "ear a spouse4s %o-#or)ers are
&oin& to prote%t a "ello# o""i%er and ma)e t$e %ase even more di""i%ult to prose%ute*
?+$ese #omen are bein& t$reatened by t$e very "a%t t$at t$ese men are violent'@ says Jones* ?+$ey
$ave bad tempers and t$ey $ave #eapons and t$ey )no# $o# to use t$e #eapons*@
1/,7
+$e Oational Asso%iation o" Eoli%e C$ie"s says t$2e3 number 2o" a""e%ted o""i%ers3 %ould rea%$ 70'000*
1/,9
Jim Eas%o' e(e%utive dire%tor o" t$e Fraternal Jrder o" Eoli%e' says t$e real issue is not t$e be$avior o" o""i%ers
today' but #$et$er it is "air to punis$ o""i%ers "or t$eir past*
?We don4t #ant to leave anybody #it$ t$e impression t$at t$ere are si&ni"i%ant numbers o" poli%e o""i%ers out
t$ere #$o $ave $abitually %ommitted %rimes o" domesti% violen%e'@ says Eas%o* ?+$e s%reenin& pro%ess is so
strin&ent at t$is point' a poli%e o""i%er #$o #as &uilty o" $abitual domesti% violen%e #ould probably not &et $ired or
not be retained*@
1/,9
-ome %ops $ave even #or)ed t$eir #ay around t$e la# by simply $avin& t$eir re%ords #iped %lean*
!n innesota' "or e(ample' a state %ourt &ranted a re:uest by "our inneapolis poli%e o""i%ers to $ave
misdemeanor domesti% abuse %onvi%tions erased "rom t$eir re%ords* A "i"t$ o""i%er is in t$e pro%ess o"
doin& so*
innesota Assistant Attorney Ieneral Je"" >ebo#s)i says t$e o""i%ers ar&ued t$at at t$e time t$ey made
t$eir &uilty pleas' t$ey $ad no #ay o" )no#in& t$e a%tion #ould one day endan&er t$eir 1obs*
?Clearly t$is is not #$at Con&ress $ad in mind #$en it passed t$e la#' t$at people #ould be loo)in& "or
loop$oles'@ says 2Cavid3 Beatty' 2president
1/30
3 o" t$e Oational Mi%tim Center* ?+o &o ba%) and e(pun&e re%ords is
pretty repre$ensible*@
1/31
• • •
A ne# %on&ressional study based on data "rom t$e "ederal Bureau o" Al%o$ol' +oba%%o and Firearms s$o#s t$at
"our -out$ern states #it$ #ea) &un %ontrol la#s are responsible "or supplyin& a lar&e per%enta&e o" t$e &uns used
in %rimes in ot$er states*
1/3,
2<epresentative C$arles -%$umer' C-O*0*'
1/33
3 said t$e report #as ?t$e "irst study t$at
1/,1
Op. cit.
1/,,
Op. cit.
1/,3
Iary Fields' Comesti% abuse &un la# is disarmin& %ops' #SA Today' 5 ar%$ 1997' 15F1,0G' p* 10A*
1/,/
Op. cit.
1/,5
Op. cit.
1/,7
Op. cit.
1/,7
Op. cit.
1/,9
Op. cit.
1/,9
Op. cit.
1/30
Op. cit.
1/31
Op. cit.
1/3,
The New 9or' Times' Crime lin) to / states in t$e -out$H #ea) &un %ontrols %ited in report' San "rancisco .hronicle' 9
April 1997' 133F71G' p* A5*
1/33
Op. cit.
1,,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
s$o#s %on%lusively t$at &un %ontrol #or)s "or t$e simple reason t$at states #it$ #ea) &un %ontrol la#s are
e(portin& &uns to states #it$ tou&$ &un %ontrol la#s*@
1/3/
+$e number o" li%ensed &un dealers $as dropped 57 per%ent in t$e past t$ree years' t$e result o" tou&$er
li%ensin& re:uirements' $i&$er appli%ations "ees and more inspe%tions' t$e +reasury Cepartment says*
1/35
+$e ne#
poli%ies #eeded out many people #$o #ere able to obtain li%enses even t$ou&$ t$ey didn4t operate le&itimate &un
stores* -ome o" t$ese dealers #ould resell t$e &uns to or&ani.ed %rime &roups and ot$er %riminals' said 2+reasury
underse%retary "or en"or%ement <aymond3 Kelly*
?From t$eir )it%$ens or &ara&es or #$atever' t$ey #ould re%eive par%el-post s$ipments o" &uns dire%tly "rom
arms manu"a%turers and t$en resell t$e &uns o"ten in %omplete disre&ard "or lo%al la#s and ordinan%es'@ Kelly
said*
1/37
• • •
Under t$e
1/37
8"ederal Brady A%t' #$i%$ impose2s3 "ive-day #aitin& periods on prospe%tive &un buyers and
re:uire2s3 t$e nation4s lo%al la#-en"or%ement o""i%ers to run ba%)&round %$e%)s on t$em'
1/39
8lo%al o""i%ials8are
re:uired to ma)e a ?reasonable e""ort@ to determine i" t$e buyer is pro$ibited "rom &ettin& a &un* +$ose barred
in%lude "elons' ille&al immi&rants' people #$o are dis$onorably dis%$ar&ed "rom t$e military and t$e mentally
ill*
1/39
• • •
A8219793 %ourt de%ision &ives +e(ans #it$ un"ait$"ul #ives8reason to polis$ up t$eir mar)smans$ip* Under
state la#' it is not murder to )ill anot$er man i" you %at%$ $im in bed #it$ your #i"e ; but it is murder to )ill your
#i"e also* !n a %ase de%ided by t$e Court o" Criminal Appeals' t$e de"endant ; #$o s$ot bot$ $is #i"e and t$e ot$er
man ; %laimed $e #as inno%ent o" murder sin%e $e $ad been s$ootin& only at t$e male o""ender and $ad $it $is #i"e
by a%%ident* !n up$oldin& $is %onvi%tion' t$e %ourt ruled ; in e""e%t ; t$at an aven&in& $usband $ad to8pla%e $is
s$ot #it$ e(treme %are*
1//0
1/3/
Op. cit.
1/35
Karen Iullo FThe Associated PressG' +ou&$ rules mean "e#er &un dealers' The Seattle Times' 30 Jan 1997' p* A/*
1/37
Op. cit.
1/37
Jan Cra#"ord Ireenbur& F.hicago Tri&uneG' Justi%es to $ear %$allen&e to &un la#H -upreme Court #ill de%ide i" bill
ille&ally "or%es Federal obli%ations on lo%al a&en%ies' The Seattle Times' , Ce% 1997' p* A3*
1/39
Op. cit0
1/39
Op. cit0
1//0
Forum Oe#s"ront' Play&oy' Ce% 1979' 17F1,G' p* 7,*
1,3
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
,hi5alrous4
Kni&$ts in t$e days o" yore #ould embar) on dan&erous adventures simply to impress t$eir intended ladies' and
it4s a "air bet t$at mu%$ modern ma%$ismo still stems "rom t$e same motivation* +$e idea t$at male animals
per"orm ris)y stunts or evolve en%umberin& de%orations simply to s$o# o"" t$eir %ool $as divided biolo&ists*
1//1
Jean-Iuy J* Iodin o" ount Allison University in Oe# Bruns#i%) and >ee Alan Cu&at)in o" t$e University o"
>ouisville studied "irst $o# male +rinidadian &uppies t$at vary in t$e amount o" oran&e %oloration on t$eir bellies
respond to predator "is$' bot$ #$en possible mates #ere present and #$en t$ey #ere absent* +$e resear%$ers t$en
loo)ed at #$at )ind o" male be$avior tempted t$e "emales to &et a%:uainted later* +$e results' reported in t$e
Proceedings o- the National Academy o- Sciences8$ave an un%om"ortably "amiliar rin& to anyone #$o $as &one
t$rou&$ puberty*
Flas$ily %olored males #ere "ar more li)ely to ma)e %lose approa%$es to inspe%t a8predator t$an #ere drab
males
1//,
82but3 #ere also more :ui%) to turn and "lee*
1//3
any t$eorists no# a&ree t$at evolution %an in prin%iple
produ%e $andi%aps' as biolo&ists %all displays t$at impress be%ause t$ey are dan&erous to t$eir o#ner*
1///
ore intri&uin& #as t$at t$e "las$y males maintained t$eir bravado #$en "emales #ere around' t$us apparently
losin& out on t$e %$an%e to stri)e up a relations$ip* Crab males' in %ontrast' #ould )eep t$eir distan%e "rom a
predator in order to stay %lose to an appealin& "emale*
1//5
Females t$at $ad #at%$ed displays o" derrin&-do
pre"erred to spend time subse:uently #it$ studs t$at "earlessly approa%$ed t$e predator t$an #it$ mil:uestoasts*
1//7

A s$o#-o"" male really must be $ealt$y to survive' and so t$e impressed "emales demonstrate t$eir interest*
1//7
!n #$at is probably t$e "irst meti%ulous study o" se(ual $arassment in "is$' resear%$ers $ave "ound t$at "emale
&uppies are so pla&ued by un#anted male se(ual advan%es ; appro(imately one ?snea)y matin& attempt@ per
minute ; t$at t$eir "eedin& is seriously in$ibited*
Be$avioral e%olo&ist Anne a&urran o" t$e University o" -t* Andre#s in Fi"e' -%otland' and $er %ollea&ue
Benoni -e&$ers o" J("ord $ave been studyin& #ild &uppies "or several years* ?!t4s :uite obvious t$at "emales are
not interested in se( most o" t$e time'@ says a&urran* Female &uppies usually respond to male overtures only i"
t$ey are vir&ins or i" t$ey $ave 1ust &iven birt$*
1//9
A male' on t$e ot$er $and' spends appro(imately $al" its time attemptin& to mate' eit$er politely' by per"ormin&
a ritual display' or rudely' by t$rustin& its &onopodium ; a modi"ied anal "in analo&ous to t$e mammalian penis ;
to#ard a "emale4s &enital pore*
1//9
Wit$ males present' t$e amount o" time t$e "emale 2Poecilia reticulata
1/50
3
spent "eedin& dropped by one-"ourt$ ; primarily be%ause t$ey $ad to stop eatin& and s#im a#ay in order to evade a
barra&e o" matin& attempts* Oo "emales #ere seen respondin& to a male4s advan%es*
W$y do males adopt t$is strate&y in t$e "a%e o" su%$ $ostilityP Female &uppies are %$oosy about t$eir mates'
and a lot o" males are t$e sort #$o never &et %$osen* ?-o obviously it4s to t$eir advanta&e i" t$ey %an "ind a "emale
#$o4s busy doin& somet$in& else' and sort o" snea) up be$ind $er'@ a&urran says*
1/51
As to #$y "emales never
respond a&&ressively' s$e says' ?! don4t )no# t$e ans#er to t$at* +$ey are bi&&er t$an males' so it #ouldn4t be
surprisin& i" t$ey did o%%asionally bite ba%)* But t$ey don4t* Eer$aps it4s more e""i%ient in t$e lon& term 1ust to
move some#$ere else*@
1/5,
• • •
!n many spe%ies' males "i&$t "or $i&$ so%ial status* !" so%ial %ompetition "or $i&$ ran) is indeed t$e produ%t o"
se(ual sele%tion' t$en t$ere s$ould be a positive %orrelation bet#een bein& a ?top do&@ in a dominan%e $ierar%$y
and %opulatory su%%ess*
1/53
+$e evolutionary vie# on personality "o%uses %losely on matin&*
1/5/
From t$is
vie#point' matin& is #$at li"e4s all about Falt$ou&$ ot$er issues do arise #$en you t$in) about t$e %omple(ities
t$at are involved in matin&G*
1/55
1//1
+im Beardsley in Was$in&ton' C*C*' Fear and "e%undity= deat$-de"yin& &uppy stunts ; 1ust to da..le t$e "emales'
Scienti-ic American0 Ce% 1997' ,75F7G' p* 37*
1//,
Op. cit.
1//3
Op. cit.
1///
Op. cit.
1//5
Op. cit.
1//7
Op. cit.
1//7
Op. cit.
1//9
Brea)t$rou&$s' Iuppies t$at don4t &et it' Disco(er' July 1995' 17F7G' p* ,/*
1//9
Op. cit.
1/50
Op. cit.
1/51
Op. cit.
1/5,
Op. cit.
1/53
Jo$n Al%o%)' Animal 1eha(ior/ An 7(olutionary Approach' 5t$ ed* Fass= -inauer Asso%iates' !n%*' 1993G' p* /07*
1/5/
C$arles -* Carver D i%$ael F* -%$eier' Perspecti(es on Personality' 3rd ed* FBoston= Allyn D Ba%on' 1997G' p* 150*
1/55
Op. cit.
1,/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
ost males are so%iali.ed early into believin& t$at a%tions are more important t$an "eelin&s and t$at t$ey must
%ompete in everyt$in& t$ey do to ?#in@ or %ome out on top* +$is intense male %ompetition may pervade nearly
every area o" en%ounter amon& men' in%ludin& sports' #or)' se(' and %onversation* !t ma)es intimate relations$ips
amon& men most unli)ely F2Fasteau' * F* F197/G* The male machine* Oe# 0or)= <andom LouseH
1/57
Komarovs)y' * F197/G*
Eatterns o" sel"-dis%losure in male under&raduates* Journal o- arriage and the "amily' 37' 777-797H
1/57
>#eis' <* A* F1979G*
Kmotional intima%y amon& men* Journal o- Social )ssues' 3/F1G' 109-1,1H
1/59
J4Oeil' J* * F199,G* Iender role %on"li%t and strain in
men4s lives= !mpli%ations "or psy%$iatrists' psy%$olo&ists' and ot$er $uman servi%e providers* !n K* -olomon D O* B* >evy FKds*G' en
in transition/ .hanging male roles0 theory0 and therapy Fpp* 5-//G* Oe# 0or)= ElenumH
1/59
Ele%)' J* L* F1977aG* y male se( role
and ours* !n C* Cavid D <* Brannon FKds*G' The -orty-nine percent ma4ority Fpp* ,53-,7/G* <eadin&' ass*= Addison-WesleyH
1/70

+o#nsend' <* C* F1977G* +$e %ompetitive male as loser* !n A* -ar&ent FKd*G' 1eyond se% roles Fp* ,,9-,/,G* -t* Eaul= West
1/71
3G*
1/7,
An even more important "a%tor t$an %ompetitiveness in in$ibitin& male "riends$ips is t$e stron& messa&e most
boys re%ive to supress "eelin&s and' parti%ularly' to suppress t$e disclosure o" "eelin&s* +$us' ma(ims su%$ as ?Bi&
boys don4t %ry'@ ?Keep a sti"" upper lip'@ and ?+a)e it li)e a man@ all pressure boys to )eep t$eir "eelin&s $idden*
!" boys do not $ide t$eir emotions' t$ey are li)ely to su""er mar)ed loss o" presti&e Fsu%$ as #$en Kdmund us)ie4s
publi% opinion ratin&s dropped a"ter $e s$ed a "e# tears durin& t$e 197, Eresidential primaryG' to be li)ed less' and
to $ave di""i%ulty assumin& t$e %ompetitive role so%iety $as set out "or t$em*
1/73
atin& involves %ompetition* ales %ompete #it$ one anot$er' as do "emales' but #$at4s bein& %ompeted "or
di""ers bet#en t$e se(es*
1/7/
W$at do men and #omen a%tually do to %ompete "or matesP
1/75
en bra& about t$eir
a%%omplis$ments and earnin& potential' display e(pensive possessions' and "le( t$eir mus%les* Women en$an%e
t$eir beauty t$rou&$ ma)eup' 1e#elry' and $airstyles* Women also play $ard to &et* +$is strate&y seems intended
to in%ite #idespread interest amon& many males' permittin& t$e #omen to be %$oosy on%e %andidates $ave been
identi"ied 2FBuss' C* * F1999G* +$e evolution o" $uman intrase(ual %ompetition= +a%ti%s o" mate attra%tion* Journal o- Personality
and Social Psychology' 5/' 717-7,9H
1/77
see also Kenri%)' d* +*' -adalla' K* K*' Irot$' I*' D +rost' * <* F1990G* Kvolution' traits' and
t$e sta&es o" $uman %ourts$ip= Auali"yin& t$e parental investment model* Journal o- Personality' 59' 97-117
1/77
G3*
1/79
?Burn B+$e
<ules'4

@ 2-usan Bradley' <*O*'3 said* ?!4ve met so many people #$o #ouldn4t be in relations$ips i" t$e #oman
$adn4t &iven a &uy an indi%ation s$e #as interested*@
1/79
“&ey1 is e5ery'ody ready to flirt4”
.E;/
+o test t$e e(pe%tation t$at men #ill e($ibit stron& mate %$oi%e #$en it %omes to sele%tin& a #i"e' Cou&las
Kenri%) and $is %ollea&ues :uestioned %olle&e students about #$at t$eir absolute minimum re:uirement #ould be
#it$ respe%t to t$e intelli&en%e o" persons #it$ #$om t$ey #ould $ave di""erent )inds o" se(ual relations$ips* Bot$
men and #omen $ad similar standards #it$ respe%t to a potential date' but #$ereas #omen $ad $i&$er standards
"or a one-ni&$t se(ual relations$ip F#$i%$ %arried no ot$er %ommitmentG t$an "or a date' men lo#ered t$eir
re:uirements "or su%$ an intera%tion* W$en it %ame to sele%tin& potential spouses' on%e a&ain men and #omen $ad
similar pre"eren%es' and ones t$at #ere $i&$er t$an "or any ot$er %ate&ory o" se(ual relations$ip' as t$ey bot$
desired marria&e partners o" #ell-above-avera&e intelli&en%e 2FKenri%)' C* +*' K* K* -adalla' I* Irot$' and * <* +rost*
1990* Kvolution' traits' and t$e sta&es o" $uman %ourts$ip= :uali"yin& t$e parental investment model* Journal o- Personality
59=97-117
1/71
G3*
1/7,
!n baboons t$ere are several pat$s to se(ual su%%ess in addition to se%urin& $i&$ male status* ales %an and do
develop ?"riends$ips@ #it$ parti%ular "emales' relations$ips t$at do not depend on p$ysi%al dominan%e but rat$er on
t$e #illin&ness o" a male to prote%t a &iven "emale4s o""sprin& ; even i" t$e youn&ster is not $is o#n* Jn%e a male
$as demonstrated t$at $e is #illin& and able to provide prote%tion "or a "emale and $er in"ant' t$at "emale may see)
$im out #$en s$e enters into estrus a&ain' even i" $e is not t$e top male in t$e so%ial $ierar%y o" $er troop 2F-trum'
1/57
-usan A* Baso#' 3ender Stereotypes/ Traditions and Alternati(es' ,nd ed* FCA= Broo)sRCole Eubl* Co*' 1997G' p* 335*
1/57
)&idem' p* 350*
1/59
)&idem' p* 353*
1/59
)&idem' p* 370*
1/70
)&idem' p* 373*
1/71
)&idem' p* 375*
1/7,
)&idem' p* ,0/*
1/73
Op. cit.
1/7/
C$arles -* Carver D i%$ael F* -%$eier' Perspecti(es on Personality' 3rd ed* FBoston= Allyn D Ba%on' 1997G' p* 151*
1/75
Op. cit.
1/77
)&idem' p* 559*
1/77
)&idem' p* 577*
1/79
)&idem' p* 151*
1/79
-iona Carpenter FNewhouse News Ser(iceG' Burn t$e rules #$en it %omes to "lirtin&' The Seattle Times' ,7 April 1997'
15F17G' p* 3*
1/70
Op. cit.
1/71
Jo$n Al%o%)' Animal 1eha(ior/ An 7(olutionary Approach' 5t$ ed* Fass= -inauer Asso%iates' !n%*' 1993G' p* 595*
1/7,
)&idem' p* 57,*
1,5
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
-* C* 1997* Almost $uman' W* W* Oorton' Oe# 0or)
1/73
G3*
1/7/
ale baboons also "orm ?"riends$ips@ #it$ ot$er males*
+$rou&$ t$ese allian%es' t$ey %an sometimes %olle%tively %on"ront a stron&er rival t$at $as a%:uired a partner'
"or%in& $im to &ive up t$e "emale' even t$ou&$ $e is so%ially dominant in one-on-one en%ounters*
1/75
Anot$er alternative matin& ta%ti% is t$e ?satellite@ be$avior o" some male toads F8G' "ro&s' and %ri%)ets' #$i%$
#ait silently 2Ft$us avoidin& predatorsG3 and nona&&ressively by a loudly %allin& territory o#ner' ready to inter%ept
"emales $eadin& "or t$e %aller 2FCade' W* 1990* Alternative male reprodu%tive strate&ies* "lorida 7ntomologist 73=30-/5H
1/77

Eerrill' -* A*' L* C* Ier$ardt' and <* Caniel* 1979* -e(ual parasitism in t$e &reen tree "ro& F$yla cinereaG* Science ,00=1179-1190H
1/77
Wells' K* C* 1977* +erritoriality and male matin& su%%ess in t$e &reen "ro& FRana clamitansG* 7cology 59=750-77,
1/79
G3* -atellites
also e(ist in bi&$orn s$eep' #$ose dominant males try to %ontrol &roups o" "emales in %ertain traditional matin&
areas 2FLo&&' J* +* 199/* atin& in bi&$orn s$eep= multiple %reative male strate&ies* Science ,,5=5,7-5,9
1/79
G3* Jt$er males
&at$er in t$ese same areas to lur) near dominant males and t$eir "emales* From time to time t$ese satellites try to
rus$ past a dominant male and onto a "emale*
1/90
-till anot$er matin& system e($ibited by poly&ynous males is %alled le) poly&yny*
1/91
Females visit t$ese
?symboli%@ territories F#$i%$ are o"ten %lustered in a traditional display area' or le)G' 1ust to sele%t a mate*
1/9,
+$e
arrival o" a "emale at t$e le) en%oura&es many males to display simultaneously' produ%in& an uproar t$at %an be
$eard "ar a#ay* !" t$e "emale is re%eptive and %$ooses a partner' s$e #ill "ly to $is per%$ "or a series o" mutual
displays' "ollo#ed by %opulation* A"ter#ards' s$e leaves to be&in nestin&' and t$e male remains be$ind to %ourt
ne#%omers*
1/93
W$en "emales are #idely dispersed' or #$en lar&e numbers o" re%eptive "emales be%ome available
simultaneously' or #$en very lar&e numbers o" males must %ompete "or "emales in a limited area' t$e
bene"it-to-%ost ratio asso%iated #it$ matin& territoriality "alls* Under t$ese %onditions' males o" many animals
%ompete by tryin& to outra%e rivals to re%eptive "emalesH "re:uent #inners #ill be parti%ipants in #$at %an be
labeled s%ramble %ompetition poly&yny*
1/9/
+$e most dramati% "orm o" s%ramble %ompetition poly&yny' t$e e(plosive breedin& assembla&e' is asso%iated
#it$ breedin& seasons t$at are8$i&$ly %ompressed*
1/95
ales &at$er8in lar&e numbers and sear%$ "or in%omin&
"emales F8G* W$en a male "inds an una%%ompanied "emale' $e &rasps $er #it$ spe%ial %la#s and &oes #it$ $er*
1/97

A paired male probably $as an advanta&e8be%ause $is &raspin& apparatus ma)es $im very di""i%ult to dislod&e
2FBro%)mann' L* J* 1990* atin& be$avior o" $orses$oe %rab' !imulus polyphemus* 1eha(iour 1,=/93-501
1/97
G3*
1/99
• • •
W$en it %omes to sele%tin& a marria&e partner' #omen in Western so%ieties %onsistently &ive $i&$ mar)s to
?&ood earnin& po#er@ in a potential mate' #$ereas men atta%$ mu%$ &reater value to ?p$ysi%al attra%tiveness@
2FBuss' C* * 1997* -e( di""eren%es in $uman mate sele%tion %riteria= an evolutionary perspe%tive* !n Socio&iology and Psychology/
)deas0 )ssues0 and Applications' C* Cra#"ord' C* -mit$' and C* Krebs Feds*G* >a#ren%e Krlbaum Asso%iates' Lillsdale' OJ
1/99
G3*
1/90

2But3 t$e $i&$er t$e so%ial status attained by a male' t$e &reater t$e number o" o""sprin& $e produ%ed' t$e more
ille&itimate %$ildren $e sired' and t$e more li)ely $e #as to marry more t$an on%e' all results su&&estin& t$at
#omen 2do3 "2i3nd #ealt$y individuals espe%ially a%%eptable matin& partners*
1/91
2And3 in modern Western
so%ieties' ri%$er %ouples $ave t$e same number o" survivin& %$ildren as poorer ones ; or t$ey $ave -ewer %$ildren
t$an t$eir less #ealt$y %ounterparts 2FMinin&' C* <* Jr* 1997* -o%ial vs* reprodu%tive su%%ess= t$e %entral t$eoreti%al problem o"
$uman so%iobiolo&y* 1eha(ioral and 1rain Sciences 9=177-197
1/9,
G3*
1/93
1/73
)&idem' p* 709*
1/7/
)&idem' p* /11*
1/75
Op. cit.
1/77
)&idem' p* 59/*
1/77
)&idem' p* 703*
1/79
)&idem' p* 710*
1/79
)&idem' p* 59/*
1/90
)&idem' pp* /1,-/1/*
1/91
)&idem' p* /70*
1/9,
Op. cit.
1/93
)&idem' p* /71*
1/9/
)&idem' p* /79*
1/95
Op. cit.
1/97
Op. cit.
1/97
)&idem' p* 593*
1/99
)&idem' pp* /79-/79*
1/99
Jo$n Al%o%)' Animal 1eha(ior/ An 7(olutionary Approach' 5t$ ed* Fass= -inauer Asso%iates' !n%*' 1993G' p* 59/*
1/90
)&idem' pp* 559-559*
1/91
)&idem' p* 559*
1/9,
)&idem' p* 709*
1/93
)&idem' pp* 559-570*
1,7
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
-o%iobiolo&ists $ave predi%ted t$at married men #ill be espe%ially %are"ul about t$e allo%ation o" t$eir paternal
investment' providin& it "reely only to pro&eny li)ely to be t$eir &eneti% o""sprin&* !n )eepin& #it$ t$is predi%tion'
men in Western so%iety t$at suspe%t or )no# t$at t$eir #ives $ave %ommitted adultery o"ten %ite t$is "a%tor as t$e
reason "or divor%e' #it$ its %onse:uent redu%tion or elimination o" male paternal %are' #$ereas #omen t$at initiate
divor%e are mu%$ less li)ely to identi"y adultery by t$eir partner as t$e reason "or t$eir a%tion 2F-ymons' C* 1979* The
7(olution o- $uman Se%uality* J("ord University Eress' Oe# 0or)
1/9/
G3* Con%ern about paternity is so obsessive in many
%ultures t$at $usbands o" rape vi%tims may divor%e t$eir un"ortunate #ives' an a%tion a%%epted or even en%oura&ed
by a diversity o" reli&ous &roups and le&al %odes 2FBro#nmiller' -* 1975* Against Our 8ill/ en0 8omen0 and Rape* -imon D
-%$uster' Oe# 0or)
1/95
G3*
1/97
+$e23 "eelin&s o" %on"usion' an&er and &uilt are pain"ul' but are o"ten endured in silen%e* -ays rape %ounselor
2Lelen3 Lure#it.= ?any men need $elp as mu%$ as t$e #omen vi%tims*@
1/97
!n t$e past' t$e %ounselin& o" married
%ouples #as usually per"ormed by t$e %ler&y or so%ial #or)ers in %$ur%$es' publi% #el"are a&en%ies' and
"amily-servi%e or&ani.ations* Counselin& and %lini%al psy%$olo&ists may also #or) #it$ %ouples and "amilies* A
spe%ialty in marria&e and "amily %ounselin& $as re%ently emer&ed' $o#ever' #it$ its o#n pro"essional
or&ani.ations' 1ournals' and state li%ensin& re:uirements* arria&e and "amily %ounselors $ave varied pro"essional
ba%)&rounds*
1/99
“6e %arzan1 you Gane.”
Family values proponents $ave be&un a ne# o""ensive to sti&mati.e and restri%t divor%e* +$ey %ontinue to
oppose proven se( edu%ation pro&rams "or teena&ers* And t$ey4ve rene#ed atta%)s on mot$ers #$o ?sel"is$ly@
%$oose to #or)*
1/99
a&&ie Ialla&$er o" t$e !nstitute "or t$e Ameri%an Malues $as even atta%)ed t$e Boy -%outs "or
bein& so"t on sin&le parent$ood'
1500
8instead 2o"3 denoun%2in&3 t$e ?%rimes@ o" parents #$o sub1e%t %$ildren to
divor%e or remarria&e*
1501
But it4s time to stop lettin& t$e "amily values %ro#d ma)e us "eel bad about $o# mu%$
#e4ve %$an&ed*
150,
-urely our )ids are no less important t$an "ederal meat inspe%tion or airline sa"ety
re&ulations*
1503
C$an&in& old marital e(pe%tations and $abits may be $ard' but "ailin& to %$an&e t$em is do#nri&$t dan&erous'
be%ause be$aviors t$at stabili.ed "amilies in t$e 1950s and 1970s o"ten ba%)"ire today' 2and many o" t$em are even
ille&al no#3* +$us one o" t$e leadin& %auses o" stri"e in modern "amilies is t$e ba%)slidin& o" %ouples into
traditional &ender roles a"ter t$e birt$ o" a %$ild* Women raised to e(pe%t more e:ual publi% roles o"ten be%ome
depressed #$en t$ey :uit #or)H men #$o $ave to ta)e on in%reased 2responsibilities3 %an4t understand #$y t$eir
#ives aren4t more &rate"ul*
150/
en #it$ old-"as$ioned ideas about mas%ulinity tend to see divor%e as a %on"li%t t$at must be settled by
#innin& or disen&a&in&* +$ey are also more li)ely to brea) o"" %onta%t #it$ t$eir %$ildren a"ter a ne# marria&e*
Women #it$ traditional values tend to vie# t$eir e(-$usbands only as a support payment rat$er t$an someone #$o
s$ould %ontinue to be involved in %$ild-rearin& "rom outside t$e $ouse$old*
1505
+$e ri&$t #in& opposes all8initatives' %laimin& it #ould be &overnment inter"eren%e to mandate
"amily-"riendly poli%ies "or employers or set national standards "or %$ild %are %enters* +$ey ar&ue #e s$ould appeal
to t$e 2%apitalist3 %orporate %ons%ien%e instead* But i" a "e# $ard-$earted %ompanies 2Fmonolit$i% 1u&&ernautsG3
re"use to implement su%$ measures' all t$e rest t$at mi&$t li)e to are pla%ed at a %ompetitive disadvanta&e*
1507
Wor)ers need paid parental leaves' days o"" "or %are&ivin& responsibilities and re"orms li)e -#eden4s la#
allo#in& parents to %ut t$eir #or) and pay to t$ree-:uarters time #it$out losin& medi%al insuran%e or seniority* At
t$e same time' #e need investment in $i&$-:uality %$ild %are and a"ter-s%$ool pro&rams*
1507
1/9/
)&idem' p* 709*
1/95
)&idem' p* 59/*
1/97
)&idem' p* 575*
1/97
Cavid Be$rens' <ape4s ot$er vi%tims' in $uman Se%uality0 Annual 7ditions OA:OO' ed* J* Eo%s FCis)in Eublis$in&
Iroup' 1997G' p* ,10*
1/99
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior0 /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 19*
1/99
-tep$anie Coont.' +$e absen%e o" debate #on4t $elp %$an&e outdated attitudes and institutions' The Seattle
TimesRSeattle Post- )ntelligencer/ "ocus' ,, June 1997' 15F,5G' p* K1*
1500
Op. cit.
1501
Op. cit.
150,
Op. cit.
1503
Op. cit.
150/
Op. cit.
1505
Op. cit.
1507
Op. cit.
1507
Op. cit.
1,7
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Uppin& t$e barriers to divor%e is most li)ely to a&&ravate t$e adversarial maneuverin&' trumped-up %$ar&es and
%ounter-%$ar&es by parents' and $i&$ levels o" %on"li%t t$at are asso%iated #it$ t$e #orst out%omes o" divor%e "or
)ids*
J" %ourse it4s easier to raise )ids #$en you $ave t#o involved parents #$o are respe%t"ul o" ea%$ ot$er* +$at4s
#$y it4s $ypo%riti%al 2Fpia%ularG3 "or politi%ians to prea%$ t$e advanta&es o" t#o-parent "amilies "or $eterose(ual
%ouples and i&nore t$e eviden%e t$at %$ildren o" &ay or lesbian 2or $omose(ual or bise(ual or :ueer or poly&amous
or #$atever3 parents also tend to do better #$en t$eir parents are in a stable' lovin& relations$ip*
But a stable' lovin& relations$ip #it$ :uality parentin& is not al#ays #$at you &et 2Fespe%ially #it$ &ender
stereotypi%al parentsG'3 and %$ildren #$o end up in sin&le-parent $ouse$olds are not doomed* Kids #ill do better i"
#e re&ulate and normali.e divor%e rat$er t$an restri%tin& or sti&mati.in& it*
+$ere is solid resear%$ s$o#in& $o# people %an ma)e sin&le-parent and step"amily $ouse$olds #or) #ell "or
%$ildren* +$e ri&$t #in& says #e s$ould stay silent about t$is resear%$ be%ause it mi&$t en%oura&e %ouples to ta)e
divor%e too li&$tly* But silen%e only %ondemns parents to )eep ma)in& t$e same old mista)es* We need to ma)e
divor%e less adversarial' redu%e its e%onomi% trauma "or %$ildren and "oster a %ulture o" %ommitment to %$ildren
t$at doesn4t ma)e parental obli&ations part o" a pa%)a&e deal' dependent on marria&e and %o-residen%e*
+$is is important be%ause un#ed parentin&' li)e it or not' is also $ere to stay* +$e a&e at #$i%$ #omen marry
today is at an all-time $istori%al $i&$* Women #$o marry are more li)ely to $ave e%onomi%' emotional and
edu%ational advanta&es t$at bene"it t$eir %$ildren* But t$ey also "a%e a lon&er period #$en t$ey are ?at ris)@ "or an
unmarried birt$* Combined #it$ "allin& rates o" marital %$ildbearin&' t$e risin& a&e o" marria&e means t$at a
si&ni"i%ant per%enta&e o" %$ildren #ill %ontinue to be born out o" #edlo%) even i" rates o" %$ildbearin& by un#ed
#omen %ontinue to de%rease' as t$ey $ave "or t$e past t$ree years*
Contrary to %onventional #isdom' most unmarried birt$s are not to teens but to #omen in t$eir ,0s and 30s'
and a :uarter are to unmarried but %o$abitatin& parents* -in%e t$e edu%ational status o" a mot$er $as more impa%t
on $er %$ild4s #ell-bein& t$an $er marital status' it4s time to stop t$e $and-#rin&in& about un#ed mot$er$ood in
&eneral and "o%us prevention e""orts on t$e #omen #$ose )ids are most at ris)= youn& #omen #it$ poor 1ob and
edu%ation prospe%ts' #$o o"ten end up #it$ babies be%ause t$eir ot$er %$oi%es are so limited*
Kveryone a&rees t$at %$ildren s$ouldn4t $ave %$ildren' but even amon& teens' t#o-t$irds o" un#ed birt$s are to
#omen 19 or 19 years old* +$ese #omen may still $ave mu%$ to learn' but t$ey aren4t )ids and #on4t respond to
bein& treated t$at #ay* Wit$ t$ree-"ourt$s o" t$e 19 to ,/-year-old population in t$e %ountry sin&le' tea%$in& youn&
people to deal #it$ se( responsibly $as to involve more t$an %$antin& ?#ait until marria&e*@ We must $elp youn&
people develop de%ision-ma)in& tools to set realisti% &oals "or t$eir personal lives' and #e must %ombat
%onservative 2Fand alle&edly liberalG3 e""orts to limit a%%ess to se( edu%ation and %ontra%eption*
!t4s time to %on"ront t$e massive %$an&es needed in our attitudes and institutions* Jur #or) poli%ies are /0
years out o" date' %onstri%ted "or a time #$en t$e ma1ority o" mot$ers did not #or) outside t$e $ome and t$e
ma1ority o" "at$ers #ere $appy to leave %$ild-raisin& entirely in t$e $ands o" 2anyone else3* Jur s%$ool va%ations
are 100 years out o" date' desi&ned "or a time #$en most "amilies needed t$eir %$ildren4s labor on "arms durin& t$e
summer and only a minority o" students "inis$ed $i&$ s%$ool any#ay* Jur s%$ool $ours are out o" syn% bot$ #it$
ne# medi%al resear%$ and ne# e%onomi% realities= -%$ool be&ins #ay to early "or teena&ers4 body %lo%)s and &ets
out #ay too early "or parents4 time %lo%)s*
Fi&urin& out $o# to ad1ust outdated institutions and values to t$e ne# realities o" "amily li"e and &ender roles
#ill involve %ontroversial %$oi%es*
1509
+$e lon&er #e postpone dis%ussion o" t$ose %$an&es' t$e $arder t$ey #ill
be*
1509
• • •
-e( and &uilt* For some o" us' t$ey &o to&et$er li)e love and marria&e' and "or ot$ers t$ey &o to&et$er li)e Eat
Bu%$anan and Courtney >ove* But t$e Bremerton-based Born-A&ain Mir&ins o" Ameri%a F?-e(less in -eattle@G
solves t$e dilemma o" se( and &uilt t$is #ay= Con4t $ave eit$er*
1510
-$ould "ello# Oort$#esterners de%ide to &ive up se( in 1997' +$om 2-%$lessin&er F?Cr* >aura4s@ brot$erG
1511
3
$as t$is advi%e "or resistin& tempation=
?+$e best t$in& "or someone to )eep in mind is t$e impli%ations not #aitin& $as'@ in%ludin& se(ual diseases'
possible in"idelity and t$e potential "or pre&nan%y' $e said*
151,
• • •
1509
Op. cit.
1509
Op. cit.
1510
Kli.abet$ Ao)i' +$e $ard sell "or %eliba%y' The Seattle Times/ Paci-ic aga6ine' ,7 Jan 1997' p* 3*
1511
Op. cit.
151,
Op. cit.
1,9
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
-usan Crain Ba)os' an internationally re%o&ni.ed se( e(pert and aut$or' ma)es people nervous' but t$at4s JK
#it$ $er*
?! li)e t$at'@ s$e said* ?! love to pop t$e balloon o" $ypo%risy t$at so many people $ave about se(*@
-$e4s ri&$t about t$e $ypo%risy* Corporate &reed' politi%s' and abusers o" %$ildren and animals ou&$t to ma)e
us nervous ; not se(*
1513
?We &ro# up #it$ it'@ Ba)os said* ?+$ere are so%ietal taboos %ontrollin& se(ual be$avior' espe%ially #omen4s
se(ual be$avior* Also' many reli&ious tea%$in&s are anti-se( and anti-pleasure*@
151/
?+$e attitudes people $ave about se( aren4t rational'@ Ba)os said* ?-ome$o#' t$ey $ave %ome to e:uate
pleasure #it$ promis%uity' as t$ou&$ t$ere %an be no pleasure in a %ommitted relations$ip' or t$at #omen %an4t ta)e
responsibility to $ave sa"e se(*@
any o" t$e #omen Ba)os $as intervie#ed #ould not admit t$ey %ouldn4t tal) about se(* !ntervie#in& t$ese
people #as di""i%ult*
1515
!n %ontrast' most men #ill tal) openly about se(' s$e said*
1517
Ba)os $as built a %areer on tellin& #omen t$at se( is &ood* Women' s$e says' s$ould not use se( or "ear se('
and t$ey s$ouldn4t &et t$eir ideas about se( "rom t$eir &randmot$ers*
?We s$ould en1oy se('@ s$e said* And s$e4s %om"ortable #it$ t$at*
1517
• • •
A prominent Bay Area resear%$er 2June ,3 released t$e results o" a &roundbrea)in& ,5-year study t$at adds
"urt$er #ei&$t to a &ro#in& %onsensus about divor%e= C$ildren su""er "ar lon&er and more deeply t$an previously
t$ou&$t*
1519
W$ile ot$er studies $ave s$o#n t$at divor%e %an be emotionally dama&in& to %$ildren' 2"amily e(pert
Judit$3 Wallerstein4s and 2-an Fran%is%o -tate University pro"essor Julia3 >e#is4 #or) is t$e "irst to do%ument t$e
lon&-ran&e e""e%ts into adult$ood' "amily e(perts said*
1519
?We $ave to understand divor%e t$rou&$ a %$ild4s eyes'@ said Wallerstein* ?!4m reportin& on t$e %$ild4s
e(perien%e*@
15,0
+$e brea)up o" a "amily burderns %$ildren at ea%$ developmental sta&e ; "rom %$ild$ood t$rou&$
adoles%en%e and into early adult$ood*
15,1
en tended to $ave a $arder time durin& elementary s%$ool yearsH #omen
said t$ey #ere most a""e%ted durin& t$eir adoles%ent years*
15,,
?-ome o" t$em Ft$e )idsG didn4t even remember t$e initial brea)up o" t$eir parents'@ said Wallerstein* But as
adults' many o" t$em %ontinue to say' ?+$e divor%e still a""e%ts me every day o" my li"e*@
15,3
any simply a#o)e
one day to dis%over a parent &one* Jt$ers said t$ere #ere support &roups "or t$e mom or dad' but none "or t$em*
-till ot$ers reported t$e remarria&e o" t$eir parents as a trauma t$at #as o"ten not dis%ussed*
15,/
Wallerstein said many o" t$e %$ildren s$e studied reported t$at t$ey "elt less respe%ted in &eneralH "elt &reater
&uilt about leavin& t$e %ustodial parent "or %olle&e or marria&eH $ad problems #it$ lon&-term relations$ipsH and $ad
no role models "or a &ood marria&e*
At least t#o %$ildren e(perien%ed one ot$er serious problem= +$ey #itnessed violen%e in t$eir $omes' even
t$ou&$ t$e abuse #as not dire%ted at t$em* Wallerstein %ited one study sub1e%t #$o teased $is /-year-old son until
t$e %$ild %ried and "le# into a ra&e* Anot$er #as prone to relations$ips #it$ violent men*
15,5
Wallerstien4s study "urt$er illustrated $o# "eelin&s o" loneliness and abandonment last lon& into adult$ood'
resultin& in relations$ip issues* +$e )ids also $ad a $arder time e%onomi%ally= +$eir parents #ere less li)ely to pay
"or t$eir %$ildren4s %olle&e even t$ou&$ t$ey #ere #ell-edu%ated and "inan%ially stable*
15,7
+$e resear%$er also $ad $ars$ #ords "or t$e le&al system as #ell as parents= Bot$ need to s$o# more
%onsideration "or %$ildren in a divor%e*
C$ild advo%ates and "amily e(perts a&ree*
1513
Eatri%ia Corri&an FSt. !ouis Post- DispatchG' Aut$or promotes open and positive attitudes about se(' Seattle
Post- )ntelligencer' 11 Oov 1997' p* C,*
151/
Op. cit.
1515
Op. cit.
1517
Op. cit.
1517
Op. cit.
1519
Conna Kato FKnight-Ridder NewspapersG' -tudy= divor%e $as lon&-term e""e%tH even #$en' &ro#n' some %$ildren say
trauma Ba""e%ts me every day'4 The Seattle Times' 3 June 1997' 1,0F13,G' p* A3*
1519
Op. cit.
15,0
Op. cit.
15,1
Op. cit.
15,,
Op. cit.
15,3
Op. cit.
15,/
Op. cit.
15,5
Op. cit.
15,7
Op. cit.
1,9
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
?!n t$e #ind tunnel o" divor%e' it4s t$e %$ildren #$o &et blo#n ri&$t t$rou&$'@ said Ann ilne' e(e%utive
dire%tor o" t$e Asso%iation o" Family and Con%iliation Courts*
15,7
?F+$e studyG en%oura&es us to ta)e a &ood' $ard
loo) at t$e "amily %ourt system and #ays to provide more mediation and in"ormation to t$e parents to prote%t t$e
%$ild'@ said ilne*
15,9
Lal" o" Ameri%a4s )ids 2are3 livin& in sin&le-parent $ouse$olds or step"amilies*
15,9
+$e divor%e rate doubled
bet#een 1970 and 1995' and it is no# estimated t$at 2/9*7V
1530
3 per%ent o" marria&es #ill end in divor%e and 70
per%ent o" t$ese divor%es involve %$ildren* Furt$ermore' one-t$ird o" %$ildren #ill e(perien%e t$eir parents4
remarria&e and 7, per%ent o" remarria&es end in divor%e* +$us more parents and %$ildren are under&oin& multiple
marital transitions and rearran&ements in "amily relations$ips*
1531
• • •
+$e FB! estimates 100'000 %$ild )idnappin& attempts a year' most by parents #it$out %ustody' and t$e Oational
Center o" issin& and K(ploited %$ildren said t$e 1999 study indi%ated about /'700 %$ildren #ere abdu%ted t$at
year*
153,
Fears o" %$ild abdu%tion $ave Kastside parents and s%$ool o""i%ials #at%$in& students more %losely' as)in&
students to pair up #$en #al)in& and addin& more bus stops*
1533
?Kvery adult ! )no# is &ettin& more %on%erned@
about %$ildren bein& )idnapped' said !ssa:ua$ assistant superintendent <i%$ -emlar* ?!t seems li)e it4s in t$e
paper almost every ot$er day or so*@
153/
“&e told me he was wearing a !ondom.”
.939
!t4s been estimated t$at all t$e &eneti% material in t$e sperm and e&& %ells t$at produ%ed t$e present $uman
population %ould "it in a spa%e t$e si.e o" an aspirin*
1537
A 1995 report on unintended pre&nan%y by t$e !nstitute o"
edi%ine %on%luded t$at ?t$e prevailin& poli%y and pro&ram emp$asis on #omen as t$e )ey "i&ures in %ontra%eptive
de%ision-ma)in& un1ustly and un#isely e(%ludes boys and men*@
1537
A male4s sin&le e1a%ulation %ontains in t$e
nei&$bor$ood o" ,00 million sperm' and most men &o on %reatin& ne# sperm lon& a"ter t$ey start %as$in& -o%ial
-e%urity C$e%)s*
1539
A $uman "emale embryo develops around 7 million proto-e&&s' )no#n as primordial oo%ytes*
By t$e time s$e is ready to enter t$e #orld' no more t$an , million are le"t alive' t$e rest $avin& "allen prey to a
mysterious pro%ess o" %ellular sui%ide 2FapoptosisG'3 one t$at #ill %ontinue to %laim ooo%ytes as t$e &irl &ro#s* By
puberty t$ere are at most only a :uarter o" a million oo%ytes le"t* !n a #oman4s li"etime per$aps /00 #ill be%ome
"ull-&ro#n e&&s %apable o" bein& "ertili.ed by sperm*
1539
!n 1995' an estimated 513'000 teens in t$e U*-* &ave birt$*
15/0
Wit$ publi% o""i%ials' %ler&y' tea%$ers' parents
and poli%y ma)ers e(plorin& t$is %ontroversial :uestion' EA<ACK ; in a238survey %ondu%ted by ar) Clements
<esear%$' !n%* ; as)ed 7,0 &irls a&ed 1, to 19 #$at #ould prevent pre&nan%y amon& un#ed teens* Amon& t$e )ey
"indin&s=
• 97V o" t$e teena&e &irls surveyed said ?$avin& parents t$ey %an tal) to@ %ould $elp prevent pre&nan%ies
amon& unmarried teensH 93V said ?$avin& lovin& parents@ redu%es t$e ris)*
15,7
Op. cit.
15,9
Op. cit.
15,9
-tep$anie Coont.' +$e absen%e o" debate #on4t $elp %$an&e outdated attitudes and institutions' The Seattle Times' ,,
June 1997' 15F,5G' p* K1*
1530
U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%eRJ""i%e o" Justi%e Ero&ramsRBureau o" Justi%e -tatisti%s' -pe%ial report= li"etime li)eli$ood o"
&oin& to state or "ederal prison Far%$ 1997G' June 1997' $ttp=RR###*o1p*usdo1*&ovRpubRb1sRas%iiRll&s"p*t(t*
1531
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* //7*
153,
Adam Eertman F1oston 3lo&eG' Fat$er o" Eolly Klaas no# devotin& $is li"e to $elpin& %$ildren' Knight-Ridder:Tri&une
News Ser(ice' 19 Au& 199/*
1533
olly J4Connor' Abdu%tions' abuse are modern-day t$reats to %$ildren' 7astside Journal' ,/ April 1997' ,1F,/9G' p*
A1*
153/
Op. cit.
1535
Jver$eard #$ile listenin& to8#as it Jpra$P
1537
Continuum' Omni' Au& 199/' 17F11G' p* ,5*
1537
Joel K* Co$en' +en myt$s o" population' Omni' April 1997' 17F/G' p* /7*
1539
Jo$n +ravis' Brave ne# e&&H #e may soon be able to &ro# unlimited numbers o" per"e%tly $ealt$y' "ertili.able $uman
e&&s in t$e laboratory* W$et$er #e s$ould' o" %ourse' is an entirely di""erent :uestion' Disco(er' April 1997' 19F/G' p* 79*
1539
)&idem' p* 77*
15/0
-ey C$assler FEA<ACK %onsultin& editor and a member o" t$e board o" dire%tors o" t$e C$ild Care A%tion Campai&nG'
W$at teena&e &irls say about pre&nan%y' The Seattle Times:Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ PARAD7 aga6ine' , Feb 1997' p*
/*
130
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
• 97V o" t$e respondents said t$at ?$avin& sel"-respe%t@ and ?bein& in"ormed about se(' pre&nan%y and
birt$ %ontrol@ are %riti%al to preventin& pre&nan%y*
• 97V also said t$e most in"luential deterrent #as ?bein& a#are o" t$e responsibility o" %arin& "or a
%$ild*@
15/1
• 5,V o" t$e &irls' parti%ularly t$ose a&ed 1, to 15' said teens %ould redu%e t$e ris) o" pre&nan%y by not
&oin& out #it$ older men* ?+$is is realisti%' sin%e t$e "at$ers o" teena&e &irls4 babies are' in about 70V o"
%ases' men in t$eir ,0s'@ says Oan%y Adler' a psy%$olo&ist at t$e University o" Cali"ornia at -an
Fran%is%o*
15/,
!n t$e survey' 95V o" t$e &irls identi"ied drin)in& as a ma1or "a%tor leadin& to se(* ore t$an "our in "ive
F93VG said &irls en&a&e in se( be%ause boys pressure t$em or t$ey t$in) t$ey #ill lose t$eir boy"riends i" t$ey don4t
$ave se(* ost F59VG don4t see t$ese as &ood 1usti"i%ations to $ave se(' but 59V said ?bein& in love@ #as a &ood
reason*
?Iirls o"ten trade se( "or love' 1ust as t$ey al#ays $ave'@ maintains Cebora$ +olman' dire%tor o" t$e
Adoles%ent -e(uality Ero1e%t at t$e Center "or <esear%$ on Women at Wellesley Colle&e* ?-o%iety tea%$ers &irls
t$at love is #$at s$ould matter to t$em' and #e tea%$ boys t$at #$at t$ey s$ould #ant most is se(* We end up
s$ort%$an&in& bot$ &enders*@
15/3
Anot$er ris) "a%tor is lo# sel"-esteem' notes Oan%y Adler* ?A &irl #$o $as never
"elt terri"i%ally loved and valued may be so needy in a relations$ip t$at s$e $as se( 1ust to please $er partner*@
Earents are more in"luential t$an t$ey mi&$t &uess in t$eir dau&$ter4s de%ision to $ave se(= 91V o" t$e &irls
rated t$eir mot$ers and 77V rated t$eir "at$ers as ?very@ or ?some#$at in"luential*@ 0oun&er teens are mu%$ more
li)ely to vie# parents as important in"luen%es t$an older ones* ?!" a parent instilled morals in a lovin& #ay and
#asn4t too %ontrollin&' a teena&er #ill remember t$at and not $ave se('@ one 15-year-old %ommented*
15//
?ost &irls snea) around to be #it$ t$eir boy"riends' and neit$er $as any prote%tion' be%ause t$ey4re too s%ared
to buy %ondoms'@ said a 17-year-old respondent* ?+$ey s$ould ma)e it easier "or teena&ers to &et types o" birt$
%ontrol' so no :uestions are as)ed #$en t$ey &o to buy t$em*@
15/5
Kmotional "a%tors also %ome into play= 77V o" t$e &irls polled said $avin& parents #$o didn4t &ive enou&$ love
and attention' or $avin& parents #$o didn4t tea%$ morals' in%reased t$e li)eli$ood o" teen pre&nan%y* ?We4ve been
dubbed Ieneration Q be%ause o" our apat$y' but our parents and tea%$ers are apat$eti% too'@ said one 19-year-old
respondent*
15/7
?Lavin& a baby is a lottery ti%)et "or many teena&ers'@ says t$e so%iolo&ist Kristin >u)er' aut$or o" Du&ious
.onceptions/ The Politics o- Teenage Pregnancy* ?!t brin&s #it$ it at least t$e dream o" somet$in& better*
15/7
!"
Ameri%a %ares about its youn& people' it must ma)e t$em "eel t$at t$ey $ave a ri%$ array o" %$oi%es' so t$at $avin& a
baby is not t$e only or most attra%tive one on t$e $ori.on*@
15/9
+oo many %$ildren are born #it$out t$e prospe%t o" su""i%ient love' "ood' $ealt$' edu%ation' or di&nity in livin&
and dyin&*
15/9
+$e U*-* in"ant mortality rate is $i&$er t$an t$at o" any ot$er Western industriali.ed nation* +$e
U*-* %$ild poverty rate is t$e $i&$est o" 19 industrial nations* 10 million %$ildren $ave no $ealt$ insuran%e*
1550
+$e
typi%al Ameri%an #or)in& #oman is paid 71 %ents "or ea%$ 61 earned by a man*
1551
W$en people are born #$ose parents don4t #ant t$em8t$e United -tates su""ers t$is problem in a bi& #ay= in
1997' o" t$e 5*/ million pre&nan%ies amon& Ameri%an #omen' about 3*1 million F57 per%entG #ere unintended at
t$e time o" %on%eption* J" t$ese' about 1*7 million #ere abortedH 1*5 million resulted in a live birt$* 0oun& and
poor #omen #ere more li)ely t$an avera&e to $ave unintended pre&an%ies* !n 1997' 9, per%ent o" pre&nan%ies
amon& Ameri%an teena&ers 15 to 19 years old #ere unintended' as #ere 71 per%ent o" pre&nan%ies amon& #omen
,0 to ,/ years old* Women #it$ "amily in%omes belo# t$e poverty level in 1997 reported t$at 75 per%ent o" t$eir
pre&nan%ies #ere unintended* +$e trend is not &ood= amon& all U*-* #omen 15 to // years old' t$e "ra%tion o" all
birt$s t$at resulted "rom intended pre&nan%ies s$ran) "rom 7/ per%ent in 199, to 71 per%ent in 1999 to 55 per%ent
in 1990*
155,
• • •
15/1
Op. cit.
15/,
Op. cit.
15/3
Op. cit.
15//
Op. cit.
15/5
)&idem' p* 5*
15/7
Op. cit.
15/7
Op. cit.
15/9
Op. cit.
15/9
Joel K* Co$en' +en myt$s o" population' Omni' April 1997' 17F/G' p* /7*
1550
C$ildren4s Ce"ense Fund' +$e state o" Ameri%a4s %$ildren yearboo) F1997G' ?A bad report %ard'@ ?W$o #ill spea) "or
t$e %$ildrenP'@ Reader;s Digest' June 1997' 1/9F990G' p* ,1,*
1551
The Associated Press' Women earn ,9_ less t$an menH senator says &ap tops 6/00'000 over a li"etime' San "rancisco
.hronicle' 1, April 1997' 133F7/G' p* A/*
155,
Joel K* Co$en' +en myt$s o" population' Omni' April 1997' 17F/G' p* /7*
131
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
UO!CKF' t$e World Lealt$ Jr&ani.ation and t$e U*O* Eopulation Fund %alled 2April 93 "or a &lobal ban on
"emale &enital mutilation*
1553
2And3 Larborvie# edi%al Center' besie&ed by outra&ed opponents o" "emale %ir%um%ision' $as de%ided not to
o""er a s%aled-do#n pro%edure sou&$t by immi&rant -omali #omen "or t$eir dau&$ters*
155/
• • •
?Ere&nant teena&ers need to be loo)ed at as individuals' not as statisti%s'@ said an 19-year-old #$o parti%ipated
in t$e EA<ACK survey and #$o spea)s "rom personal e(perien%e* ?ore pro&rams and measures de"initely need
to be ta)en to $elp* !4ll be t$e "irst to admit it= !t4s $ard bein& a teena&e mom*@
1555
1553
World <eport' U*O* a&en%ies ur&e ban on "emale mutilation' San "rancisco .hronicle' 10 April 1997' 133F7,G' p* A17*
155/
Ee&&y Andersen FThe Associated PressG' Larborvie# re1e%ts "emale %ir%um%isions' Seattle Post- )ntelligencer' 5 Ce%
1997' 133F,9,G' p* B1*
1555
-ey C$assler FEA<ACK %onsultin& editor and a member o" t$e board o" dire%tors o" t$e C$ild Care A%tion Campai&nG'
W$at teena&e &irls say about pre&nan%y' The Seattle Times:Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ PARAD7 aga6ine' , Feb 1997' p*
5*
13,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+awns
-ome o" t$e "a%tors t$at in"luen%e "emale vulnerability to male se(ual %oer%ion in di""erent spe%ies may also
$elp e(plain su%$ variation amon& di""erent &roups in t$e same spe%ies* For e(ample' in a &roup o" %$impan.ees in
t$e +a` Forest in t$e !vory Coast' "emales "orm %loser bonds #it$ one anot$er t$an do "emales at Iombe* +a`

"emales may %onse:uently $ave more e&alitarian relations$ips #it$ males t$an t$eir Iombe %onterparts do*
-u%$ di""eren%es bet#een &roups espe%ially %$ara%teri.e $umans* Amon& t$e -out$ Ameri%an 0anomama' "or
instan%e' men "re:uently abdu%t and rape #omen "rom nei&$borin& villa&es and severely beat t$eir #ives "or
suspe%ted adultery* Lo#ever' amon& t$e A)a people o" t$e Central A"ri%an <epubli%' male a&&ression a&ainst
#omen $as never been observed* ost $uman so%ieties' o" %ourse' "all bet#een t$ese t#o e(tremes*
1557
Lo# are #e to a%%ount "or su%$ variationP +$e same so%ial "a%tors t$at $elp e(plain $o# se(ual %oer%ion
di""eres amon& non$uman primates may deepen our understandin& o" $o# it varies a%ross di""erent &roups o"
people* !n most traditional $uman so%ieties' a #oman leaves $er birt$ %ommunity #$en s$e marries and &oes to
live #it$ $er $usband and $is relatives* Wit$out stron& bonds to %lose "emale )in' s$e #ill probably be in dan&er
o" se(ual %oer%ion* +$e presen%e o" %lose "emale )in' t$ou&$' may prote%t $er* For e(ample' in a %ommunity in
Beli.e' #omen live near t$eir "emale relatives* A man #ill sometimes beat $is #i"e i" $e be%omes 1ealous or
suspe%ts $er o" in"idelity' but #$en t$is $appens' onloo)ers run to tell $er "emale )in* +$eir arrival on t$e s%ene'
%ombined #it$ t$e presen%e o" ot$er &larin& #omen' usually s$ames t$e man enou&$ to stop $is a&&ression*
Kven in so%ieties in #$i%$ #omen live a#ay "rom t$eir "amilies' )in may provide prote%tion a&ainst abusive
$usbands' t$ou&$ $o# mu%$ prote%tion varies dramati%ally "rom one so%iety to t$e ne(t* !n some so%ieties a
#oman4s )in' in%ludin& $er "at$er and brot$ers' %onsistently support $er a&ainst an abusive $usband' #$ile in
ot$ers t$ey rarely $elp $er* W$yP
+$e )ey may lie in patterns o" male-male relations$ips* Allian%es bet#een males are mu%$ more $i&$ly
developed in $umans t$an in ot$er primates' and men "re:uently rely on su%$ allian%es to %ompete su%%ess"ully
a&ainst ot$er men* +$ey o"ten &ain more by supportin& t$eir male allies t$an t$ey do by supportin& "emale )in* !n
addition' men o"ten use t$eir allian%es to de"eat rivals and abdu%t or rape t$eir #omen' as pain"ully illustrated by
re%ent events in Bosnia* W$en #omen live "ar "rom %lose )in' amon& men #$o value t$eir allian%es #it$ ot$er
men more t$an t$eir bonds #it$ #omen' t$ey may be even more vulnerable to se(ual %oer%ion t$an many
non$uman primate "emales*
>i)e non$uman primate "emales' many #omen "orm bonds #it$ unrelated males #$o may prote%t t$em "rom
ot$er males* Lo#ever' relian%e on men e(a%ts a %ost ; #omen and ot$er primate "emales o"ten must submit to
%ontrol by t$eir prote%tors* -u%$ %ontrol is more elaborate in $umans be%ause allied men a&ree to $onor one
anot$er4s proprietary ri&$ts over #omen* !n most o" t$e #orld4s %ultures' marria&e involves not only t$e e(%lusion
o" ot$er men "rom se(ual a%%ess to a man4s #i"e ; #$i%$ prote%ts t$e #oman a&ainst rape by ot$er men ; but also
entails t$e $usband4s ri&$t to %omplete %ontrol over $is #i"e4s se(ual li"e' in%ludin& t$e ri&$t to punis$ $er "or real
or suspe%ted adultery' to $ave se( #it$ $er #$enever $e #ants' and even to restri%t $er %onta%t #it$ ot$er people'
espe%ially men*
!n modern industrial so%iety' many men ; per$aps most ; maintain su%$ traditional notions o" marria&e*
1557

Ce%reasin& #omen4s vulnerability to se(ual %oer%ion' t$en' may re:uire "undamental %$an&es in so%ial allian%es*
Women &ave voi%e to t$is essential trut$ #it$ t$e slo&an -!-+K<LJJC !- EJWK<FU> ; a re"eren%e to t$e
importan%e o" #omen4s ability to %ooperate #it$ unrelated #omen as i" t$ey #ere indeed sisters* Lo#ever' amon&
$umans' t$e male-dominant so%ial system derives support "rom politi%al' e%onomi%' le&al' and ideolo&i%al
institutions t$at ot$er primates %an4t even dream o"* Freedom "rom male %ontrol ; in%ludin& male se(ual %oer%ion ;
t$ere"ore re:uires #omen to "orm allian%es #it$ one anot$er Fand #it$ li)e-minded menG on a s%ale beyond t$at
s$o#n by non$uman primates and $umans in t$e past* Alt$ou&$ )no#led&e o" ot$er primates %an provide
inspiration "or t$is tas)' its a%$ievement depends on t$e uni:uely $uman ability to envision a "uture di""erent "rom
anyt$in& t$at $as &one be"ore*
1559
• • •
Lelen Lar&rave :uit a 1ob s$e loved to %are "or $er a&ed and ailin& $usband*
Ler last day at #or)' on ay 1' s$e told %ollea&ues $e )ept a $and&un on a side table and t$reatened to s$oot
$er and t$en $imsel"*
Elease be %are"ul' %ollea&ues told $er* But $er attitude seemed almost resi&ned*
1559
Jn emorial Cay' C$arles Lar&rave' 93' ar&ued #it$ $is #i"e o" 5/ years* Le pus$ed $er to t$e &round'
"ollo#ed $er to t$e por%$ o" t$eir -po)ane $ome and s$ot and )illed $er be"ore s$ootin& $imsel"*
1557
Barbara -muts' Apes o" #rat$' Disco(er' Au& 1995' 17F9G' p* 37*
1557
Op. cit.
1559
Op. cit.
1559
Julie -ullivan FSpo'ane Spo'esman- Re(iewG' W$en &randpa beats up &randma' "e# %an $elpH violen%e amon& elderly
%ouples o"ten unreported' The Seattle Times' ,9 June 1997' 15F,7G' p* B,*
133
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Erose%utors and domesti% violen%e spe%ialists aren4t surprised t$at si&ns o" trouble never rea%$ed t$e poli%e*
1570
?Women &ro#in& up in t$e early part o" t$is %entury are very' very $esitant to %ome "or#ard'@ said Carolyn
orrison o" -po)ane4s Alternatives to Comesti% Miolen%e pro&ram* ?!t4s a very bi&' dar) "amily se%ret* +$ey 1ust
believe t$at it4s t$eir %ross to bear*@
Jlder #omen #$o are t$reatened verbally or p$ysi%ally "all bet#een t$e %ra%)s nation#ide* !n t$e last t#o
de%ades' t$e issue o" elder abuse $as "o%used almost solely on abuse and ne&le%t by a stressed %are&iver* +$e
battered #omen4s movement $as "o%used on p$ysi%al violen%e a&ainst youn& #omen' o"ten #it$ %$ildren*
?+$us' older battered #omen do not "it neatly #it$in eit$er "ield4s typi%al %aseload or response system'@
%on%luded a 199, Ameri%an Asso%iation o" <etired Eersons study*
!n -po)ane' older #omen %all t$e #omen4s s$elter' orrison said* But t$ey almost never &o "urt$er*
?+$e elderly %ry out "or $elp but t$ey4re t$e $ardest %ommunity to %ra%)'@ s$e said*
?+$ey4ve lived t$is li"e /0 years and t$is is all t$ey )no#'@ said Jonat$atn >ove' a -po)ane County prose%utor
#$o leads t$e domesti% violen%e team* ?!t ma)es it very di""i%ult "or a vi%tim to e(tri%ate $ersel"* +$ey are so
intert#ined' "inan%ially and so%ially* !t4s di""i%ult to start a li"e over at 70 years old*@
1571
edi%al %onditions %an8inter"ere #it$ someone4s ability to %ontrol impulsiveness and emotions' said ar%ia
<iddle' Adult Erote%tive -ervi%es surpervisor "or -po)ane County*
157,
ore %ommon are %$roni% batterers #$o
#orsen #it$ a&e as ot$er problems li)e depression' impoten%e and al%o$ol abuse #orsen*
Battered older #omen are di""erent "rom t$eir youn&er %ounterparts' too' in t$at t$ey su""er more* +$ey bruise
easier*
1573
A pun%$ in t$e ribs %an brea) t$em* Merbal abuse t$at %auses severe emotional dama&e is o"ten dismissed as
%ran)iness*
>ove said by t$e time %ases rea%$ $is o""i%e' t$e abuse $as o"ten been &oin& on "or de%ades and resolution is
%ompli%ated*
+ypi%al #as a %ase t$is sprin& #$en a -po)ane man #as senten%ed to 70 days in 1ail "or beatin& $is #i"e*
!n %ourt' $e told t$e 1ud&e $is #i"e $ad done a poor 1ob preparin& dinner* For t$e ne(t ei&$t $ours' $e pun%$ed'
slapped and s$oved $er' be"ore passin& out* W$en $e #o)e up' $e be&an beatin& $er a&ain' a%%usin& $er o" $avin&
an a""air* Le #as 70* -$e #as 77*
Le #as %onvi%ted o" "elony assault and senten%ed to 1ail* W$ile $e #as 1ailed' s$e #as ironin& $is %lot$es and
preparin& meals "or $im #$en $e4d &et $ome*
?+$ere are still remnants o" t$e old s%$ool #$ere t$e male #as t$e $ead o" $ouse$old and #$ere #$atever
$appened in t$e %on"ines o" t$at "amily #as t$eir o#n business'@ said <iddle*
C$ildren o" su%$ marria&es
157/
8%ope by %$an&in& #$at t$ey %an ; namely' t$eir o#n lives*
1575
?!t4s real $ard
"or a %$ild to approa%$ a parent about t$at )ind o" be$avior'@ <iddle said* ?any people &re# up believin& t$at
#as #$at your "ol)s did and to not %$astise t$em*@
1577
Family members $ave de%lined to dis%uss Lelen or C$arles Lar&rave*
1577
But8#$ere Lelen Lar&rave #or)ed
part-time preparin& and deliverin& meals' s$e spo)e openly o" %omin& to #or) to &et a#ay "rom $er spouse* Family
told poli%e C$arles Lar&rave #as ill #it$ $eart trouble and in%reasin&ly mean*
1579
Collea&ues and "riends tal)ed about &rand%$ildren s$e doted on' parti%ularly a &randdau&$ter #$o #as livin&
#it$ $er and #itnessed t$e s$ootin&* +$e Lar&raves $ad nine %$ildren' ,3 &rand%$ildren and 11
&reat-&rand%$ildren*
+$e day Lar&rave le"t8to nurse $er $usband' s$e said s$e $oped to %ome ba%) someday*
?! $ave a lot o" livin& le"t to do'@ s$e said*
1579
• • •
Born prematurely a"ter $is mot$er #as s$ot by $er e(-boy"riend' Je""rey Eennin&ton stru&&led to survive "or a
#ee) and a $al"*
1570
Je""rey #as delivered by Caesarean se%tion a"ter $is mot$er'8,3' #as s$ot in t$e $ead* Ler
1ealous e(-boy"riend' Bradley <oe$l ; #$o #as Je""rey4s "at$er ; s$ot $er April 9 in a8%onvenien%e store*
1571
2-$e3 $ad been &ranted a prote%tion order a"ter tellin& aut$orities <oe$l $ad p$ysi%ally assaulted $er on
1570
Op. cit.
1571
Op. cit.
157,
Op. cit.
1573
Op. cit.
157/
Op. cit.
1575
Op. cit.
1577
Op. cit.
1577
Op. cit.
1579
Op. cit.
1579
Op. cit.
1570
>eyla Ko)men' Baby born a"ter mot$er #as "atally s$ot' The Seattle Times' ,0 April 1997' 15F17G' p* B1*
1571
Op. cit.
13/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
ar%$ 3* -$e also $ad told aut$orities t$at in t$e past "ive mont$s <oe$l $ad t$reatened to )ill $er and t$en
$imsel"*
157,
• • •
As many Oe# 0or) City #omen are )illed by t$eir partner at $ome as by stran&ers in robberies' se(ual assaults
and random atta%)s %ombined* FJnly 7 per%ent o" men murdered die by t$eir partner4s doin&*G Lealt$ department
resear%$ers ree(amined all murders o" #omen a&ed 17 or older t$at o%%urred bet#een 1990 and 199/ ; one o" t$e
"irst su%$ surveys o" its )ind* Amon& #omen )illed by t$eir spouse' one t$ird #ere tryin& to end t$e relations$ip*
And in a :uarter o" t$e murders attributed to boy"riends' %$ildren #at%$ed t$e %rime or #ere )illed or in1ured
t$emselves* +$e revie# also revealed t$at #$ereas men are typi%ally )illed by &uns' #omen are more o"ten beaten
and burned*
1573
• • •
A man #$o %oa%$ed $is t#o %$ildren to set "ire to t$eir mot$er4s $ome #as senten%ed to /0 years in prison
2ar%$ 13 "or t$ree attempted murders*
<i%$ard +aylor' 37' #as %onvi%ted8o" arson and t$e murder attempts a"ter $is 10-year-old son and 1,-year-old
dau&$ter testi"ied $e s$o#ed t$em $o# to set "ire to $is e(-#ive4s $ouse*
157/
Lis %$ildren pleaded &uilty to arson
and $ave been senten%ed to 1, mont$s probation and 100 $ours o" %ommunity servi%e*
1575
+aylor4s t#o %$ildren by $is e(-#i"e testi"ied at $is trial t$at $e $ad s$o#n t$em $o# to set t$e bla.e* +$e boy
said $is "at$er $ad $im pra%ti%e li&$tin& "ires in a %an*
1577
Erose%utors said +aylor tried to turn $is %$ildren a&ainst t$eir mot$er and $er ne# $usband' t$en %oer%ed t$em
into settin& t$e bla.e and )eepin& :uiet about $is involvement*
Jne o" $is ta%ti%s #as to :uote Bible s%ripture t$at people #$o revealved se%rets #ould die and t$at ?+$e $ouse
o" t$e #i%)ed #ill be destroyed' but t$e tent o" t$e upri&$t #ill "louris$*@
1577
• • •
<emember #$en Courtney >ove #as a%:uitted o" a misdemeanor in Florida a %ouple o" years a&oP F+#o &uys
$ad a%%used $er o" 1umpin& "rom t$e sta&e and pun%$in& t$em*G
1579
Well no# Courtney #ants Jran&e County' Fla*'
to pay $er le&al bills* -$e %laims s$e spent 6,7'000 in trans%ripts' p$oto%opies and p$one %alls' and also #ants t$e
6,'500 s$e paid a psy%$iatrist to appear as an e(pert #itness*
1579
• • •
Would you %arry out orders t$at %ould result in t$e deat$ o" anot$er $uman bein& i" t$e orders #ere &iven by
someone in aut$orityP
1590
Eeople o" %ons%ien%e do not be$ave t$at #ayH
1591
8any ot$er ans#er a#a)ens &ruesome
visions o" Litler Iermany*
159,
Joe Clar)' t$e tou&$-love' bat-#eildin& prin%ipal #$o inspired t$e movie ?>ean on e'@8put 1,
teena&ers' a&es 17 and 19' in $and%u""s and le& irons "or t#o days*
1593
157,
Op. cit.
1573
!n Brie"' Fatal attra%tion' Scienti-ic American' ,77F7G' p* ,,*
157/
The Associated Press' an used $is )ids in plot to )ill mot$er' The Seattle Times' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G' p* 19*
1575
Op. cit.
1577
Op. cit.
1577
Op. cit.
1579
-een' Leard' -aid' The Seattle Times' 10 ar%$ 1997' 1,0F59G' p* K7*
1579
Op. cit.
1590
James W* Mander Tanden' Social Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= <andom Louse' !n%*' 1991G' p* 19,*
1591
Op. cit.
159,
Op. cit.
1593
B+ou&$ love4 prin%ipal in trouble' Journal American0 1997*
135
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Eeople ; ordinary people ; %ommit a&&ressive and even violent a%ts as part o" ?doin& t$eir 1ob*@ +$is is
institutional a&&ression* !t %an be seen most %learly in t$e %ase o" t$e military and t$e poli%e Fas #ell as in %ertain
sportsG*
159/
ost individuals #ill %ommit a&&ressive and violent a%ts in t$e name o" obedien%e to aut$ority* Wit$in
institutional settin&s people #ill %ome to see t$emselves as bein& absolved o" personal responsibility "or t$eir a%ts*
+$ey vie# t$emselves as ?pa#ns@ rat$er t$an as ?ori&inators o" be$avior*@ !" t$ey pla%e any blame at all' t$ey pin
it on t$e institution' e(%usin& t$emselves by t$e rationali.ation' ?!" ! don4t do it' someone else #ill@ F2Ce C$arms' <*
1979* Personal .ausation* Oe# 0or)= A%ademi% EressH
1595
Kipnes' C* 197/* +$e po#er$older* !n +edes%$i' J* +* Fed*G' Perspecti(es
on Social Power* C$i%a&o= Aldine
1597
3G*
1597
+$e most blatant and notorious instan%es o" t$is p$enomenon on %olle&e %ampuses are &roup rapes'
usually attributed to "raternity or at$leti% teams and popularly )no#s as ?&an& ban&s@ or ?trains*@
1599

-enior 2"rat3 members8assi&n23 a pled&e t$e tas) o" ?"indin& a drun) #oman "or a &an& ban&*@
1599
ale se(ual a&&ression seem2s3 to be ta)en "or &ranted by8bot$ se(es* ?W$at do you e(pe%t ; a lot o" &uys
are animals'@ one man %omment2ed3 amiably* ?Well you al#ays try to to s%ore ; $o# "ar you pus$ it depends on
#$o you are'@ sa2id3 $is roommate* ?Jr $o# drun) you are'@ a t$ird %$ime2d3 in*
1590
Cate rape' o"ten %alled a%:uaintan%e rape' is an issue t$at' li)e #i"e-batterin& and se(ual $arassment on t$e 1ob'
$as emer&ed re%ently as a #idespread p$enomenon* And it $as been di""i%ult' 1ust as it #as #it$ t$ose ot$er "orms
o" se(ual violen%e' to determine #$et$er it is a ne# trend' pointin& to an in%reased a%%eptan%e o" violen%e in our
so%iety' or an e(perien%e t$at #omen $ave only lately &at$ered t$e %oura&e to report*
1591
?!t4s $ard to ma)e #omen understand t$at i" t$ey do &et raped'8it4s more li)ely to be on a date t$an in a dar)
alley'@ says Amy >evine' #$o dire%ts t$e <ape Erevention Ero&ram at t$e University o" Cali"ornia4s -an Fran%is%o
%ampus*
159,
Kllen Co$erty' 2%oordinator "or t$e <ape !ntervention Ero&ram at Oe# 0or)4s -t* >u)e4s-<oosevelt Lospital
Center'
1593
3 believes t$at a%:uaintan%e rape is bot$ t$e most unreported' and potentially t$e most psy%$olo&i%ally
dama&in& type o" se(ual assault= ?!t is t$e $ardest "or #omen to tal) about' even to t$eir %losest "riends' mu%$ less
to t$e poli%e* !t4s easier "or a #oman to believe t$at t$ere4s no #ay s$e %ould $ave brou&$t it on $ersel" #$en a
stran&e man %omes out o" no#$ere and atta%)s $er*@ Lo#ever' #$en t$e rapist is a "riend or a date' ?not only $as
$er body been violated' but $er trust in anot$er $uman bein& $as been betrayed' and $er "ait$ in $er o#n 1ud&ment
$as been s$a)en* -$e )eeps sayin&' B! )no# $im' and $e4s not a bad person ; so it must be somet$in& ! said or did
t$at &ot me into t$is*4

@
159/
A Columbia student #as moved by t$e %on%ern o" a male student #$o #as #orried about $er #al)in&
$ome late at ni&$t "rom a &roup outin&*
1595
?Lavin& preyed on $er "ear o" rape by a stran&er' $e us$ered $er
into $is apartment' lo%)ed t$e door #it$ a poli%e lo%)' and pre%eeded to rape $er $imsel"*@
For every student #$o approa%$es Co$erty "or medi%al attention and %ounselin& in %ases li)e t$is' many o"
#$om do not press %riminal %$ar&es' s$e says t$at s$e $ears about t#o more #$o apparently don4t see) any )ind o"
$elp*
<ape %ounselors say t$at la%) o" peer support o"ten $inders a #oman4s ability to deal #it$ $avin& been raped or
to see) le&al re%ourse*
1597
?!" t$e people #$o )no# and %are about $er aren4t even be$ind $er' #$at %an s$e
possibly e(pe%t "rom t$e poli%e or a 1uryP@
1597
Be%ause 1urors o"ten believe t$at rape vi%tims are #omen #$o ?%$an&e t$eir minds a"ter#ard'@
1599
8
a%:uaintan%e rapes are amon& t$e most di""i%ult to prose%ute' se%ond only to marital rapes*
1599
+$e poli%e and t$e
159/
James W* Mander Tanden' Social Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= <andom Louse' !n%*' 1991G' pp* ,7,-,73*
1595
)&idem' p* /55*
1597
)&idem' p* /73*
1597
)&idem' p* ,73*
1599
Karen Barrett' Cate rape= a %ampus epidemi%P' !n $uman Se%uality0 Annual 7ditions OA:OO' ed* J* Eo%s FCus)in
Eublis$in& Iroup' 1997G' p* ,01*
1599
Op. cit.
1590
Karen Barrett' Crossed si&nals and mi(ed messa&es= se( on a -aturday ni&$t' !n $uman Se%uality0 Annual 7ditions
OA:OO' ed* J* Eo%s FCus)in Eublis$in& Iroup' 1997G' p* ,0,*
1591
Karen Barrett' Cate rape= a %ampus epidemi%P' !n $uman Se%uality0 Annual 7ditions OA:OO' ed* J* Eo%s FCus)in
Eublis$in& Iroup' 1997G' p* ,01*
159,
Op. cit.
1593
Op. cit.
159/
Op. cit.
1595
Karen Barrett' Cate rape= a %ampus epidemi%P' !n $uman Se%uality0 Annual 7ditions OA:OO' ed* J* Eo%s FCus)in
Eublis$in& Iroup' 1997G' p* ,03*
1597
Op. cit.
1597
Op. cit.
1599
Op. cit.
1599
Op. cit.
137
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
%ourts $ave a $istory o" %allous or even abusive treatment o" rape vi%tims* +$e #oman may be o""ered little
sympat$y' and t$e poli%e may adopt a %yni%al attitude*
1700
+$e attitudes o" t$e poli%e are not too surprisin&' "or t$e
poli%e o""i%ers &re# up in a %ulture t$at abounds #it$ stereotypes about #omen*
1701
+$e #oman #$o $as been so%iali.ed to be nurturant and #$o spends $er days e(pressin& $er
&entleness8%an s%ar%ely be e(pe%ted to attempt to &ou&e out a man4s eyes #it$ $er "in&er23s' as some
sel"-de"ense e(perts advise*
170,
Eer$aps partly as a result o" several e(%ellent television pro&rams dramati.in& t$e pli&$t o" t$e #oman #$o $as
been raped' many poli%e departments $ave tried to %$an&e t$eir $andlin& o" rape vi%tims* -ome even $ave spe%ial
?rape s:uads@ %omposed o" #omen poli%e o""i%ers #$o re%ord t$e #oman4s story and investi&ate t$e %aseH t$is
spares t$e #oman t$e embarrassment o" des%ribin& t$e in%ident to a man*
1703
• • •
<esear%$ers $ave8identi"ied a silent rape rea%tion' in #$i%$ t$e #oman not only "ails to report t$e rape to t$e
poli%e' but also tells no one about it F2Bur&ess' Ann W*' D Lolmstrom' >ynda >* F197/aG* <ape trauma syndrome* American
Journal o- Psychiatry' 131' 991-997
170/
3G* -$e' o" %ourse' e(perien%es t$e same problems o" ad1ustment t$at ot$er rape
vi%tims do' but s$e $as no #ay o" e(pressin& or ventin& $er "eelin&s* Counselors and psy%$ot$erapists need to be
a#are o" t$is syndrome* For e(ample' a s$e may %ome "or %ounselin& %omplainin& o" :uite di""erent problems ;
per$aps inability to $ave or&asms' or an(iety and depression ; #$en $er real problem is t$at s$e $as been raped but
is unable to tal) about it*
1705
<esear%$ers $ave tried to identi"y #$at "a%tors determine #$o #ill e(perien%e t$e severe rea%tions F2<esi%)'
Eatri%ia A* F1993G* +$e rape rea%tion= <esear%$ "indin&s and impli%ations "or intervention* The 1eha(ior Therapist' 7'
1,9-13,
1707
3G*
1707
-o%ial support "rom relatives and "riends is importantH #omen #$o re%eive poor support are more
li)ely to $ave lon&-term problems #it$ depression*
1709
• • •
-ome people a%tually seem to be "ear"ul o" intima%y ; t$at is' o" a deep emotional %loseness to anot$er person
F2Kaplan' Lelen -in&er* F1979G* Disorders o- se%ual desire* Oe# 0or)= -imon D -%$uster
1709
3G* !ndeed' some people appear to
"ear intima%y more t$an t$ey do se(* +$ey #ould pre"er to #at%$ +M or tal) about t$e #eat$er or $ave se( rat$er
t$an en&a&e in a truly intimate' emotionally vulnerable' and trustin& %onversation #it$ anot$er person* !" su%$
persons are sin&le' t$ey typi%ally pro&ress in a relations$ip to a %ertain de&ree o" %loseness and t$en lose interest*
+$is pattern is repeated #it$ many partners* +$is "ear may be a result o" ne&ative or disappointin& intimate
relations$ips ; parti%ularly #it$ t$e parents ; in early %$ild$ood*
1710
• • •
Brain resear%$ers at t$e University o" Eennsylvania $ave un%overed stron& eviden%e o" #$at everybody already
)ne#*
!n some important respe%ts' men and #omen don4t t$in) ali)e* +$ey literally use t$eir brains di""erently*
A study o" brain-use patterns in 71 sub1e%ts reported in82an3 issue o" -%ien%e "ound a biolo&i%al basis "or
lon&-noted be$avioral di""eren%es bet#een t$e se(es ; di""eren%es su%$ as t$e "a%t t$at' "or instan%e' men are "ar
more prone to violen%e t$an #omen' or t$e "a%t t$at #omen tend to $ave a $arder time #it$ mat$*
1711
1700
Janet -$ibley Lyde' #nderstanding $uman Se%uality' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill Eublis$in& Co*' 1990G' p* /79*
1701
Op. cit.
170,
)&idem' p* /79*
1703
)&idem' pp* /79-/79*
170/
)&idem' p* 775*
1705
)&idem' p* /77*
1707
)&idem' p* 79/*
1707
)&idem' p* /77*
1709
Op. cit.
1709
Janet -$ibley Lyde' #nderstanding $uman Se%uality' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill Eublis$in& Co*' 1990G' p* 777*
1710
)&idem' pp* 53/-535*
1711
ar) Bo#den FKnight-Ridder NewspapersG' Iuess #$atP en' #omen t$in) di""erentlyH study tells us #$at #e already
)ne#' The Seattle Times' ,7 Jan 1995' p* A3*
137
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
?Jur "indin&s do not ans#er t$e :uestion o" #$et$er t$e di""eren%es are &eneti% or %ultural in ori&in'@ said
<uben Iur' t$e Eenn neuropsy%$olo&ist #$o #rote t$e report* ?A"ter all' %ulture s$apes t$e brain 1ust as t$e brain
s$apes %ulture*@
171,
+$e eviden%e su&&ests t$at' on avera&e' #omen are more in%lined to e(er%ise a portion o" t$e lo#er brain t$at
$elps re"ine t$e #ay emotions are e(pressed' and are also more li)ely t$an men to "le( t$e side o" t$e brain
asso%iated #it$ abstra%t t$in)in&' verbal memory and "le(ible problem-solvin&*
?!" you peel o"" t$e outer %orte(' you &et to t$e part o" t$e brain #e s$are #it$ reptiles and beasts o" prey' t$e
limbi% system* !t is made up o" several stru%tures' some older and more primitive t$an ot$ers* +$e most %omple(
portion o" t$e limbi% system is t$e %in&ulate &yrus' #$i%$ is t$ou&$t to be involved in re&ulatin& emotion*@ +$e
study %on%ludes t$at #omen tend to use t$e %in&ulate &yrus more t$an men do*
!n t$e %ase o" a&&ression' t$is more re%ently evolved portion o" t$e limbi% system seems to a""ord a broader
ran&e o" emotional options
1713
8usually meanin&less outside t$e %onte(t o" t$e so%ial "a%tors and environment in
#$i%$ it o%%urs*
171/
As #e try to understand8our so%iality' it is %riti%al to remember t$e limits o" t$e biolo&y* Kno#in& t$e
&enome' t$e %omplete COA se:uen%e' o" some suburban teena&er is never &oin& to tell us #$y t$at )id' in $is
a"ter-s%$ool %$ess %lub' $as developed a parti%ularly a&&ressive style #it$ $is bis$ops* And it %ertainly isn4t &oin&
to tell us mu%$ about t$e teena&er in some inner %ity $ell$ole #$o $as ta)en to mu&&in& people*
1715
171,
Op. cit.
1713
Op. cit.
171/
<obert -apols)y' +estosterone rulesH it ta)es more t$an 1ust a $ormone to ma)e a "ello#4s tri&&er "in&er it%$' Disco(er'
ar%$ 1997' 19F3G' p* 50*
1715
Op. cit.
139
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
$ystander -pathy
!n 197/ Ameri%a #as s$o%)ed by t$e murder o" t#enty-ei&$t-year-old Kittly Ienovese in Oe# 0or) City*
urder #as not un$eard o" in t$e ?bi& apple'@ but Kitty $ad s%reamed "or $elp as $er )iller $ad repeatedly stabbed
$er* Oearly "orty nei&$bors $ad $eard t$e %ommotion* any #at%$ed* Oobody $elped*
1717
Li&$ly mas%uline people mi&$t be e(pe%ted to try to ?ta)e %$ar&e@ o" most situations' and t$us be e(pe%ted to
be more li)ely to %ome to t$e aid o" ot$ers in emer&en%ies* Lo#ever' Cianne +i%e and <oy Baumeister F1995G
"ound t$at $i&$ly mas%uline sub1e%ts8#ere less li)ely t$an ot$ers to $elp ot$ers in distress* +$e resear%$ers
su&&est t$at $i&$ly mas%uline people may $ave a &reater "ear o" potential embarrassment and loss o" poise t$an
most people ; t$at is' t$ey $ave a ?tou&$er@ ima&e to prote%t* +$ese "ears t$en in$ibit t$em "rom intervenin& in
emer&en%ies*
1717
A sense o" personal responsibility in%reases t$e li)eli$ood o" $elpin&*
1719
Bystanders #$o believe t$at ot$ers
?&et@ #$at t$ey deserve may rationali.e not $elpin& by t$in)in& t$at a person #ould not be in trouble unless t$is
out%ome #as 1ust F2>erner' * J*' iller' C* +*' D Lolmes' J* I* F1975G* Ceservin& versus 1usti%e= A %ontemporary dilemma* !n >*
Ber)o#it. D K* Walster Feds*G' Ad(ances in e%perimental social psychology' Mol* 1,* Oe# 0or)= A%ademi% Eress
1719
3G*
17,0
:oN
Animals $ave multiple #ays o" %ryin& ?Lelp\@ t$at vary a%%ordin& to t$e type o" t$reat' a top s%ientist says*
17,1
Certain mon)eys even )no# $o# to lie' and "or t$e same reason t$at many $umans lie ; "or se(' said resear%$er
Eeter arler at a lan&ua&e %on"eren%e8at t$e Cali"ornia A%ademy o" -%ien%es in Iolden Iate Ear)*
!n A"ri%a' vervet mon)eys utter one type o" %ry #$en t$reatened by a sna)eH anot$er #$en atta%)ed by a
leopardH and yet anot$er #$en assaulted by an ea&le' said arler' #$o #or)s at UC-Cavis*
+$at #ay' arler e(plained' t$eir "ello# vervets #ill )no# #$ere to $ide= say' in a tree' "ar above t$e sna)eH or
in a bus$' #$ere t$e ea&le %an4t rea%$ t$em*
Also' "ield resear%$ers in A"ri%a $ave observed male vervet mon)eys attra%tin& "emales by utterin& t$e vervet
#ord "or ?"ood'@ arler said*
Just as some $uman "emales dis%over t$at t$eir blind date4s ?BW@ is a rustin& C$evy and $is ?$i&$-po#ered
1ob@ is t$e ni&$t s$i"t at82a "ast-"ood "ran%$ise'3 t$e "emale vervet rus$es up to t$e male and dis%overs t$e ?"ood@
is a t#i& or lea"*
17,,
!n t$e "ield' resear%$ers play tape re%ordin&s o" vervet mon)ey %ries to see $o# t$ese a""e%t real mon)eys* For
e(ample' t$ey4ll play a vervet mon)ey %ry t$at' translated into $uman Kn&lis$' means ?>oo) out\ -na)e\@
-tartled' t$e real-li"e mon)eys stand on t$eir $ind "eet and loo) around "or sna)es*
And #$en t$e s%ientists play a %ry t$at is mon)ey-spea) "or ?>oo) out\ Ka&le\@ t$e real-li"e mon)eys $ide in a
bus$ #$ere t$e ea&le %an4t rea%$ t$em*
-u%$ e(periments o""er ?&reat' %ompellin& $ints@ t$at t$e mon)eys4 %ries aren4t simply dumb re"le(es' arler
said* <at$er' t$ey4re t$e e:uivalent o" $uman #ords t$at re"er to spe%i"i% ob1e%ts in t$e environment' arler
says*
17,3
+ape re%ordin&s o" %ertain bird %alls s$o# t$ey %ontain intri%ate internal stru%ture* +$at stru%ture in%ludes ?a
simple library o" si( Fmusi%alG note types@ t$at t$e bird rearran&es into a %omple( variety o" son&s' $e said*
!n ot$er #ords' $e 1o)ed' animal ?tal)@ isn4t totally e(plained by #$at a %ollea&ue s%orns as ?t$e IJE t$eory@ ;
a t$eory t$at animal utteren%es are 1ust ?&runts o" pain*@
17,/
• • •
1717
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$ard D Wilson' 1997G' p* 777*
1717
)&idem' p* 779*
1719
)&idem' p* 779*
1719
)&idem' p* <-,,*
17,0
)&idem' p* 779*
17,1
Keay Cavidson' Animals %$attin& amon&st t$emselvesPH eavesdroppin& s%ientists at %on"eren%e ponder :uestions o"
%ritter %ommuni%ation' San "rancisco 7%aminer' 13 April 1997' 13,F15G' p* C-5*
17,,
Op. cit.
17,3
Op. cit.
17,/
Op. cit.
139
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
en lie to #omen* Women lie to men* And most people a&ree t$at some lyin& is even ne%essary ; to avoid
petty s:uabbles and &rease t$e #$eels o" a relations$ip*
17,5
But )ind lies %an be too mu%$ o" a &ood t$in& i" a man
$abitually says only #$at $is partner #ants to $ear* !t sets t$e #oman up "or rude a#a)enin&s*
17,7
+$ere are %ru%ial di""eren%es in t$e lies #omen and men tell* A 1991 study by psy%$olo&ist Bella * CeEaulo
o" t$e University o" Mir&inia "ound t$at #$en #omen lie' t$ey tend ot "o%us on ma)in& ot$ers "eel better*
17,7
At t$e $eart o" many men4s lies' $o#ever' is t$e male e&o* en lie to build t$emselves up or to %on%eal
somet$in&' CeEaulo says* A%%ordin& to psy%$olo&ist i%$ael >e#is'8men are more li)ely to lie to en$an%e
t$emselves t$an #omen are*
17,9
en8need to develop t$e %oura&e to drop t$e de"ense me%$anisms t$at bolster
t$eir e&os and pride' and sear%$ "or true intima%y #it$ t$eir mates*
17,9
Cavid Oyber&' pro"essor o" edu%ation at -tate University o" Oe# 0or) at Bu""alo' states' ?J%%asionally t$ere is
a lot to lose by tellin& t$e trut$' and somet$in& to be &ained by not tellin& t$e trut$*@
1730
Consistent lyin& ; even
about minor matters ; %an un&lue a marria&e 2Fdomesti% partners$ipG3* Women need to )no# #$at )ind o" lies to
#at%$ "or*
1731
en $ave a $ard time admittin& "ailure*
173,
A man #$o %an4t be $onest about $is "ailures ; at #or) or
else#$ere ; may end up blamin& $is #i"e #$en t$e &oin& &ets tou&$ in t$eir marria&e*
1733
+$e lies to ma)e a #oman "all in love or stay in love a%%ount "or many trut$-stret%$ers* !n a 1991 study'
psy%$olo&ist William +oo)e and an assistant at t$e -tate University o" Oe# 0or) Colle&e at Elattsbur&$ as)ed 110
students at t$e university to loo) at 99 de%eptive ta%ti%s ; su%$ as in"latin& one4s a%%omplis$ments and #earin&
desi&ner %lot$es to appear #ealt$y ; and reveal $o# o"ten t$ey #ere used in t$eir o#n relations$ips* en #ere
si&ni"i%antly more li)ely t$an #omen to use su%$ de%eptions*
A man8told $is &irl"riend' ?0ou4re a &reat %oo) ; mu%$ better t$an my mot$er*@ !n "a%t' $is mot$er is a %$e"
at a #ell-)no# Oe# 0or) restaurant*
173/
By t$e time $is &irl"irend dis%overed t$e trut$ ; #$en t$ey dined at $is
mot$er4s restaurant ; s$e #as so in love t$at s$e "or&ave $is over.ealous %ompliment*
Women sometimes aren4t as %autious as t$ey s$ould be #$en "lattered* !" a man insists t$at $is #i"e4s parents
are #onder"ul' s$e s$ould observe #$et$er $e a%tually #ants to spend time #it$ t$em* +$e same applies "or $er
do&' $er )ids or anyt$in& else $e says $e4s %ra.y about*
K&o-stro)in& statements t$at turn out to be total lies may be desi&ned to %over up opposite "eelin&s ; "or
instan%e' #$en a man says $e values $is #i"e4s #or) but a%tually doesn4t %onsider it important* -u%$ lies %an
si&nal serious problems a$ead' #$et$er it4s dealin& #it$ %$ild %are' va%ation plans or %areer moves*
1735
Jne o" t$e most lied-about sub1e%ts $as to be se(* Eer$aps t$at4s be%ause it4s t$e area #$ere #e are most
vulnerable* Lere a&ain men are li)ely to lie*
1737
!t4s important to remember t$at lies are at t$e $eart o" de%eptions'
and repeated de%eptions destroy intima%y*
<eal intima%y is only possible to t$e de&ree t$at #e %an be $onest about #$at #e are doin& and "eelin&*
1737
!" a
#oman "eels $er man is $oldin& ba%) on $is true se(ual "eelin&s' s$e needs to en%oura&e $im to be open* +al)in&
about $er o#n pre"eren%es is a &ood #ay to be&in* <eal intima%y depends on trut$ ; lovin&ly told ; espe%ially in
t$e bedroom*
1739
any men still "eel paternalisti% about t$e #omen t$ey love' so t$ey lie to spare t$em #orry* But t$ese lies %an
destroy t$e very sense o" %on"iden%e t$at t$e man $oped to %reate* And t$ey %an ma)e a #oman "eel s$e is not a
respe%ted partner in t$e relations$ip*
1739
+$ere are "e# t$in&s t$at trouble a man more t$an a #oman4s an&er ; or na&&in&' as $e %alls it ; so $e lies to
avoid a s%ene* !t is in ?$assle-prevention lyin&@ t$at men %an demonstrate t$eir &reatest versatility*
17/0
!"
$assle-prevention lies are o%%asional' t$e #oman %an i&nore t$em* But i" t$ey "orm a pattern' s$e needs to loo) at
#$at t$e real problems are*
17/1
17,5
Joy%e Brot$ers' >ies men tell #omen' Reader;s Digest' June 1997' 1/9F990G' p* /5*
17,7
)&idem' p* /9*
17,7
)&idem' p* /5*
17,9
)&idem' pp* /5-/7*
17,9
)&idem' p* 50*
1730
Op. cit.
1731
)&idem' p* /7*
173,
Op. cit.
1733
Op. cit.
173/
Op. cit.
1735
Op. cit.
1737
)&idem' pp* /7' /9*
1737
)&idem' p* 50*
1739
)&idem' p* /9*
1739
)&idem' p* /9*
17/0
)&idem' p* 50*
17/1
Op. cit.
1/0
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$e more :ui%)ly a #oman see)s t$e trut$ be$ind8lies' t$e sooner s$e %an remedy t$e relations$ip ; or' i"
ne%essary' end it*
17/,
A #oman may not be sure t$at #$at $er $usband is sayin&*
17/3
-$e s$ould listen %losely' not
only to #$at $e says' but also to $o# $e says it* A%%ordin& to CeEaulo' %$an&es in voi%e %an be si&ni"i%ant*
17//
?eP ! &raduated top o" my %lass*@
17/5
?J" %ourse ! li)e your "riends\@
17/7
?Loney' you4re t$e best*@
17/7
?Oo' !
%an4t %all you* ! don4t even )no# #$ere !4ll be*@
17/9
?+$at dress isn4t too ti&$t* !t loo)s &reat\@
17/9
?-ure' !4ll mo#
t$e la#n ; as soon as t$is %ri%) in my ba%) &oes a#ay*@
1750
?! #ould $ave s%rubbed t$e pots' but ! %ouldn4t "ind t$e
s%ourin& pads*@
1751
?!4ll ta)e t$e )ids to t$e par) ;#$en t$e #eat$er &ets ni%er*@
175,
?+$ey4re do#nsi.in& at #or)*
But don4t #orry* +$ey #on4t &et me*@
1753
“"es1 7 'elie5e in 'eing honest.”
“:o1 7 didn#t forget.”
“)he#s only a friend.” “%rust me.”
Contrary to #$at many #omen believe' it4s easy to develop a lon&-term' intimate and mutually "ul"illin&
relations$ip #it$ a &uy* J" %ourse' t$e &uy $as to be a >abrador retriever* Wit$ $uman &uys' it4s e(tremely
di""i%ult*
175/
We4re not tal)in& about di""erent #avelen&t$s $ere* We4re tal)in& about di""erent planets in %ompletely
di""erent solar systems* Klaine %annot %ommuni%ate meanin&"ully #it$ <o&er be%ause t$e sum total o" $is t$in)in&
about relations$ips is $uhP
Le $as a &uy brain' basi%ally an analyti%al' problem-solvin& or&an* !t4s not %om"ortable #it$ nebulous %on%epts
su%$ as love' need and trust* !" t$e &uy brain $as to "orm an opinion about anot$er person' it pre"ers to base it on
"a%ts' su%$ as $is or $er earned-run avera&e*
Women $ave trouble a%%eptin& t$is* +$ey are %onvin%ed t$at &uys must spend a %ertain amount o" time
t$in)in& about t$e relations$ip* Lo# %ould a &uy see anot$er $uman bein& day a"ter day' ni&$t a"ter ni&$t' and not
be t$in)in& about t$e relations$ipP
1755
A &uy in a relations$ip is li)e an ant standin& on top o" a tru%) tire* +$e ant is a#are t$at somet$in& lar&e is
t$ere' but $e %annot even dimly %ompre$end #$at it is* And i" t$e tru%) starts to roll' t$e ant #ill sense t$at
somet$in& important is $appenin&' but ri&$t up until $e rolls around to t$e bottom and is s:uas$ed' t$e only t$ou&$t
in $is tiny brain #ill be $uhP
+$us t$e Oo* 1 tip "or #omen to remember is never assume t$at you and $e $ave a relations$ip*
1757
• • •
Eopular %ulture bombards us #it$ e(amples o" animals bein& $umani.ed "or all sorts o" purposes' ran&in& "rom
edu%ation to entertainment to satire to propa&anda*
1757
We must as) ; W$at )ind o" ris) #e are #illin& to ta)e ;
t$e ris) o" underestimatin& animal mental li"e or t$e ris) o" overestimatin& itP +$ere is no simple ans#er*
1759
2For e(ample'3 #$en &uests arrive at t$e 0er)es <e&ional Erimate <esear%$ Center in Ieor&ia' #$ere 2Frans de
Waal3 #or)2s3' t$ey usually pay a visit to t$e %$impan.ees* And o"ten' #$en s$e sees t$em approa%$in& t$e
%ompound' an adult "emale %$impan.ee named Ieor&ia #ill $urry to t$e spi&ot to %olle%t a mout$"ul o" #ater*
-$e4ll t$en %asually min&le #it$ t$e rest o" t$e %olony be$ind t$e mes$ "en%e' and not even t$e s$arpest observer
17/,
)&idem' p* /9*
17/3
Op. cit.
17//
Op. cit.
17/5
)&idem' p* /7*
17/7
Op. cit.
17/7
Op. cit.
17/9
)&idem' p* /9*
17/9
)&idem' pp* /9-/9*
1750
)&idem' p* 50*
1751
Op. cit.
175,
Op. cit.
1753
)&idem' p* /9*
175/
Condensed "rom ?Cave Barry4s Complete Iuide to Iuys@ F1995G' Cave Barry' Reader;s Digest' Jan 1997' 1/9F995G' p*
109*
1755
)&idem' p* 111*
1757
Op. cit.
1757
Frans de Waal' Are #e in antr$opo-denialP Disco(er' July 1997' 19F7G' p* 5,*
1759
)&idem' p* 53*
1/1
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
#ill noti%e anyt$in& unusual* !" ne%essary' Ieor&ia #ill #ait minutes' #it$ $er lips %losed' until t$e visitors %ome
near* +$en t$ere #ill be s$rie)s' lau&$s' 1umps ; and sometimes "alls ; #$en s$e suddenly sprays t$em*
1759
2-ome3 #ould say t$at Ieor&ia #as not ?up to@ anyt$in& #$en s$e sprayed #ater on $er vi%tims* Far "rom
plannin& and e(e%utin& a nau&$ty plot' Ieor&ia merely "ell "or t$e irresistible re#ard o" $uman suprise and
annoyan%e*
1770
!" t#o %losely related spe%ies a%t in t$e same manner' t$eir underlyin& mental pro%esses are probably t$e same'
too*
1771
>ast summer' an ape saved a t$ree-year-old boy* +$e %$ild'
177,
8)no%)ed un%ons%ious by 2a3 ,0-"oot
"all
1773
8into t$e primate e($ibit at C$i%a&o4s Broo)"ield Too' #as s%ooped up and %arried to sa"ety by Binti Jua' an
ei&$t-year-old #estern lo#land "emale &orilla* +$e &orilla sat do#n on a lo& in a stream' %radlin& t$e boy in $er
lap and pattin& $is ba%)' and t$en %arried $im to one o" t$e e($ibit door#ays
177/
8#$ere s$e #as a%%ustomed to
seein& $er )eepers
1775
8be"ore layin& $im do#n and %ontinuin& on $er #ay*
1777
?We arrived about ,0 se%onds a"ter t$e boy $ad "allen'@ says %$ie" )eeper Crai& Cemitros* Cemitros4s %re#
used "ire $oses to dire%t Binti and t$e ot$er &orillas out o" t$e en%losure' a"ter #$i%$ paramedi%s tended to t$e
boy*
1777
Binti be%ame a %elebrity overni&$t' "i&urin& in t$e spee%$es o" leadin& politi%ians #$o $eld $er up as an
e(ample o" mu%$-needed %ompassion* -ome s%ientists #ere less lyri%al' $o#ever* +$ey %autioned t$at Binti4s
motives mi&$t $ave been less noble t$an t$ey appeared' pointin& out t$at $is &orilla $ad been raised by people and
$ad been tau&$t parental s)ills #it$ a stu""ed animal* +$e #$ole a""air mi&$t $ave been one o" a %on"used maternal
instin%t' t$ey %laimed*
+$e intri&uin& t$in& about t$is "lurry o" alternative e(planations #as t$at nobody #ould t$in) o" raisin& similar
doubts #$en a82boy3 saves a do& $it by a %ar* +$e res%uer mi&$t $ave &ro#n up around a )ennel' $ave been
praised "or bein& )ind to animals' $ave a nurturin& personality' yet #e #ould still see $is be$avior as an a%t o"
%arin&* W$y t$en' in Binti4s %ase' #as $er ba%)&round $eld a&ainst $erP8 2We are3 not sayin& t$at82#e3 )no#
#$at #ent t$rou&$ Binti4s $ead' but 2Waal does3 )no# t$at no one $ad prepared $er "or "or t$is )ind o" emer&en%y
and t$at it is unli)ely t$at' #it$ $er o#n 17-mont$-old in"ant on $er ba%)' s$e #as ?maternally %on"used*@ Lo# in
t$e #orld %ould su%$ a $i&$ly intelli&ent animal mista)e a blond boy in snea)ers and a red +-s$irt "or a 1uvenile
&orillaP A%tually' t$e bi&&est surprise #as $o# surprised most people #ere* -tudents o" ape be$avior did not "eel
t$at Binti $ad done anyt$in& unusual* Jar& Less' a -#iss &orilla e(pert' put it most bluntly' ?+$e in%ident %an be
sensational only "or people #$o don4t )no# a t$in& about &orillas*@
1779
Oo#' no doubt even a %asual reader #ill $ave noti%ed t$at in des%ribin&82animals43 a%tions'82#e $ave3
implied $uman :ualities su%$ as intentions' t$e ability to interpret82one4s3 o#n a#areness' and a tenden%y
to#ard
1779
8)indness
1770
82or3 mis%$ie"* 0et s%ienti"i% tradition says82#e3 s$ould avoid su%$ lan&ua&e ;82#e
are3 %ommittin& t$e sin o" ant$ropomorp$ism' o" turnin& non$umans into $umans* +$e #ord %omes "rom t$e
Iree)' meanin& ?$uman "orm'@ and it #as t$e an%ient Iree)s #$o "irst &ave t$e pra%ti%e a bad reputation*
1771
+$e
p$ilosop$er Qenop$anes ob1e%ted to Lomer4s poetry be%ause it treated Teus and t$e ot$er &ods as i" t$ey #ere
people* Lo# %ould #e be so arro&ant' Qenop$anes as)ed' as to t$in) t$e &ods s$ould loo) li)e usP !" $orses %ould
dra# pi%tures' $e su&&ested mo%)in&ly' t$ey #ould no doubt ma)e t$eir &ods loo) li)e $orses*
Oo#adays t$e intelle%tual des%endants o" Qenop$anes #arn a&ainst per%eivin& animals to be li)e ourselves*
+$ere are' "or e(ample' t$e be$aviorists' #$o "ollo# psy%$olo&ist B* F* -)inner in vie#in& t$e a%tions o" animals as
responses s$aped by re#ards and punis$ments rat$er t$an t$e result o" internal de%ision ma)in&' emotions' or
intentions*
177,
2But3 be$aviorists are not t$e only s%ientists #$o $ave avoided t$in)in& about t$e inner li"e o" animals* -ome
so%iobiolo&ists ; resear%$ers #$o loo) "or t$e roots o" be$avior in evolution ; depi%t animals as ?survival
ma%$ines@ and ?prepro&rammed robots@ put on Kart$ to serve t$eir ?sel"is$@ &enes* +$ere is a %ertain metap$ori%al
value to t$ese %on%epts' but it $as been ne&ated by t$e misunderstandin& t$ey4ve %reated* -u%$ lan&ua&e %an &ive
t$e impression t$at only &enes are entitled to an inner li"e* Oo more delusively ant$ropomorp$i.in& idea $as been
put "or#ard sin%e t$e pet-ro%) %ra.e o" t$e 1970s* !n "a%t' durin& evolution' &enes ; a mere bat%$ o" mole%ules ;
simply multiply at di""erent rates' dependin& on t$e traits t$ey produ%e in an individual* +o say t$at &enes are
sel"is$ is li)e sayin& a sno#ball &ro#in& in si.e as it rolls do#n a $ill is &reedy "or sno#*
1759
)&idem' p* 50*
1770
)&idem' pp* 50' 5,*
1771
)&idem' p* 53*
177,
Op. cit.
1773
Barbie Bis%$o"' Ientle Binti' Disco(er' Jan 1997' 19F1G' p* 7,*
177/
Frans de Waal' Are #e in antr$opo-denialP Disco(er' July 1997' 19F7G' p* 53*
1775
Barbie Bis%$o"' Ientle Binti' Disco(er' Jan 1997' 19F1G' p* 7,*
1777
Frans de Waal' Are #e in antr$opo-denialP Disco(er' July 1997' 19F7G' p* 53*
1777
Barbie Bis%$o"' Ientle Binti' Disco(er' Jan 1997' 19F1G' p* 7,*
1779
Frans de Waal' Are #e in antr$opo-denialP Disco(er' July 1997' 19F7G' p* 53*
1779
)&idem' p* 50*
1770
)&idem' p* 53*
1771
)&idem' p* 50*
177,
Op. cit.
1/,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
>o&i%ally' t$ese a&nosti% attitudes to#ard a mental li"e in animals %an be valid only i" t$ey4re applied to our
o#n spe%ies as #ell* 0et it4s un%ommon to "ind resear%$ers #$o try to study $uman be$avior as purely a matter o"
re#ard and punis$ment* Ces%ribe a person as $avin& intentions' "eelin&s' and t$ou&$ts and you most li)ely #on4t
en%ounter mu%$ resistan%e* Jur o#n "amiliarity #it$ our inner lives overrules #$atever some s%$ool o" t$ou&$t
mi&$t %laim about us* 0et despite t$is double standard to#ard be$avior in $umans and animals' modern biolo&y
leaves us no %$oi%e ot$er t$an to %on%lude t$at #e are animals* !n terms o" anatomy' p$ysiolo&y' and neurolo&y #e
are really no more e(%eptional t$an' say' an elep$ant or a platypus in its o#n #ay* Kven su%$ presumed $allmar)s
o" $umanity as #ar"are' politi%s' %ulture' morality' and lan&ua&e may not be %ompletely unpre%edented* For
e(ample' di""erent &roups o" #ild %$impan.ees employ di""erent te%$nolo&ies ; some "is$ "or termites #it$ sti%)s'
ot$ers %ra%) nuts #it$ stones ; t$at are transmitted "rom one &eneration to t$e ne(t t$rou&$ a pro%ess reminis%ent
o" $uman %ulture*
1773
+$e use o" tools #as on%e t$ou&$t to be a uni:uely $uman s)ill* Jver t$e past "e# de%ades' $o#ever'
%$impan.ees' sea otters' and even some birds $ave been seen usin& simple tools su%$ as t#i&s or ro%)s* But
per$aps t$e most sop$isti%ated non$uman tool user is "ound on t$e island o" Oe# Caledonia in t$e
sout$#estern Ea%i"i%* +$is past year' Iavin Lunt o" assey University in Oe# Tealand reported t$at %ro#s
on Oe# Caledonia ma)e and use t#o )inds o" tools*
Unli)e t$e simple' mostly unmodi"ied sti%)s or ro%)s "avored by ot$er animals' t$e %ro#s4 tools are
%are"ully sele%ted and s$aped* +$ey ma)e one ; a $oo)-s$aped sti%) ; by "irst pullin& a small bran%$ o"" a
plant* Oe(t t$ey strip t$e leaves and nibble at t$e sti%)4s end to "orm a $oo)' #$i%$ t$ey insert into
)not$oles in trees or beneat$ debris to "is$ "or millipedes' inse%ts' and ot$er prey* +$e %ro#s ma)e anot$er
tool by s$earin& o"" leaves "rom t$e sa#toot$-ed&ed Pandanus plant F8G' tearin& t$e leaves in su%$ a #ay
as to %reate a sturdy' #ed&e-s$aped strip' #$i%$ is also used to probe "or prey* ?+$e #ide end is $eld in t$e
mout$ #it$ t$e barbs runnin& a#ay'@ says Lunt* ?!t all seems very lo&i%al* +$ese &uys )no# #$at t$ey4re
doin&*@
177/
Iiven t$ese dis%overies' #e must be very %are"ul not to e(a&&erate t$e uni:ueness o" our spe%ies* +$e an%ients
apparently never &ave mu%$ t$ou&$t to t$is pra%ti%e' t$e opposite o" ant$ropomorp$ism' and so #e la%) a #ord "or
it* 2Waal3 #ill %all it ant$ropodenial= a blindness to t$e $umanli)e %$ara%teristi%s o" ot$er animals' or t$e
animal-li)e %$ara%teristi%s o" ourselves*
+$ose #$o are in ant$ropodenial try to build a bri%) #all to separate $umans "rom t$e rest o" t$e animal
)in&dom* +$ey %arry on t$e tradition o" <enY Ces%artes' #$o de%lared t$at #$ile $umans possessed souls' animals
#ere mere automatons* +$is produ%ed a serious dilemma #$en C$arles 2<obert3 Car#in %ame alon&= !" #e
des%ended "rom su%$ automatons' #ere #e not automatons ourselvesP !" not' $o# did #e &et to be so di""erentP
1775
As soon as #e admit t$at animals are "ar more li)e our relatives t$an li)e ma%$ines' t$en ant$ropodenial
be%omes impossible and ant$ropomorp$ism be%omes inevitable ; and s%ienti"i%ally a%%eptable* But not all "orms
o" ant$ropomorp$ism' o" %ourse*
1777
• • •
Alt$ou&$ a artian et$olo&ist #ould surely appre%iate t$e in&enuity o" eart$bound resear%$ers in devisin& and
testin& alternative $ypot$eses on t$e $elp"ul be$avior e($ibited by s%rub 1ays' lions' and baboons' $e or s$e #ould
probably "ind bein& stun& by a $oneybee even more intri&uin&* Alt$ou&$ t$e pain o" a bee stin& is attention-&ettin&'
a artian a#are o" t$e t$eory o" evolution by natural sele%tion #ould be even more impressed by t$e dis%overy t$at
t$e #or)er bee dies #$en $er stin&er %at%$es in t$e vi%tim4s s)in 2F-eeley' +* C* 1995* $oney&ee 7cology/ A Study o-
Adaptation in Social !i-e* Erin%eton University Eress' Erin%eton' OJ
1777
G3*
Jne does not $ave to be a artian to appre%iate t$at t$e evolution o" sterility and a readiness "or sui%idal
sel"-sa%ri"i%e by a #or)er %aste poses a "as%inatin& evolutionary problem* K(treme altruism o%%urs all t$e time in
%olonies o" termites' ants' some bees' and some #asps' %olonies t$at may %ontain $undreds or tens o" t$ousands o"
#or)ers t$at %annot reprodu%e but instead sa%ri"i%e t$emselves in many #ays "or t$e #el"are o" ot$ers in t$eir
&roup* For e(ample' t$ese so%ial &roups o"ten %ontain spe%ialists at repellin& predators' a soldier %aste #$ose
members are &enerally lar&er t$an ot$er #or)ers and #$ose sole "un%tion is to prote%t t$e %olony a&ainst dan&erous
invaders' su%$ a predatory ant or raidin& vertebrates* +$e rea%tion o" soldiers to intruders varies amon& spe%ies=
t$ey may stin& t$em' or %$op t$eir opponents in $al" #it$ s$earin& mandibles F8G' or snap t$em a#ay #it$ t$e
pe%uliar ?"in&er-snap@ mandibles possessed by some termite spe%ies* Jr t$ey may spray t$em #it$ an entan&lin&
resinous &lue in t$e manner o" nasute termites 2FWilson' K* J* 1971* The )nsect Societies* Larvard University Eress'
Cambrid&e' A
1779
G3* -everal spe%ies o" ants $ave #or)ers t$at pra%ti%e a variant on t$is t$eme* W$en t$reatened'
1773
)&idem' p* 5,*
177/
i%$ael * Abrams' Avis $abilis' Disco(er' Jan 1997' 19F1G' p* 70*
1775
Frans de Waal' Are #e in antr$opo-denialP Disco(er' July 1997' 19F7G' p* 5,*
1777
Op. cit.
1777
Jo$n Al%o%)' Animal 1eha(ior/ An 7(olutionary Approach' 5t$ ed* Fass= -inauer Asso%iates' !n%*' 1993G' p* 707*
1779
)&idem' p* 711*
1/3
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
t$e #or)ers rus$ at t$e enemy #$ile %onstri%tin& t$eir abdominal mus%les so violently t$at t$e body #all bursts and
a lar&e abdominal &land e(plodes* Ilue released "rom t$e &land entraps t$e intruders and prevent t$em "rom
$armin& t$e %olony F2as%$#it.' U*' and K* as%$#it.* 197/* Elat.ende Arbeiterinnen= Kine neue Art der Feindab#e$r bei so.ialen
Laut"l^&lern* Oecologia 1/=,99-,9/
1779
3G*
+$e sel"-sa%ri"i%in& be$avior o" soldiers is only one o" several )inds o" $elp"ul be$avior t$at dominates t$e lives
o" euso%ial F%aste-%ontainin&G inse%ts' as %an be seen by %ontrastin& t$e be$avior o" a solitary #asp #it$ t$at o" a
euso%ial #asp* A solitary #asp li)e Ammophilia no(ita %aptures a sin&le lar&e prey' di&s a nest' deposits t$e prey
in t$e nest' lays an e&& on t$e vi%tim' and %loses t$e nest as s$e leaves* +$e solitary "emale $as no %onta%t #it$ $er
pro&eny and re%eives no assistan%e in $er reprodu%tive e""orts "rom any ot$er individual*
1790
1779
)&idem' p* 599*
1790
)&idem' pp* 5,/-5,5*
1//
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+ornography
!n 1977 Con&ress establis$ed t$e Commission on Jbs%enity and Eorno&rap$yH
1791
8t$e %ommission issued its
report in 1970 F2Commission on Jbs%enity and Eorno&rap$y F1970G* The report o- the commission on o&scenity and pornography*
Oe# 0or)= Bantam Boo)s
179,
3G* +$e basi% %on%lusion o" t$e report #as t$at porno&rap$y did not $ave bad e""e%ts on
people* -oon a"ter' t$ere appeared a report o" t$e ?Cenmar) K(periment@H Cenmar) %ompletely le&ali.ed
porno&rap$y' and t$e result seemed to be a redu%tion in se( %rimes' notably %$ild molestation F2Kut%$ins)y' Berl*
F1973G* +$e e""e%t o" easy bavailability o" porno&rap$y on t$e in%iden%e o" se( %rimes= t$e Canis$ e(perien%e* Journal o- Social )ssues'
,9' 173-191
1793
3G*
179/
Until relatively re%ently' t$e prevailin& vie# amon& so%ial s%ientists #as t$at porno&rap$y does not "oster
a&&ressive or deviant be$avior amon& adoles%ents or adults* +$is #as also t$e %on%lusion o" t$e Eresidental
Commission on Jbs%enity and Eorno&rap$y F1971G* Lo#ever' more re%ent resear%$ $as s$o#n t$at eroti% material
%an in"luen%e a&&ressive be$avior in a variety o" #ays* -in%e $uman se(uality and a&&ression are bot$ :uite
%omple( "orms o" be$avior' it is $ardly suprisin& t$at t$e intera%tion o" t$e t#o s$ould also be e(traordinarily
%omple(*
1795
+$ere is a &reat deal o" resear%$ su&&estin& t$at a&&ressive ima&es o" #omen in porno&rap$y Ft$e most
prevalent )indG are stron&ly related to a&&ression a&ainst #omen in real li"e F2Connerstein' K* F1990G* A&&ressive eroti%a
and violen%e a&ainst #omen* Journal o- Personality and Social Psychology' 39' ,79-,77H
1797
Connerstein' K* F199,G* A&&ressive
porno&rap$y= Can it in"luen%e a&&ression a&ainst #omen* Primary Pre(ention and Psychopathology' 7H
1797
Connerstein' K*' Ber)o#it.'
>* F1991G* Mi%tim rea%tions in a&&ressive eroti% "ilms as a "a%tor in violen%e a&ainst #omen* Journal o- Personality and Social
Psychology' /1' 710-7,/H
1799
-ilbert' * L*' D Eines' A* * F199/G* Eorno&rap$y and se(ual abuse o" #omen* Se% Roles' 10'
957-979
1799
3G* For e(ample' even nonan&ered male %olle&e students s$o#ed an in%rease in a&&ression usin& ele%tri%
s$o%) to#ard a "emale in a lab settin& a"ter vie#in& a&&ressive-eroti% "ilms* -u%$ "ilms in%reased levels o"
a&&ression to#ard men' too' but not as mu%$* Furt$ermore' t$ere is a stron& relations$ip bet#een e(posure to
a&&ressive porno&rap$y and arousability to rape s%enes' a%%eptan%e o" rape myt$s' and sel"-reported li)eli$ood to
%ommit rape F2Briere' J*' Corne' -*' <unta' *' D alamut$' O* F199/' Au&*G* The rape arousal in(entory/ Predicting actual and
potential se%ual aggression in a uni(ersity population* Eaper presented at t$e meetin& o" t$e Ameri%an Esy%$olo&i%al Asso%iation'
+oronto' CanadaH
1790
Connerstein' K* F199,G* A&&ressive porno&rap$y= Can it in"luen%e a&&ression a&ainst #omen* Primary Pre(ention
and Psychopathology' 7
1791
3G* <epeated e(posure to violent porno&rap$y results in redu%ed ne&ative rea%tions Fsu%$ as
an(iety and depressionG to t$e material and to redu%ed sensitivity to "emale vi%tims o" violen%e in ot$er %onte(ts
F2>in.' C*' Connerstein' K*' D Eenrod' -* F199/G* +$e e""e%ts oo" multiple e(posure to "ilmed violen%e a&ainst #omen* Journal o-
.ommunications' 3/F3G' 130-1/7
179,
3G*
1793
!t appears t$at as eroti% stimuli be%ome more arousin& Fespe%ially as pre%oital and %oital a%tivity are depi%tedG'
a&&ressive be$avior in%reases F2eyer' +* E* 197,* +$e e""e%ts o" se(ually arousin& and violent "ilms on a&&ressive be$avior*
Journal o- Se% Research' 9=3,/-333H
179/
Tillmann' C* Loyt' J* >*' and Cay' K* C* 197/* -tren&t$ and duration o" t$e e""e%t o"
a&&ressive' violent' and eroti% %ommuni%ations on subse:uent a&&ressive be$avior* .ommunication Research' 1=,97-307H
1795

Connerstein and Lallam' J* 1979* Fa%ilitatin& e""e%ts o" eroti%a on a&&ression a&ainst #omen* Journal o- Personality and Social
Psychology' 37=1,70-1,77
1797
3G* !n %ontrast' at a lo# level o" arousal F"or instan%e' p$oto&rap$s o" nudesG' eroti%
stimuli a%t to lo#er t$e intensity o" a&&ressive rea%tions F2Connerstein' K*' Connerstein' *' and Kvans' <* 1975* Kroti%
stimuli and a&&ression= Fa%ilitation or in$ibition* Journal o- Personality and Social Psychology' 3,=,37-,//H
1797
Baron' <* A* 1977*
$uman Aggression* Oe# 0or)= Elenum EressH
1799
Baron' <* A* and Bell' E* A* 1977* -e(ual arousal and a&&ression by males= K""e%ts
o" type o" eroti% stimuli prior to provo%ation* Journal o- Personality and Social Psychology' 33=,/5-,55
1799
3G* Apparently mild
eroti% materials are e(perien%ed by most people as $edoni% and pleasin& F2Tillmann' C* and -apols)y' B* -* 1977* W$at
1791
Janet -$ibley Lyde' #nderstanding $uman Se%uality' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill Eublis$in& Co*' 1990G' p* 511*
179,
)&idem' p* 777*
1793
)&idem' p* 777*
179/
)&idem' p* 511*
1795
James W* Mander Tanden' Social Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= <andom Louse' !n%*' 1991G' pp* ,7/-,75*
1797
-usan A* Baso#' 3ender Stereotypes/ Traditions and Alternati(es' ,nd ed* FCA= Broo)sRCole Eubl* Co*' 1997G' p* 333*
1797
Op. cit.
1799
Op. cit.
1799
)&idem' p* 370*
1790
)&idem' pp* 3,5-3,7*
1791
)&idem' p* 333*
179,
)&idem' p* 353*
1793
)&idem' p* ,79*
179/
James W* Mander Tanden' Social Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= <andom Louse' !n%*' 1991G' p* /79*
1795
)&idem' p* /79*
1797
)&idem' p* /55*
1797
Op. cit.
1799
)&idem' p* //9*
1799
Op. cit.
1/5
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
mediates t$e e""e%t o" mild eroti%a on annoyan%e and $ostile be$avior in malesP Journal o- Personality and Social Psychology'
35=597-597
1700
3G*
1701
Lei&$tened arousal o" any sort serves to e(a&&erate any be$avior t$at is already prevalent at t$e time*
170,

-eymour Fes$ba%$ and Oeal alamut$ F1979G
1703
8ar&ue t$at t$e tie bet#een eroti% arousal and a&&ression derives
"rom t$e %ultural lin)a&e Western so%ieties ma)e bet#een t$e t#o be$aviors* Common taboos a""e%t se( and
a&&ression and $en%e &enerali.e "rom one to t$e ot$er*
170/
Cepi%tion o" violen%e in porno&rap$y %an be $arm"ul*
1705

Miolent porn in%reas2es3 a&&ressive be$avior as #ell as a""e%t2s3 attitudes and per%eptions o" violen%e to#ard
#omen*
1707
K(posure to a&&ressive porno&rap$y does in%rease males4 a&&ression to#ard #omen' as #ell as
a""e%tin& males4 attitudes' ma)in& t$em more a%%eptin& o" violen%e a&ainst #omen*
1707
Curin& t$e <ea&an administration' Attorney Ieneral Kd#in eese appointed a %ommission to reevaluate t$e
issue o" porno&rap$y' updatin& t$e 1970 presidential %ommission4s report* +$e eese %ommission4s report #as
publis$ed in 1997 and attra%ted #idespread media attention F2Attorney Ieneral4s Commission on Eorno&rap$y* F1997G*
"inal report* Was$in&ton' CC= U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%e
1709
3G* +$e %ommission $eard testimony "rom many sour%es'
in%ludin& 1ud&es' a%tivists' vi%tims' and so%ial s%ientists su%$ as Kd#ard Connerstein' and revie#ed many resear%$
studies*
1709
+$e eese %ommission4s re%ommendations "or restri%tion o" porno&rap$y ma2d3e no sense* +$ey
s$ould $ave been %on%erned about violen%e in t$e media' not se(*
1710
• • •
Eorno&rap$y' $o#ever' %onsists o" t$e redu%tion o" t$e identity to t$e &eneri% %onse:uen%es o" desire* As
%ounterintuitive as it may sound' porno&rap$y $yperso%iali.es se( t$e #ay aut$oritarian re&imes $yperso%iali.e t$e
%ommunity ; into monotonous rituals un"oldin& alon& ine(orable lines* +$ere is' in "a%t' not$in& se%ret about
porno&rap$y* !t is t$e publi% %ari%ature o" a private a%t*
1711
• • •
Iunmen stormed a brot$el8and )illed seven people' in%ludin& t#o prostitutes and t$eir madame' poli%e
said*
171,
2+$e d3eputy 2p3oli%e 2%3$ie"8said t$e atta%) #as spar)ed by t$e ?massa&e parlor@ o#ner4s "ailure to pay a
debt to an or&ani.ation t$at supplied $er #it$ youn& prostitutes*
1713
,hild +ornography
+$e pro"it motives are stron&* An advertisement in t$e ma&a.ine Screw o""ered 6,00 "or youn& &irl-%$ild
models' and do.ens o" parents responded* A reporter %overin& t$e s%ene said=
-ome parents appeared in t$e movie #it$ t$eir %$ildrenH ot$ers merely allo#ed t$eir %$ildren to $ave se(*
Jne little &irl' a&e 11' #$o ran %ryin& "rom t$e bedroom a"ter bein& told to $ave se( #it$ a man o" /0
protested' ?ommy ! %an4t do it*@ ?0ou $ave to do it'@ $er mot$er ans#ered* ?We need t$e money*@ And
o" %ourse t$e little &irl did* F2Anson' <obert -* F1977' J%tober ,5G* The San "rancisco .hronicle
171/
3G
-ome ma1or' #ell-)no#n "ilms %ould easily be %lassi"ied as )iddie porn* Ta%i Dri(er "eatured Jodie Foster as a
1,-year-old prostitute* And Pretty 1a&y laun%$ed t$e %areer o" Broo)e -$ields' playin& t$e role o" a 1,-year-old
brot$el prostitute in Oe# Jrleans* Broo)e $ersel" #as 1, years old #$en t$e "ilm #as made*
1700
)&idem' p* /79*
1701
)&idem' p* ,75*
170,
Op. cit.
1703
Op. cit.
170/
Op. cit.
1705
Op. cit.
1707
Janet -$ibley Lyde' #nderstanding $uman Se%uality' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill Eublis$in& Co*' 1990G' p* 51,*
1707
)&idem' p* 513*
1709
)&idem' p* 77,*
1709
)&idem' p* 513*
1710
Op. cit.
1711
>ee -ie&el' Ce -ade4s dau&$tersH in t$e ne# eroti% #ritin& by #omen' se( is a %ruel' even murderous business' and
men' "or t$e most part' are brutes' The Atlantic onthly' Feb 1997' ,79F,G' p* 97*
171,
Around t$e World' adame' prostitutes amon& 7 )illed in s$ootout at brot$el' The Seattle Times' 1, Jan 1997' 15F,G' p*
A13*
1713
Op. cit.
171/
Janet -$ibley Lyde' #nderstanding $uman Se%uality' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill Eublis$in& Co*' 1990G' p* 77,*
1/7
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
A ma1or study o" o""enders Ft$e people #$o produ%e %$ild porno&rap$yG and vi%tims pro"iled t$e o""ender as
"ollo#s= all o" t$e 79 o""enders studied #ere male* +$ey ran&ed in a&e "rom ,0 to 70' #it$ an avera&e 2FmeanG3 a&e
o" /3* And 39 per%ent $ad an already establis$ed relations$ip #it$ t$e %$ild be"ore t$e illi%it a%tivity be&an ; t$ey
#ere "amily "riends or relatives' nei&$bors' tea%$ers' or %ounselors F2Bur&ess' Ann W* F199/G* .hild pornography and se%
rings* >e(in&ton' A= >e(in&ton Boo)s FC* C* Leat$G
1715
3G*
1717
• • •
!n t$e video-&ame parlors o" Japan' players #it$ 90 %ents to spend %an battle villains #it$ )arate %$ops' or t$ey
%an strip t$e $i&$-s%$ool uni"orm "rom a youn& teen until s$e is topless*
?! #asn4t lu%)y'@ says t$e %omputer-&enerated ima&e o" a &irl o" 1/' as s$e bares $ersel" to t$ree boys #$o 1ust
#on a round o" video ma$-1on&& at a +o)yo &ame %enter*
+$e Japanese $i&$-s%$ool uni"orm ; "or &irls it is a sailor top and s$ort s)irt ; is a visible symbol o" t$e
nation4s %ommitment to edu%ation* But it also $as be%ome a ta#dry prop used by a so%iety t$at $as a predile%tion
"or turnin& youn& &irls into se( ob1e%ts*
1717
!n every Japanese boo)stand and %onvenien%e store' porno&rap$i% ma&a.ines "eature le#d p$otos o" &irls in
$i&$-s%$ool sailor uni"orms*
Jn television' one o" t$e most popular %$ildren4s %artoon %$ara%ters is ?-ailor oon'@ a $i&$-s%$ool &irl in
uni"orm #$o "i&$ts %rime and ine(pli%ably appears na)ed in $er bat$tub durin& t$e endin& %redits*
1719
?+$e people #$o $ave t$e po#er are men' but t$eir se(uality is pretty immature'@ said Oao$ide 0amamoto'
dire%tor o" t$e Japan !nstitute "or <esear%$ in Kdu%ation and t$e Culture o" Luman -e(uality*
-e( stories are popular every#$ere in t$e #orld' o" %ourse' and nearly every so%iety $as porno&rap$y* But by
Western standards' Japan appears uni:ue "or %ondonin& publi% displays o" ra# se(ual ima&ery and "or blurrin& t$e
lines bet#een adult and %$ild porno&rap$y*
Clot$in& stores in +o)yo t$in) not$in& o" displayin& provo%ative p$oto&rap$s o" topless preteen &irls in
sedu%tive' adult poses' and residential mailbo(es &et stu""ed #it$ ads "or se( servi%es t$at are illustrated #it$
&rap$i% p$otos o" $i&$-s%$ool &irls per"ormin& se( a%ts*
1719
2FAmeri%a routinely displays na)ed in"ants*G3
!t is open to t$eory #$y Japanese men "ind very youn& &irls se(ually attra%tive* K(perts on se(uality and
#omen4s ri&$ts say t$at as #omen $ave be&un to assert t$emselves' t$e traditional la%) o" e:uality bet#een t$e
se(es $as le"t men intimidated by stron& #omen' and t$ere"ore more interested in youn& &irls*
17,0
2FA valid
t$eory*G3
+$e less analyti%al reason8men are "i(ated on youn& &irls is t$at no one $as stopped t$em*
?en don4t t$in) about $uman ri&$ts or anyt$in& else related to #omenH t$ey loo) at t$em as ob1e%ts'@
0amamoto said*
17,1
• • •
-$ortly be"ore / a*m* on ay ,5' a se%urity %amera in a Erimm' Oev*' %asino 2FErimadonna Casino
17,,
G3
%aptured 7-year-old -$erri%e !verson ; on $er o#n as $er "at$er &ambled nearby 2F!s a %asino %omple( a reasonable
pla%e "or %$ildrenP
17,3
G3 ; playin& $ide-and-see) in a video ar%ade #it$ Jeremy -tro$meyer' 19' a %olle&e-bound
$i&$ s%$ool student senior "rom >on& Bea%$' Cali"* oments later' #$en -$erri%e das$ed into t$e #oman4s room'
-tro$meyer "ollo#ed* +$ere' alle&edly' $e raped and stran&ed $er*
17,/
1715
)&idem' p* 775*
1717
)&idem' p* 509*
1717
i%$ael A* >ev F.hicago Tri&uneG' !n%reasin&ly' youn& &irls are se( ob1e%ts in Japan' The Seattle Times' 15F9G' p* A17*
1719
Op. cit.
1719
Op. cit.
17,0
Op. cit.
17,1
Op. cit.
17,,
C$ristop$err <eynolds F!os Angeles TimesG' Casinos and %$ildren= no one need be a loser' The Seattle Times' ,, June
1997' 15F,5G' p* K5*
17,3
Op. cit.
17,/
aria K"timiades' -usan C$ristian Iouldin&' Ant$ony Cui&an-Cabrera' Con Campbell' D Jane -ims Eodesta' W$y are
)ids )illin&P' People 8ee'ly' ,3 June 1997' /7F,/G' p* /9*
1/7
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
A "riend8says t$at earlier t$is year' -tro$meyer $ad s$o#ed $im an e(tensive %olle%tion o" porno&rap$i%
p$otos %ulled "rom t$e !nternet* ?W$at stru%) me most #as t$e little %$ildren'@ 2t$e "riend3 says* ?! t$ou&$t it #as
&ross' and $e 1ust lau&$ed*@
17,5
,y'ersmut
Eoli%e departments are startin& to use t$eir o#n ?%yber %ops*@ Eoli%e say t$ey are seein& more online %rime'
"or%in& t$em to train dete%tives to %at%$ %riminals in %yberspa%e*
17,7
!n t$e8o""i%es o" Ero1e%t E' t$e Eorno&rap$y
Crime Unit'8operatin& 2a3 %omputer is 2a dete%tive'38t$e #ords ?CJE-= +$e lar&est street &an& in t$e #orld@
embla.oned on $is +-s$irt* 2Le3 $as a "ormidable 1ob= si"tin& t$rou&$ up to 30'000 %omputer "iles' about 1*3
&i&abytes o"8%$ild porno&rap$y*
17,7
Federal aut$orities8say t$ey $ave
17,9
8indi%ted 17
17,9
8members o" a %$ild-porn rin& t$at sta&ed a live
?p$oto-s$oot@ on t$e !nternet' durin& #$i%$ a 10-year-old &irl #as p$oto&rap$ed in se(ually e(pli%it poses t$at
members re:uested*
As t#o men "ondled and p$oto&rap$ed t$e &irl'8aut$orities alle&e' "ive ot$ers submitted t$eir re:uests via
%omputer "rom around t$e United -tates and Finland*
1730
Federal prose%utors8said it is t$e "irst %ase t$ey $ave
seen in #$i%$ pi%tures #ere made on re:uest and transmitted in almost ?real time*@
1731
+$e indi%tment alle&es t$e
17 men belon&ed to an ele%troni% %$ild-porn rin& %alled ?t$e Jr%$id Club*@
!n addition to t$e live session' t$e indi%timent says' members o" t$e rin& used t$e !nternet to e(%$an&e ot$er
$omemade p$otos and video %lips o" ot$er %$ildren en&a&ed in se(ually e(pli%it a%ts* !n one in%ident'8t$e
indi%tment says' a %lub member in t$e id#est videotaped anot$er man en&a&in& in se(ually e(pli%it %ondu%t #it$
a 5-year-old*
173,
+$ere are more t$an 150 video %lips' some o" t$em $orri"yin&= in one' a %$ild rapes anot$er #$ile
t$e one bein& raped %ries out in pain*
1733
Callin& it ?a very serious and very tra&i% %ase'@ Assistant U*-* Attorney +ony West said t$e indi%tment
illustrates $o# ne# te%$nolo&y %an be %o-opted by t$ose #$o #ould use it to abuse and e(ploit ot$ers*
173/
?+$ere
#ill be t$ose #$o try to e(ploit it and use it in t$e most base #ay*@
1735
?+$ere are tremendous numbers o" #ays in #$i%$ to you %an $ide yoursel" on t$e !nternet'@ says Jim Carroll'
%o-aut$or o" t$e Canadian !nternet Landboo)* ?And t$e problem is only &oin& to &et #orse* !" t$e poli%e t$in) t$ey
$ave a %$allen&e today' t$ey $aven4t seen anyt$in& yet*@
1737
Eedop$iles "ind ot$ers #$o s$are t$eir interests*
1737
• • •
17,5
aria K"timiades' -usan C$ristian Iouldin&' Ant$ony Cui&an-Cabrera' Con Campbell' D Jane -ims Eodesta' W$y are
)ids )illin&P' People 8ee'ly' ,3 June 1997' /7F,/G' p* /9*
17,7
A%ross t$e U-A= ne#s "rom every state' #SA Today0 ,/ Feb 1997' 15F113G' p* 9A*
17,7
Eeter Kuitenbrou#er' A mountain o" smut= poli%e ma)e an arrest in a %$ild porn rin& on t$e !nternet' ac.lean;s' 19
Oov 1997' 109F/7G' p* 71F1G*
17,9
Brandon Bailey' Feds arrest 13 t$ey say operated %$ild-porn rin& on t$e !nternet' Knight- Ridder:Tri&une Ser(ice' 17
July 1997*
17,9
Eeter Kuitenbrou#er' A mountain o" smut= poli%e ma)e an arrest in a %$ild porn rin& on t$e !nternet' ac.lean;s' 19
Oov 1997' 109F/7G' p* 71F1G*
1730
Brandon Bailey' Feds arrest 13 t$ey say operated %$ild-porn rin& on t$e !nternet' Knight- Ridder:Tri&une Ser(ice' 17
July 1997*
1731
Op. cit.
173,
Op. cit.
1733
Eeter Kuitenbrou#er' A mountain o" smut= poli%e ma)e an arrest in a %$ild porn rin& on t$e !nternet' ac.lean;s' 19
Oov 1997' 109F/7G' p* 71F1G*
173/
Brandon Bailey' Feds arrest 13 t$ey say operated %$ild-porn rin& on t$e !nternet' Knight- Ridder:Tri&une Ser(ice' 17
July 1997*
1735
Op. cit.
1737
Eeter Kuitenbrou#er' A mountain o" smut= poli%e ma)e an arrest in a %$ild porn rin& on t$e !nternet' ac.lean;s' 19
Oov 1997' 109F/7G' p* 71F1G*
1737
Op. cit.
1/9
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
2A3 $u&e %$ild porno&rap$y business run by Ameri%ans based in 2A%apul%o'
1739
3 e(i%o8#as s$ut do#n by
Ameri%an and e(i%an poli%e in ay 1997*
1739
• • •
U- and e(i%an la#-en"or%ement aut$orities announ%e t$e brea)-up o" a %omputeri.ed %$ild-porno&rap$y
business in +i1uana t$at distributed materials to at least ,'000 subs%ribers in t$e United -tates and Canada* +$e
alle&ed mastermind o" t$e %omputer bulletin board' 50-year-old <obert Copella o" C$i%a&o' $as been arrested in
+i1uana and deported to t$e United -tates' #$ere $e is bein& $eld in -an Cie&o on "ederal %$ar&es o" transportation
o" %$ild porno&rap$y* +#o more suspe%ts are at lar&e* Copella "led to t$e e(i%an %ity in 1993 a"ter a #arrant #as
issued "or $is arrest in C$i%a&o* Copella alle&edly %$ar&ed 6,50 per subs%ription' plus additional "ees' "or
transmittin& $ard-%ore porno&rap$i% ima&es via %omputer net#or)s*
17/0
• • •
A "ormer i%roso"t Corp* employee #as "ound &uilty 2January 153 o" possessin& %$ild porno&rap$y t$at $e
%opied "rom t$e !nternet #$ile at #or)*
i%$ael -eaman' 39' #as %onvi%ted o" one %ount o" possessin& %$ild porno&rap$y by Kin& County -uperior
Court Jud&e i%$ael -pearman "ollo#in& a ben%$ trial*
17/1
Usin& $is %omputer at i%roso"t' -eaman %olle%ted
more t$an ,'500 "iles o" p$oto&rap$s o" youn& %$ildren in se(ual poses or bein& se(ually abused' %ourt papers
said*
17/,
Anot$er i%roso"t employee' <onald <osul' 31' also is %$ar&ed #it$ one %ount o" possessin& %$ild
porno&rap$y*
17/3
<osul alle&edly used i%roso"t e:uipment to manu"a%ture a CC-<om 2si%3 dis) %ontainin& do.ens
o" p$oto&rap$s and movies o" %$ild porno&rap$y' prose%utors said*
17//
-eaman and <osul' #$o #ere %$ar&ed last Au&ust' #ere bot$ "ired by i%roso"t in J%tober 1995 a"ter a
%ompany investi&ation*
17/5
2-eaman3 "a%es up to a year in 1ail*
17/7
A "ormer i%roso"t en&ineer' %onvi%ted o" usin& $is %ompany %omputer to a%%ess and %opy p$oto&rap$s
o" youn& %$ildren in se(ually e(pli%it poses' #as senten%ed 2January ,/3 to 70 days o" detention in a Kin&
County #or)-release pro&ram*
i%$ael -eaman' 37' may spend only ,0 days in detention' $o#ever' sin%e $al" o" $is 70-day senten%e
%an be %onverted into %ommunity servi%e* Le may also re%eive anot$er 10-day redu%tion "or &ood be$avior*
-eaman #as ordered to provide a total o" 1, mont$s o" %ommunity servi%e' to %ontinue re%ivin&
%ounselin&' to #rite a $istory o" $is e(perien%es resultin& "rom $is %riminal a%tivity and $is %onvi%tion' and
to pay %ourt %osts and %ompensation to vi%tims*
17/7
!" %onvi%ted' <osul also "a%es up to a year in 1ail*
17/9
!n separate unrelated %ases' William Eo#ell' 5,' o" <enton' and C#i&$t Lunter' /9' also #ere %$ar&ed last
Au&ust #it$ usin& $ome %omputers to &ain a%%ess to and e(%$an&e %$ild porno&rap$y*
Oeit$er #as %onne%ted #it$ i%roso"t*
Lunter' #$o prose%utors a%%use o" alle&edly tradin& %$ild porn #i$ Eo#ell' also "a%es t#o %ounts o" inde%ent
e(posure "or alle&edly e(posin& $imsel" to %$ildren on s%$ool buses*
1739
Julia Ereston' A%apul%o4s smut rin&= t$e %$ildren rememberH e(i%an boys #$o #ere alle&edly involved in $u&e %$ild
porno&rap$y business run by Ameri%ans based in e(i%o t$at #as s$ut do#n by Ameri%an and e(i%an poli%e in ay
1997' The New 9or' Times' 9 Au& 1997' 1/5' p* A1*
1739
Op. cit.
17/0
-ebastian <otella' Computeri.ed %$ild porno rin& bro)en' !os Angeles Times' ,/ -ep 199/' 113' p* A31*
17/1
Carrell Ilover' Former i%roso"t employee %onvi%ted in !nternet %$ild porno&rap$y %ase' Seattle Post-)ntelligencer0 17
Jan 1997' p* C7*
17/,
Op. cit.
17/3
Op. cit.
17//
Op. cit.
17/5
Op. cit.
17/7
Op. cit.
17/7
Ea%i"i% a&a.ine' an senten%ed in se( %ase' The Seattle Times' ,7 Jan 1997' 15F/G' p* B3*
17/9
Carrell Ilover' Former i%roso"t employee %onvi%ted in !nternet %$ild porno&rap$y %ase' Seattle Post-)ntelligencer0 17
Jan 1997' p* C7*
1/9
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Bot$ Eo#ell and Lunter "ailed to appear "or t$eir arrai&nments and 6300'000 #arrants $ave been issued "or
t$eir arrests*
17/9
• • •
FB! a&ents %ondu%ted sear%$es in ,0 %ities as part o" a nation#ide investi&ation into t$e use o" %omputer on-line
servi%es and t$e !nternet to lure %$ildren into illi%it se( and to distribute %$ild porno&rap$y* A&ents in 51 o" t$e 57
FB!4s 57 "ield o""i%es $ave parti%ipated alon& #it$ lo%al or state poli%e in Florida' aryland' Mir&inia and
Was$in&ton' C*C*' said FB! spo)esperson >arry Faust* Ce%isions on arrests #ill be made a"ter prose%utors revie#
t$e sei.ed materials* !n t$ree years' t$e probe $as resulted in 90 arrests and 77 "elony %onvi%tions*
1750
• • •
A Kin& County -uperior Court 1ud&e 2ay 303 de%lined to release "rom 1ail a Kir)land plasti% sur&eon %$ar&ed
#it$ various se( %rimes a&ainst $is patients*
1751
2Ire&ory Alan3 Jo$nson is %$ar&ed #it$ se%ond-de&ree rape and
assault "or alle&edly &ivin& anest$esia to a patient in order to $ave se( #it$ $er*
Le is also %$ar&ed #it$ t#o %ounts o" inde%ent liberties and one %ount o" possession o" %$ild porno&rap$y* Le
is a%%used o" ta)in& inde%ent liberties #it$ t#o #omen #$o #ent to $im "or breast implants*
175,
)la5ery
We live our lives in %ubi%les $idden #it$in #indo#less ma.es* Oot so deep inside us' primeval %reatures
%rou%$' yearnin& "or t$e #arm $and o" sunli&$t on our ba%)s' t$e #ave o" #ind in our $air' t$e breadt$ o" vistas
be"ore our eyes*
But maybe some plasti% and a "e# "luores%ent bulbs #ill su""i%e*
1753
• • •
?Beauty pa&ents in parti%ular blur t$e lines bet#een #$at is %ute and #$at is sensual'@ said >aura Eappano' a
visitin& s%$olar at t$e urray <esear%$ Center at <ad%li"" Colle&e*
175/
M*J* >a Cour' publis$er o" Ea&eant >i"e ma&a.ine' said= ?!t4s &lit. and &litter' a little bit o" Lolly#ood* +$at4s
#$at t$e little )ids #ant*@
But t$eir #ants pale beside t$e interests o" parents and a multimillion-dollar industry o" &roomin& and
s$o#%asin&*
?!t4s t$e bi& )ids ; t$e mot$ers ; #antin& t$e little )ids to &et t$e &lory'@ said +ed Co$en' president o" World
Ea&eants' !n%*' #$i%$ publis$es an international dire%tory o" pa&eants* Ameri%an pa&eants' Co$en said' represent a
billion-dollar-a-year business*
1755
-ome "eminists say t$at se(ism and %ommer%ialism mean t$at a %ountry t$at sear%$es "or t$e bo&eyman in its
%$ildren4s %losets "ails to see t$e real ones*
?+$e %ommodi"i%ation o" bodies is bi& business be%ause so%iety rein"or%es stereotypes o" beauty to )eep #omen
in t$eir pla%e'@ said -$alene Lesse-Biber' asso%iate pro"essor o" so%iolo&y at Boston University* ?+$ese pa&eants
mar) a deep se(ual disturban%e in t$e so%iety' a %annibali.in& o" yout$ by t$ese vampiri% adults'@ said Camille
Ea&lia' a "eminist %riti% and aut$or*
-ome %$ara%teri.e t$at disturban%e in terms o" a national illness' ot$ers as a blend o" bibli%al entitlement and
&ood old Ameri%an up#ard mobility*
Ant$ony Ira.iano' pro"essor o" so%iolo&y and %o-dire%tor o" t$e <esear%$ Center "or C$ildren and 0out$' at t$e
-tate University o" Oe# 0or) said=
?We #ant to be &ood parents and are :ui%) to %riti%i.e t$ose #e see as not bein& &ood parents* But t$en
17/9
Op. cit.
1750
Jo$n Ba%on' C$ild porn %ra%)do#n' #SA Today' 1, Ce% 1997' 15F73G' p* 3A*
1751
Brie"s' Jud&e #on4t "ree sur&eon %$ar&ed #it$ se( %rimes' Seattle Post-)ntelligencer' 31 ay 1997' 13/F130G' p* A3*
175,
Op. cit.
1753
Kli.abet$ Kastor F8ashington PostG' A$' su%$ li&$t on yonder #indo# "a)es\ And t$ey don4t mind' The Seattle Times'
17 Feb 1997' 15F7G' p* >7*
175/
Karen Ce Witt FThe New 9or' TimesG' urder %ase o""ers a &limpse o" &irls4 beauty pa&eants' The Seattle Times' 1, Jan
1997' 15F,G' p* A3*
1755
Op. cit.
150
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
somet$in& %reeps into t$is* !t is' at its most e(treme' a sense t$at #e o#n t$ese %$ildren* +$ey are ob1e%ts to mold
and do #it$ as #e li)e*@
1757
Jn Ce%* ,7' s$e #as "ound stran&led 2and beaten
1757
3 in t$e basement o" $er "amily4s Boulder $ome'
"orever %$an&in& t$e #ay some vie# %$ild beauty pa&ents*
1759
• • •
Kt$iopian immi&rant Aster Laile #as deli&$ted #$en $er %ousin arran&ed a marria&e "or $er' so e(%ited t$at
s$e bou&$t %lot$es "or $er "irst date and s$o#ed t$em o""*
But Laile %alled a "riend t$e day a"ter t$e date and said t$e man #as too old' t$at s$e %ouldn4t &o t$rou&$ #it$
t$e marria&e* A day later' $er body #as "ound alon& an Atlanta $i&$#ay' dead "rom a &uns$ot to $er $ead*
!n %ustody is t$e man #$o set up t$e daete' Are&a Abra$a' Laile4s %ousin and a pro"essional runner #$o $as
#on more t$an 170 ra%es' "rom t$e Atlanti% arat$on to t$is mont$4s Atlana +ra%) Club 10K run*
Eoli%e said t$ey believe t$e 35-year-old Abra$a #as &oin& to re%eive money "or t$e marria&e' and $e )illed $is
,9-year-old %ousin #$en s$e bal)ed*
1759
• • •
Iordon +$omas says'
1770
8?A%%ordin& to t$e Anti--lavery -o%iety' t$ere are an estimated ,00 million slaves in
t$e #orld* -ome 100 million o" t$em are %$ildren*@
1771
+$e report e(plains= ?+$e ur&e to enslave remains t$e dar)
side o" $uman nature * * * ?2@-lavery is?3@ t$e produ%t o" lust' &reed and t$e love o" po#er*@
177,
+$e vi%tims o"
&reed are every#$ere*
1773
• • •
-e%retary o" -tate adeleine Albri&$t and Cut%$ Forei&n inister Lans van ierlo pled&ed to intensi"y
%ooperation in "i&$tin& t$e tra""i%)in& in #omen "rom poorer %ountries to #or) in ri%$er %ountries*
Jr&ani.ed-%rime &roups in <ussia and Central Kurope are ?runnin& #$at in e""e%t are prostitution rin&s@ in
Western Kurope and parts o" Asia' a U*-* o""i%ial said*
177/
• • •
!ra:' Oort$ Korea' Cuba and -udan #ere listed 2Ce%ember 173 as t$e most repressive %ountries in t$e #orld by
2Oe# 0or) based
1775
3 Freedom Louse' a pro-demo%ra%y &roup*
1777
Jt$ers amon& t$e 17 %ountries t$at re%eived t$e
lo#est ratin& #ere A"&$anistan' B$utan' Burma' Burundi' C$ina' K:uatorial Iuinea' >ibya' -audi Arabia' -omalia'
-yria' +a1i)istan' +ur)menistan and Mietnam*
1777
+$e survey said ,*,7 billion people ; 39*, per%ent o" t$e &lobal population ; live in ?not "ree@ so%ieties*
• • •
Oort$ Korea $as nearly tripled t$e number o" &uards alon& its borders #it$ C$ina and <ussia to stop es%apees'
a%%ordin& to t$e bi&&est &roup o" de"e%tors to "lee t$e impoveris$ed -talinist nation*
+$ey also said at a ne#s %on"eren%e 2Ce%ember 173 t$at Oort$ Koreans $ad been advised to prepare "or
1757
Op. cit.
1757
A%ross t$e Oation' Erobe "o%used on parents in JonBenet <amsey4s slayin&' The Seattle Times' ,0 April 1997' 15F17G'
p* A7*
1759
Cebora$ ende. FThe Associated PressG' +$e s$o# must &o onH tribute $i&$li&$ts pa&eant #on by JonBenet in B97'
7astside Journal' 30 ar%$ 1997' ,1F,,/G' p* A1/*
1759
A%ross t$e Oation' an $eld in murder a"ter tryin& to arran&e marria&e' The Seattle Times' ,7 Jan 1997' 15F/G' p* A7*
1770
Ireed ; #$at is it doin& to usP' Awa'eH greedI how does it a--ect usJ' 9 Jan 1997' p* 5*
1771
Op. cit.
177,
Op. cit.
1773
Op. cit.
177/
The Associated Press and Reuters' Kurope-U*-* a%%ords= se( slavery' The Seattle Times' ,9 ay 1997' 1,0F1,7G' p* A3*
1775
Freedom Louse says /0V o" #orld4s people aren4t "ree' Seattle Post- )ntelligencer' 19 Ce% 1997' 133F303G' p* A,*
1777
Op. cit.
1777
Op. cit.
151
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
possible %$emi%al' biolo&i%al and nu%lear #are"are by ma)in& and )eepin& at $ome %lot$es and devi%es to prote%t
t$emselves*
1779
• • •
Women "or%ed to provide se( to Japanese soldiers in World War !! re%eived %ompensation "rom a private
Japanese "und 2January 113 o""i%ials said*
1779
Listorians estimate t$at bet#een 100'000 and ,00'000 #omen "rom
Korea' C$ina' t$e E$ilippines' !ndonesia' +ai#an and t$e Oet$erlands' as #ell as Japan' #ere "or%ed to be%ome se(
slaves "or t$e Japanese army*
+o)yo "a%es demands "rom many vi%tims "or dire%t &overnment %ompensation' but it maintains t$at t$e issue
$as already been settled by post#ar treaties*
1770
+$e +ai#anese &overnment plans to %ompensate #omen "or%ed into
se(ual slavery by Japan4s military durin& World War !!' a ne#spaper reported 2April 133*
1771
+$e &overnment #ill
see) reimbursement "rom Japan in ne&otiations t$at $ave dra&&ed on "or more t$an t#o years*
177,
• • •
C$ildren learn t$at "e# t$in&s %an be more po#er"ul or 1ust t$an a simple apolo&y*
And in t$e tou%$y-"eely de%ade o" t$e B90s' t$at moral lesson is bein& translated into publi% poli%y as t$e U*-*
&overnment and ot$ers around t$e #orld $ave issued "ormal apolo&ies "or past be$avior*
Eresident Clinton4s apolo&ies t$is year to t$e bla%) men #$o #ere un#ittin& sub1e%ts in t$e +us)e&ee syp$ilis
study and to seven bla%) veterans denied t$e edal o" Lonor in World War !! appeared to move t$e nation*
But t$e %ountry seems t$ro#n o"" stride by a ne# proposal under debate in Con&ress and t$e W$ite Louse= an
apolo&y to A"ri%an-Ameri%ans "or t$e su""erin&s t$eir an%estors endured durin& more t$an ,00 years o" slavery*
+o be sure' t$e idea o" an apolo&y $as dra#n stron& support in Con&ress and in t$e %ontry* +$e &esture' t$ey
say' #ould be lon& overdue' brin&in& %losure to a ra%ial ri"t t$at spar)ed %ivil #ar*
1773
+$e <ev* Jesse Ja%)son' in an intervie#' %alled t$e proposal ?a meanin&less &esture #it$ no meanin&"ul
%ommitment to deal #it$ t$e impa%t o" somet$in& so serious as slavery*@
Kven one member o" Clinton4s ne#ly named panel on ra%e' "ormer ississippi &overnor William Winter' said
2June 173 t$at an apolo&y "or slavery #ould be a distra%tion "rom real $ealin&*
?We $ave to &o beyond mere #ords'@ Winter told a meetin& o" t$e Joint Center "or Eoliti%al and K%onomi%
-tudies* ?We $ave to &o beyond mere e(pressions* We $ave to understand #e still $ave a le&a%y o" dis%rimination
"rom slavery*@
I#en Caye <i%$ardson' editor o" $eadway ma&a.ine' a leadin& 1ournal "or bla%) %onservatives' said s$e
t$ou&$t su%$ an apolo&y %ould be ?an important symboli% &esture*@
?But ! don4t t$in) people s$ould ta)e it as more t$an t$at'@ s$e said*
177/
?And it %ould be used as some sort o" politi%al smo)es%reen'@ 2said E$illip >eon&' #$o is Asian3*
1775
University o" aryland politi%al s%ientist <onnald Walters' a leadin& A"ri%an-Ameri%an s%$olar' says $e4s been
t$in)in& "or days about #$y seemin&ly dis%onne%ted #$ites and bla%)s seem to s$are t$is #ariness*
+$e issue' $e said' is ?1ust too e(plosive* ! don4t t$in) anybody is ea&er to &et into it*@
1777
?!t doesn4t matter one #ay or anot$er* W$o %aresP !t4s 1ust #ords'@ said >eviti%us C$ase' ,5' an aspirin&
#riter and *B*A* student'8#$o is bla%)* C$ase doesn4t underestimate t$e value o" symbolism* But somet$in&
on t$e s%ale o" t$e illion an ar%$ is more e""e%tive' $e said' t$an a politi%al debate*
1777
1779
Reuters' O* Korea ti&$tens &rip alon& borders' Seattle Post- )ntelligencer' 19 Ce% 1997' 133F303G' p* A9*
1779
The Associated Press' K(-se( slaves &iven money "rom private Japanese "und' The Seattle Times' 1, Jan 1997' p* A11*
1770
Op. cit.
1771
World <eport' World War !! se( slaves to &et %ompensation' San "rancisco .hronicle' 1/ April 1997' 133F75G' p* A10*
177,
Op. cit.
1773
Bill Oi%$ols' Criti%s ar&ue substan%e is need' not symbolism' #SA Today' 19 June 1997' 15F19/G' p* 1A*
177/
)&idem' pp* 1A-,A*
1775
)&idem' p* ,A*
1777
Op. cit.
1777
Op. cit.
15,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
O
!n all o" $istory' man $as re%overed only about 115'000 metri% tons o" &old ; rou&$ly enou&$ to ma)e a %ube 59
"eet on a side* Be%ause it4s virtually indestru%tible' about 95 per%ent o" it is still #it$ us* +$e &old in t$e Oe#
0or) 2Federal <eserve Ban)4s3 vault %ould $ave been treasure brou&$t by C$ristop$er Columbus to Aueen !sabella
o" -pain* !t %ould $ave been melted-do#n %oins stru%) by Kin& Croesus' #$o used it as %urren%y %enturies be"ore
C$rist*
?!t %ould also $ave been a nu&&et used in /000 B*C* to barter in a editerranean seaport'@ e(plains Jo$n >u%as
in t$e Bureau o" ines4s *++B ineral 9ear&oo'* ?Iold $as been re%y%led over and over t$rou&$out t$e a&es*@
1779
+$e Boo) o" K(odus relates $o# t$e +aberna%le #as adorned #it$ &old* -olomon' #$ose tradin& e(peditions
to Jp$ir produ%ed some 6,00 million to 6300 million #ort$ o" &old annually Fat today4s ratesG' &ilded $is ivory
t$rone and dran) "rom &olden &oblets* W$en t$e K&yption boy )in& +utan)$amen died around 1350 B*C*' $is
people laid $im in a ,/0-pound &old %o""in %omplete #it$ a monumental solid-&old li)eness o" $is "a%e*
1779
!n C$ina' youn&er peasants are de"yin& a&e-old traditions and leavin& t$eir "arms in $opes o" stri)in& it ri%$ by
minin& &old in #estern provin%es* !n t$e Ama.on' laborers endure ba%)-brea)in& days in e(%ru%iatin& $eat ; all "or
a dustin& o" &old*
W$en t$e -tatue o" >iberty #as re"urbis$ed "or $er 100t$ birt$day in 1997' artisans &ilded $er symboli% "lame
#it$ almost 7000 s:uares o" da..lin& &old lea"*
1790
About one-"i"t$ o" t$e &old used in t$e United -tates today ;
some /7 metri% tons ; is "or ele%troni%s* Iold4s e(%eptional %ondu%tivity and resistan%e to %orrosion ma)e our +M
sets and %omputers more reliable* Air For%e Jne8is e:uipped #it$ &old-plated re"le%tors to %on"use $eat-see)in&
missles* A nearly invisible &old "ilm on t$e visors o" t$e s$uttle astronauts4 $elmets prote%ts t$em "rom t$e sun4s
$arm"ul rays*
1791
+$e "irst $int o" t$e United -tate4s natural &old deposits %ame in 1799 #$en a 17-pound nu&&et #as "ound in
Oort$ Carolina* !n 19/9 James ars$all' #$o #as buildin& a sa#mill on Cali"ornia4s Ameri%an <iver' noti%ed a
&limmer in t$e #ater*
179,
W$en #ord &ot out' t$e Ireat Iold <us$ #as on*
1793
About 50'000 prospe%tors $eaded
#est' bravin& an arduous land 1ourney or a lon& sea voya&e around -out$ Ameri%a* Jn a lu%)y day a &roup o"
miners mi&$t "ind 630 #ort$ o" &old*
179/
Iold4s beauty' use"ulness and rarity $ave &iven it a value unsurpassed "or t$ousands o" years* !n 33/ B*C*'
Ale(ander t$e Ireat mar%$ed 35'000 men into Eersia to sei.e $oards o" t$e &litterin& metal* +$e &old t$at Julius
Caesar &rabbed durin& $is %on:uest o" Iaul enabled $im to %$an&e t$e "a%e o" Kurope*
!n 1/9,' C$ristop$er Columbus4s eye %au&$t si&$t o" &old on t$e island o" Lispaniola* Jver t$e %entury t$at
"ollo#ed' -panis$ %on:uistadors sent ba%) "rom t$e Oe# World vast amounts o" t$e pre%ious metal*
1795
Kn&lis$ mer%$ants in t$e 17t$ %entury' needin& to store more &old t$an t$ey %ould se%urely $ide t$emselves'
be&an leavin& it #it$ &oldsmit$s in return "or a re%ipt'
1797
8populari.in& t$e %on%ept o" paper money*
1797
Wit$ t$e
"ull ba%)in& o" a sa"e &old supply' paper money be%ame standard pra%ti%e*
1799
For mu%$ o" t$e past t#o %enturies
t$e United -tates $ad ad$ered to some "orm o" a &old standard' a &overnment promise to redeem ban) notes "or
&old at a "i(ed pri%e*
1799
!n 1979 Was$in&ton &ave U*-* money t$e ba%)in& o" &old ; and' e(%ept "or a s$ort period in t$e 1930s' t$e
%ountry %ontinued usin& a &old standard o" some )ind "or t$e ne(t 90 years* +$en in 1971'
1790
8<i%$ard Oi(on
ended t$e pra%ti%e
1791
8a&ain*
179,
?!n pra%ti%al terms #e4re still on t$e &old standard'@ says Jo$n >utley' a pre%ious-metals e(pert at t$e Iold
!nstitute in Was$in&ton' C*C* ?W$en t$ere4s turmoil in t$e %urren%y mar)ets' investors move assets into &old "or
sa"ety*@
1793
1779
Josep$ A* Larriss' Iold rus$\' Reader;s Digest' June 1997' 1/9F990G' pp* 59-70*
1779
)&idem' p* 70*
1790
Op. cit.
1791
Op. cit.
179,
)&idem' p* 73*
1793
Op. cit.
179/
Op. cit.
1795
)&idem' pp* 70' 73*
1797
)&idem' p* 73*
1797
Op. cit.
1799
Op. cit.
1799
Op. cit.
1790
)&idem' p* 7/*
1791
)&idem' p* 73*
179,
)&idem' p* 7/*
1793
Op. cit.
153
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
?+$rou&$out $istory' &old $as been t$e ben%$mar) a&ainst #$i%$ people measured t$e o""i%ial money o"
&overnments'@ says e%onomist Jude Wannis)i* Le ar&ues t$at a &old-lin)ed U*-* dollar' o""erin& &reater se%urity to
investors' #ould enable t$e &overnment to re"inan%e t$e national debt at lo# interest rates*
179/
?Ee&&in& %urren%y to &old $as proved t$e only stable met$od o" determinin& #$at &oods are #ort$'@ e(plains
Fren%$ e%onomist Eaul Fabra* ?Oo satis"a%tory substitute $as ever been devised*@
1795
+$e #ords o" t$e Ierman poet Ioet$e seem as true today as #$en $e #rote t$em nearly t#o %enturies a&o=
@Kveryt$in& depends on &old*@
1797
!ronni%ally' t$e very dis%ipline o" t$e &old standard is #$y some politi%ans oppose it* Wit$out su%$ %ontrol'
leaders %an #a&e t$eir #ars' pad t$eir payrolls and e(pand t$eir bureau%ra%ies by 1ust printin& more money*
1797
• • •
-out$ A"ri%a8$olds about /5 per%ent o" t$e estimated total #orld &old resour%es o" 75'000 metri% tons and
produ%es some 30 per%ent o" t$e Western #orld4s output*
1799
<ea%$in& it'
1799
8miners des%end as "ar as t#o miles
to &et to t$e &old-bearin& ore* At t$is level' temperatures o" t$e ro%) %an $over around 1,0 de&rees Fa$ren$eit*
-ome tunnels are so %ramped t$at miners must %ra#l* About si( metri% tons o" ro%) are pro%essed to yield 1ust one
oun%e o" &old*
1900
!n t$e early 1970s t$e U*-* &overnment #as "or%ed to borro# money to "inan%e t$e Civil War* But ban)s'
#at%$in& t$eir &old reserves d#indle' #orried t$at i" t$e -out$ #on' t$e loans mi&$t not be repaid* As an
emer&en%y measure' -e%retary o" t$e +reasury -almon C$ase be&an issuin& &reenba%)s ; le&al tender ba%)ed only
by t$e &overnment4s promise to pay* +$is' in e""e%t' removed Ameri%a "rom t$e &old standard' and t$e &overnment
printed money at #ill*
1901
• • •
Jver t$e past "e# years ban)s $ave systemati%ally raised t$eir old "ees and invented ne# ones ; as many as 100
di""eren%t )inds* +$e si.e o" t$ese %$ar&es 1umped more t$an 50 per%ent on %$e%)in& and savin&s a%%ounts sin%e
1990' a%%ordin& to Ban) <ate onitor' and independent provider o" "inan%ial data* ean#$ile' interest rates paid
on passboo) savin&s and ne&otiable order o" #it$dra#al FOJWG a%%ounts "ailed to )eep pa%e #it$ in"lation' let
alone #it$ ot$er lo#-ris) investments* And te%$nolo&ies li)e automated teller ma%$ines FA+sG $ave truly turned
into %as$ ma%$ines ; "or t$e ban)s*
190,
Already 90 per%ent o" all ban)s %$ar&e %ustomers 61' on avera&e' ea%$ time t$ey use anot$er ban)s4 ma%$ineH
no# some are %$ar&in& to use t$eir o#n A+s as #ell* And t$e number o" ban)s %$ar&in& A+ %ard "ees $as
tripled to 13 per%ent*
1903
Ban)ers %an be in&enious in persuadin& %ustomers to adopt ne# te%$nolo&ies t$at save t$e ban)s money* Case
in point= t$e debit %ard' #$i%$ is li)e a %redit %ard' e(%ept t$e money is automati%ally dedu%ted "rom your %$e%)in&
a%%ount'
190/
8savin& ban)s a bundle in pro%essin& e(penses*
1905
-ome ban)s use s$re#d approa%$es to &et
%ustomers to ta)e t$em*
1907
For e(ample' 2one ban)3 sent out debit %ards t$at loo)ed similar to A+ %ards'
su&&estin& %ustomers stop usin& t$eir old ones* A"ter a "ree trial period' t$e ban) t$en $it t$ose %ustomers #it$ a
61 mont$ly "ee "or a %ard t$ey didn4t as) "or in t$e "irst pla%e*
1907
A%%ordin& to a report by t$e Federal <eserve Board' "e#er t$an ei&$t per%ent o" all %ommer%ial ban)s no# o""er
"ree %$e%)in&* !n some bi& %ities su%$ as >os An&eles and -an Fran%is%o' "ree %$e%)in& is virtually e(tin%t*
W$at4s more' t$e minimum balan%e re:uired "or t$e avera&e %$e%)in& a%%ount $as in%reased dramati%ally sin%e
t$e Federal <eserve last surveyed ban)s in 199/*
1909
-in%e "inan%ial servi%es #ere dere&ulated in t$e early 1990s'
%ompetitors $ave lured a#ay $i&$-mar&in business t$at on%e sustained ban) pro"its* Ameri%ans are s$unnin&
179/
Op. cit.
1795
Op. cit.
1797
Op. cit.
1797
Op. cit.
1799
Josep$ A* Larriss' Iold rus$\' Reader;s Digest' June 1997' 1/9F990G' p* 73*
1799
Op. cit.
1900
Op. cit.
1901
)&idem' p* 7/*
190,
Condens%d "rom .onsumer Reports Far%$ 1997G' !s your ban) rippin& you o""P' Reader;s Digest' June 1997' 1/9F990G'
p* ,3*
1903
)&idem' p* ,9*
190/
)&idem' p* 30*
1905
Op. cit.
1907
Op. cit.
1907
Op. cit.
1909
)&idem' p* ,3*
15/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
lo#-interest ban) a%%ounts in "avor o" $i&$er-yieldin& investments su%$ as mutual "unds* Credit-%ard $olders %an
&et more "avorable terms "rom a national %ard issuer t$an "rom t$eir lo%al ban)* Lome buyers %an no# tap a
national mar)et "or t$e most %ompetitive mort&a&e rates' and ne#-%ar buyers %an s$op "or loans "rom auto-"inan%e
spe%ialists*
1909
-till' t$e ban)s $ave mana&ed to re%oup t$eir pro"its ; in part #it$ $i&$ %ustomer "ees* !n "a%t' t$e ban)in&
industry $as reported re%ord earnin& over t$e past t$ree years 2FJune 1997G3*
1910
any ban)s are "attenin& t$eir
bottom line by in%reasin& t$e spread bet#een #$at t$ey earn on t$e loans t$ey issue nnd #$at t$ey pay depositors
on t$eir savin&s* ore t$an t#o-do.en bi& ban)s in at least ei&$t ma1or %ities ; in%ludin& Oe# 0or)' >os An&eles
and -an Fran%is%o ; pay 1ust one per%ent anually on interest-bearin& %$e%)in& a%%ounts*
1911
Jne ban)er unabas$edly %alls $is lo#-payin& savin&s deposits ?C$umps-B<4-Us@ a%%ounts* 0et about one-t$ird
o" all deposits still lan&uis$ in savin&s a%%ounts li)e t$ese*
191,
Ban)s even %$ar&e mont$ly "ees "or t$e privile&e o" $oldin& small savers4 money* Jnly one ban) in ten no#
o""ers a no-"ee statement savin&s a%%ount* But i" you )eep 6500 in a "our-per%ent interest-bearin& a%%ount #it$ an
avera&e mont$ly "ee o" 6,' you4ll a%tually lose money ea%$ year* And t$at4s even be"ore you pay ta(es on t$e
mea&er interest you4re paid*
!roni%ally' ban)s o"ten reserve t$ir sti""est "ees "or %ustomers #$o transa%t t$e most business
1913
8by
%$ar&in&8"or %ertain transa%tions at teller #indo#s*
191/
2About3 15 per%ent o"8%ustomers ; ?transa%tion $o&s@ in
industry parlan%e - a%%ounted "or 70 per%ent o" all business at teller #indo#s* A ban) spo)esman says t$e "ee #ass
intended to %$an&e t$ose %ustomers4 be$avior*
1915
A ma1or "or%e res$apin& ban)in& in t$e United -tates today is industry#ide %onsolidation*
1917
Consolidation'
$o#ever' $as not been a boon "or %onsumers* ?!t4s &iven t$at less %ompetition means $i&$er pri%es and lo#er rates
on deposits'@ says Federal <eserve e%onomist -tep$en A* <$oades* !n inneapolis' "or e(ample' t$ree ban)s no#
%ontrol 75 per%ent o" t$e mar)et' %arvin& up pro"itable ni%$es* Jne analyst %alls t$is a ?mutually bene"i%ial
oli&opoly*@
J" %ourse' ban)s are entitled to ma)e a pro"it* But t$ey also o#e somet$in& to t$eir %ustomers* !t is' a"ter all'
ta(payin& %onsumers #$o ultimately )eep ban)s solvent*
Oo national la# &uarantees a%%ess to ban)in& servi%es* But a "e# states su%$ as Oe# 0or) and Oe# Jerset
re:uire ban)s to o""er basi% %$e%)in& a%%ounts #it$ minimal "ees "or %onsumers ma)in& a limited number o"
transa%tion*
1917
Ban)s love %ustomers #$o si&n up "or an a%%ount #it$out investi&atin& %ompetitive rates' rarely visit a teller
and :uietly pay t$eir mont$ly "ees* Con4t be one o" t$em* Lere4s #$at t$e e(perts advise=
1919
8revie# #$at you
doH
1919
8#at%$ out "or ?spe%ial@ dealsH
19,0
8don4t use ban) servi%es t$at you %an buy else#$ere "or less*
19,1
!t pays
to s$op around*
19,,
• • •
+$e most important event in t$e $istory o" s$opli"tin& as #e )no# it o%%urred in 1979 #$en F* W* Wool#ort$
opened in Uti%a' O*0*' t$e "irst o" #$at #ould be%ome $is "ive-and-ten stores* !t #as a radi%al idea= ta)e t$e
mer%$andise out o" &lass %abinets and display it #$ere %ustomers %an sele%t #$at t$ey #ant t$emselves* -oon'
$o#ever' %ustomers be&an $elpin& t$emselves in a #ay Wool#ort$ did not envision*
As t$e number o" sel"-servi%e stores in%reased' so did s$opli"tin&* And t$e vo%abulary o" retailers e(panded as
#ell* ?-$rin)a&e@ is a term t$ey use t$at in%ludes s$opli"tin&' #$i%$ is a eup$emism "or stealin&*
-tores o%%asionally de%lare ?all-out #ar@ on t$e pra%ti%e* +$eir #eaponry is diverse= uni"ormed se%urity &uards'
plain%lot$es dete%tives' real and dummy television %amera' mirrors' peep$oles' inventory-%ontrol ta&s t$at s:uirt
dye #$en removed by t$e unaut$ori.ed' posters F8G and manne:uins dubbed Anne Croids t$at $ave miniature
%ameras be$ind t$e eyes*
1909
)&idem' p* ,/*
1910
Op. cit.
1911
Op. cit.
191,
Op. cit.
1913
Op. cit.
191/
Op. cit.
1915
)&idem' pp* ,/' ,9*
1917
)&idem' p* 30*
1917
Op. cit.
1919
)&idem' p* 30' 3,*
1919
)&idem' p* 3,*
19,0
Op. cit.
19,1
Op. cit.
19,,
Op. cit.
155
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Cespite t$ese measures' about 99 per%ent o" all s$opli"tin& is su%%ess"ul* J" t$e estimated 70 million
s$opli"tin& in%idents last year' a mere 1*, million #ere dete%ted*
19,3
J" t$ose t$ieves %au&$t' less t$an $al" #ere
prose%uted* +$e %$an%e t$at any lar%eny #ill &o be"ore a 1ud&e is only one in 100*
19,/
?A&&ressive prose%ution %an be a real deterrent'@ 2<ead Lays' president o" >oss Erevention -pe%ialists' !n%*' a
Florida-based se%urity %onsultin& "irm'3 says*
19,5
A 19-year-old Cali"ornia #oman8&ot %au&$t stealin& a 65
2produ%t and3 ?#as put in 1ail "or t$ree days #it$ prostitutes' %$ild molesters' %ra%) addi%ts* Oever a&ain*@
19,7
A %ourt dismissed %$ar&es a&ainst a #oman #$o admitted stealin& "ood to "eed $er %$ildren' and based its
rulin& a a turn-o"-t$e-%entury la# "avorin& t$e needy' ne#spapers reported*
19,7
Ler attorney8"ound a nearly
%entury-old ?state o" need@ de"ense' used by %ourts to dismiss %ases a&ainst $un&ry %iti.ens #$o stole bread*
19,9
?-$opli"tin& is a dire%t mani"estation o" t$e moral relativism in our so%iety'@ says Layes* ?Kveryone )no#s its
#ron& to ta)e somet$in& #it$out payin&*@
19,9
-tripped o" its seemin& inno%en%e' s$opli"tin& is 1ust anot$er "orm o" t$e sear%$ "or #ealt$ #it$out #or) ; ri&$t
up t$ere #it$ in%ome-ta( and e(pense-a%%ount %$eatin& and #el"are "raud*
1930
As lon& as t$e rest o" us remain
silent' #e4ll )eep on payin& ; in more #ays t$an one*
1931
+$e Ameri%an Esy%$iatri% Asso%iation says "e#er t$an "ive per%ent o" s$opli"ters are )leptomania%s= people #$o
%an4t resist t$e impulse to steal*
193,
<e%ent studies dis%lose8t$at many s$opli"ters $ave relatively normal
psy%$olo&i%al $ealt$ and personalities t$at are indistin&uisable "rom nons$opli"ters ; e(%ept "or t$eir #illin&ness to
steal* !ndeed >oyd W* Klem)e' pro"essor o" so%iolo&y at Jre&on -tate University8says many s$opli"ters %onsider
t$emselves not$in& but ?"ru&al s$oppers*@
1933
?+$ese stores #on4t miss t$is item*@
193/
?!t4s )ind o" li)e stealin& "rom t$e ri%$ and &ivin& to t$e poor* +$ese
stores $ave lots o" money and ! don4t $ave any' so !4m &oin& to ta)e "rom t$em and &ive to mysel"*@
1935
?er%$ants
%an a""ort t$is* !4m not $urtin& anyone*@
1937
?Eeople don4t loo) at it as a problem* y #$ole "amily s$opli"ts* We
lau&$ about it*@
1937
?+$e be$avior ! %an %$an&e is t$at ! %an be more %onservative in my stealin&*@
1939
Jnly about 15 per%ent o" all s$opli"ters are pro"essionals' but in ea%$ %rime t$ey steal mer%$andise o" &reater
value t$an t$at stolen by amateurs ; mostly items t$at %an be easily resold' su%$ as %i&arettes' videotapes' %ompa%t
dis)s' desi&ner %lot$in& and boo)s*
1939
Oo #eapons are re:uired
19/0
82"or3 a bold variation o" pro"essional
s$opli"tin&8%alled ?&rab and run'@
19/1
8and t$e $ourly ?pay@ beats t$at o" almost any 1ob*
19/,
Be%ause o" t$e $i&$ pro"its'82t$ere is3 %ompetition "rom or&ani.ed s$opli"tin& rin&s* +$ese &an&s o"ten travel
in &roups o" t#o to si(' usin& beepers and %ar p$ones to ta)e ?steal orders@ ; si.e' %olor and style* Jne member
may pose as a suspi%ious person to distra%t se%urity &uards* +$ose #$ite anti-t$e"t ta&sP +$ey are removed #it$
t$e same tool t$at %ler)s use Fstolen tooG*
19/3
+$e ot$er 95 per%ent o" s$opli"ters are amateurs "or #$om stealin& is a sideline or 1ust an impulse*
19//
But
t$ou&$ t$ey are amateurs' t$ey aren4t inno%ents* +$eir met$ods are inventive* A%%ordin& to veteran se%urity
personnel' t$ese t$ieves s#it%$ pri%e ta&s' %on%eal items under #$eel%$airs and in le& %asts' and even use t$eir o#n
%$ildren*
Consider one Floridian8intervie#ed' a 19-year-old*
19/5
?y mot$er4s been s$opli"tin& sin%e s$e #as 17'@ s$e
says* ?Oo# #e bot$ $ave in"ants' and #e ta)e t$em to stores to&et$er* We use t$e strollers' t$e blan)ets' bi&
diaper ba&s* om and ! $elp ea%$ ot$er*@
19/7
Anot$er tri%) is to buy a ,0-pound ba& o" do& "ood' empty it' return to t$e store' "ill it up #it$ e(pensive
19,3
William Kn%enbar&er' +$ey4re stealin& you blind' Reader;s Digest' June 1997' 1/9F990G' pp* 100-101*
19,/
)&idem' p* 101*
19,5
Op. cit.
19,7
)&idem' p* 10,*
19,7
The Associated Press' -$opli"ter #$o stole out o" need is "or&iven' The Seattle Times' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G' p* A15*
19,9
Op. cit.
19,9
William Kn%enbar&er' +$ey4re stealin& you blind' Reader;s Digest' June 1997' 1/9F990G' p* 103*
1930
Op. cit.
1931
Op. cit.
193,
)&idem' p* 99*
1933
)&idem' p* 100*
193/
Op. cit.
1935
Op. cit.
1937
Op. cit.
1937
Op. cit.
1939
Op. cit.
1939
)&idem' p* 99*
19/0
Op. cit.
19/1
Op. cit.
19/,
Op. cit.
19/3
)&idem' pp* 99-99*
19//
)&idem' p* 99*
19/5
Op. cit.
19/7
Op. cit.
157
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
&ro%eries' t$en put it in t$e bottom ra%) o" t$e %art* +$e t$ie" may even say to t$e %as$ier' ?Con4t "or&et my do&
"ood*@
19/7
• • •
A"ter about 6,0'000 in %$ild support %$e%)s disappeared' t$e 2Austin' +e(as'3 attorney &eneral "ound t$at
several #or)ers $ired t$rou&$ a temporary a&en%y $ad %riminal re%ords' in%ludin& bur&lary' s$opli"tin& and t$e"t*
19/9
• • •
Oo one is rus$in& to return 6500'000 in %as$ t$at vanis$ed a"ter an armored tru%) overturned in a tra""i%
a%%ident8in Ja)land' Cali"* Kven t$reats o" prose%tutions aren4t leadin& anyone to step "or#ard*
19/9
• • •
A /9-$our ?amnesty@ t$at allo#ed iami residents to return t$ousands o" dollars t$at disappeared a"ter a
se%urity-tru%) %ras$ ended 2January 11'3 leavin& poli%e $oldin& only about 6,0 o" returned "unds*
1950
Eoli%e de%lared t$e ?no :uestions as)ed@ amnesty 2January 93 ; one day a"ter a Brin)4s armored se%urity tru%)
believed to be %arryin& 63*7 million "lipped on a $i&$#ay overpass' %ra%)ed open and sent a #ater"all o" bundled
%urren%y and %oins into t$e nei&$bor$ood belo#*
<esidents o" t$e nei&$bor$ood' one o" iami4s poorest' and passin& motorists sei.ed t$e opportunity to &at$er
t$e %as$' some "illin& ba&s #it$ %oins' ot$ers s%ramblin& on t$eir $ands and )nees to snare t$e #ind"all*
A"ter#ard' estimates #ere t$at some 6500'000 or more $ad disappeared' most o" it nearly impossible to
tra%e*
1951
Jnly t#o people8%ame "or#ard ; a mot$er o" si( and a s%$oolboy*
195,
?! #ould li)e t$em to )no# t$at t$ere
are people all around t$e %ountry #$o appre%iate t$eir e(ample o" $onesty'@ said a C$andler' Ari.*' man #$o #rote
poli%e and as)ed not to be identi"ied*
1953
• • •
!n January alone t$is year' t$e FB! reported 50 ban) robberies in t$e state ; almost triple last year4s January
total and t$e $i&$est mont$ly total in more t$an seven years* February brou&$t an additional 17'8brin&in& t$e t$e
total so "ar t$is year to 77 ; more t$an one per day*
195/
• • •
!n The Philosophy o- $istory' Le&el dis%erned a disturbin& $istori%al pattern ; t$e %ra%) and "all o" %ivili.ations
o#in& to a morbid intensi"i%ation o" t$eir o#n "irst prin%iples*
1955
+$e main enemy o" t$e open so%iety8is no
lon&er t$e %ommunist but t$e %apitalist t$reat*
1957
+$e term ?open so%iety@ #as %oined by Lenri Ber&son' in $is boo) The Two Sources o- orality and Religion
F193,G' and &iven &reater %urren%y by t$e Austrian p$ilosop$er Karl Eopper' in $is boo) The Open Society and )ts
7nemies F19/5G* Eopper s$o#ed t$at totalitarian ideolo&ies li)e 2apart$eid'
1957
3 %ommunism and Oa.ism $ave a
19/7
Op. cit.
19/9
+e(as' A%ross t$e U-A= ne#s "rom every state' #SA Today0 11 Oov 1997' 15F/1G' p* 9A*
19/9
Caily Brie"in&' Update' The Seattle Times' / ay 1997' 15F19G' p* A9*
1950
The Associated Press' Jnly , people return money ta)en a"ter armored tru%) %ras$' The Seattle Times' 1, Jan 1997'
15F,G' p* A,*
1951
Op. cit.
195,
Op. cit.
1953
Op. cit.
195/
Art$ur -antana' -tate $as a ban) robbery a day' The Seattle Times' , ar%$ 1997' 15F9G' p* A1*
1955
Ieor&e -oros' +$e %apitalist t$reatH #$at )ind o" so%iety do #e #antP ?>et t$e "ree mar)et de%ide\@ is t$e o"ten-$eard
response* +$at response' a prominent %apitalist ar&ues' undermines t$e very values on #$i%$ open and demo%rati% so%ieties
depend' The Atlantic onthly' Feb 1997' ,79F,G' p* /5*
1957
Op. cit.
1957
)&idem' p* /7*
157
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
%ommon element= t$ey %laim to be in possession o" t$e ultimate trut$*
1959
+$ese ideolo&ies $ave to resort to
oppression in order to impose t$eir vision on so%iety* Eopper 1u(taposed #it$ t$ese totalitarian ideolo&ies anot$er
vie# o" so%iety' #$i%$ re%o&ni.es
1959
8"reedom o" %$oi%e and "reedom o" spee%$* Eopper %alled t$is "orm o" so%ial
or&ani.ation t$e ?open so%iety*@ +otalitarian ideolo&ies #ere its enemies*
1970
+$e "ree-mar)et re&ime t$at prevailed a $undred years a&o #as destroyed by t$e First World War* +otalitarian
ideolo&ies %ame to t$e "ore' and by t$e end o" t$e -e%ond World War t$ere #as pra%ti%ally no movement o" %apital
bet#een %ountries*
1971
+$e end o" t$e Cold War
197,
8in 1993
1973
8brou&$t a response very di""erent "rom t$at at t$e
end o" t$e -e%ond World War*
197/
+$e people livin& in "ormerly Communist %ountries8mi&$t $ave aspired to an
open so%iety #$en t$ey su""ered "rom repression' but no#8t$ey are preo%%upied #it$ t$e problems o" survival*
1975
!n so%ial and politi%al a""airs t$e parti%ipants4 per%eptions $elp to determine reality* !n t$ese situations "a%ts do
not ne%essarily %onstitute reliable %riteria "or 1ud&in& t$e trut$ o" statements* +$ere is a t#o-#ay %onne%tion ; a
"eedba%) me%$anism ; bet#een t$in)in& and events'8%alled ?re"le(ivity*@

1977
Lo# mu%$ more li)ely t$e present
re&ime is to brea) do#n unless #e learn "rom e(perien%e\
1977
Eopper s$o#ed t$at "as%ism and %ommunism $ad mu%$ in %ommon' even t$ou&$ one %onstituted t$e e(treme
ri&$t and t$e ot$er t$e e(treme le"t' be%ause bot$ relied on t$e po#er o" t$e state to repress t$e "reedom o" t$e
individual*
1979
An open so%iety may also be t$reatened "rom t$e opposite dire%tion ; "rom e(%essive individualism*
+oo mu%$ %ompetition and too little %ooperation %an %ause intolerable ine:uities and instability*
1979
Advertisin&' mar)etin&' even pa%)a&in&' aim at s$apin& people4s pre"eren%es rat$er t$an' as laisse.-"aire t$eory
$olds' merely respondin& to t$em* Unsure o" #$at t$ey stand "or' people in%reasin&ly rely on money as t$e %riterion
o" value* W$at is more e(pensive is %onsidered better*
1970
!nso"ar as t$ere is a dominant belie" in our so%iety today'
it is a belie" in t$e ma&i% o" t$e mar)etpla%e* +$e do%trine o" laisse.-"aire %apitalism $olds t$at t$e %ommon &ood
is best served by t$e unin$ibited pursuit o" sel"-interest* Unless it is tempered by t$e re%o&nition o" a %ommon
interest t$at ou&$t to ta)e pre%eden%e over parti%ular interests'82%apitalism3 is liable to brea) do#n*
1971
+$e %ult o"
su%%ess $as repla%ed a belie" in prin%iples*
197,
>aisse.-"aire ideolo&y s$ares some o" t$e de"i%ien%ies o" anot$er spurious s%ien%e' &eopoliti%s* -tates $ave no
prin%iples' only interests' &eopoliti%ians ar&ue*
1973
+$e ot$er de"e%t o" &eopoliti%s is t$at it does not re%o&ni.e a
%ommon interest beyond t$e national interest*
197/
+$e t$reat %omes "rom8tyrants see)in& to establis$ internal
dominan%e t$rou&$ e(ternal %on"li%ts*
1975
+$e international open so%iety may be its o#n #orst enemy*
+$e Cold War #as an e(tremely stable arran&ement* +#o po#er blo%s8#ere stru&&lin& "or suprema%y' but
t$ey $ad to respe%t ea%$ ot$er4s vital interests*
1977
Curin& t$e Cold War' t$e United -tates sa# t$e #orld t$rou&$ a t#o-dimensional prism o" Kast and
West* +oday4s divide ; bet#een nort$ and sout$ ; potentially is even more dan&erous * * * and a &reater
%$allen&e to our national values* Jur e%onomi% and diplomati% lin)s #it$ t$e rest o" t$e #orld must be
%oupled #it$ a %on%ern "or its people*
1977
1959
)&idem' p* /5*
1959
Op. cit.
1970
Op. cit.
1971
)&idem' p* /9*
197,
)&idem' p* /7*
1973
Cennis -ta%y D Eatri%) Luy&$e' Cosmi% %onspira%y= si( de%ades o" &overnmant %over-ups= part "ive' Omni' Au& 199/'
17F11G' p* /9*
197/
Ieor&e -oros' +$e %apitalist t$reatH #$at )ind o" so%iety do #e #antP ?>et t$e "ree mar)et de%ide\@ is t$e o"ten-$eard
response* +$at response' a prominent %apitalist ar&ues' undermines t$e very values on #$i%$ open and demo%rati% so%ieties
depend' The Atlantic onthly' Feb 1997' ,79F,G' p* /7*
1975
Op. cit.
1977
Op. cit.
1977
)&idem' p* /9*
1979
Op. cit.
1979
Op. cit.
1970
)&idem' p* 5,*
1971
)&idem' p* /9*
197,
)&idem' p* 5,*
1973
)&idem' p* 53*
197/
Op. cit.
1975
Op. cit.
1977
Op. cit.
1977
<obert A* -eiple' U*-* must ta)e lead in $elpin& #orld4s poor' The Seattle TimesRSeattle Post- )ntelligencer/ "ocus' ,,
June 1997' 15F,5G' p* K,*
159
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$is e(tremely stable #orld order $as %ome to an end*
1979
We $ave entered a period o" disorder*
1979
!n re%ent years' Ameri%ans $ave turned in#ard ; not )no#in& or understandin& t$at t$e #orld $as
e(panded too mu%$ "or t$e arti"i%e o" isolationism to survive "or very lon&* Jur e%onomi%s are
inter-dependent* Jur borders are too porus* Jur %ommuni%ations stru%tures are too e""i%ient*
1990
By ta)in& t$e %onditions o" supply and demand as &iven and de%larin& &overnment intervention t$e ultimate
evil' laisse.-"aire ideolo&y $as e""e%tively banis$ed in%ome or #ealt$ redistribution*
1991
+$e laisse.-"aire ar&ument
relies on t$e same ta%it appeal to per"e%tion as does %ommunism* !t %laims t$at i" redistribution %auses
ine""i%ien%ies and distortions' t$e problems %an be solved by eliminatin& redistribution ; 1ust as t$e Communists
%laimed t$at t$e dupli%ation involved in %ompetition is #aste"ul' and t$ere"ore #e s$ould $ave a %entrally planned
e%onomy*
199,
?oney is li)e mu%)' not &ood e(%ept it be spread*@ Fran%is Ba%on #as a pro"ound e%onomist*
+$e laisse.-"aire ar&ument a&ainst in%ome redistribution invo)es t$e do%trine o" t$e survival o" t$e "ittest* +$e
ar&ument is under%ut by t$e "a%t t$at #ealt$ is passed on by in$eritan%e' and t$e se%ond &eneration is rarely as "it
as t$e "irst*
1993
Iuided by t$e prin%iple o" t$e survival o" t$e "ittest' states are in%reasin&ly preo%%upied #it$ t$eir
%ompetitiveness and un#illin& to ma)e any sa%ri"i%es "or t$e %ommon &ood*
199/
+$e system o" robber %apitalism8
is so ini:uitous t$at people may #ell turn to a %$arismati% leader promisin& national revival at t$e %ost o" %ivil
liberties*
1995
!t is easier to identi"y t$e enemies o" t$e open so%iety t$an to &ive t$e %on%ept a positive meanin&*
1997
+$ere $as to be a %ommon interest to $old a %ommunity to&et$er*
1997
Finan%ial su%%ess is important* !t allo#s most o" us "irst to %over t$e ne%essitites' t$en to provide
re#ards* Oo one s$ould "eel &uilty about t$at*
1999
At t$e same time'
1999
8#e 2must3 re%o&ni.e ot$er aspe%ts
o" our lives=
1990
8our $ealt$' our love o" "amily' t$e a#esome responsibility o" raisin& our %$ildren' t$e
importan%e o" our "riends and t$e balan%in& o" all t$ose "a%tors #it$ our #or)in& lives*
1991
+$ere are %ommon interests on a &lobal level' su%$ as t$e preservation o" t$e environment and t$e prevention o"
#ar* But t$ese interests are relatively #ea) in %omparison #it$ spe%ial interests* +$ey do not $ave mu%$ o" a
%onstituen%y in a #orld %omposed o" soverei&n states*
199,
-o%ieties derive t$eir %o$esion "rom s$ared values* +$ese
values are rooted in %ulture' reli&ion' $istory' and tradition*
1993
+o derive a politi%al and so%ial a&enda "rom a p$ilosop$i%al' epistemolo&i%al ar&ument seems li)e a $opeless
underta)in&* 0et it %an be done* +$ere is $istori%al pre%edent* +$e Knli&$tenment #as a %elebration o" t$e po#er
o" reason' and it provided t$e inspiration "or t$e Ce%laration o" !ndependen%e and t$e Bill o" <i&$ts*
199/
Jpen so%iety 2%an38o%%upy23 a middle &round' #$ere t$e ri&$ts o" t$e individual are sa"e&uarded but #$ere
t$ere are some s$ared values t$at $old so%iety to&et$er* +$e middle &round is t$reatened "rom all sides* At one
e(treme' %ommunist and nationalist do%trines #ould lead to state domination* At t$e ot$er e(treme' laisse.-"aire
%apitalism #ould lead to &reat instability and eventual brea)do#n* +$ere are ot$er variants* >ee Kuan 0e#' o"
-in&apore' proposes a so-%alled Asian model t$at %ombines a mar)et e%onomy #it$ a repressive state* !n many
parts o" t$e #orld %ontrol o" t$e state is so %losely asso%iated #it$ t$e %reation o" private #ealt$ t$at one mi&$t
spea) o" robber %apitalism' or t$e ?&an&ster state'@ as a ne# t$reat to t$e open so%iety*
1995
As t$e avera&e %iti.en lost $is sta)e in t$e ne# <ussia' "ormer Communists' #$o ma)e up less t$an ten per%ent
o" t$e population' prospered* -urveys o" <ussia4s ne# ri%$ "ound t$at nearly t#o-t$irds o" t$e %ountry4s
1979
Ieor&e -oros' +$e %apitalist t$reatH #$at )ind o" so%iety do #e #antP ?>et t$e "ree mar)et de%ide\@ is t$e o"ten-$eard
response* +$at response' a prominent %apitalist ar&ues' undermines t$e very values on #$i%$ open and demo%rati% so%ieties
depend' The Atlantic onthly' Feb 1997' ,79F,G' p* 53*
1979
Op. cit.
1990
<obert A* -eiple' U*-* must ta)e lead in $elpin& #orld4s poor' The Seattle TimesRSeattle Post- )ntelligencer/ "ocus' ,,
June 1997' 15F,5G' p* K,*
1991
Ieor&e -oros' +$e %apitalist t$reatH #$at )ind o" so%iety do #e #antP ?>et t$e "ree mar)et de%ide\@ is t$e o"ten-$eard
response* +$at response' a prominent %apitalist ar&ues' undermines t$e very values on #$i%$ open and demo%rati% so%ieties
depend' The Atlantic onthly' Feb 1997' ,79F,G' p* 5,*
199,
Op. cit.
1993
Op. cit.
199/
)&idem' p* 53*
1995
Op. cit.
1997
)&idem' p* 5/*
1997
Op. cit.
1999
Ire& Leberlein' !n%ident reminds us money isn4t everyt$in&' The Seattle Times' ,7 April 1997' 15F17G' p* K1*
1999
Op. cit.
1990
Op. cit.
1991
Op. cit.
199,
)&idem' p* 55*
1993
Op. cit.
199/
)&idem' p* 59*
1995
)&idem' p* 55*
159
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
millionaires $ad been members o" t$e -oviet Communist Earty* +$e KIB' too' $as pro"ited by operatin& in su%$
businesses as ban)s' tradin& $ouses and tele%ommuni%ations* any <ussian 1oint ventures #it$ Western
%ompanies in%lude KIB o""i%ers*
1997
Brian Foster' an !o#a "armer #$o $as dire%ted su%%ess"ul 2U*-* A&en%y "or !nternational Cevelopment
FA!CG3-"unded <ussian pro1e%ts' told <eader4s Ci&est' ?+$e U*-* ta(payer &ot snoo)ered*@
1997
Colorado
businessman Cavid Wolsten$olme says' ?!4ve #al)ed t$rou&$ do.ens o" <ussian #are$ouses "illed #it$ Ameri%an
"ood produ%ts salted a#ay "or later sale abroad or on t$e bla%) mar)et*@
1999
Cavid L* -#art.' t$e "irst U*-* ambassador to Belarus' a "ormer -oviet republi%' #itnessed t$e misuse o" "unds
"irst$and* W$en Was$in&ton sent millions o" dollars in a&ri%ultural %ommodity aid to t$e old-line Communists #$o
%ontrol &rain distribution' a top Belarussian re"ormer as)ed -#art.' ?!" t$e United -tates #ants to "oster re"orm
$ere' #$y do you )eep on supportin& t$e CommunistsP@
?Iood :uestion'@ replied t$e ambassador* Le resi&ned in protest over Ameri%an poli%y in 199/*
1999
-ome <ussian re"ormers say t$at U*-* aid s$ould be supplied only under stri%t %onditions*
1900
+$e United -tates
%an do more "or mu%$ less money by %uttin& o"" e%onomi% aid t$e <ussian &overnment and $elpin& private %iti.ens
dire%tly*
1901
• • •
A Kentu%)y p$ysi%ian said s$e #ill publi%ly %on"ess8be"ore a state Assembly %ommitte in -a%ramento t$at s$e
%aused a man4s deat$ in Cali"ornia by denyin& $im
190,
82a $eart transplant
1903
3 ; and saved $er LJ insuran%e
%ompany $al" a million dollars*
190/
For $er de%ision' s$e said' s$e #as re#arded #it$ advan%ement in $er 1ob as a
medi%al %overa&e revie#er "or Lumana' a mana&ed %are $ealt$ provider*
1905
?Kveryone #as t$rilled #$en ! denied
t$at %overa&e'@ s$e said* ?!" ! $ad approved it' ! #ould $ave been &one t$e ne(t day*@
1907
• • •
We "ear more t$an #e s$ould*
1907
We "or&et about in"lation*
1909
We "ollo# t$e %ro#d*
1909
We are
over%on"ident*
1910
We $ear #$at #e #ant to $ear*
1911
We value some dollars less t$an ot$ers*
191,
We bite o"" more
t$an #e %an %$e#*
1913
• • •
Curin& t$e t$ree days t$e #orld leaders are in Cenver' more t$an 100'000 %$ildren youn&er t$an 5 #ill die o"
malnutrition and related %auses*
Almost one-t$ird o" t$e #orld4s population' 1*3 billion people' live in poverty* !n sub--a$aran A"ri%a' t$e
#orld4s poorest re&ion' pro&ress $as been slo#' and $as a%tually reversed in some %ountries* Jver t$e past 15
years' t$e per%enta&e o" %$ildren in primary s%$ool $as plummeted in 17 A"ri%an %ountries* About 170 million
1997
J* i%$ael Waller' +o <ussia' #it$ %as$H "ormer Communist $a%) and ?&an&ster bureau%rats@ are rolln& ri%$es ; t$e
result o" our misued money* ean#$ile' <ussia is testin& ultramodern missile prototypes' Reader;s Digest' June 1997'
1/9F990G' p* 179*
1997
)&idem' p* 179*
1999
Op. cit.
1999
)&idem' pp* 179-190*
1900
)&idem' p* 191*
1901
Op. cit.
190,
William Carlsen' Co%tor to %on"ess role in man4s deat$H s$e says LJ re#arded $er "or savin& 6500'000' San
"rancisco .hronicle' 15 April 1997' 133F77G' p* A13*
1903
Op. cit.
190/
Op. cit.
1905
Op. cit.
1907
Op. cit.
1907
Condensed "rom oney FJuly 1995G' Iary Bels)y' Lere4s $o# you %an avoid t$e * * * 7 money mista)es everyone ma)es'
Reader;s Digest' Jan 1997' 1/9F995G' p* 105*
1909
)&idem' p* 107*
1909
Op. cit.
1910
)&idem' p* 107*
1911
Op. cit.
191,
)&idem' p* 109*
1913
Op. cit.
170
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
A"ri%ans' nearly a t$ird o" t$e re&ion4s population' do not &et enou&$ to eat* ore t$at 2si%3 ,3 million %$ildren are
malnuris$ed' and 17 per%ent o" babies are under#ei&$t*
191/
Brid&in& t$e &ap bet#een t$e #orld4s ri%$ and poor #ill re:uire
1915
8t$e %oura&e and #ill o" #ealt$y
&overnments and t$eir people*
1917
Ireed $as dominated man4s $istory "or %enturies' but t$e t$reat to t$e survival o"
t$e planet today $as in%reased*
1917
Ba%) in 197,' <a%$el Carson8#arned about t$e poisonin& o" t$e planet by pesti%ides and to(i% #aste* -ays
The Na'ed Sa(age/ ?an)ind #as %ontaminatin& its o#n environment and "oulin& its o#n nest' t$e si&nal "or t$e
e(tin%tion o" t$e spe%ies*@ en are still &reedily poisonin& t$e planet* ?-ee)in& t$e &reatest pro"its in t$e s$ortest
time'@ says 8orld $unger/ Twel(e yths' ?bi& &ro#ers are #illin& to overuse t$e soil' #ater' and %$emi%al inputs
#it$out t$ou&$t to erodin& t$e soil' depletin& t$e &round#ater' and poisonin& t$e environment*@
1919
<e%ently' t$e
Ireenpea%e environmental or&ani.ation made a ston& indi%tment' sayin&= ?odern an $as made a rubbis$ tip o"
Earadise ?2@eart$?3@ * * * and no# stands li)e a brutis$ in"ant * * * on t$e brin) * * * o" e""e%tively destroyin& t$is oasis
o" li"e*@
1919
191/
<obert A* -eiple' U*-* must ta)e lead in $elpin& #orld4s poor' The Seattle TimesRSeattle Post- )ntelligencer/ "ocus' ,,
June 1997' 15F,5G' p* K,*
1915
Op. cit.
1917
Op. cit.
1917
?+$e slau&$ter o" nature'@ Awa'eH greedI how does it a--ect usJ' 9 Jan 1997' p* /*
1919
)&idem' p* 3*
1919
)&idem' p* /*
171
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
@*tin!tion
Amon& t$e most rivetin& mysteries o" $uman $istory are t$ose posed by vanis$ed %ivili.ations*
19,0
Amon& all
su%$ vanis$ed %ivili.ations' t$at o" t$e "ormer Eolynesian so%iety on Kaster !sland remains unsurpassed in mystery
and isolation* +$e mystery stems espe%ially "rom t$e island4s &i&anti% stone statues and its impoveris$ed
lands%ape' but it is en$an%ed by our asso%iations #it$ t$e spe%i"i% people involved= Eolynesians represent "or us t$e
ultimate in e(oti% roman%e' t$e ba%)&round "or many a %$ild4s' and an adult4s' vision o" paradise*
19,1
Kaster !sland' #it$ an area o" only 7/ s:uare miles' is t$e #orld4s most isolated s%rap o" $abitable land* !t lies
in t$e Ea%i"i% J%ean more t$an ,'000 miles #est o" t$e nearest %ontinent F-out$ Ameri%aG' 1'/00 miles "rom even
t$e nearest $abitable island FEit%airnG* !ts subtropi%al lo%ation and latitude ; at ,7 de&rees sout$' it is
appro(imately as "ar belo# t$e e:uator as Louston is nort$ o" it ; $elp &ive it a rat$er mild %limate' #$ile its
vol%ani% ori&ins ma)e its soil "ertile* !n t$eory' t$is %ombination o" blessin&s s$ould $ave made Kaster a miniature
paradise' remote "rom problems t$at beset t$e rest o" t$e #orld*
+$e island derives its name "rom its ?dis%overy@ by t$e Cut%$ e(plorer Ja%ob <o&&eveen' on Kaster FApril 5G in
17,,* <o&&eveen4s "irst impression #as not o" a paradise but o" a #asteland*
19,,
+$e island <o&&eveen sa# #as a
&rassland #it$out a sin&le tree or bus$ over ten "eet $i&$*
19,3
+$eir native animals in%luded not$in& lar&er t$an
inse%ts' not even a sin&le spe%ies o" native bat' land bird' land snail' or li.ard* For domesti% animals' t$ey $ad only
%$i%)ens*
Kuropean visitors t$rou&$out t$e ei&$teent$ and early nineteent$ %enturies estimated Kaster4s $uman
population at about ,'000' a modest number %onsiderin& t$e island4s "ertility* As Captain James Coo) re%o&ni.ed
durin& $is brie" visit in 177/' t$e islanders #ere Eolynesians Fa +a$itian man a%%ompanyin& Coo) #as able to
%onverse #it$ t$emG* 0et despite t$e Eolynesians4 #ell-deserved "ame as a &reat sea"arin& people' t$e Kaster
!slanders #$o %ame out to <o&&eveen4s and Coo)4s s$ips did so by s#immin& or paddlin& %anoes t$at <o&&eveen
des%ribed as ?bad and "rail*@
19,/
Wit$ su%$ "limsy %ra"t' Eolynesians %ould never $ave8traveled "ar o""s$ore to "is$* +$e islanders <o&&eveen
met #ere totally isolated' una#are t$at ot$er people e(isted*
19,5
Oot a sin&le Kaster !sland ro%) or produ%t $as
turned up else#$ere' nor $as anyt$in& been "ound on t$e island t$at %ould $ave been brou&$t by anyone ot$er t$an
t$e ori&inal settlers or t$e Kuropeans* 0et t$e people livin& on Kaster %laimed memories o" visitin& t$e unin$abited
-ala y Iome. ree" ,70 miles a#ay' "ar beyond t$e ran&e o" t$e lea)y %anoes seen by <o&&eveen*
19,7
Kaster !sland4s most "amous "eature is its $u&e stone statues' more t$an ,00 o" #$i%$ on%e stood on massive
stone plat"orms linin& t$e %oast* At least 700 more' in all sta&es o" %ompletion' #ere abandoned in :uarries or on
an%ient roads bet#een t$e :uarries and t$e %oast*
19,7
ost o" t$e ere%ted statues #ere %arved in a sin&le :uarry and
t$en some$o# transported as "ar as si( miles ; despite $ei&$ts as &reat as 33 "eet and #ei&$ts up to 9, tons* +$e
abandoned statues' mean#$ile' #ere as mu%$ as 75 "eet tall and #ei&$ed up to ,70 tons* +$e stone plat"orms #ere
e:ually &i&anti%= up to 500 "eet lon& and 10 "eet $i&$' #it$ "a%in& slabs #ei&$in& up to 10 tons*
19,9
+$e islander $ad no #$eels' no dra"t animals' and no sour%e o" po#er e(%ept t$eir o#n mus%les*
19,9
+o deepen
t$e mystery' t$e statues #ere still standin& in 1770' but by 197/ all o" t$em $ad been pulled do#n' by t$e islanders
t$emselves*
1930
+$e statues imply a so%iety very di""erent "rom t$e one <o&&eveen sa# in 17,,* +$eir s$eer
number and si.e su&&est a population mu%$ lar&er t$an ,'000*
1931
Kaster !sland4s mysteries $ave spa#ned volumes o" spe%ulation "or more t$an t#o and a $al" %enturies*
193,
!n
t$e 1950s' Leyerda$l ar&ued t$at Eolynesia must $ave been settled by advan%ed so%ieties o" Ameri%an !ndians' #$o
in turn must $ave re%eived %ivili.ation a%ross t$e Atlanti% "rom8so%ieties o" t$e Jld World* Leyerda$l4s ra"t
voya&es aimed to prove t$e "easibility o" su%$ pre$istori% transo%eani% %onta%ts* !n t$e 1970s t$e -#iss #riter Kri%$
von Cbni)en' an ardent believer in Kart$ visits by e(traterrestrial astronauts' #ent "urt$er' %laimin& t$at Kaster4s
statues #ere t$e #or) o" intelli&ent bein&s #$o o#ned ultramodern tools' be%ame stranded on on Kaster' and #ere
"inally res%ued*
19,0
Jared Ciamond' Kaster4s endH in 1ust a "e# %enturies' t$e people o" Kaster !sland #iped out t$eir "orest' drove t$eir
plants and animals to e(tin%tion' and sa# t$eir %omple( so%iety spiral into %$aos and %annibalism* Are #e about to "ollo#
t$eir leadP' Disco(er' Au& 1995' 17F9G' p* 73*
19,1
Op. cit.
19,,
)&idem' pp* 73-7/*
19,3
)&idem' p* 7/*
19,/
Op. cit.
19,5
Op. cit.
19,7
Op. cit.
19,7
Op. cit.
19,9
Op. cit.
19,9
Op. cit.
1930
Op. cit.
1931
Op. cit.
193,
Op. cit.
17,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Leyerda$l and Mon Cbni)en bot$ brus$ed aside over#$elmin& eviden%e t$at t$e Kaster !slanders #ere typi%al
Eolynesians derived "rom Asia rat$er t$an "rom t$e Ameri%as and t$at t$eir %ulture Fin%ludin& t$eir statuesG &re#
out o" Eolynesian %ulture*
1933
+$ey 2also3 spo)e an eastern Eolynesian diale%t related to La#aiian and ar:uesan' a
diale%t isolated sin%e about A*C* /00' as estimated "rom sli&$t di""eren%es in vo%abulary*
193/
2!n 199/
1935
3 COA
e(tra%ted "rom 1, Kaster !sland s)eletons #as also s$o#n to be Eolynesian*
1937
Kviden%e lets us ima&ine t$e island onto #$i%$ Kaster4s "irst Eolynesian %olonists stepped as$ore some 1'700
years a&o' a"ter a lon& %anoe voya&e "rom eastern Eolynesia* +$ey "ound t$emselves in a pristine paradise*
1937

Eollen re%ords s$o# t$at destru%tion #as #ell under #ay by t$e year 900' 1ust a "e# %enturies a"ter t$e start o"
$uman settlement*
1939
Oot lon& a"ter 1/00 t$e palm "inally be%ame e(tin%t' not only as a result o" bein& %$opped
do#n but also be%ause t$e no# ubi:uitous rats prevented its re&eneration*
1939
W$ile t$e $ua$ua tree did not
be%ome e(tin%t in Eolynesian times' its numbers de%lined drasti%ally until t$ere #eren4t enou&$ le"t to ma)e ropes
"rom* By t$e time Leyerda$l visited Kaster' only a sin&le' nearly dead toromiro tree remained on t$e island' and
even t$at lone survivor $as no# disappeared*
19/0
+$e "i"teent$ %entury mar)ed t$e end not only "or Kaster4s palm but "or t$e "orest itsel"* !ts doom $ad been
approa%$in& as people %leared land to plant &ardensH as t$ey "elled trees to build %anoes' to transport and ere%t
statues' and to burnH as rats devoured seedsH and probably as t$e native birds died out t$at $ad pollinated t$e trees4
"lo#ers and dispersed t$eir "ruit*
19/1
+$e destru%tion o" t$e island4s animals #as as e(treme as t$at o" t$e "orest*
19/,
!n pla%e o" t$ese meat supplies' t$e Kaster !slanders intensi"ied t$eir produ%tion o" %$i%)ens' #$i%$ $ad been
only an o%%asional "ood item* +$ey also turned to t$e lar&est remainin& meat sour%e available= $umans' #$ose
bones be%ame %ommon in late Kaster !sland &arba&e $eaps* Jral traditions o" t$e islanders are ri"e #it$
%annibalismH t$e most in"lammatory taunt t$at %ould be snarled at an enemy #as ?+$e "les$ o" your mot$er sti%)s
bet#een my teet$*@
19/3' 2 19//3
+$e "irst Eolynesian %olonists "ound t$emselves on an island #it$ "ertile soil' abundant "ood' bounti"ul buildin&
materials' ample lebensraum' and all t$e prere:uisites "or %om"ortable livin&* +$ey prospered and multiplied*
A"ter a "e# %enturies' t$ey be&an ere%tin& stone statues on plat"orms' li)e t$e ones t$eir Eolynesian "orebears
$ad %arved* Wit$ passin& years' t$e statues and plat"orms be%ame lar&er and lar&er' and t$e statues be&an sportin&
ten-ton red %ro#ns ; probably in an es%alatin& spiral o" one-upmans$ip' as rival %lans tried to surpass ea%$ ot$er
#it$ s$o#s o" #ealt$ and po#er* F!n t$e same #ay' su%%essive K&yptian p$arao$s built ever-lar&er pyramids*
+oday Lolly#ood movie mo&uls8in >os An&eles are displayin& t$eir #ealt$ and po#er by buildin& ever more
ostentatious mansions*
19/5
All t$at t$ose buildin&s la%) to ma)e t$e messa&e e(pli%it are ten-ton red %ro#ns*G Jn
Kaster' as in modern Ameri%a' so%iety #as $eld to&et$er by a %omple( politi%al system to redistribute lo%ally
available resour%es and to inte&rate t$e e%onomies o" di""erent areas*
Kventually Kaster4s &ro#in& population #as %uttin& t$e "orest more rapidly t$an t$e "orest #as re&eneratin&*
19/7

As "orest disappeared' t$e islanders ran out o" timber and rope to transport and ere%t t$eir statues* >i"e be%ame
more un%om"ortable ; sprin&s and streams dried up' and #ood #as no lon&er available "or "ires*
Eeople also "ound it $arder to "ill t$eir stoma%$s*
19/7
Crop yields also de%lined' sin%e de"orestation allo#ed t$e
soil to be eroded by rain and #ind' dried by t$e sun' and its nutrients to be lee%$ed "rom it* !ntensi"ied %$i%)en
produ%tion and %annibalism repla%ed only part o" all t$ose lost "oods* Ereserved statuettes #it$ sun)en %$ee)s and
visible ribs su&&est t$at people #ere starvin&*
Wit$ t$e disappearan%e o" "ood surpluses' Kaster !sland %ould no lon&er "eed t$e %$ie"s' bureau%rats' and priests
#$o $ad )ept a %omple( so%iety runnin&* -urvivin& islanders des%ribed to early Kuropean visitors $o# lo%al %$aos
repla%ed %entrali.ed &overnment and a #arrior %lass too) over "rom t$e $ereditary %$ie"s*
19/9
By around 1700' t$e
population be&an to %ras$ to#ard bet#een one-:uarter and one-tent$ o" its "ormer number* Eeople too) to livin& in
1933
)&idem' pp* 7/-75*
193/
)&idem' p* 75*
1935
Op. cit.
1937
Op. cit.
1937
)&idem' p* 77*
1939
Op. cit.
1939
Op. cit.
19/0
)&idem' pp* 77-79*
19/1
)&idem' p* 79*
19/,
Op. cit.
19/3
Op. cit.
19//
?+$is is a $ard sayin&H #$o %an listen to itP@ FJo$n 7*70G
N The 1i&le' <evised -tandard Mersion FO0= Ameri%an Bible -o%iety' 1970G*
19/5
Jared Ciamond' Kaster4s endH in 1ust a "e# %enturies' t$e people o" Kaster !sland #iped out t$eir "orest' drove t$eir
plants and animals to e(tin%tion' and sa# t$eir %omple( so%iety spiral into %$aos and %annibalism* Are #e about to "ollo#
t$eir leadP' Disco(er' Au& 1995' 17F9G' p* 79*
19/7
Op. cit.
19/7
Op. cit.
19/9
Op. cit.
173
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
%aves "or prote%tion a&ainst t$eir enemies* Around 1770 rival %lans started to topple ea%$ ot$er4s statues' brea)in&
t$e $eads o""* By 197/ t$e last statue $ad been t$ro#n do#n and dese%rated*
As #e try to ima&ine t$e de%line o" Kaster4s %ivili.ation' #e as) ourselves' ?W$y didn4t t$ey loo) around'
reali.e #$at t$ey #ere doin&' and stop be"ore it #as too lateP W$at #ere t$ey t$in)in& #$en t$ey %ut do#n t$e last
palm treeP@
19/9
Any islander #$o tried to #arn about t$e dan&ers o" pro&ressive de"orestation #ould $ave been
overridden by vested interests o" %arvers' bureau%rats' and %$ie"s' #$ose 1obs depended on %ontinued de"orestation*
Jur Ea%i"i% Oort$#est lo&&ers are only t$e latest in a lon& line o" lo&&ers to %ry' ?Jobs over trees\@
1950
+$eir
%$ildren %ould no more $ave %ompre$ended t$eir parents4 tales t$an8ei&$t-year-old2s38today %an %ompre$end8
tales o" #$at >os An&eles #as li)e 30 years a&o*
Iradually trees be%ame "e#er' smaller' and less important*
1951
Oo one #ould $ave noti%ed t$e "ellin& o" t$e last
small palm*
195,
By no# t$e meanin& o" Kaster !sland "or us s$ould be tellin&ly obvious* Kaster !sland is Kart$ #rit small*
+oday' a&ain' a risin& population %on"ronts s$rin)in& resour%es* We too $ave no emi&ration valve' be%ause all
$uman so%ieties are lin)ed by international transport' and #e %an no more es%ape into spa%e t$an t$e Kaster
!slanders %ould "lee into t$e o%ean* !" #e %ontinue to "ollo# our present %ourse' #e s$all $ave e($austed t$e
#orld4s ma1or "is$eries' tropi%al rain "orests' "ossil "uels' and mu%$ o" our soil by t$e time
1953
8every day
ne#spapers report 2t$e3 details*
195/
Corre%tive a%tion is blo%)ed by vested interests' by #ell-intentioned politi%al and business leaders' and by t$eir
ele%torates' all o" #$om are per"e%tly %orre%t in not noti%in& bi& %$an&es "rom year to year* !nstead' ea%$ year t$ere
are 1ust some#$at more people' and some#$at "e#er resour%es' on Kart$*
1955
• • •
2C$arles <obert3 Car#in brou&$t almost not$in& #it$ $im to t$e Ialapa&os e(%ept an enviable %apa%ity to
observe #$at $e sa#* Le le"t a"ter about a mont$ #it$ a lot o" data about tortoises and "in%$es ; and seeds o" t$e
ideas t$at #ould %$an&e t$e dire%tion o" biolo&y "orever*
1957
But t$e bu%%aneers #$o #ere t$ere in 1777 did not
%ome empty-$anded or leave empty-$anded* +$ey brou&$t rats and %atsH t$ey "reed &oats and burros and $orses and
%attle on t$e uno%%upied islands* +$ey too) a#ay &iant tortoises by t$e s$ipload ; tortoises sta%)ed on t$eir ba%)s
in t$e $old o" a s$ip %an live as mu%$ as a year #it$out "ood or #ater ; providin& t$e %re# #it$ "res$ meat*
!t may $ave seemed insi&ni"i%ant to t$e pirates' but in leavin& be$ind t$eir livesto%)' t$ey set in motion a %$ain
o" events t$at #ould eventually lead to an important dis%overy in Kuropean so%ial s%ien%e*
1957
+$e &oats t$ey $ad
released on t$e islands $ad multiplied to t$e point t$at t$e islands #ould not support any more &oats*
1959
alt$us8
reasoned t$at $uman bein&s #ere doin& t$e same t$in&*
W$at people brin& to a pla%e and #$at t$ey ta)e a#ay is t$e )ey to $o# %ulture ruins environments* +$e
Ialapa&os in t$e 1700s #as no di""erent "rom any environment today ; #$at #e put in and #$at #e ta)e out
determines t$e "uture*
!t used to be t$at $uman bein&s ruined t$eir environment by ta)in& stu"" out'
1959
8but #e no# are dumpin& a
ne# )ind o" #aste into t$e environment*
1970
Car#in traveled "or )no#led&e* +ourists' $o#ever' travel "or pleasure*
W$at t$ey leave be$ind is money*
1971
• • •
Be%ause o" $uman a%tivity' Kart$ is su""erin& "rom an e(%ess o" nitro&en' and t$e result is #orld#ide biolo&i%al
$avo%* +$at4s t$e %on%lusion o" a panel o" e%olo&ists $eaded by -tan"ord University biolo&y pro"essor Eeter
Mitouse)*
+$e &lut arose be%ause' over t$e past de%ade' $umans $ave doubled t$e rate at #$i%$ nitro&en as in t$e
atmosp$ere is ?"i(ed@ ; %$emi%ally %onverted into %ompounds t$at %an be used by plants and animals* +$e e(%ess
19/9
Op. cit.
1950
Op. cit.
1951
Op. cit.
195,
)&idem' pp* 79-79*
1953
)&idem' p* 79*
195/
Op. cit.
1955
Op. cit.
1957
Eaul Bo$annon' -i&$tseein& in t$e Ialapa&os= be %are"ul #$at you leave be$ind' Omni' -ep 199/' 17F11G' p* 9*
1957
Op. cit.
1959
Op. cit.
1959
Op. cit.
1970
Op. cit.
1971
Op. cit.
17/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
nitro&en $as disrupted one o" t$e planet4s "undamental %y%les*
197,
2Oitro&en3 is lea%$in& soils o" ot$er nutrientsH
in%reasin& t$e a%idi"i%ation o" sur"a%e #aters' #$i%$ de%reases biodiversityH %lo&&in& t$e %oastal o%ean #it$
nitro&en-$un&ry al&aeH and spe#in& nitro&en %ompounds into t$e atmosp$ere' #$ere t$ey a%t as o.one destroyers'
&reen$ouse &ases' and pollutants*
1973
• • •
<ussia is dyin&' its do%tors said 2June 73 #arnin& t$at t$e population #as s$rin)in& at a rate never be"ore seen
in pea%etime and a%%usin& t$e &overnment o" "ailin& in its le&al duty to provide $ealt$ %are*
?<ussia is losin& its main state asses ; its %iti.ens'@ t$e <ussian Eiro&ov Con&ress o" E$ysi%ians resolved in a
t$ree-day meetin& over 17'000 leadin& do%tors* +$e resolution' :uoted by !nter"a( ne#s a&en%y' de%ried t$e
?unpre%edented pea%etime de%line in t$e <ussian population@
197/
8as t$e deat$ rate outstrips t$e birt$ rate by 1*7
times* A t$ird o" t$ose are still #or)in& a&e' t$e do%tors noted*
1975
• • •
+$e myt$ t$at t$e United -tates is immune to t$e population problems o" t$e rest o" t$e #orld i&nores
mi&ration' in"e%tious diseases' international labor mar)ets' and t$e s$ared &lobal %ommons o" %rust' o%eans'
atmosp$ere' and #ildli"e* <e"u&ees and immi&rants are driven "rom $ome by politi%al up$eavals' et$ni% %on"li%it'
poverty' and environmental de&radation ; all problems t$at may be e(a%erbated by rapid population &ro#t$ ; and
already play visible roles in t$e domesti% politi%s o" Florida' +e(as' and Cali"ornia' as #ell as in Ameri%an "orei&n
poli%y* +$e $ealt$ o" Ameri%ans depends on t$e $ealt$ o" people outside our borders ; in"e%tious diseases do not
%arry a passport*
1977
• • •
Fi"ty years a&o' t$e #aters o"" sout$ern Cali"ornia teemed #it$ li"e*
1977
+oday t$ose same #aters are mu%$
poorer* +$e "is$ sto%)s $ave de%lined dramati%allyH t$e seabird populations $ave de%lined or even %ras$ed* +$e
reason' say biolo&i%al o%eano&rap$er Jo$n %Io#an and p$ysi%al o%eano&rap$er Cean <oemmi%$ o" t$e -%ripps
!nstitution o" J%eano&rap$y' is t$at t$e .ooplan)ton population $as dropped a pre%ipitous 90 per%ent sin%e 1951*
And t$e reason "or that is t$at t$e sur"a%e #aters o" t$e Ea%i"i% o"" Cali"ornia $ave &otten sli&$tly #armer*
1979

%Io#an and <oemmi%$ don4t t$in) t$e #armin& t$ey sa# ; 1ust , to 3 de&rees Fa$ren$eit over t$e /3 years o"
testin& ; #as a dire%t %ause o" t$e .ooplan)ton de%line* +$ey believe instead t$at t$e #armin& %aused a de%line in
p$ytoplan)ton ; #$i%$ are #$at .ooplan)ton eat ; by redu%in& t$e amount o" nutrients available to t$e plants*
1979
Fe#er nutrients mean "e#er p$ytoplan)ton ; and t$us "e#er .ooplan)ton' "is$' and seabirds* As t$e
.ooplan)ton population $as dropped by 90 per%ent sin%e t$e 1950s' t$e %ommer%ial %at%$es o" sardines' ma%)erel'
and an%$ovies $ave dropped by more t$an 30 per%ent* -eabirds $ave "ared even #orse*
1970
W$at4s &oin& on %ould be a natural %y%le t$at lasts lon&er t$an t$e Kl Oico %y%le*
1971
But anot$er s%enario' t$e
t#o resear%$ers t$in)' is e:ually plausible and more ominous= t$e de%line in sea li"e t$ey4ve observed %ould be an
e""e%t o" man-made &lobal #armin&* ?We don4t )no# i" it is a natural %y%le or man-%aused'@ %Io#an says* ?!" it
is a man-%aused t$in&' it #ill only &et #orse* And i" t$e rate o" %$an&e %ontinues as it $as' it #ill be a disaster
e%olo&i%ally*@
197,
• • •
197,
Art$ur Fis$er' +oo mu%$ nitro&en' Popular Science' July 1997' ,51F1G' p* 33*
1973
Op. cit.
197/
Around t$e World' Co%tors alarmed as <ussia4s deat$ rate outstrips birt$ rate' The Seattle Times' 9 June 1997' 15F,3G'
p* A17*
1975
Op. cit.
1977
Joel K* Co$en' +en myt$s o" population' Disco(er' April 1997' 17F/G' p* /7*
1977
Kat$y A* -vitil' Collapse o" a "ood %$ainH t$ere are "e#er "is$ and birds o"" Cali"ornia no#adays ; be%ause t$ere are
"e#er plan)ton' be%ause t$e #ater is #armer* Be%ause #e #armed itP' Disco(er' July 1995' 17F7G' p* 37*
1979
Op. cit.
1979
Op. cit.
1970
)&idem' p* 37*
1971
Op. cit.
197,
Op. cit.
175
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Ki&$t t$ousand years a&o' "orest %overed more t$an ,3 million s:uare miles' or about /0 per%ent o" Kart$4s land
sur"a%e* +oday' amost $al" o" t$ose "orests $ave "allen to t$e a(' t$e %$ain sa#' t$e mat%$sti%)' or t$e bulldo.er*
1973

!n 1990 "orests too) up about a :uarter o" t$e planet4s land sur"a%e Fnot in%ludin& an additional 13 per%ent o" ot$er
#oody ve&etation' su%$ as sparsely %overed #oodland and brus$landG*
197/
Listori%ally' virtually all %ountries $ave
e(perien%ed de"orestation' mostly be%ause o" t$e need "or ne# "armland' pasture' "uel#ood and timber* !n t$e U*-*'
"orest no# %overs ,, per%ent o" t$e land area' a de%line o" per$aps /0 per%ent sin%e Kuropean %oloni.ation
be&an*
1975
!n Kurope' #est o" t$e "ormer U*-*-*<*' "orest %overs about 30 per%ent o" t$e land' rou&$ly $al" its
ori&inal e(tent* A ma1or problem t$ere' parti%ularly in eastern Kurope' is de"oliation' apparently %aused mostly by
air pollution* Forests in t$e "ormer U*-*-*<* on%e blan)eted about $al" t$e land but no# %over about a t$ird*
1977

+$e bi&&est %$an&es $ave been in t$e tropi%s' #$ere t$e natural "orest dropped by a "i"t$ "rom 1970 to 1990 as a
result o" population pressure' lar&e-s%ale &overnment development pro1e%ts and %ommer%ial lo&&in&* +$e &reatest
de%line #as in tropi%al Asia' #$i%$ lost a t$ird o" its "orest*
1977
+$e United -tates is 2also3 amon& t$e nations said
to be runnin& out o" time= !n t$e lo#er /9 states' says 2World <esour%es !nstitute4s Cir)3 Bryant' ?only 1 per%ent o"
t$e "orest t$at #as on%e t$ere as "rontier "orest :uali"ies today*@
1979
Forests remove %arbon dio(ide "rom t$e air' %onserve soil and #ater' and are $ome to a variety o" spe%ies* +$ey
are also repositories o" potentially valuable ne# produs%ts' su%$ as p$arma%euti%als' and as a sour%e o" buildin&
material and "ire#ood t$ey provide employment "or millions #orld#ide*
1979
• • •
+$e W$ite Louse Coun%il o" K%onomi% Advisers $as %on%luded t$at t$e Forest -ervi%e spends more o" t$e
ta(payers4 money on timber $arvests t$an it ma)es*
!t4s not#ort$y be%ause t$is is t$e "irst time an $onest a%%ountin& $as been done by anyone e(%ept outra&ed
environmental &roups t$at $ave "or de%ades %omplained about t$e Forest -ervi%e4s de%eptive timber $arvest
a%%ountin& pra%ti%es*
!n 1995' t$e Forest -ervi%e %laimed it made a 659 million pro"it "rom %ommeri%al lo&&in&* But t$e Coun%il o"
K%onomi% Advisers says t$at durin& t$e same period' t$e servi%e a%tually spent 6950 million on timber
mana&ement' re"orestation' lo&&in& roads and payments to states #$ile %olle%tin& only 6717 million in timber
re%eipts*
+$e a&en%y itsel" traditionally e(%ludes "rom its %al%ulations o" $arvest %osts su%$ pri%y items as road-buildin&'
#$i%$ allo#s private "irms a%%ess to t$e trees' and t$e ,5 per%ent o" t$e timber pro"its it is re:uired to &ive to
states*
?Ienerally' U*-* Forest -ervi%e subsidi.es timber e(tra%tion "rom publi% lands by %olle%tin& less in timber sale
revenue t$an it spends on timber pro&ram %osts'@ t$e %oun%il4s report to Con&ress said*
?Current politi%s to#ard natural resour%e use are mainly rooted in past le&islationn untended to stimulate t$e
e%onomies o" t$e West and en%oura&e settlement o" t$e re&ion * * * +$ese poli%ies "a%ilitate t$e development and
e(ploitation o" natural resour%es*@
1990
• • •
We -eattleites usually are proud to ta)e %redit "or bre#in& up t$e nation4s %o""ee %ra.e*
ost o" us #ould be less t$an proud' t$ou&$' i" #e reali.ed t$at our seemin&ly inno%ent latte addi%tions are
%ontributin& to over$eatin& t$e planet and eradi%atin& son&birds*
!t4s anot$er lamentable e(ample o" $uman)ind4s #itless entan&lement in t$e unrelentin& la# o" unintended
%onse:uen%es*
Lere4s #$at4s $appened= +$e &ro#in& demand "or %o""ee ; "or #$i%$ #e %an in lar&e part t$an)
entrepreneurs8; $as %aused Central and -out$ Ameri%an "armers to s#it%$ "rom &ro#in& %o""ee beans in t$e s$ade
o" tropi%al "orest understory trees to &ro#in& t$em in t$e open sun*
-o t$ey are %lear%uttin& rain "orests #$ere son&birds and ot$er spe%ies live and usin& more %$emi%als and
pesti%ides to ensure $i&$er rates o" produ%tion*
Jops*
1973
Ca#n -tover' +$e "inal "rontierH t$e planet4s last inta%t e(panses o" "orest are under sie&e' Popular Science' July 1997'
,51F1G' p* 59*
197/
<od&er Coyle' Ilobal "orest %over' Scienti-ic American' Oov 1997' ,75F5G' p* 3,*
1975
Op. cit.
1977
Op. cit.
1977
Op. cit.
1979
Ca#n -tover' +$e "inal "rontierH t$e planet4s last inta%t e(panses o" "orest are under sie&e' Popular Science' July 1997'
,51F1G' p* 59*
1979
<od&er Coyle' Ilobal "orest %over' Scienti-ic American' Oov 1997' ,75F5G' p* 3,*
1990
Jpinion' Addin& up timber numbers' The Seattle Times' ,3 Feb 1997' 15F9G' p* K,*
177
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
At a re%ently %on%luded meetin& o" t$e Ameri%an Asso%iation "or t$e Advan%ement o" -%ien%e' Je""rey Earris$' a
diploma%y "ello# #it$ t$e &roup' said t$e United -tates %onsumes a t$rid o" t$e #orld4s %o""ee* -o U*-* %o""ee
drin)ers' and parti%ularly t$ose in -eattle' s$ould play a leadin& role in reversin& t$is e%olo&i%ally in%orre%t trend*
Lere4s #$at dedi%ated %o""ee lovers %an do= -imply as) your %o""ee purveyor to sell you %o""ee &ro#n in t$e
s$ade in t$e old-"as$ioned #ay* As) "or %o""ee &ro#n in an e%olo&i%ally sustainable' or&ani% manner*
1991
Co""ee "irms are e(plorin& #ays to return to %ost-e""e%tive' $armless %o""ee &ro#in&*
!" t$ey su%%eed' as #e $ere on t$e $opelessly addi%ted Kditorial Board most "ervently pray t$ey do'
2 199,3
it &oes
#it$out sayin& t$at %o""ee drin)ers s$ould e(pe%t to pay a $i&$er pri%e "or t$at double tall non-"at 2For ,VG3 #it$
vanilla*
Just %onsider it as a pur%$ase o" an essential' &uilt-"ree indul&en%e*
1993
• • •
+$e trade in e(oti% animals ; espe%ially prote%ted' t$reatened and endan&ered spe%ies ; is not usually t$ou&$t
to o%%upy a $u&e s$are in t$e &lobal mar)et o" ille&al &oods smu&&led a%ross borders* But in re%ent years' only
ille&al dru&s $ave outstripped t$e %as$ value o" livin& and dead #ildli"e t$at slui%es t$rou&$ t$e bla%) mar)et
to#ard trop$y $unters' pet ent$usiasts and devotees o" traditional medi%ines*
?+$e business is rou&$ly e:ual to t$at o" smu&&led #eapons'@ says Anne-Berry Wade' a U*-* Fis$ and Wildli"e
spo)es#oman* ?And very "e# nations do anyt$in& about it*@
Bet#een 610 billion and 6,0 billion in plants and animals #ere traded ille&ally around t$e #orld last year' #it$
t$e United -tates leadin& t$e list o" buyers' spendin& 63 billion F%ompared #it$ 6,0 billion o" %ontraband dru&sG*
+$e $arvestin& o"8animals #ouldn4t be nearly so pro"itable i" t$ere #eren4t su%$ %olle%tors around t$e #orld'
espe%ially in Ameri%a' Iermany and Japan' #$ere an estimated one in 10 males is a serious butter"ly %olle%tor*
+$e %ar&o %omes in many "orms* +$ey may be live ?pets'@8sold "or t$ousands o" dollars to %olle%tors* +$ey
mi&$t be8animal parts #$ose use and value spans every interest= rare butter"lies8%au&$t and )illed "or %olle%torsH
potions8said to in%rease male se(ual poten%yH or e(oti% s)ins*
199/
?+$e people #$o smu&&le t$ese animals into t$e U*-* usually aren4t $obbyists &one astray'@ 2<obert Anderson'
senior trial %ounsel "or t$e #ildli"e and marine resour%es se%tion at t$e U*-* Cepartment o" Justi%e and t$e
en"or%ement o""i%er in Ieneva "or t$e Convention on !nternational +rade in Kndan&ered -pe%ies3 said* ?+$ey4re
not doin& t$is to eat* +$ey4re not tryin& to save t$e spe%ies* +$ey4re out to ma)e a bu%)*@
1995
• • •
+$e 2Oature Conservan%y4s3 annual ?-pe%ies <eport Card@ s$o#s t$at at least 110 o" t$e nation4s ,0'500
)no#n terrestrial spe%ies $ave &one e(tin%t sin%e t$e 17t$ %entury and /17 more are missin& and possibly e(tin%t*
La#aii $as ,7 spe%ies presumed e(tin%t and ,/3 possibly e(tin%tH Alabama $as ,/ presumed e(tin%t and 7/
possibly e(tin%tH and Cali"ornia $as ,5 presumed e(tin%t and ,1 possibly e(tin%t* +$ose t$ree states $ave t$e
$i&$est totals*
1997
+$e estimates mostly i&nore inse%ts' t$e e(tin%tion rate o" #$i%$ is lar&ely un)no#n*
1997
-%ientists $ave estimated t$at Was$in&ton $as lost up to $al" its #etlands and up to 90 per%ent o" its lo#land
old-&ro#t$ "orests' oa) #oodlands and sa&e steppe desert*
1999
1991
Jpinion' Co""ee-&ro#in& dilemma' The Seattle Times' ,3 Feb 1997' 15F9G' p* K,*
199,
Cru&s are every#$ere* +$ey4re easy to &et' easy to use and even easier to &et $oo)ed on*
N Ann >anders' Crun)en du""er di&s divot #it$ %$in' t$en sues %ountry %lub and #ins' The Seattle Times' ,3 Feb 1997'
15F9G' p* K3*
1993
Jpinion' Co""ee-&ro#in& dilemma' The Seattle Times' ,3 Feb 1997' 15F9G' p* K,*
199/
Conovan Webster' Bla%)-mar)et bountyH U*-* leads t$e list o" ille&al buyers "or animals' plants' Seattle
Post- )ntelligencer' 9 ar%$ 1997' p* C3*
1995
)&idem' p* C1*
1997
Bill Cietri%$' Conservationists say stellar re%ord is misleadin&H la%) o" e(tin%t spe%ies not$in& to bra& about' The Seattle
Times' ,7 Feb 1997' p* B1*
1997
Op. cit.
1999
)&idem' p* B,*
177
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$e U*-* Fis$ and Wildli"e -ervi%e lists ,0 spe%ies under its 1urisdi%tion in Was$in&ton t$at are on t$e "ederal
Kndan&ered -pe%ies >ist* +$ey are=
Animals= Iri..ly bear' Columbian #$ite-tailed deer' #oodland %aribou' &ray #ol"' bald ea&le' pere&rine
"al%on' Aleutian Canada &oose' nort$ern spotted o#l' bro#n peli%an' #estern sno#y plover' marbled
murrelet' Jre&on silver-spot butter"ly' and "our turtles ; &reen sea' leat$erba%)' lo&&er$ead and olive*
Elants= ars$ sand#ort' #ater $o#ellia' Brads$a#4s desert parsley and Oelson4s %$e%)ermallo#*
1999
• • •
+$e $i&$ pri%e o" %aviar' t$e in%reasin& popularity o" $erbal medi%ines and t$e $u&e mar)up "or tropi%al birds
are puttin& severe pressure on some o" t$e #orld4s rarest spe%ies*
And millions o" %onsumers' sometimes #it$out bein& a#are o" it' are %ontributin& to t$e de%line o" rare
mammals' "is$ and plants' said Iinette Lemley' t$e World Wildli"e Fund4s poli%y dire%tor "or international
#ildli"e*
!n a report released 2June 33 "or t$e 10t$ meetin& o" t$e Convention on !nternational +rade in Kndan&ered
-pe%ies FC!+K-G' t$e #ildli"e preservation &roup lists 10 ?most #anted@ spe%ies ; t$ose most #anted by %onsumers
#$ose tastes lean to#ards t$e e(oti%*
?Consumers %an play a role' not 1ust &overnments'@ Lemley said in an intervie#* ?+$ey %an dire%tly a""e%t
survival by %$oi%es made in t$e mar)etpla%e "or everyt$in& "rom "ood to "urniture*@
+$e trade in endan&ered #ildli"e adds up to billions o" dollars be%ause some o" t$e produ%ts are very e(pensive'
s$e said*
Caviar "rom belu&a stur&eon' #$i%$ must be )illed to $arvest t$eir e&&s' %an sell "or more t$an 690 an oun%e*
A rare &reen-%$ee)ed Ama.on parrot' #$i%$ a trapper may sell "or 6,' %an brin& 6500 in a U*-* pet store* And a
sin&le Asian ti&er s)eleton %an yield more pro"it t$an some Asian people earn in a de%ade*
1990
!n addition'8t$e 10 most-#anted list in%ludes=
• Bla%) r$ino' )illed "or t$eir $orn' #it$ t$e number in eastern and sout$ern A"ri%a belo# ,'500' a 95
per%ent de%line sin%e 1970*
• Iiant panda' #it$ "e#er t$an 1'000 in t$e #ilds o" C$ina' as t$ey %ontinue to be sent to .oos*
• Ioldenseal' an $erb &at$ered in Oort$ Ameri%an $ard#ood "orests and used to treat ailments ran&in&
"rom $ay "ever to $emorr$oids' in a mar)et t$at $as &ro#n 30 per%ent in t$e past t#o years*
• Alli&ator snappin& turtle' #$i%$ o"ten ends up in %anned soup*
• La#)sbill turtle' a 3-"oot-lon& sea turtle #$ose s$ell is t$e prin%ipal sour%e o" misnamed ?tortoise s$ell@
souvenirs and trin)ets*
• Bi& lea" ma$o&any' #$i%$ o"ten stands alone amid ot$er $ard#oods in t$e "orest rat$er t$an in lar&e
stands and is pri.ed "or "urniture*
• a)o s$ar)' $i&$ly pri.ed by restaurateurs "or its meat and its "ins and bein& $arvested t#i%e as "ast as its
reprodu%tive rate*
1991
• • •
1999
Bill Cietri%$' Was$in&ton4s endan&ered spe%ies' The Seattle Times' ,7 Feb 1997' p* B1*
1990
Cavid Bris%oe FThe Associated PressG' Iroup lists 10 e(oti% spe%ies most at ris)H t$e demand "or produ%ts made "rom
animals and plants su%$ as bla%) r$inos and t$e ma$o&any tree is t$reatenin& t$eir survival' t$e World Wildli"e Fund
#arns' The Seattle Times' 3 June 1997' 1,0F13,G' p* A7*
1991
Op. cit.
179
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Ameri%a $as , billion sto%)piled used tires and' despite re%y%lin& adds 2,50
199,
3 million more to t$e $eap ea%$
year*
1993
<esear%$ers $ave tried' #it$ varyin& de&rees o" su%%ess' to brea) do#n old tires and re%y%le t$em into ne#
ones' and t$ey4ve tried addin& &round-up tires to asp$alt* -itll' most tires end up in land"ills* Oo# Kir) an"redi'
a %$emist at t$e University o" Oort$ern !o#a' $as %ome up #it$ yet anot$er #ay to dent t$is mountain o" #orn-out
rubber= $e produ%es lemon oil "rom it* -pe%i"i%ally' an"redi produ%es lemonene' t$e main in&redient in t$e oil o"
lemons and ot$er %itrus "ruits*
199/
Le still $as to #or) on t$e puri"i%ation pro%ess*
1995
-ays an"redi' ?0ou $ave to
t$in) bi&*@
1997
• • •
Clearin& oil-sli%)ed seabirds may $elp people $eal' but not birds' several re%ent studies say* Caniel W*
Anderson o" t$e University o" Cali"ornia at Cavis tra%)ed 11, treated peli%ans' as #ell as 19 un%ontaminated birds*
A"ter t#o years' only 10 per%ent o" t$e oiled birds %ould be "ound' %ompared #it$ 55 per%ent o" t$e una""e%ted
animals* -o' too' mars$ %oots e(posed to oil o"ten die prematurely' presumably be%ause t$e oil $as le"t t$em
immunosuppressed*
1997
+$e resear%$ers su&&est t$at money used to re$abilitate birds mi&$t be better spent on
"indin& #ays to prevent oil spills in t$e "irst pla%e*
1999

• • •
+$e U*-* is no# in t$e sevent$ de%ade o" a lun& %an%er epidemi% t$at started #it$ t$e introdu%tion o" milder'
more in$alable %i&arettes near t$e turn o" t$e %untury* Be%ause o" t$e disease4s lon& in%ubation period' lun& %an%er
morttality did not rise until t$e 1930s' but as early as 191,' %riti%s #ere %laimin& t$at %i&arettes %asued %an%er*
+$ere #as' $o#ever' no stron& eviden%e until 1950*
1999
• • •
Famines today are only partly a result o" natural events* any readers may remember a Eulit.er Eri.e-#innin&
p$oto&rap$ "rom 1993' s$o#in& a starvin& -udanese &irl %ollapsed on a trail' #it$ a vulture loomin& be$ind $er* At
t$e time' t$e -udanese &overnment #as 1ust openin& parts o" its "amine-stri%)en %ountryside ; t$e s%ene o" a
lon&-runnin& %ivil #ar ; to relie" operations* !" aid #or)ers $ad &otten in sooner' t$ey %ould $ave prevented a %rop
"ailure "rom leadin& to a "amine' but t$e -udanese &overnment stopped relie" "rom rea%$in& its o#n people* +$is is
not divine intervention or an a%t o" nature*
,000
• • •
J" t$e #orld4s estimated 7'000 lan&ua&es' bet#een ,0 per%ent and 50 per%ent are no lon&er spo)en by %$ildren*
?+$ese lan&ua&es are obviously $eaded "or e(tin%tion unless t$ere are radi%al %$an&es'@ says i%$ael Krauss'
dire%tor o" t$e Alas)a Oative >an&ua&e Center at t$e University o" o" Alas)a Fairban)s*
Jnly about 300 lan&uea&es are ?sa"e@ "rom e(tin%tion' $e says' eit$er be%ause t$ey $ave so many spea)ers ; a
million or more ; or be%ause t$ey $ave stron& &overnment support* )rauss predi%ts t$at bet#een 90 per%ent and 95
per%ent o" lan&ua&es may be e(tin%t or $eaded "or e(tin%tion by t$e year ,100* >an&ua&es are vanis$in& not only
be%ause o" %ultural assimilation but also be%ause' in some pla%es' t$ose in po#er "or%e minorities to &ive up t$eir
native spee%$*
World#ide' lan&ua&es are disappearin& even "aster t$an animal spe%ies* !n many pla%es' native %ultures and
t$eir lan&ua&es are t$reatened by by t$e same "or%es t$at t$reaten biodiversity' su%$ as de"orestation* ?A
%onservative &uess' over t$e ne(t %entury' is t$at ,0 lan&ua&es per year #ill die'@ says Krauss*
,001
199,
Brea)t$rou&$s !n -%ien%e' +e%$nolo&y' and edi%ine' >emon tire very pretty * * *' Disco(er' July 1997' 19F7G' p* 17*
1993
Bill Cietri%$' Usin& tires to mu""le tires' The Seattle Times' ,1 Oov 1995' p* A9*
199/
Brea)t$rou&$s !n -%ien%e' +e%$nolo&y' and edi%ine' >emon tire very pretty * * *' Disco(er' July 1997' 19F7G' p* 17*
1995
Op. cit.
1997
Op. cit.
1997
!n Brie"' Jil4s lastin& e""e%t' Scienti-ic American' June 1997' ,77F7G' p* ,7*
1999
Op. cit.
1999
<od&er Coyle' >un& %an%er in U*-* males' Scienti-ic American' June 1997' ,77F7G' p* ,9*
,000
Joel K* Co$en' +en myt$s o" population' Omni' April 1997' 17F/G' p* /7*
,001
Ca#n -tover' Kndan&ered spee%$' July 1997' ,51F1G' p* 3/*
179
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
W$at4s so bad about losin& lan&ua&esP
,00,
+$e loss o" a lan&ua&e8means t$e loss o" a di""erent #ay o" loo)in&
at t$e #orld'
,003
8t$e loss o" )no#led&e embedded in lan&ua&e ; t$e medi%inal uses o" plants' "or e(ample*
,00/
• • •
Jne #ay or anot$er' $uman population &ro#t$ on Kart$ must ultimately end*
,005
+$e Kaster !slanders $ad no
boo)s and no $istories o" ot$er doomed so%ieties* Unli)e t$e Kaster !slanders' #e $ave $istories o" t$e past ;
in"ormation t$at %an save us*
,007
Le #$o lives #it$out dis%ipline dies #it$out $onor*
,007
+$e %$oi%e is ours' "or
no#*
,009
?+$e &reatest "ul"illment %omes #$en #e ma)e t$e #orld a better pla%e' and t$is %onne%ts #it$ our deepest
traditional need in %apitalism ; "ind a need and "ill it'@ 2James <ed"ield3 says*
,009
?+$e people #$o are most
"ul"illed in li"e are not t$ose #$o 1ust do #$atever it ta)es to ma)e more money* +$e people #$o are most "ul"illed
are t$ose t$at see a lon&er-term meanin&* +$ose #$o are %yni%al and loo) at business as #ar #ill al#ays $ave
trouble su%%eedin& be%ause t$at attitude al#ays blo#s up at some point*@
,010
,00,
Op. cit.
,003
Op. cit.
,00/
Op. cit.
,005
Joel K* Co$en' +en myt$s o" population' Omni' April 1997' 17F/G' p* /7*
,007
Jared Ciamond' Kaster4s endH in 1ust a "e# %enturies' t$e people o" Kaster !sland #iped out t$eir "orest' drove t$eir
plants and animals to e(tin%tion' and sa# t$eir %omple( so%iety spiral into %$aos and %annibalism* Are #e about to "ollo#
t$eir leadP' Disco(er' Au& 1995' 17F9G' p* 79*
,007
!%landi% proverb' )n Auotable Auotes]' Reader;s Digest' June 1997' 1/9F990G' p* 57*
,009
Joel K* Co$en' +en myt$s o" population' Omni' April 1997' 17F/G' p* /7*
,009
Caneen -)ube' -piritual side o" #or)H #$en personal and #or)pla%e values %ome to&et$er' it %an be &ood "or t$e soul ;
and business' The Seattle Times' 10 ar%$ 1997' 1,0F59G' p* C3*
,010
Op. cit.
170
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+edagogy
!n Japanese s%$ools %$ildren rat$er t$an 1anitors do t$e %leanin&* From "irst &rade t$rou&$ senior year o" $i&$
s%$ool' %$ildren spend 15 minutes to a $al"-$our a day %leanin&' ta)in& out t$e &arba&e and removin& &ra""iti*
?Kids #rite &ra""iti in pen%il'@ e(plains iyu)i -$iba$ara' a 1unior-$i&$-s%$ool tea%$er in Ois$i)i* -in%e t$ey $ave
to %lean it t$emselves' s$e says' ?t$ey don4t $ave t$e stoma%$ to #rite in pen*@
As Ameri%ans dissatis"ied #it$ t$eir o#n edu%ational system loo) at alternatives' Japanese s%$ools stand out in
many #ays* +$ey o""er orderly %lasses' sa"e %orridors' ri&orous trainin& in basi%s' and pra%ti%al lessons su%$ as t$is
one= "or every a%tion' li)e sti%)in& &um under a des)' t$ere must be an e:ual and less pleasant rea%tion' li)e
removin& it*
!ndeed s%$ools in Japan seem not so mu%$ institutions o" learnin& as o" so%ial en&ineerin& ; %onstantly
remindin& students t$at t$ey are members o" a lar&er %ommunity* <ules are ubi:uitous' and t$e atmosp$ere is a bit
li)e t$at o" a military a%ademy*
,011
Cespite t$is ri&idity' teens in Japan seem as rebellious in spirit as Ameri%an
youn&sters* +$e di""eren%e is di&ree= t$ey8"i&$t #it$ t$eir "ists instead o" )nives' and mostly &et )issed instead o"
pre&nant*
,01,
W$y do youn& people #or) so $ardP ?We #ant to &o to &ood universities and &et &ood 1obs'@ -$in&o 2Lorie' a
17-year-old 1unior3 says* +$e Japanese t$emselves re"er to t$e teen years as ?e(amination $ell'@ a time o"
e(traordinary pressure #$en a "e# "ailed e(ams %an pe& a student as a lat$e #or)er instead o" a %orporate
e(e%utive* But Japanese youn&sters usually $ave inta%t "amilies and sometimese a %lose-)nit %ommunity o"
students to provide support*
,013
+$e system %an be brutal "or t$ose #$o do not "it in' but it also %reates a ti&$t sense
o" "amily "or most %$ildren*
,01/
-ome s%$olars say Japan4s edu%ational system $as served admirably in buildin& an industrial so%iety #it$ a
s)illed labor "or%e* But t$ese s%$olars #orry t$at &raduates #ill la%) t$e %reativity to master t$e in"ormation a&e in
t$e %omin& de%ades* ?!" #e do not %$an&e our edu%ational system' it #ill be t$e ruin o" our %ountry'@ #arned
ori$iro Loso)a#a' a "ormer prime minister' in a re%ent essay* Le %omplained t$at t$e system is so re&imented
and so "o%used on %rammin& in"ormation into youn& minds t$at it sti"les t$e %$ildren*
,015
“6ost =-meri!ans? are willing to pay more to 'e amused than to 'e edu!ated.”
>/.<
>on& be"ore s%$ool%$ildren learned to read #it$ Dic' and Jane boo)s' stories by Ben1amin Fran)lin and
Oat$aniel La#t$orne #ere e(%erpted in t$e %Iu""ey <eader* +$e stories o"ten imparted moral lessons* And t$ey
#ere not easy reads*
?+$ey used a lot o" un%ommon #ords* +$e assumption #as )ids #ould loo) t$em up in t$e di%tionary'@ says
Ciane <avit%$' a "ormer U*-* assistant edu%ation se%retary*
,017
+e(tboo)s today' many e(perts a&ree' are "ar easier to read' #it$ simpler vo%abulary and senten%e stru%ture'
t$an t$ey on%e #ere*
,019
!n ot$er #ords' te(tboo)s $ave been ?dumbed do#n*@ +$e result' a%%ordin& to a
#ide-ran&in& &roup in%ludin& tea%$ers' te(tboo) salesmen' edu%ation resear%$ers and &overnment o""i%ials' is a
more poorly edu%ated student population*
-ue Fis%$er' president o" t$e Asso%iation o" Was$in&ton Kdu%ators o" +alented and Ii"ted' says t$at durin& t$e
past 15 years' t$e readin& level o" te(boo)s $as dropped by t#o &rade levels* +$at is' #$at used to be t$ird-&rade
material is no# "i"t$-&rade material*
,019
+$ere are 100 tea%$ers in 73 Was$in&ton s%$ool distri%ts #$o are tea%$in& sub1e%ts t$at t$ey #ere not
trained "or #$en t$ey earned t$eir tea%$in& %erti"i%ate' a%%ordin& to t$e -tate Board o" Kdu%ation*
,0,0
Cu #e $av a problum $earP

,011
Condensed "rom The New 9or' Times F19 July 1995G' Oi%$olas C* Kristo"' -$ould our s%$ools be more li)e Japan4sP'
Reader;s Digest' Jan 1997' 1/9F995G' pp* 99-100*
,01,
)&idem' p* 100*
,013
)&idem' p* 101*
,01/
)&idem' p* 10,*
,015
Op. cit.
,017
<obert C* -ava&e' !i-e !essons F+yndale LouseG' )n Auotable Auotes]' Reader;s Digest' Jan 1997' 1/9F995G' p* 15*
,017
Oan%y ont&omery' Cumbed-do#n te(ts too easy' too simple' too borin&' %riti%s say' The Seattle Times' 3 ar%$ 1997'
p* A1*
,019
Op. cit.
,019
Op. cit.
,0,0
Kdu%ation ADA' -ome s%$ooltea%$ers are not al#ays versed in #$at t$ey tea%$' ,0 April 1997' 15F17G' p* B,*
171
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
We sertenly do ;
,0,1
8elementary s%$ools t$rou&$out Cali"ornia lar&ely abandoned spellin& instru%tion 10 years
a&o* And' as Cali"ornia #ent #$ole $o& "or ?#$ole lan&ua&e@ ; t$e t$eory t$at lan&ua&e s)ills s$ould %ome
naturally' by absorbin& &ood literature ; so #ent t$e nation*
,0,,
Cear Ann= -um #on tolled me #ee #ood )not )nead t#o learn $o# too spell be%ause %omputers #ood
de# it "our us* Kye disa&ree* Ce# e#eP N E*K* in -t* >ouis Ear)' inn*
Cear -t* >ouis Ear)= K#e are #rite* +$an) e#e "our a &ood %lot$es loo) at #$at ?pro&ress@ $as dunn
"ore edu%ation 2inn Ameri)a3*
,0,3
+ea%$ers en%oura&2ed3 5- and 7-year-olds to spell #ords t$e #ay t$ey sounded ; ?!4m &o#in& to lern t$e $ulla
in Lu#yyee@ ; so as not to impede t$e "lo# o" ideas*
,0,/
All over' parents perturbed by "unny-loo)in& #ords #ere
bein& told' basi%ally' to %$ill out*
Oo#' says spellin& resear%$er J* <i%$ard Ientry' aut$or o" d-pel * * * !s a Four->etter Word'@ ?#e $ave a #$ole
&eneration o" %$ildren #$o are really poor spellers*@
,0,5
!n Cali"ornia' t$e %ulprit #as ?#$olisti% tea%$in&'@ #$i%$ started in t$e late 1990s* Eroponents said t$e reason
a%$ievement #as lo# #as t$at learnin& #as %$opped up into dis%onne%ted parts* 0ou %ouldn4t #rite until you
%ould spell* 0ou %ouldn4t spell until you learned t$e sounds o" t$e alp$abet* 0ou %ouldn4t #rite a senten%e until
you )ne# your verbs "rom your nouns*
W$ole lan&ua&e said you don4t need to )no# t$e parts "irst* Just plun&e in*
,0,7
!n many s%$ools' "i(atin& on
spellin& %ame to be seen as an impediment to #ritin&' espe%ially durin& t$e tender years o" )inder&arten and "irst
&rade*
,0,7
?0oun& #riters simply %an4t learn to #rite "reely and produ%tively i" t$ey4re al#ays %on"ined to #ords t$ey
)no# t$ey %an spell %onventionally'@ said Kennet$ Ioodman' a leadin& t$eorist o" t$e #$ole lan&ua&e
movement*
,0,9
?! really t$in) t$at you #ere stuped to mess our %lassrooms* * * * Jur tea%$ers our upseat and so are t$e
students*@ ?! am verey mad at you and it $erts to see my tea%$er4s %ry* +$er is )no# punis$ment t$at %an "i( #$ate
$apend*@
,0,9
F>etters "rom ei&$t$ &raders*
,030
G
• • •
!n 1953 2Eaul Bert3 #ent to Earis' #$ere $e studied 1urispruden%e and obtained t$e li%entiate in la#* Le
studied medi%ine and s%ien%e "rom 1957 to 1977' re%eivin& t$e li%entiate in natural s%ien%es in 1970 and t$e *C*'
#it$ a t$esis on animal transplantation' in 1973* From 1973 to 1977 Bert #as t$e student and prPparateur o"
Claude Bernard8; t$e %ons%ious aim o" all o" Bernard4s #or) #as to &ive medi%ine t$e de%isive pus$ alon& t$e
road o" its trans"ormation into an ?e(perimental@ and ?%on:uerin&@ s%ien%e
,031
;8at t$e CollZ&e de Fran%e* !n
1977 $e #as a#arded t$e do%torate in natural s%ien%es #it$ t$e t$esis De la (italitP propre des tissus
animau%
,03,
82and3 #as pro"essor o" .oolo&y and p$ysiolo&y at t$e Fa%ultY des -%ien%es o" t$e University o"
Bordeau( in 1977-1977*
,033
Le demanded "ree' %ompulsory elementary s%$oolin&' #it$ a se%ular pro&ram and lay personnel* +$e
s%$ooltea%$er must not belon& to t$e %ler&y* Le is t$e soldier o" t$e se%ular republi%*
,03/
+$e pro&ram o" t$e
elementary s%$ool must in%lude t$e elements o" s%ien%e' "or t$e s%ien%es s$arpen t$e intelle%t= t$e natural s%ien%es
develop t$e po#er o" observation' and t$e p$ysi%al s%ien%es so# t$e seeds o" %ausal t$in)in&* Listory and
paleontolo&y #ill reveal t$e &radual development o" man "rom a %ave d#eller to a %ulture-bearin&' "ree' republi%an
,0,1
The !os Angeles Times' Oation "a%es a bad spellH students4 #ord s)ills on de%line' The Seattle Times' ,, June 1997'
15F,5G' p* A17*
,0,,
Op. cit.
,0,3
Ann >anders' !t4s best to butt out even i" dau&$ter is su""erin& "rom Bmartyr %omple(4' The Seattle Times:Seattle
Post- )ntelligencer/ "ocus' ,0 April 1997' 15F17G' p* C3*
,0,/
The !os Angeles Times' Oation "a%es a bad spellH students4 #ord s)ills on de%line' The Seattle Times' ,, June 1997'
15F,5G' p* A17*
,0,5
Op. cit.
,0,7
Op. cit.
,0,7
Op. cit.
,0,9
Op. cit.
,0,9
)&idem' p* A1*
,030
Op. cit.
,031
Dictionary o- Scienti-ic 1iography' ed* in %$ie" C$arles Coulston Iillispie FO0= C$arles -%ribner4s -ons' 1990G' ,' p*
3,a*
,03,
)&idem' ,' pp* 59b-70a*
,033
)&idem' ,' p* 70a*
,03/
Op. cit.
17,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
%iti.enH t$us evolution' and not revolution' #ill be man4s &uidin& prin%iple*
,035
Bert 2also3 supported se%ondary
edu%ation "or &irls*
,037
As early as 197, 2Lenry Ei%)erin&3 Bo#dit%$ be&an a series o" studies in ant$ropometry' e(aminin& t$e rate o"
&ro#t$ in Boston s%$ool%$ildren* Lis results indi%ated t$at mode o" li"e ; nutrition and environment ; #ere
probably more important "a%tors t$an ra%e in determinin& t$e si.e o" &ro#in& %$ildren* Le also %alled attention to
loss o" #ei&$t in &ro#in& %$ildren as a #arnin& o" t$e approa%$ o" a%ute or %$roni% illness F1977' 1991G*
,037
A%tive in Boston %ivi% a""airs' Bo#dit%$ #as a member o" t$e -%$ool Committee F1977-1991G' president o" t$e
assa%$usetts !n"ant Asylum F1997G and Boston C$ildren4s Aid -o%iety' and a trustee o" t$e Boston Eubli% >ibrary*
Le #as ele%ted a "ello# o" t$e Ameri%an A%ademy o" Arts and -%ien%es in 197, and to t$e Oational A%ademy o"
-%ien%es in 1997H $e #as also a member o" many ot$er learned a%ademies in t$e United -tates and Kurope* Le #as
$onored by de&rees "rom t$e universities o" Cambrid&e' Kdinbur&$' +oronto' Eennsylvania' and Larvard*
,039
Bo#dit%$4s s%ienti"i% interest moved in several dire%tions= in a paper #it$ 2C$arles -ed&#i%)3 inot $e s$o#ed
t$at %$loro"orm #as more e""e%tive t$an et$er in depressin& vasomotor re"le(es F197/GH #it$ Iarland $e studied t$e
?e""e%t o" respiratory movements on t$e pulmonary %ir%ulation'@ %on%ludin& t$at e(pansion o" t$e lun&s de%reases
t$e si.e o" pulmonary vessels' #$ile %ollapse o" t$e lun&s $as t$e opposite e""e%t F1979-1990GH #it$ 2William
Freeman3 -out$ard and I* -tanley Lall $e investi&ated t$e p$ysiolo&y o" per%eption' #it$ parti%ular attention to
vision F1990-199,GH #it$ Warren $e %ondu%ted an e(tensive study o" t$e e""e%t o" varyin& rates and stren&t$s o"
perip$eral stimulation upon %ontra%tion and dilation o" blood vessels' demonstratin& t$at by varyin& t$e stimulation
it #as possible to %ause %onstri%tion' %onstri%tion "ollo#ed by dilation' or dilation alone' #it$ rapid stimulation
%ausin& %onstri%tion and later dilation F1993' 1997G* Le also %ondu%ted anot$er series o" e(periments #it$ Warren
on t$e e""e%ts o" voluntary a%tivity and e(ternal stimulation on t$e )nee 1er)' demonstratin& t$at a%tivity in one part
o" t$e nervous system served as a "o%us "or Bo#dit%$4s e(perimentation "or some time and led to one o" $is most
important e(periments' #$i%$ brou&$t a %ontroversy to a %lose and &ave "inal demonstration o" t$e inde"ati&ability
o" t$e nerve trun)' a "a%t o" "undamental importan%e in t$e p$ysiolo&y o" t$e nervous system F1995G*
,039
Bo#dit%$ #as one o" t$e prin%ipal "ounders o" t$e Ameri%an E$ysiolo&i%al -o%iety in 1997 and #as ele%ted its
se%ond president in 1999*
,0/0
Bo#dit%$ tau&$t p$ysiolo&y at Larvard "or t$irty-"ive years' bein& appointed "ull
pro"essor in 1977 and servin& as "irst o%%upant o" t$e Ieor&e Li&&inson pro"essors$ip o" p$ysiolo&y "rom 1903 to
t$is retirement in 1907* Le #as %ontinually involved in t$e re"orms in medi%al edu%ation' and "or t$e de%ade
1993-1993 $e served as dean o" t$e Larvard edi%al Fa%ulty' durin& #$i%$ time t$e "our-year medi%al %ourse #as
introdu%ed and a ne# %$air o" ba%teriolo&y establis$ed' t$us &ivin& re%o&nition to anot$er independent
dis%ipline*
,0/1
Lippo%rates4 su&&estion o" an or&ani% e(planation "or abnormal be$avior #as i&nored durin& t$e iddle A&es
but revived a"ter t$e <enaissan%e* Oot until t$e nineteent$ %entury' $o#ever' did t$e or&ani% or bio&eni% vie#
be%ome important*
,0/,
+$e or&ani% vie#point &ained even &reater stren&t$ #it$ t$e dis%overy o" t$e or&ani% basis o"
&eneral paresis' a pro&ressively de&enerative and irreversible p$ysi%al and mental disorder*
,0/3
+$e #or) o" >ouis
Easteur F19,,-1995G establis$ed t$e &erm t$eory o" disease Finvasion o" t$e body by parasitesG* +$en in 1997
<i%$ard von Kra""t-Kbin& F19/0-190,G' a Ierman neurolo&ist' ino%ulated pareti% patients #it$ pus "rom syp$iliti%
soresH #$en t$e patients "ailed to develop t$e se%ondary symptoms o" syp$ilis' Kra""t-Kbin& %on%luded t$at t$e
sub1e%ts $ad been previously in"e%ted by t$at disease* Finally' in 1905 a Ierman .oolo&ist' Frit. -%$audinn
F1971-1907G' isolated t$e mi%roor&anism t$at %auses syp$ilis and t$us paresis* +$ese dis%overies %onvin%ed many
s%ientists t$at every mental disorder mi&$t eventually be lin)ed to an or&ani% %ause*
,0//
-ome s%ientists noted' $o#ever' t$at %ertain types o" emotional disorders #ere not asso%iated #it$ any or&ani%
disease in t$e patient* -u%$ oberservations led to anot$er vie# t$at stressed psy%$olo&i%al "a%tors rat$er t$an
or&ani% "a%tors as t$e %ause o" many disorders* For e(ample' t$e inability to attain personal &oals and resolve
interpersonal %on"li%ts %ould lead to intense "eelin&s o" "rustration' depression' "ailure' an&er' and %onse:uent
disturbed be$avior*
,0/5
Erior to t$e 19,0s most o" t$e support "or psy%$olo&y %ame "rom private universities* +$e "irst do%orate in
psy%$olo&y #as %on"erred upon I* -tanley Lall by Larvard University in 1973* +$e ne(t do%torate #as not
a#arded until Jo$n Ce#ey re%eived $is de&ree "rom Jo$ns Lop)ins University in 199/* Curin& t$e 1990s only
Jo$ns Lop)ins a#arded do%torates in psy%$olo&y* !n t$e 1990s and and "irst de%ade o" t$e t#entiet$ %entury' most
o" t$e do%torates in psy%$olo&y #ere &ranted by Clar) University* By 19,0 almost t$irty institutions #ere o""erin&
,035
Op. cit.
,037
)&idem' ,' p* 70b*
,037
)&idem' ,' p* 377a*
,039
)&idem' ,' p* 377b*
,039
)&idem' ,' p* 377a*
,0/0
)&idem' ,' p* 377b*
,0/1
Op. cit.
,0/,
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* ,/*
,0/3
Op. cit.
,0//
Op. cit.
,0/5
Op. cit.
173
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
advan%ed &raduate trainin& in psy%$olo&y* +$e lar&est pro&rams #ere at Clar) University' t$e University o"
C$i%a&o' Columbia University' Larvard University' and Cornell University' all private institutions*
,0/7
Considerin& enterin& t$e ministry' 2Iranville -tanley3 Lall attended Union +$eolo&i%al -eminary in 1977 and
too) advanta&e o" its lo%ation to e(plore t$orou&$ly Oe# 0or) City* Le be%ame a%:uainted #it$ Lenry Ward
Bee%$er' #$o' by arran&in& a loan' provided t$e youn& man #it$ t$e %$an%e to "ul"ill $is )eenest ambition' a trip to
Kurope* From 1979 to 1971 Lall studied at Bonn' Berlin' and Leidelber&* For t$e rest o" $is li"e $e $eld Kuropean
universities and tea%$in& met$ods' espe%ially Ierman ones' in t$e $i&$est re&ard*
Jn $is return to t$e United -tates' un%ertain o" $is "uture plans' Lall tau&$t in boys4 s%$ools and tutored*
,0/7
!n
197, $e a%%epted an o""er to tea%$ Kn&lis$ literature at Antio%$ Colle&e*
,0/9
Mery impressed by Wil$elm a(
Wundt4s 3rund6Qge der physiologischen Psychologie F197/G' Lall resi&ned to study under Wundt but postponed
t$e trip "or a year to be an instru%tor o" Kn&lis$ at Larvard*
,0/9
Jn $is se%ond return "rom Kurope' Lall %ompleted $is #or) "or t$e E$*C* at Larvard' under Bo#dit%$ 2F2also
t$e inventor o"3 t$e ?Bo#dit%$ %lo%)@ "or mar)in& various periods o" elapsed time
,050
G3 in p$ysiolo&y' t$en #rote
and le%tured until 1991' #$en an o""er to &ive a semipubli% le%ture series at Jo$ns Lop)ins University led to $is
be%omin& pro"essor o" psy%$olo&y and peda&o&y t$ere*
,051
Lall spent t$e remainder o" $is %areer' until retirement in
19,0' at Clar) University*
,05,
u%$ o" $is early e""ort #as lost to t$e more se%urely "inan%ed "led&lin& University o"
C$i%a&o*
,053
From $is studies in p$ilosop$y' p$ysiolo&y' and psy%$olo&y' Lall be&an $is pro"essional #or) ?intensely
impressed #it$ t$e idea * * * o" sub1e%tin& psy%$i% pro%esses to t$e %ontrol o" s%ienti"i% and e(perimental met$ods@
F!i-e and .on-essions o- a Psychologist' p* 355G* +$is #or) #as dire%tly in"luen%ed by I* +* Fe%$ner4s #or) in
sensory stimuli' Lelm$olt.4s measurements o" visual and auditory responses' and espe%ially by Wundt4s
e(perimental studies in p$ysiolo&i%al psy%$olo&y* At Jo$ns Lop)ins' Lall establis$ed t$e "irst "ormal laboratory in
psy%$olo&y in t$e United -tates' one #$i%$ dre# to it su%$ brilliant #or)ers as Jo$n Ce#ey' Josep$ Jastro#' and
James %Keen Cattell* +$e studies #ere %$ie"ly aimed at measurin& psy%$i% responses pre%isely*
,05/
Le 2later3 turned $is attention to #$at is %onsidered $is &reatest %ontribution= studies o" t$e mental development
o" %$ildren and adoles%ents*
,055
Lall4s pioneerin& #or) in t$is "ield' espe%ially $is early paper ?+$e Contents o" t$e
C$ildren4s inds@ F1993G' &ave a &reat impetus to many ot$er studies on t$e developments o" %$ildren* Lall and
$is students' bot$ at Jo$ns Lop)ins and at Clar)' made &reat use o" t$e 70'000 s$eets o" %$ild-&at$ered in"ormation
on traits o" s%$ool%$ildren previously a%%umulated by K* L* <ussell* Adolescence0 )ts Psychology and )ts Relations
to Physiology0 Anthropology0 Sociology0 Se%0 .rime0 Religion and 7ducation F190/G is %onsidered Lall4s most
in"luential publi%ation*
,057
Lall "ounded and "or many years edited t$e "irst Ameri%an 1ournal in $is pro"ession' American Journal o-
Psychology F1997G*
,057
At Clar) University $e $elped "ound Journal o- Applied Psychology F1917G*
,059
C$ildren' $e believed' re%apitulated t$e development o" t$e $uman ra%e in t$eir development* For many years
Lall tau&$t a broad %ourse' #$i%$ $e %alled psy%$o&enesis' in evolution' and anot$er on t$e psy%$olo&y o"
C$ristianity*
,059
Lall4s studies o" %$ildren led $im into pioneerin& #or) on edu%ational met$ods* Lis approa%$ to
edu%ation and to tea%$in& #as $istori%al' $is interest %$ie"ly in t$e development' or #$at $e pre"erred to %all t$e
evolution' o" edu%ation* Lis studies o" %$ildren %onvin%ed $im t$at edu%ation' #$i%$ $e %onsidered t$e salvation o"
t$e #orld' must be adapted to t$e natures and needs o" %$ildren' not t$e reverse* Lall parti%ipated in t$e
development and e(tensive use o" psy%$olo&i%al and intelli&en%e testin& o" students' an advan%e in edu%ational
psy%$olo&y t$at %onsiderably improved tea%$in& met$ods* Le #as tolerant o"' but not an advo%ate o"' Jo$n Ce#ey4s
edu%ation te%$ni:ues*
,070
!n 199,' Ce#ey entered +$e Jo$ns Lop)ins University "or &raduate study in p$ilosop$y* A serious but sly
student' Ce#ey #as :uietly e(plorin& t$e relations$ip bet#een reli&ion and morals in late nineteent$ %entury
Ameri%an li"e* At Jo$ns Lop)ins' Ce#ey a%%epted neo-Le&elianism* Ce#ey and $is #$ole intelle%tual &eneration
,0/7
)nternational $and&oo' o- Psychology' eds* Albert <* Iil&en D Carol K* Iil&en FO0= Ireen#ood Eress' !n%*' 1997G' p*
5//*
,0/7
Dictionary o- Scienti-ic 1iography' ed* in %$ie" C$arles Coulston Iillispie FO0= C$arles -%ribner4s -ons' 1990G' 7' p*
5,a*
,0/9
Op. cit.
,0/9
Op. cit.
,050
)&idem' ,' p* 377a*
,051
)&idem' 7' p* 5,b*
,05,
Op. cit.
,053
Op. cit.
,05/
)&idem' 7' pp* 5,b-53a*
,055
)&idem' 7' p* 53a*
,057
Op. cit.
,057
)&idem' 7' p* 53b*
,059
Op. cit.
,059
)&idem' 7' p* 53a*
,070
Op. cit.
17/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
#ere see)in& somet$in& ne#' somet$in& to e(plain li"e' a trans"ormation o" values*
,071
Le $ad be&un t$e
trans"ormation o" $is reli&ious belie"s by rulin& out t$e supernatural but pla%in& its values into t$e natural* !n time'
as a p$ilosop$er' Ce#ey pla%ed in t$e natural #orld a "ait$ t$at $ad previously been assi&ned to a %omin& Kin&dom
o" Iod*
,07,
!n 199/' $e 1oined t$e department o" p$ilosop$y at t$e University o" i%$i&an*
,073
Psychology' Ce#eys4 "irst
boo)' #as publis$ed in 1997H it %ombined empiri%al psy%$olo&y #it$ Ierman metap$ysi%al idealism* A"ter a year
at t$e University o" innesota' $e returned to i%$i&an as %$airman o" t$e department o" p$ilosop$y
,07/
8and %ut
$is "inal ties to or&ani.ed reli&ion* Lis interest be%ame in%reasin&ly se%ular* Le a%%epted an appointment at t$e
University o" C$i%a&o 2F199/G
,075
3 as %$airman o" t$e department o" p$ilosop$y' psy%$olo&y' and peda&o&y*
Wit$in t#o years' $e establis$ed t$e >aboratory -%$ool' #$i%$ provided t$e institutional e(pression o"
pro&ressive edu%ation*
,077
Lis p$ilosop$y #as a "usion o" Le&elian idealism and Car#inian naturalism' e(pressed
in a %onte(t o" re"orm "or industrial Ameri%a* !deas $ad si&ni"i%ant %onse:uen%es "or $uman li"eH t$ey #ere
instruments to s$ape t$e #orld and pla%e values' albeit $uman ones' into $uman a""airs* As part o" t$e natural
#orld' all $uman a%tivity' in%ludin& t$e use o" intelli&en%e' #as a pro%ess t$at e(isted in nature and not in an
independent For dualisti%G mode o" bein&* As a biolo&i%al "un%tion' re"le%tive intelli&en%e meant t$at' by
naturalisti% metap$ysi%s' people adapt to environmental situations*
,077
As t$e years passed' t$e $onors in%reasedH $e be%ame Ameri%a4s national p$ilosop$er* As one $istorian
remar)ed' $e #as t$e ?&uide' t$e mentor' t$e %ons%ien%e o" t$e Ameri%an people * * * "or a &eneration no ma1or
issue #as %lari"ied until Ce#ey $ad spo)en*@ Ce#ey %ontinued to #rite and le%ture a"ter $is retirement in 1930*
Le #as a real intelle%tual presen%e durin& t$e Oe# Ceal' World War !!' and a"ter#ard* Lis politi%al a%tivities o"ten
dre# %riti%ism' and traditionalists sa# dire so%ial %onse:uen%es in $is pro&ressive edu%ational ideas*
,079
A so%iety
and "oundation #ere establis$ed to $elp spread Ce#ey4s ideas on demo%ra%y and edu%ational re"orm*
,079
Alt$ou&$
$e #as o"ten %riti%i.ed "or t$e e(%esses o" pro&ressive edu%ation' $is edu%ational #ritin&s %ontributed to t$e re"orm
o" Ameri%an publi% s%$ools* Finally' $is #ritin& and tea%$in&' parti%ularly in t$e "irst $al" o" t$e t#entiet$ %entury'
made $im a leadin& Ameri%an liberal* Con%erned al#ays about individual sel"-reali.ation and re%onstru%tion o"
Ameri%an so%iety "or a 1ust li"e "or all' Jo$n Ce#ey pra%ti%ed in $is o#n li"e #$at $e advo%ated "or ot$ers*
,070
• • •
ista)es are t$e usual brid&e bet#een ine(perien%e and #isdom*
,071
Con"usion is underdeveloped #isdom'
primitive #isdom' #$ile #isdom is %ompletely developed*
,07,
• • •
As)ed in #$om t$ey trust' more Ameri%ans in 199/ pro"essed &reat %on"iden%e in s%ientists and do%tors t$an in
any ot$er pro"essionals' in%ludin& -upreme Court Justi%es and ; by nearly "ive to one ; 1ournalists*
,073
<e%ently8a
number o" prominent s%ientists $ave be&un voi%in& an alarm t$at in%reasin& se%re%y amon& a%ademi% resear%$ers is
delayin& pro&ress' divertin& resour%es' suppressin& &ood ideas and' most #orrisome' underminin& t$e %redibility ;
and t$us use"ulness ; o" s%ien%e as a #$ole* -teven A* <osenber&' %$ie" o" sur&ery at t$e Oational Can%er !nstitute'
ar&ues t$at in medi%ine' at least' ?it is a very %lear moral issue* !" you #it$$old in"ormation' you potentially delay
pro&ress* !" you delay pro&ress' you potentially delay t$e development o" e""e%tive treatments' and $umans 2si%3
bein&s su""er and die #$o need not $ave done so*@
,07/
• • •
,071
The 3reat Scientists' ed* Fran) O* a&ill FConne%ti%ut= Irolier Kdu%ational Corp*' 1999G' p* ,1*
,07,
Op. cit.
,073
Op. cit.
,07/
Op. cit.
,075
Op. cit.
,077
Op. cit.
,077
)&idem' pp* ,1-,,*
,079
)&idem' p* ,,*
,079
)&idem' pp* ,,-,3*
,070
)&idem' p* ,3*
,071
E$yllis +$erou(' Night !ights FMi)in& Een&uinG' )n Auotable Auotes]' Reader;s Digest' Jan 1997' 1/9F995G' p* 15*
,07,
Iuru <inpo%$e a%%ordin& to Karma >in&pa' The Ti&etan 1oo' o- the Dead/ The 3reat !i&eration Through $earing )n
the 1ardo' trans* #it$ %ommentary by Fran%es%a Fremantle D C$a&yam +run&pa FBoston= -$amb$ala' 1997G' p* ,,*
,073
W* Wayt Iibbs' +$e pri%e o" silen%e' Scienti-ic American' Oov 1997' ,75F5G' p* 15*
,07/
Op. cit.
175
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Wit$in t$e U*-* &overnment4s massive sto%)pile o" %lassi"ied do%uments
,075
82is3 ta(payer-"unded resear%$ t$at
no lon&er needs to be &uarded and in many %ases s$ould $ave been released lon& a&o* -u%$ te%$ni%al )no#-$o#' i"
made available' %ould &ive t$e Ameri%an e%onomy a boost #it$out %ompromisin& t$e %ountry4s de"ense' ar&ue
business leaders' s%ientists and ot$er advo%ates o" less se%re%y*
,077
,075
Caniel I* Cupont D <i%$ard >ardner' Oeedles in a Cold War $aysta%)' Scienti-ic American' Oov 1997' ,75F5G' p* /1*
,077
Op. cit.
177
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+ain
An(iety' dread' pani%' aversion' depression ; a small demonolo&y o" our a&e= !t ma)es one an(ious 1ust to name
t$em' and most people #ill ea&erly per"orm any ritual' intone any ma&i% t$at mi&$t )eep su%$ demons at bay* But'
despite t$e disruptions t$ey %ause us today' t$ese demons on%e $ad a li"e-savin& purpose* Just as p$ysi%al pain
#arns us o" potential dama&e to t$e body' emotional pains $elped us avoid more %ompli%ated t$reats to li"e and
limb*
!ndeed' t$e "ull bou:uet o" our %$eris$ed traits and tastes' as #ell as t$e bestiary o" our ne&ative be$aviors'
evolved at a time #$en $umans lived in small bands o" $unter-&at$erer s%aven&ers* +o us' t$eir lives seem arduous
and un%ertain' but $eaven )no#s #$at t$ey #ould ma)e o" ours* +$e only t$in& is' #e still navi&ate by t$eir maps'
still respond a%%ordin& to t$eir instin%ts' still a%t li)e $unter-&at$erers' t$ou&$ #e &rapple #it$ problems t$ey
#ould not $ave en%ountered' understood or valued*
,077
• • •
+o study $uman be$avior' pain may be in"li%ted F"or e(ample' sur&i%al implants may %ause pain or s$o%)s may
be used to indu%e stressG*
,079
+$e resear%$ must be %onsistent #it$ %ertain prin%iples o" %ondu%t' $o#ever' and
intended to prote%t sub1e%ts as #ell as to enable resear%$ers to %ontribute to t$e lon&-term #el"are o" $uman bein&s
Fand ot$er animalsG*
,079
Animal ri&$ts &roups $ave also e(pressed re%ent %on%ern over t$e use o" animals in
psy%$olo&i%al resear%$ F2Bales' J* F1999G* Oe# la#s limitin& duty to prote%t* APA onitor' 19' 19
,090
3G*
,091
Jnly #$en
alternative pro%edures are unavailable and t$e &oal 1usti"ied by t$e potential value to $uman bein&s s$ould
resear%$ers be allo#ed to %onsider sub1e%tin& animals to dis%om"ort or pain'
,09,
82but3 t$e e(periment is per$aps
t$e best tool "or testin& %ause-and-e""e%t relations$ips*
,093
• • •
Fordy%e F199,' 1999G
,09/
8pointed out t$at t$e only available data %on%ernin&8pain For any ot$er somato"orm
symptomsG are t$e sub1e%tive reports "rom t$e a""li%ted people'
,095
82but re%ent "indin&s indi%ate3 multiple %orti%al
sites8$ave been s$o#n to ?li&$t up@ in EK+ s%an studies o" e(perimental pain in $umans*
,097
+$e traditional
labeled line or telep$one #ire perspe%tive t$at pain is t$e produ%t o" ?pain pat$#ays@ ori&inatin& in t$e perip$ery
and pro1e%tin& to ?pain %enters@ in t$e t$alamus and %orte( %ame under "ire 30 years a&o* !t #as partly repla%ed by
t$e &ate %ontrol t$eory o" <onald el.a%) and Eatri%) C* Wall' #$o ar&ued t$at pain is not 1ust a "un%tion o" t$e
a%tivity o" small-diameter primary a""erent "ibers t$at respond to in1ury stimuli but is rat$er a %omple( per%eption
in"luen%ed by sensory dis%riminative' a""e%tive' and %o&nitive "a%tors*
,097
!t is 2also3 a lon&-$eld tenet t$at ele%tri%al stimulation o" t$e brain does not evo)e pain* any sensations %an be
&enerated' su%$ as musi%' pi%tures' tin&lin&' and odors' but pain is rarely i" ever eli%ited* A memory o" pain'
$o#ever' %an be revealed by ele%tri%al stimulation o" t$e brain o" patients under&oin& di""erent neurosur&i%al
pro%edures* +$is suprisin& result "irst su&&ested t$at t$e per%eption o" pain' rat$er t$an arisin& "rom a sin&le ?pain
%enter@ in t$e brain' results "rom distributed pro%essin& in numerous brain areas*
,099
For e(ample'
,099
8Fred >en. and $is %ollea&ues at Jo$ns Lop)ins University
,090
8des%ribed a 79 year old
#oman #$o #as re%eivin& ele%tri%al stimulation as part o" treatment "or a movement disorder* !n t$e %ourse o" t$e
,077
Ciane A%)erman' +$e "ears t$at save us' The Seattle Times:Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ PARAD7' ,7 Jan 1997' p* 19*
,079
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 157*
,079
Op. cit.
,090
)&idem' p* A-19*
,091
)&idem' p* 157*
,09,
Op. cit.
,093
)&idem' p* 1/0*
,09/
)&idem' p* ,19*
,095
Op. cit.
,097
Allan !* Basbaum' E$*C* F1oint appointment in t$e Cept* o" E$ysiolo&y and is a member o" t$e W* * Ke%) Foundation
Center "or !nte&rative Oeuros%ien%e at t$e University o" Cali"ornia' -an Fran%is%oG' emories o" pain' Science and
edicine' OovRCe% 1997' 3F7G' p* ,7*
,097
)&idem' p* ,,*
,099
)&idem' p* ,7*
,099
Op. cit.
,090
Op. cit.
177
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
stimulation' t$e patient suddenly reported intense pain in $er %$est' identi%al to t$e an&ina s$e $ad e(perien%ed
over t$e previous nine years*
,091
!n anot$er patient' t$e stimulation evo)ed intense pain in t$e peroneal re&ionH t$e patient ?t$ou&$t s$e #as
$avin& a baby*@ -$e #as not pre&nant at t$e time' but $ad delivered "our %$ildren previously* A&ain' intense pain
e(perien%es $ad le"t t$eir mar)*
,09,
+$ere is8%onsiderable eviden%e t$at tissue in1ury leads to t$e release "rom membrane p$osp$olipids o"
ara%$idoni% a%id' #$i%$ is t$en metaboli.ed to prosta&landins by %y%loo(y&enase* Erosta&landins a%t dire%tly on t$e
terminal o" primary a""erent "ibers to lo#er t$eir t$res$old "or a%tivation* +$e e""e%tiveness o" aspirin and related
nonsteroidal anti-in"lammatory dru&s lar&ely results "rom t$eir blo%)a&e o" %y%loo(y&enase*
,093
2epressed4
Lo# odd to live in a %ountry #$ose Constitution &uarantees us t$e ri&$t to pursue $appiness* !n a re%ent study
o" 39 %ultures reported in Psychology Today' t$e U*-* ran)ed 1,t$ in per%eived $appiness* Citi.ens o" Cenmar)'
Finland' Oor#ay and -#eden #ere t$e $appiest depite t$eir &loomy #eat$er* -urprisin&ly' people in Fran%e and
Japan said t$ey #ere amon& t$e least $appy*
,09/
!n %olle%tivist %ountries su%$ as C$ina' an individual4s #is$in& to
be $appy is t$ou&$t sel"is$ and t$ere"ore not a $i&$ priority*
,095
• • •
edi%al problems %an tri&&er depression in some people*
,097
-pe%i"i% vitamin and mineral de"i%ien%ies also
may brin& on depression in some people* edi%ations' in%ludin& barbiturates' tran:uili.ers' $eart dru&s' $ormones'
blood pressure medi%ations' pain)illers' art$ritis dru&s' and even some antibioti%s' $ave been lin)ed #it$
depression' as $as %$roni% al%o$ol use' a%%ordin& to an arti%le in t$e Oovember 1990 issue o" The Johns $op'ins
edical !etter/ $ealth A-ter ,N entitled ?Cepression= >i"tin& t$e Cloud*@
,097
Certain li"e %onditions' su%$ as e(treme stress or &rie"' may tri&&er a natural psy%$olo&i%al or biolo&i%al
tenden%y to#ard depression*
,099
Conditions su%$ as poor or in%onsistent parentin&' parental illness' loss o" an
atta%$ment "i&ure' and ne&le%t or abuse o"ten produ%e lo#ered sel"-esteem and in%reased vulnerability to
depression* Ceressed %$ildren s$o# many o" t$e same %$ara%teristi%s as do depressed adults*
,099
Kven as in"ants' abused %$ildren s$o#8more non%ompliant' resistant' and avoidant be$avior*
,100
Furt$ermore'
as t$ese abused %$ildren advan%ed8t$ey not only %ontinued to s$o# problems in relations #it$ peers' tea%$ers' and
%are&ivers' t$ey also $ad a%ademi% problems and lo# sel"-esteem' e($ibited be$avior problems' and' not
suprisin&ly' #ere depressed and #it$dra#n*
,101
&eada!hes
Leada%$es are amon& t$e most %ommon psy%$op$ysiolo&i%al %omplaints* Appro(imately /5 million Ameri%ans
su""er %$roni% or re%urrent $eada%$es t$at vary in intensity "rom dull to e(%ru%iatin& F2Clar)' *' Iosnell' *' La&er' *'
-$apiro' C*' Oorris' K*' D Iordon' J* F1999' -prin&G* Leada%$es= Lo# to ease t$e pain* Newswee' on $ealth' pp* 1,-,1
,10,
3G* !t is
un%lear #$et$er t$e di""erent "orms o" $eada%$es Fmi&raine' tension' and %lusterG are produ%ed by di""erent
,091
Op. cit.
,09,
Op. cit.
,093
Allan !* Basbaum' E$*C* F1oint appointment in t$e Cept* o" E$ysiolo&y and is a member o" t$e W* * Ke%) Foundation
Center "or !nte&rative Oeuros%ien%e at t$e University o" Cali"ornia' -an Fran%is%oG' emories o" pain' Science and
edicine' OovRCe% 1997' 3F7G' p* ,,*
,09/
Ciane A%)erman' +$e "ears t$at save us' The Seattle Times:Seattle Post- )ntelligencer/ PARAD7' ,7 Jan 1997' p* ,0*
,095
Op. cit.
,097
James K* arti #it$ Andrea Line' The Alternati(e $ealth 5 edicine 7ncyclopedia' FO0= Iale <esear%$ !n%*' 1995G'
p* 175*
,097
Op. cit.
,099
James K* arti #it$ Andrea Line' The Alternati(e $ealth 5 edicine 7ncyclopedia' FO0= Iale <esear%$ !n%*' 1995G'
p* 175*
,099
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 519*
,100
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* /37*
,101
Op. cit.
,10,
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* A-,9*
179
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
psy%$op$ysiolo&i%al me%$anisms or i" t$ey merely di""er in severity* !ndividuals #it$ $eada%$es s$o# &reater
sensitivity to pain in areas o" t$e body ot$er t$an t$e $ead t$an t$ose #$o are $eada%$e "ree F2arlo#' O* !* F199,G*
Eain sensitivity and $eada%$e= An e(amination o" t$e %entral t$eory* Journal o- Psychosomatic Research' 37' 17-,/
,103
3G* Jne
"a%tor' stress' appears to %ontribute to t$e initiation o" $eada%$es F2Iannon' >* <*' Laynes' -* O*' Cuevas' M*' D C$aves' <*
F1997G* Esy%$op$ysi%al %orrelates o" indu%es $eada%$es* Journal o- 1eha(ioral edicine' 10' 377-371
,10/
3G*
,105
Leada%$e pain is bein& pre%eived as more t$an a "un%tion o" a p$ysiolo&i%al "a%tor Fmus%le tension' dilation o"
%ranial arteriesG* Co&nitive-emotional and pain-motivated be$aviors' su%$ as verbal and nonverbal %omplaints and
avoidan%e' are also bein& %onsidered F2E$illips' L* C* F1993G* Assessment o" %$roni% tension $eada%$e be$avior* !n <* el.a%)
FKd*G' Pain measurement and assessment Fpp* 155-175G* Oe# 0or)= <aven Eress
,107
3G* -everal psy%$olo&i%al interventions
su%$ as rela(ation' %o&nitive t$erapy' and bio"eedba%) s$o# promise in treatin& $eada%$es F2Blan%$ard' K* B* F199,G*
Esy%$olo&i%al treatment o" beni&n $eada%$e disorders* Journal o- .onsulting and .linical Psychology' 50' 959-979
,107
3G*
,109
• • •
Iood do%umentation e(ists "or t$e e""e%tiveness o" meditation' bio"eedba%)' and yo&a "or stress redu%tion and
t$e %ontrol o" parti%ular p$ysiolo&i% rea%tions*
,109
W$ile meditation met$ods vary' t$ey seem to $ave a %ommon %o&nitive t$read= +$rou&$ passive observation'
t$e normal relations$ip bet#een t$e person and t$e environment is altered* Eroblem-solvin&' plannin&' #orry'
a#areness o" t$e events o" t$e day are suspended* !n t$is #ay %ons%iousness ; t$at is' t$e normal "o%uses o"
attention ; is altered and a state o" rela(ation is o"ten indu%ed* editators may report t$at t$ey $ave ?mer&ed@
#it$ t$e ob1e%t o" meditation8and t$en trans%end it' leadin& to ?oneness #it$ t$e universe'@ rapture' or some &reat
insi&$t* Esy%$olo&y $as no #ay o" measurin& ?oneness #it$ t$e universe'@ but psy%$olo&ists %an measure bodily
%$an&es*
,110
An ele%tromyo&rap$ FKIG' #$i%$ monitors mus%le tension' is %ommonly used to $elp people be%ome more
a#are o" mus%le tension in t$e "ore$ead and else#$ere and to learn to lo#er t$is tension* +$rou&$ ot$er
instruments people $ave learned to lo#er t$eir $eart rates' t$eir blood pressure' and t$e amount o" s#eat in t$e
palm o" t$e $and* All o" t$ese %$an&es are rela(in&*
Eeople $ave also learned to elevate t$e temperature o" a "in&er*
,111
!n%reasin& t$e temperature o" a "in&er ; t$at
is' alterin& patterns o" blood "lo# in t$e body ; $elps some people %ontrol $eada%$es #$i%$ stem "rom too &reat a
"lo# o" blood into t$e $ead*
,11,
,omplementary 6edi!ine
A %lini%ally responsible balan%e bet#een t$e s%ien%e o" medi%ine and t$e %om"ort o" %omplementary medi%ine
#ill dominate in t$e ,1st %entury*
,113
Alternative treatments' used instead o" %onventional re&imens' %an be
dan&erous*
,11/
Complementary t$erapies' used in %on1un%tion #it$ mainstream treatment'
,115
8tend to be
noninvasive and "ree o" side e""e%ts*
,117
Eeople #it$ e""e%tive support net#or)s tend to s$o# "e#er symptoms o" bot$ p$ysi%al and mental
disorders in t$e "a%e o" stress t$an do people #it$out su%$ support F2Leller' K*' Eri%e' <* L*' <ein$ar.' -*' <i&er'
-*' D Wandersman' A* F199/G* Psychology and community change/ .hallenge o- the -uture* Lome#ood' !>= CorseyH
,117

Lirs%$' B* J*' D CuBois' C* >* F199,G* +$e relation o" peer so%ial support and psy%$olo&i%al symptomatolo&y durin& t$e
,103
)&idem' p* A-57*
,10/
)&idem' p* A-37*
,105
)&idem' p* ,/3*
,107
)&idem' p* A-75*
,107
)&idem' p* A-,3*
,109
)&idem' p* ,/5*
,109
Barrie <* Cassilet$ FUniversity o" Oort$ Carolina -%$ool o" edi%ine and Cu)e University -%$ool o" edi%ineG'
<ea%$in& out= %omplementary t$erapy' Science and edicine' OovRCe% 1997' 3F7G' p* 9*
,110
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Winston' 1997G' p* 195*
,111
)&idem' p* 199*
,11,
Op. cit.
,113
Op. cit.
,11/
)&idem' p* 9*
,115
Op. cit.
,117
Op. cit.
,117
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* A-/3*
179
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
transition to 1unior $i&$ s%$ool= A t#o-year lon&itudinal analysis* American Journal o- .ommunity Psychology' ,0'
333-3/7
,119
3G* +$at is' so%ial supports may $elp de%rease t$e impa%t o" stress on mental $ealt$*
,119
Eeople o"ten turn to ot$ers "or $elp and &uidan%e durin& emotional stress* +$ey "irst see) support "rom
"amily members' "riends' %o#or)ers' or %ler&y' and t$en per$aps "rom mental $ealt$ pro"essionals* By
so%ial supports' #e mean t$e availability and :uality o" interpersonal resour%es t$at people %an %all on
durin& emotional stress* -o%ial supports %an provide &uidan%e' "eedba%)' material aid' be$avioral
assistan%e'8and positive so%ial intera%tions F2Barrera' *' D Ainlay' -* >* F1993G* +$e stru%ture o" so%ial support= A
%on%eptual and empiri%al analysis* Journal o- .ommunity Psychology' 11' 133-1/3
,1,0
3G*
,1,1
any "ail to understand8te%$ni:ues' standard in ot$er %ountries' t$at %ontrol pain' redu%e stress' and alleviate
symptoms*
,1,,
edi%ine4s %ro#nin& a%$ievement' $i&$-te%$nolo&y %are' $as ironi%ally "rustrated a publi% #antin&
more &entle' e""e%tive' and ?natural@ approa%$es*
,1,3
Eleasant aromas' soot$in& musi%' distra%tin& immersion in t$e visual arts' an environment #it$ soot$in&
palettes o" %olor'
,1,/
82meditation' $ands-on massa&e'
,1,5
3 all are %omplementary t$erapies t$an %an "oster $ealin&
and en$an%e #ell-bein&* usi% t$erapy' "or e(ample' is an an%ient $ealin& te%$ni:ue #it$ a &reat deal o"
a%%umulated ane%dotal eviden%e* any medi%al %enters $ave musi% t$erapists*
,1,7
<esear%$ su&&ests t$at massa&e improves %ir%ulation and redu%es an(iety* !t promotes a sense o" #ell -bein&
and rela(ation in patients o" all a&es*
,1,7

Alt$ou&$ most resear%$ studyin& t$e impa%t o" psy%$olo&i%al "a%tors on immune "un%tion is "airly re%ent' t$e
mind-body %onne%tion bet#een some p$ysi%al disorders $as been e(tensively studied* !n many instan%es' a
relations$ip $as been "ound bet#een psy%$olo&i%al or so%ial "a%tors and t$e ori&in and e(a%erbation o" t$ese
%onditions*
,1,9
+$e possibility o" in"luen%in& $ealt$ #it$ our minds and spiritual belie"s resonates #ell #it$ t$e individualism
o" Ameri%an %ulture* Erayer' spirituality' and mind-body e""orts are popular and are movin& "rom t$e realm o" t$e
un%onventional into mainstream medi%ine*
,1,9
Oinety-nine per%ent o" do%tors believe t$ere is an important relations$ip bet#een t$e spirit and t$e "les$'
a%%ordin& to 2a 1997 Ameri%an A%ademy o" Family E$ysi%ans
,130
3 survey*
,131
!n a Cali"ornia study o" prayer4s e""e%ts on re%overy "rom $eart problems' $al" t$e nearly /00 sub1e%ts #ere t$e
sub1e%ts o" prayers by C$ristians' #$ile t$e ot$ers re%eived no )no#n prayers "rom anyone a""iliated #it$ t$e study*
Oeit$er &roup #as told about t$e prayers*
+$e patients #$o re%eived prayers $ad $al" as many %ompli%ations as t$ose #$o didn4t and $ad a lo#er rate o"
%on&estive $eart "ailure' 2pro"essor at Ieor&eto#n edi%al -%$ool Cale3 att$e#s said*
A se%ond study' by Cartmout$ edi%al -%$ool' tra%)ed $o# patients4 o#n prayers $elped t$em re%over "rom
bypass sur&ery* +$e deat$ rate a"ter si( mont$s #as 9 per%ent' att$e#s said* For %$ur%$&oers' $o#ever' t$e rate
dropped to 5 per%ent* Oone o" t$e deeply reli&ious patients died durin& t$at period*
,13,
Amen' say proponents o" "ait$ $ealin&*
,133
,119
Op. cit.
,119
)&idem' p* 599*
,1,0
)&idem' p* A-,0*
,1,1
)&idem' p* 597*
,1,,
Barrie <* Cassilet$ FUniversity o" Oort$ Carolina -%$ool o" edi%ine and Cu)e University -%$ool o" edi%ineG'
<ea%$in& out= %omplementary t$erapy' Science and edicine' OovRCe% 1997' 3F7G' p* 9*
,1,3
Op. cit.
,1,/
Op. cit.
,1,5
Op. cit.
,1,7
Op. cit.
,1,7
Op. cit.
,1,9
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* ,39*
,1,9
Barrie <* Cassilet$ FUniversity o" Oort$ Carolina -%$ool o" edi%ine and Cu)e University -%$ool o" edi%ineG'
<ea%$in& out= %omplementary t$erapy' Science and edicine' OovRCe% 1997' 3F7G' p* 9*
,130
Brian elley FThe Associated PressG' edi%ine e(plores lin) bet#een "ait$' $ealin&H most do%tors believe spirit and
"les$ related' Seattle Post-)ntelligencer0 17 Ce% 1997' 133F301G' p* A1/*
,131
Op. cit.
,13,
Op. cit.
,133
Brian elley FThe Associated PressG' edi%ine e(plores lin) bet#een "ait$' $ealin&H most do%tors believe spirit and
"les$ related' Seattle Post-)ntelligencer0 17 Ce% 1997' 133F301G' p* A1/*
190
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
At Cali"ornia Ea%i"i% edi%al Center in -an Fran%is%o' Kli.abet$ +ar&' *C*' is overseein& a national study to
determine t$e e""e%t o" remote prayer on $ealin& A!C- patients* A previous study s$o#ed results t$at #ere
promisin& enou&$ to #arrant "urt$er resear%$*
,13/
,13/
Jill Oeimar)' Co t$e spirits move youP' Psychology Today' -epRJ%t 1997' ,9F5G' p* 5/*
191
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
N
+$e %o&nitive perspe%tive probably ori&inated #it$ t$e -toi% p$ilosop$er Kpi%tetus' #$o noted' ?en are
disturbed not by events' but by t$e vie#s t$ey ta)e o" t$em*@
,135
+$e study o" %o&nitions as a %ause o"
psy%$opat$olo&y 2Fabnormal be$aviorG3 $as led many t$erapists to %on%entrate on t$e pro%ess Fas opposed to t$e
%ontentG o" t$in)in& t$at %$ara%teri.es bot$ normal and abnormal individuals*
,137
Co&nitive t$erapy %onsists o" $i&$ly spe%i"i% learnin& e(perien%es desi&ned to tea%$ patients F1G to monitor
t$eir ne&ative' automati% t$ou&$ts F%o&nitionGH F,G to re%o&ni.e t$e %onne%tions bet#een %o&nition' a""e%t'
and be$aviorH F3G to e(amine t$e eviden%e "or and a&ainst distorted automati% t$ou&$tsH F/G to substitute
more reality-oriented interpretations "or t$ese biased %o&nitionsH and F5G to learn to identi"y and alter t$e
belie"s t$at predispose t$em to distort t$eir e(perien%es 2FBe%)' A* +*' D Weis$aar' * K* F1999G' Co&nitive t$erapy*
!n <* J* Corsini D C* Weddin& FKds*G' .urrent psychotherapies Fpp* ,95-3,0G* !tas%a' !>= Eea%o%)*
,137
p* 309
,139
G3*
,139
Lesitation is as interestin& as a%tion' delusion is as &rippin& as $eroism' and &ood and evil are so ine(tri%ably
mi(ed as to sometimes seem t#o aspe%ts o" t$e same t$in&*
,1/0
$eha5iorism
Jo$n Broadus Watson #as born on 9 January 1979 near Ireenville' -out$ Carolina' t$e son o" a #ay#ard "at$er
and a deeply pious mot$er* Oamed a"ter Jo$n Broadus' a lo%al "undamentalist minister' and %onstantly steered in a
reli&ious dire%tion by $is mot$er' youn& Watson nonet$eless developed a "ier%e rebellious strea) t$at be%ame a
permanent part o" $is %$ara%ter* Lis yout$"ul pu&na%ity earned $im t$e ni%)name ?-#ats'@ and as a teena&er $e &ot
arrested "or "i&$tin& and "or "irin& a &un inside %ity limits* Le re%alled t$at at s%$ool ?! #as la.y' some#$at
insubordinate' and * * * never made above a passin& &rade@ 2FJo$n Broadus Watson' Autobio&rap$y in Carl ur%$ison' ed*' A
$istory o- Psychology in Auto&iogaphy' Mol* 3 FWor%ester' A= Clar) University Eress' 1937G' pp* ,71-,91' see p* ,71H also see
Kerry W* Bu%)ley' 1eha(iorism and the Pro-essionali6ation o- American Psychology/ A Study o- John 1roadus 8atson' 1979-1959
FAnn Arbor' != University i%ro"ilms !nternational' 199,G' pp* 1-3
,1/1
G3*
,1/,
Watson #ent to C$i%a&o e(pe%tin& to #or) #it$ t$e department4s eminent %$airman
,1/3
8Jo$n Ce#ey
F1959-195,G* Kver t$e maveri%)' $e "ound Ce#ey4s approa%$ un%on&enial= ?! never )ne# #$at $e #as tal)in&
about t$en' and un"ortunately "or me' ! still don4t )no#'@ Watson re%alled in $is autobio&rap$y*
,1//
Kven so $e
%ontinued to minor in t$e sub1e%t and too) a %onsiderable number o" p$ilosop$y %ourses*
,1/5
A se%ond minor' one in
neurolo&y' eventuated "rom $is #or) in t$e neurolo&i%al laboratory o" L* L* Conaldson' #$ere $e made t$e
a%:uaintan%e o" t$e #$ite rat* Le also too) biolo&y and p$ysiolo&y under Ja%:ues >oeb' #$o #anted Watson to do
$is dissertation #it$ $im* 2James <*3 An&ell and Conaldson did not %onsider >oeb ?sa"e@
,1/7
8"or a student to
#or) #it$
,1/7
8so $e #or)ed #it$ t$e t#o o" t$em instead*
,1/9
!t is a "air in"eren%e' $o#ever' t$at >oeb $ad already
instilled in $im a latent $ostility to#ard sub1e%tive modes o" analysis in psy%$olo&y* >oeb may 1ustly be des%ribed
as Watson4s &reatest pre%ursor in e(empli"yin& and proselyti.in& "or t$is attitude*
,1/9
2Watson4s3 do%toral dissertation made use o" bot$ neurolo&i%al and be$avioral te%$ni:ues in t$e study o" t$e
%orrelation o" t$e be$avior and t$e &ro#t$ o" medullation in t$e %entral nervous system o" t$e #$ite rat*
,150
Watson
,135
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 79*
,137
)&idem ' p* 91*
,137
)&idem' p* A-,1*
,139
)&idem' p* 93*
,139
)&idem' p* 79*
,1/0
i%$ael Up%$ur%$ Fspe%ial to The Seattle TimesG' -$eldon Oovi%)4s bio&rap$y o" Lenry James s$eds ne# li&$t on t$e
aut$or4s early %areer' The Seattle Times' ,7 Jan 1997' 15F/G' p* ,*
,1/1
<aymond K* Fan%$er' Pioneers o- Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= W* W* Oorton D Company' 1990G' p* /37*
,1/,
)&idem' p* ,99*
,1/3
Op. cit.
,1//
)&idem' p* ,90*
,1/5
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' p* /7/*
,1/7
)&idem' pp* /7/-/75*
,1/7
Dictionary o- Scienti-ic 1iography' ed* in %$ie" C$arles Coulston Iillispie FO0= C$arles -%ribner4s -ons' 1990G' 9' p*
//7b*
,1/9
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' p* /75*
,1/9
Dictionary o- Scienti-ic 1iography' ed* in %$ie" C$arles Coulston Iillispie FO0= C$arles -%ribner4s -ons' 1990G' 9' p*
//7b*
19,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
&raduated in 1903 and #as
,151
82eventually3 made an instru%tor*
,15,
-u%%ess %ame at a pri%e' $o#ever' "or Watson
$ad $ad to $old several 1obs to support $imsel"' and over#or) %ontributed to an emotional brea)do#n* Le %ould
not sleep #it$out a li&$t on' and su""ered an(iety atta%)s t$at dissipated only a"ter ta)in& ten-mile #al)s* Le later
$inted t$at se(ual %on%erns may $ave been involved' #$en $e reported t$at $is brea)do#n ?in a #ay prepared me
to a%%ept a lar&e part o" Freud@ 2FWatson' Autobio&rap$y' p* ,7/
,153
G3*
Watson4s brea)do#n %oin%ided #it$ %ompli%ations in $is personal li"e' "ollo#in& $is re1e%tion by one youn&
#oman $e $ad "allen in love #it$' and $is subse:uent en&a&ement to a nineteen-year-old student named ary
!%)es'
,15/
8a C$i%a&o so%ialite 2#$om $e eventually married3*
,155
Watson #as a $ard #or)er and produ%ed a
%onsiderable number o" studies #it$ t$e #$ite rat' t$e mon)ey' and t$e tern be"ore $e le"t C$i%a&o in 1909 "or
Jo$ns Lop)ins*
!n 1913 an arti%le appeared proposin& a ne# psy%$olo&y* Written by Jo$n Broadus Watson' t$en only
t$irty-"ive years old' it opened as "ollo#s=
Esy%$olo&y as t$e be$aviorist vie#s it is a purely ob1e%tive e(perimental bran%$ o" natural s%ien%e* !ts
t$eoreti%al &oal is t$e predi%tion and %ontrol o" be$avior* !ntrospe%tion "orms no essential part o" its
met$ods' nor is t$e s%ienti"i% value o" its data dependent upon t$e readiness #it$ #$i%$ t$ey lend
t$emselves to interpretation in terms o" %ons%iousness 2FJ* B* Watson' ?Esy%$olo&y as a Be$aviorist Mie#s !t'
Psychological Re(iew' ,0' F1913G= 159-177 FLerrnstein and Borin&' K(%erpt Oo* 9/G
,157
G3*
,157
Watson sou&$t to e(%lude "rom psy%$olo&y all re"eren%es to t$e ort$odo( modes o" e(perien%e ; mind'
%ons%iousness' ima&es' and "eelin&s ; anyt$in& t$at %ould not be demonstrated be$aviorally' t$at is' by t$e a%tions
o" mus%les or &lands* u%$ o" Watson4s #or) involved attempts at t$e repla%ement o" t$e ort$odo( sub1e%t matter
o" introspe%tive psy%$olo&y #it$ be$avioral e:uivalents= subvo%al spee%$ "or t$ou&$t' dis%rimination "or sensory
1ud&ment' and %$an&es in t$e se( or&ans "or "eelin&s' 1ust to name a "e#*
,159
2For instan%e'3 a"ter learnin& to tal) by
%onditionin&' t$ou&$t is not$in& more ?t$an tal)in& to ourselves@ 2FJ* B* Watson' Psychological .are o- )n-ant and .hild
FOe# 0or)= W* W* Oorton' 19,9G
,159
G3*
,170
2Watson3 re%o&ni.ed no demar%ation bet#een $umans and t$e ?lo#er animals*@ +$e sub1e%t matter o"
be$aviorism #as t$e study o" $o# $umans and animals ali)e ad1ust to t$eir environment*
,171
+$e des%riptive
%ate&ories #ere stimulus and response' $e said* Watson believed t$at ?!n a system o" psy%$olo&y %ompletely
#or)ed out' &iven t$e stimuli t$e response %an be predi%ted*@ Lis ultimate &oal #as ?to learn &eneral and
parti%ular met$ods by #$i%$ ! may %ontrol be$avior*@
,17,
Le believed t$at ?!" psy%$olo&y #ould "ollo# t$e plan !
su&&est' t$e edu%ator' t$e p$ysi%ian' t$e 1urist and t$e business man %ould utili.e our data in a pra%ti%al #ay@ 2FJ* B*
Watson' ?Esy%$olo&y as a Be$aviorist Mie#s !t' Psychological Re(iew' ,0' F1913G= 159-177 FLerrnstein and Borin&' K(%erpt Oo*
9/G
,173
G3*
,17/
A%%ordin& to 2K* B*3 +it%$ener' Watson4s enterprise #as not psy%$olo&y at all but a "orm o" biolo&y* !n "a%t'
many biolo&ists $ad been doin& "or years #$at Watson #as no# proposin& to do in t$e name o" be$aviorism*
,175

Be%ause an animal s$o#s movements similar to t$ose o" a $uman in similar %ir%umstan%es' it is possible to
re%onstru%t t$e animal4s %ons%iousness as essentially similar to t$at o" t$e $uman under t$ese same %ir%umstan%es*
+$e observations are t$en to be interpreted %autiously in terms o" $uman %ons%iousness*
,177
At Jo$n Lop)ins Watson re%eived a "ull pro"essors$ip in e(perimental and %omparative psy%$olo&y and t$e
dire%tors$ip o" t$e laboratory* Watson did $is most important #or) bet#een 1909 and 19,0' #$ile at Jo$ns
Lop)ins*
,177
,150
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' p* /75*
,151
Op. cit.
,15,
)&idem' p* /7/*
,153
<aymond K* Fan%$er' Pioneers o- Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= W* W* Oorton D Company' 1990G' p* /37*
,15/
)&idem' p* ,91*
,155
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' p* /7/*
,157
)&idem' p* /9/*
,157
)&idem' p* /77*
,159
Op. cit.
,159
)&idem' p* /97*
,170
)&idem' p* /90*
,171
)&idem' p* /77*
,17,
Op. cit.
,173
)&idem' p* /9/*
,17/
)&idem' p* /77*
,175
)&idem' p* /79*
,177
)&idem' p* /75*
,177
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' p* /75*
193
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
A"ter 1917' Watson emp$asi.ed t$e importan%e o" %onditionin&*
,179
+$e United -tates entered World War ! in
1917 and #as t$ere"ore dire%tly involved in t$e %on"li%t "or less t$an t#o years* Curin& t$at time' $o#ever'
psy%$olo&ists #ere re%ruited by t$e &overnment to develop and administer &roup intelli&en%e tests' a tas) t$ey
a%%omplis$ed #it$ %onsiderable su%%ess* +$is #as si&ni"i%ant be%ause it &ave additional %redibility to t$e youn&
di%ipline*
,179
Labits are not$in& more t$an %omple( %onditioned responses' su%$ as t$ose involved in playin& tennis' in solin&
s$oes' or in e($ibitin& maternal rea%tions to %$ildren 2FJ* B* Watson' 1eha(ioism' ,nd ed* FOe# 0or)= W* W* Oorton'
1930G
,170
G3* +$ese $abits are inte&rations o" %onditioned responses around an a%tivity built up "rom t$e available
be$avior repertoire' startin& #it$ innate movements* ovements %ombine by %onditionin& into %omple( a%ts*
,171
Conditionin& is t$e basis o" spee%$' and spee%$ is t$e basis o" t$in)in&*
,17,
2For e(ample' an3 in"ant4s
vo%ali.ation o" ?da-da@ is atta%$ed to t$e person o" t$e 2representative3 "at$erH t$rou&$ "urt$er %onditionin& it
be%omes ?daddy*@
,173
Jt$er #ords and t$ou&$ts develop in a similar "as$ion* -ubvo%al spee%$' or t$in)in&' $as
been developed t$rou&$ %onditionin&*
,17/
!n 19,0 Watson4s a%ademi% %areer %ame to an abrupt end as a result o" s%andal* W$en divor%e pro%eedin&s
#ere instituted a&ainst $im' sensational publi%ity #as t$e result' and $e #as as)ed to resi&n "rom t$e Jo$ns
Lop)ins "a%ulty* !n t$e same year' $e married <osalie <aynor' #it$ #$om $e $ad %ollaborated on a resear%$ study
o" in"ants*
,175
Watson believed t$e main si&ni"i%an%e o"82previous3 studies lay not in t$e bare "a%t t$at people and do&s %ould
bot$ be %onditioned to salivate to or #it$dra# t$eir toes "rom in$erently neutral stimuli' but in t$eir impli%ations
"or "urt$er and broader %onditionin& e(periments*
,177
!n parti%ular' $e su&&ested8t$at $uman emotions mi&$t
pro"itably be t$ou&$t o" as &landular and mus%ular re"le(es #$i%$' li)e salivation' easily be%ome %onditioned*
,177
Watson be&an as)in& #$at $uman emotional responses #ere innate and ?un%onditioned'@ and in ans#er
des%ribed $is observations o" $uman in"ants #$o presumably $ad not yet $ad time to a%:uire any %onditioned
responses*
,179
First' Watson observed an apparently innate "ear response*
,179
Jnly t#o )inds o" stimuli seemed able
to produ%e t$is rea%tion in very youn& in"ants= a sudden and une(pe%ted loud sound' or t$e sudden loss o" support as
#$en t$e in"ant #as suddenly dropped Fand t$en %au&$t #it$out any p$ysi%al $arm bein& doneG*
2 ,1903
!n"ants did
not rea%t in t$is or any ot$er dramati% #ay #$en %on"ronted #it$ dar)ness or ot$er stimuli %ommonly re&arded as
"ear"ul by older people* F+$us Watson must $ave %on%luded t$at $is o#n "ear and inability to sleep in t$e dar)
durin& $is emotional brea)do#n in C$i%a&o $ad been an a%:uired rat$er t$an an innate emotional rea%tion*G
,191
-e%ond' Watson observed an emotional rea%tion in in"ants $e %alled ra&e*
,19,
Just one )ind o" stimulus ; t$e
p$ysi%al $inderin& o" movement ; produ%ed t$is rea%tion in a ne#born*
,193' 2 ,19/3
Finally' Watson sa# eviden%e "or a
t$ird un%onditioned emotion in in"ants t$at $e provisionally %alled love*
,195
Le sa# everyt$in& else' in%ludin& su%$ supposedly ?natural@ rea%tions as "ear o" t$e dar) and love "or one4s
mot$er' as t$e results o" Eavlovian-style %onditionin&*
,197
All t$e %ompli%ations and %omple(ities o" adult emotional
e(perien%e #ere presumably not$in& more t$an %onditioned responses built upon t$ree relatively simple
un%onditioned emotional re"le(es*
,197
,179
)&idem' p* /91*
,179
Kdited by Albert <* Iil&en D Carol K* Iil&en' )nternational $and&oo' o- Psychology FO0= Ireen#ood Eress' !n%*'
1997G' p* 537*
,170
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' p* /97*
,171
)&idem' pp* /91-/9,*
,17,
Op. cit.
,173
)&idem' p* /9,*
,17/
Op. cit.
,175
)&idem' p* /77*
,177
<aymond K* Fan%$er' Pioneers o- Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= W* W* Oorton D Company' 1990G' p* ,9/*
,177
Op. cit.
,179
)&idem' p* ,95*
,179
Op. cit.
,190
oro re"le(
N K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* 1/9*
,191
<aymond K* Fan%$er' Pioneers o- Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= W* W* Oorton D Company' 1990G' p* ,95*
,19,
Op. cit.
,193
Op. cit.
,19/
Bab)in or palmar-mental re"le(
N K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* 1/9*
,195
<aymond K* Fan%$er' Pioneers o- Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= W* W* Oorton D Company' 1990G' p* ,97*
,197
Op. cit.
,197
Op. cit.
19/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
!n a %lassi% and o"t-%ited e(periment' Watson FWatson and <ayner' 19,0G' usin& %lassi%al %onditionin&
prin%iples' attempted to %ondition a "ear response in a youn& %$ild named Albert* 2ary Cover3 Jones F19,/G
reported=
Albert' eleven mont$s o" a&e' #as an in"ant #it$ p$le&mati% disposition' a"raid o" not$in& ?under t$e sun@
e(%ept a loud sound made by stri)in& a steel bar*
2 ,1993
+$is made $im %ry* By stri)in& t$e bar at t$e same
time t$at Albert tou%$ed a #$ite rat' t$e "ear trans"erred to t$e #$ite rat* A"ter seven %ombined
stimulations' rat and sound' Albert not only be%ame &reatly disturbed at t$e si&$t o" a rat' but t$is "ear $ad
spread to in%lude a #$ite rabbit' %otton' #ool' a "ur %oat'
,199
8a do&' a -anta Claus mas)'
,190
8and t$e
e(perimenter4s $air* !t did not trans"er to $is #ooden blo%)s and ot$er ob1e%ts very dissimilar to t$e rat*
,191
!n ot$er #ords' Watson #as able to demonstrate t$at t$e a%:uisition o" a pho&ia Fan e(a&&erated' seemin&ly
illo&i%al "ear o" a parti%ular ob1e%t or %lass o" ob1e%tsG %ould be e(plained by %lassi%al %onditionin&*
,19,
+$e
%onditionin& vie# assumes t$at t$ese p$obi% rea%tions are %lassi%ally %onditioned responses F8G* At some point Fin
t$is vie#G t$e person must $ave e(perien%ed intense "ear #$ile in t$e presen%e o" #$at4s no# t$e p$obi% stimulus
F%"* 2Watson' J* B*' D <aynor' <* F19,0G* Conditioned emotional rea%tions* Journal o- 7%perimental Psychology' 3' 1-1/
,193
3G* By
%lassi%al %onditionin&' t$e previously neutral stimulus too) on t$e ability to provo)e t$e an(iety rea%tion* +$e same
prin%iple presumably applies no matter #$at t$e "eared stimulus is' #$i%$ %on"ers a )ind o" &enerality t$at many
psy%$olo&ists "ind appealin&*
,19/
!t %an be in"erred t$at su%$ "ears %ould inadvertently build up in a $ome' so t$at a %$ild is bein& %onditioned
#$en $e is in bed in t$e dar) and $ears a loud %lap o" t$under' produ%in& t$erea"ter a "ear o" t$e dar)*
,195
Watson
and <ayner stated t$at t$e "ear responses ?in t$e $ome environment are li)ely to persist inde"initely' unless an
a%%idental met$od "or removin& t$em is $it upon*@ And in a %on%ludin& tasteless se%tion o" t$eir arti%le' t$ey
ridi%uled t$e Freudian psy%$oanalyst #$o mi&$t one day try to treat Albert4s p$obia=
+$e Freudians t#enty years "rom no#' * * * #$en t$ey %ome to analy.e Albert4s "ear o" a seal s)in %oat * * *
#ill probably tease "rom $im a re%ital o" a dream #$i%$ upon t$eir analysis #ill s$o# t$at Albert at t$ree
years o" a&e attempted to play #it$ t$e pubi% $air o" t$e mot$er and #as s%olded violently "or it* !" t$e
analyst $as su""i%iently prepared Albert to a%%ept su%$ a dream * * * $e may be "ully %onvin%ed t$at t$e
dream #as a true revealer o" t$e "a%tors #$i%$ brou&$t about t$e "ear 2FJo$n B* Watson and <osalie <ayner'
?Conditioned Kmotional <ea%tions'@ Journal o- 7%perimental Psychology F?=1-1/' 19,0G' pp* 1,' 1/
,197
G3*
,197
!t is e(tremely easy "or t$erapists to ta)e advanta&e o" t$eir %lients4 trust and to e(ploit it*
,199
Jri&inally' Watson $ad intended to ?de%ondition@ Albert to t$e "ear' but 2$e didn4t3* ary Cover Jones F19,/G'
a student o" Watson4s' #as able to demonstrate $o# "ear %ould be unlearned t$rou&$ %lassi%al %onditionin&
prin%iples* By usin& "ood as a stimulus to %ountera%t t$e "ear response' Jones des%ribed vividly $o# t$is %ould be
done=
Curin& a period o" %ravin& "or "ood' t$e %$ild is pla%ed in a $i&$ %$air and &iven somet$in& to eat* +$e
"eared ob1e%t is brou&$t in' startin& a ne&ative response* !t is t$en moved a#ay &radually until it is at a
su""i%ient distan%e not to inter"ere #it$ t$e %$ild4s eatin&* +$e relative stren&t$ o" t$e "ear impulse may be
&au&ed by t$e distan%e to #$i%$ it is ne%essary to remove t$e "eared ob1e%t* W$ile t$e %$ild is eatin&' t$e
ob1e%t is slo#ly brou&$t nearer to t$e table' t$en pla%ed upon t$e table and' "inally' as t$e toleran%e
in%reases' it is brou&$t %lose enou&$ to be tou%$ed* -in%e #e %ould not inter"ere #it$ t$e re&ular s%$edule
o" meals' #e %$ose t$e time o" t$e mid-mornin& lun%$ "or t$e e(periment* +$is usually assured some
de&ree o" interest in t$e "ood and %orrespondin& su%%ess in our treatment*
,199
,199
oro re"le(
N K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* 1/9*
,199
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 7,*
,190
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' p* /93*
,191
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 7,*
,19,
Op. cit.
,193
C$arles -* Carver D i%$ael F* -%$eier' Perspecti(es on Personality' 3rd ed* FBoston= Allyn D Ba%on' 1997G' p* 700*
,19/
)&idem' p* 35,*
,195
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' p* /93*
,197
<aymond K* Fan%$er' Pioneers o- Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= W* W* Oorton D Company' 1990G' p* /37*
,197
)&idem' p* ,99*
,199
Cavid -ue' Cerald -ue' D -tanley -ue' #nderstanding A&normal 1eha(ior' /t$ ed* Fass*= Lou&$ton i""lin Co*'
199/G' p* 730*
,199
)&idem' pp* 7,-73*
195
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$e positive aspe%ts o" "ood eventually over%ame t$e ne&ative F"ear-arousin&G aspe%ts o" t$e ob1e%t* +$e pairin&
o" a ne&ative stimulus to eli%it t$e undesirable response F"earG #it$ a pleasant stimulus F"oodG to eli%it a pleasurable
response is %alled %ounter%onditionin&H it is a ma1or "orm o" t$erapy used by many be$aviorists*
,,00
• • •
Mirtual reality o""ers several advanta&es over t$e %onventional treatment "or p$obias' #$i%$ re:uires t$at
patients repeatedly e(pose t$emselves to real-li"e situations t$at %ause an(iety* ?Mirtual t$erapy@ saves time and
money' be%ause t$e t$erapist isn4t re:uired to a%%ompany t$e patient to t$e "ear-produ%in& environment* !nstead'
t$e patient %an be treated in t$e priva%y o" t$e t$erapist4s o""i%e*
,,01
• • •
!n 19,7 2F19,/
,,0,
and 1913
,,03
G3 in t$e $eat o" t$e nature-nurture %ontroversy Watson e(pounded
,,0/
8t$e battle
%ry o" t$e radi%al'
,,05
8militant'
,,07
8be$aviorist movement=
,,07
Iive me a do.en $ealt$y in"ants' #ell-"ormed and my o#n spe%i"i% #orld to brin& t$em up in and !4ll
&uarantee to ta)e any one at random and train $im to be%ome any type o" spe%ialist ! mi&$t sele%t ; a do%tor'
la#yer' artist' mer%$ant-%$ie" and' yes' even into a be&&ar-man and t$ie"' re&ardless o" $is talents'
pen%$ants' tenden%ies' abilities' vo%ations and ra%e o" $is an%estors*
,,09' ,,09' ,,10' 2 ,,113
• • •
,,00
)&idem' p* 73*
,,01
-tan Ein)#as' Jver%omin& p$obias' Popular Science' Au& 1995' ,/7F,G' p* ,9*
,,0,
At Jo$ns Lop)ins University in 19,/8
N -pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Winston' 1997G' p* /30*
,,03
Watson' J* B*' F1913G* Esy%$olo&y as t$e be$aviorist vie#s it* Psychological Re(iew' ,0' 159-177' !n Cennis Coon'
)ntroduction to Psychology/ 7%ploration and Application' 5t$ ed* F-t* Eaul= West Eubl* Co*' 1999G' p* 9*
,,0/
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* 90*
,,05
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Winston' 1997G' p* /30*
,,07
Watson' Jo$n Broadus' !n James E* C$aplin' Dictionary o- Psychology/ Re(ised 7dition' FO0= >aurel' Cell Eubl* Co*'
!n%*' 199,F1979GG*
,,07
-pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Winston' 1997G' p* /30*
,,09
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* 90*
,,09
2FBspe%i"i%4 reads as Bspe%i"ied4G3
N -pen%er A* <at$us' Psychology' 3rd ed* FO0= Lolt' <ine$art D Winston' 1997G' p* /30*
,,10
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' p* /79*
,,11
2Feveryt$in& a"ter t$ie" omittedH Bspe%i"i%4 reads as Bspe%ial4G3
N Cennis Coon' )ntroduction to Psychology/ 7%ploration and Application' 5t$ ed* F-t* Eaul= West Eubl* Co*' 1999G' p* 9*
197
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
<e%olle%tion Fre%allG is not synonymous #it$ rememberin& 2FAristotle' On emory and Reminiscence' /51
a

,1-/5,
b
11
,,1,
G3* <ememberin& is t$e spontaneous reprodu%tion o" past per%eptions' t$at is' a retention o" t$e e""e%t
o" past e(perien%e* <e%all is t$e a%tive sear%$ to re%over t$ese past per%eptions* <e%all demands $ard t$in)in&'
#$i%$ in t$is %onte(t Aristotle %alled deliberation' sin%e it involves a sear%$ in #$i%$ one reasons t$at one $as $ad
t$e e(perien%e in :uestion*
,,13
<e%all o%%urs inso"ar as e(perien%es su%%eed one anot$er in memory* +$is is to say
t$at t$e re%all o" one ob1e%t tends to be "ollo#ed by t$e re%all o" t$at #$i%$ is li)e it Fsimilar to itG' %ontrary to it
F%ontrasted #it$ itG' or a%%ompanyin& it F%onti&uous #it$ itG in t$e ori&inal learnin&*
,,1/
Aristotle also re&arded
?bonds o" asso%iation@ as a%:uirin& spe%ial stren&t$ "rom emotion* Le indi%ates t$at #$en e(%ited by love or by
"ear' t$e person %an see a desired emotion or a "eared one approa%$in& despite t$ere bein& little resemblan%e
2FAristotle' On Dreams' /70
b
,
,,15
G3* Le &oes on to state t$at t$e more one is under t$e in"luen%e o" emotion' t$e less
?similarity@ is ne%essary "or t$is to $appen*
,,17
• • •
Jt$er %$an&es in internal states %an o" %ourse be indu%ed by dru&s' produ%in& so-%alled state dependency
e""e%ts* -u%$ e""e%ts %an be produ%ed by al%o$ol' "or e(ampleH #$at is learnt drun) is best re%alled drun)*
-ometimes al%o$oli%s #ill $ide money or drin) #$ile in a drun)en state' and t$en "or&et #$ere it $as been $idden'
only to remember on%e t$ey are drun) a&ain* -u%$ dru&-based state dependen%y did o" %ourse play an important
role in #$at is %laimed to be t$e "irst dete%tive story #ritten' The oonstone o" Wil)ie Collins*
,,17
:eo'eha5iorism
Watson4s be$aviorism #as an e(tremely stron& in"luen%e on Ameri%an psy%$olo&y'
,,19
82t$ou&$3 te%$ni%ally'
any be$avioral approa%$ t$at %ame a"ter Watson and $is immediate %ontemporaries may be %alled neobe$aviorism*
+$e neobe$aviorists #ere as diverse as t$eir "orebears' but t$eir di""eren%es as #ell as similarities s$o# $o#
Ameri%an psy%$olo&y developed durin& t$e be$avioral era*
,,19
• • •
Burr$us Frederi% -)inner #as born on ,0 ar%$ 190/ in t$e small railroadin& to#n o" -us:ue$anna'
Eennsylvania*
,,,0
Con%ernin& 2$is mot$er4s3 stri%t notions o" propriety' -)inner #rote= ?! #as tau&$t to "ear Iod'
t$e poli%e' and #$at people #ill t$in)* As a result' ! usually do #$at ! $ave to do #it$ no &reat stru&&le@ 2FB* F*
-)inner' Autobio&rap$y in I* K* Borin& and Iardner >ind.ey' eds*' A $istory o- Psychology in Auto&iography' Mol 5 FOe# 0or)=
Appleton-Century-Cro"ts' 1977G' pp* 397-/13' see p* /07
,,,1
G3*
,,,,
-)inner publis$ed $is "irst literary #or) at a&e ten' a poem entitled ?+$at Eessimisti% Fello#'@ in t$e !one
Scout ma&a.ine* Unpublis$ed #or)s #ritten durin& $i&$ s%$ool in%luded a morality play "eaturin& t$e %$ara%ters
Ireed' Iluttony' Jealousy' and 0out$ and a melodramati% novel about a youn& naturalist4s love a""air #it$ t$e
dau&$ter o" a dyin& trapper* -)inner did #ell a%ademi%ally' and in 19,, be%ame $is "amily4s "irst %olle&e man as a
"res$man at Lamilton Colle&e in Clinton' Oe# 0or)*
At Lamilton' -)inner too) some biolo&y %ourses and a p$ilosop$y %ourse'8but no psy%$olo&y* Le ma1ored in
Kn&lis$ and #rote re&ularly "or t$e %olle&e ne#spaper' literary ma&a.ine' and $umor ma&a.ine ; adoptin& t$e pen
name o" -ir Burr$us de Beerus "or t$e last* An inveterate pra%ti%al 1o)er' $e $elped spread a "alse rumor t$at
C$arlie C$aplin #as &oin& to spea) on %ampus*
,,,3
As a senior' -)inner publi%ly parodied t$e spee%$ tea%$er'
subverted t$e traditional oratory %ompetition by submittin& a "ar%i%al spee%$' and de%orated t$e $all "or %lass day
e(er%ises #it$ less t$an %omplimentary %ari%atures o" t$e "a%ulty*
,,,/
,,1,
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' p* 90*
,,13
)&idem' p* 93*
,,1/
Op. cit.
,,15
)&idem' p* 90*
,,17
)&idem' p* 9/*
,,17
+$omas Butler' emory/ $istory0 .ulture and the ind FU*K*= Basil Bla%)#ell >td' 1999G' pp* 57-57*
,,19
+$omas L* etos' The $uman ind/ $ow 8e Thin' and !earn FO0= Fran)lin Watts' 1990G' p* 99*
,,19
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' p* /95*
,,,0
<aymond K* Fan%$er' Pioneers o- Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= W* W* Oorton D Company' 1990G' p* 30/*
,,,1
)&idem' p* /39*
,,,,
)&idem' p* 305*
,,,3
)&idem' p* 307*
,,,/
Op. cit.
197
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
-)inner and ot$ers developed t$e learnin& t$eory )no#n as operant For instrumentalG conditioning' in #$i%$
t$e stimulus "ollo#s t$e be$avior' as opposed to %lassi%al %onditionin&' in #$i%$ t$e stimulus al#ays pre%edes t$e
be$avior*
,,,5
For e(ample' %lassi%al %onditionin& is a passive pro%ess* W$en a re"le( o%%urs' %onditionin&
apparently doesn4t re:uire you to do anyt$in&*
,,,7
!nstrumental %onditionin&' in %ontrast' is an a%tive pro%ess
F%"* 2-)inner' B* F* F1939G* The &eha(ior o- organisms* Oe# 0or)= Appleton-Century-Cro"ts
,,,7
3G* +$e events t$at de"ine it
be&in #it$ a be$avior on your part Feven i" t$e ?be$avior@ is t$e %$osen a%t o" remainin& stillG*
,,,9
-)inner used t#o ot$er tools in $is operant %onditionin& to learnin&* Jne #as t$e pro%edure %alled shaping'
t$at is' usin& re#ard to &uide t$e sub1e%ts natural be$avior to#ard t$e desired be$avior &radually* +$e ot$er tool
#as %$an&in& t$e emp$asis "rom re#ards to rein"or%ers*
+$ere are t#o )inds o" rein"or%ers*
,,,9
For $umans' a positive rein"or%er is approval' attention' money' or
promotion' "or e(ample* A ne&ative rein"or%er "or a rat is an ele%tri% s$o%) t$at is stopped' t$us be%omin& a re#ard*
!n $umans' #it$dra#al o" approval by parents may ma)e a %$ild study $arder and &et better &rades* +$e basis o"
rein"or%ement is t$at #$et$er a positive or a ne&ative rein"or%ement is used' it stren&t$ens t$e be$avior o" t$e
laboratory animal or $uman*
,,30
-)inner read a boo) in #$i%$ t$e p$ilosop$er Bertrand <ussell' one o" $is "avorite #riters' dis%ussed Jo$n B*
Watson4s re%ently publis$ed 1eha(iorism %riti%ally but seriously* ?! do not "undamentally a&ree #it$
?2@Watson4s?3@ vie#'@ #rote <ussell' ?but ! t$in) it %ontains mu%$ more trut$ t$an most people suppose' and !
re&ard it as desirable to develop t$e be$aviourist met$od to t$e "ullest possible e(tent@ 2FB* F* -)inner' Particulars o-
y !i-e FOe# 0or)= %Ira#-Lill' 1959G' :uoted' p* ,99
,,31
G3* !ntri&ued' -)inner read Watson as #ell as t$e re%ently
translated Eavlov' li)ed #$at $e read' and be&an to suspe%t t$at be$avioristi% analyses mi&$t 1ust be able to a%%ount
"or many o" t$ose ?#$ys@ o" be$avior t$at #ere missin& in literature*
A symboli% turnin& point o%%urred #$en -)inner read an arti%le by L* I* Wells about Eavlov and t$e "amous
Britis$ #riter Ieor&e Bernard -$a#* +$e iras%ible and %olor"ul -$a# $ad &reatly disli)ed Eavlov4s #ritin&s' and
$ad sar%asti%ally des%ribed t$e <ussian as a s%oundrel and vivise%tionist #it$ t$e $abit o" boilin& babies alive 1ust
to see #$at #ould $appen* Wells e(pressed admiration "or &oth men and posed a $ypot$eti%al :uestion= Eavlov and
-$a# are dro#nin& on opposite sides o" a pier and you $ave but one li"e belt to t$ro# in t$e #aterH to #$i%$ side
#ould you t$ro# itP -)inner instantly )ne# t$at $is %$oi%e #ould be "or Eavlov' and "urt$er resolved to &o to
&raduate s%$ool and be%ome a be$avioristi% psy%$olo&ist* Le applied and #as a%%epted at Larvard' "or t$e autumn
o" 19,9*
,,3,
Watson' in a mani"esto entitled' ?Esy%$olo&y as t$e Be$aviorist Mie#s !t@ F1913G' $ad already enun%iated t$e
%redo= ?Co a#ay #it$ introspe%tion\ Esy%$olo&y must be ob1e%tive\ ost $uman be$avior %an be e(plained on t$e
basis o" %onditionin&\ Esy%$olo&ists s$ould study t$e be$avior o" simple animals' "rom #$i%$ all ne%essary
prin%iples %an be derived to apply to $uman bein&s\ +$e &oal o" psy%$olo&y is not t$e understandin& o" e(perien%e
but t$e predi%tion and %ontrol o" be$avior\@
Eavlov $ad s$o#n t$at do&s %ould be %onditioned to respond to a stimulus Fe*&*' to salivate to t$e rin&in& o" a
bellG by pairin& it #it$ anot$er stimulus Fe*&*' "oodG to #$i%$ t$ey #ould instin%tively respond' and Watson' in $is
?little Albert@ e(periment' $ad s$o#n t$at a $uman in"ant %ould be similarly %onditioned* Oo# it #ould be up to
-)inner to enlar&e upon t$eir #or) and see $o# "ar t$is line o" investi&ation %ould lead*
!n Ce%ember o" $is "irst year at Larvard' $e $ad #ritten' ?! $ave almost &one over to p$ysiolo&y' #$i%$ ! "ind
"as%inatin&* But my "undamental interests lie in t$e "ield o" psy%$olo&y' and ! s$all probably %ontinue t$erein'
even' i" ne%essary' by ma)in& over t$e entire "ield to suit mysel"@ F2The3 Shaping 2o- a 1eha(iorist'3 1979' p*
39G*
,,33
+o dis%over and prove t$at so-%alled "ree be$avior in rats is really a "un%tion o" an e(ternal %ondition mi&$t be
e(%itin& to anyoneH but to -)inner t$e $ope t$at t$is #ould lead to proo" t$at "ree #ill and %ons%ious For
un%ons%iousG %$oi%e in $uman bein&s #ere no less t$e results o" e(ternal %onditions #as #$at a later &eneration
#ould %all ?mind-blo#in&*@ Le #as &ripped by t$e possibilities o" $is e(periments as any inspired &enius' and t$e
drive ; or %ompulsion ; to e(tend t$e be$aviorist vie# to t$e very limits o" its appli%ability #as never to
diminis$*
,,3/
Curin& World War !!' -)inner %ondu%ted a series o" e(periments in #$i%$ $e trained sets o" pi&eons to navi&ate
bombs dropped "rom air%ra"t so t$ey #ould $it t$eir tar&ets a%%urately* +$e pi&eons #ere to be $arnessed inside
t$e nose %ones o" t$e bombsH
,,35
8$ad been trained' t$rou&$ operant %onditionin&' to )eep t$eir eyes on
,,37
82t$e
,,,5
+$omas L* etos' The $uman ind/ $ow 8e Thin' and !earn FO0= Fran)lin Watts' 1990G' p* 99*
,,,7
C$arles -* Carver D i%$ael F* -%$eier' Perspecti(es on Personality' 3rd ed* FBoston= Allyn D Ba%on' 1997G' p* 339*
,,,7
)&idem' 597*
,,,9
)&idem' 339*
,,,9
Op. cit.
,,30
)&idem' pp* 99' 10,*
,,31
<aymond K* Fan%$er' Pioneers o- Psychology' ,nd ed* FO0= W* W* Oorton D Company' 1990G' p* /39*
,,3,
)&idem' pp* 307-309*
,,33
Larvey indess' a'ers o- Psychology/ The Personal "actor FO0= Luman -%ien%es Eress' !n%*' 1999G' p* 93*
,,3/
)&idem' p* 9/*
,,35
)&idem' p* 97*
,,37
Op. cit.
199
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
tar&etH and3 atta%$ed to t$eir $eads #ere rods #$ose movements steered t$e bombs*
,,37
+$ese birds #ould $ave
been t$e e:uivalent o" modern &uidan%e %omputers*
,,39
Bi.arre as it sounds' t$e e(periment apparently #or)ed' and -)inner #as eventually able to interest t$e army
brass in observin& a demonstration* +$e operation be%ame )no#n as ?Ero1e%t Ei&eon@ and #as %lassi"ied until t$e
end o" t$e #ar* !t #as never used' $o#ever' partly be%ause t$e o""i%ers #$o %onsidered it "ound it ludi%rous' but
also be%ause by t$is time t$e U*-* #as preparin& to laun%$ t$e atom bomb*
An item o" &reater interest to t$e publi% #as
,,39
82#$at3 $e %alled8t$e ?baby-tender@ and spent years tryin& to
distribute it %ommer%ially*
,,/0
-)inner4s ar&uments in "avor o" t$e baby tender involved t$e "a%t t$at t$e dan&er o"
an in"ant smot$erin& in its bed%lot$es #as eliminated' t$at t$e baby en1oyed more prote%tion "rom in"e%tion t$an
#ould ordinarily be t$e %ase' and t$at a %ontrolled environment #as pre"erable to t$e environment o" most
$ouse$olds in #$i%$ %$ildren are raised*
,,/1
0ears later' #it$ $is a%ademi% reputation "irmly establis$ed' -)inner $ad more su%%ess in initiatin&
pro&rammed instru%tion and t$e use o" tea%$in& ma%$ines in s%$ool settin&s* Le invented t$e "irst o" t$ese
devi%es8to promote t$e prin%iple t$at me%$ani%al and ele%troni% ?tea%$ers@ #ere more reliable and e""e%tive t$an
$umans ones ; a stand t$at #on $im bot$ a%%laim and opposition in edu%ational %ir%les*
,,/,
-till a student at Larvard' $e re%alls' ?! #as no# so mu%$ t$e %omplete be$aviorist t$at ! #as s$o%)ed #$en
people ! admired used mentalisti% terms*@
,,/3
+$e youn& man8#as already demonstratin& t$e validity8t$at
be$aviorism %ould be%ome a belie" system &eneratin& t$e e(%lusivity' do&ma' and ri&$teousness o" any ot$er
%reed*
,,//
+$e :uestions t$at interest %lini%ians82in%lude3 #$y be$avior t$at does not appear to be rein"or%in&' at
least in t$e sense o" &eneratin& pleasurable %onse:uen%es' o"ten persists in $uman bein&s "or years' and t$e
di""erential issue o" #$y some o" us ad1ust to %$an&es in our environment #$ile ot$ers do not*
,,/5
-)inner4s "irst publi% de%lamation o" t$e #orld-savin& po#er o" be$aviorism is %ontained in $is Utopian novel'
8alden Two F19/9G* A "uller e(position o" $is vie#s on t$e "uture o" t$e $uman ra%e is put "ort$ in 1eyond
"reedom and Dignity F1971G*
,,/7
2ar&aret3 ead a%%used $im o" #antin& to play Iod'8and Karl Eopper #rote' ?-)inner is an enemy o"
"reedom and demo%ra%y* Le $as e(plained $is %ontempt "or "reedom :uite openly in $is boo) 1eyond "reedom and
Dignity* Le $as e(pounded it many years be"ore in a boo) 8alden Two' #$i%$ is t$e dream o" a very )ind but
me&alomania% be$aviorist #$o de"ends a be$aviorist di%tators$ip@ Fp* 391G*
,,/7
A Utopian novel set in %ontemporary Ameri%a' 8alden Two is t$e story o" a visit by a small &roup o" a%ademi%s
to an e(traordinary %ommunity run alon& stri%tly be$aviorist lines* +$ey are variously impressed and repelled by
#$at t$ey see* +$e %ommunity #as "ounded by a man named Fra.ier' a "ormer psy%$olo&ist turned re"ormer' #$ose
belie" in operant %onditionin& )no#s no bounds* Le s$o#s 8alden Two to $is visitors8)eepin& up a runnin&
%ommentary on its virtues' at "irst in a "airly ob1e%tive manner' but eventually #it$ all t$e "ervor o" a .ealot*
At t$e be&innin& o" t$eir visit' "or instan%e' $e ta)es t$e &roup out "or a #al)* ?+$is is our la#n'@ $e says*
?But #e %onsume it* !ndire%tly' o" %ourse ; t$rou&$ our s$eep* And t$e advanta&e is t$at it doesn4t %onsume us*
,,/9
We soon "ound t$at t$e s$eep )ept to t$e en%losure and :uite %lear o" t$e "en%e' #$i%$ didn4t need to be ele%tri"ied*
-o #e substituted a pie%e o" strin&' #$i%$ is easier to move around*
,,/9
2+$e lambs3 stray'@ Fra.ier %on%eded' ?but
t$ey %ause no trouble and soon learn to )eep #it$ t$e "lo%)*@
,,50
+$e %urious t$in& is t$at most o" t$ese s$eep $ave
never been s$o%)ed by t$e "en%e* ost o" t$em #ere born a"ter #e too) t$e #ire a#ay* !t $as be%ome a tradition
amon& our s$eep never to approa%$ strin&* +$e lambs a%:uire it "rom t$eir elders' #$ose 1ud&ment t$ey never
:uestion* !t4s "ortunate t$at s$eep don4t tal)'@ said 2one o" Fra.ier4s visitors3* ?Jne o" t$em #ould be sure to as)
BW$yP4 +$e E$ilosop$i%al >amb)in@ F8alden Two' 19/9' pp* 15-17G*
,,51
+$e in%ident seems inno%uous enou&$' but t$e reader soon learns t$at it is a prototype "or t$e rest o" t$e story*
Oot only t$e animals but also t$e people at 8alden Two $ave been %onditioned to be o" servi%e to t$e %ommunity
and to %arry out t$eir appointed duties #it$out %omplaint and #it$out :uestion* +$e resultant pea%e"ulness and
e""i%ien%y o" t$e pla%e be%omes %aptivation to some o" t$e visitors' but it disturbs ot$ers'8#$o %ontinually raise23
t$e issue o" $uman bein&s bein& deprived o" t$eir "reedom o" %$oi%e*
,,37
Op. cit.
,,39
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' p* /91*
,,39
Larvey indess' a'ers o- Psychology/ The Personal "actor FO0= Luman -%ien%es Eress' !n%*' 1999G' pp* 97-97*
,,/0
)&idem' p* 97*
,,/1
Op. cit.
,,/,
)&idem' pp* 97-99*
,,/3
)&idem' p* 9/*
,,//
Op. cit.
,,/5
)&idem' p* 97*
,,/7
)&idem' p* 9/*
,,/7
)&idem' p* 99*
,,/9
)&idem' p* 99*
,,/9
Op. cit.
,,50
Op. cit.
,,51
)&idem' p* 100*
199
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Fra.ier4s %ounterar&ument' li)e $is aut$or4s' is t$at so-%alled "reedom o" %$oi%e is an illusion* We are all
%ontrolled by our environments' $e says* We ma)e %ontinual e""orts to %ontrol ea%$ ot$er ; tea%$ers to %ontrol t$eir
students' students to %ontrol t$eir tea%$ersH parents to %ontrol t$eir %$ildren' %$ildren to %ontrol t$eir parentsH
"riends and lovers' &overnments and %iti.ens' all are en&a&ed in t$is enterprise ; but #e do it poorly' $ap$a.ardly'
be%ause #e don4t understand #$at #e4re doin& and even re"use to a%)no#led&e t$e trut$ o" our be$avior*
,,5,
Iettin& %arried a#ay near t$e end o" t$e story' Fra.ier addresses $is &uests in a state o" mountin&
e(%itement
,,53
82#$ile3 t$e visitors #restle #it$ t$e moral dilemma it presents*
,,5/
?W$at remains to be doneP@ $e
said*
,,55
?Well' #$at do you say to t$e desi&n o" personalitiesP
,,57
+$e %ontrol o" temperamentP Iive me t$e
spe%i"i%ations and !4ll &ive you t$e man\ * * * And #$at about t$e %ultivation o" spe%ial abilitiesP
,,57
+$ese t$in&s
are le"t to a%%ident or blamed on $eredity*
,,59
We %an analy.e e""e%tive be$avior and desi&n e(periments to dis%over
$o# to &enerate it in our yout$@
,,59
F8alden Two' 19/9' pp* ,7/-5G*
,,70
0ears later' -)inner #rote' ?u%$ o" t$e li"e in 8alden Two #as my o#n at t$e time*
,,71
! too) a "airly e(treme
position'
,,7,
82and3 ! let Fra.ier say t$in&s t$at ! mysel" #as not yet ready to say to anyone* * * * Kventually
F$o#everG ! be%ame a devout Fra.ierian@ FShaping' 1979' pp* ,97-9G*
,,73
28alden Two3 Fand -)innerG #ere
atta%)ed in !i-e a&a.ine under t$e $eadin&' ?+$e Oe#est Utopia is a -lander on -ome Jld Ootions o" t$e Iood
>i"e*@
,,7/
?Cr* -)inner is t$e pro"essor o" psy%$olo&y #$o is responsible "or t$e invention o" somet$in& )no#n as
Bt$e me%$ani%al baby tender4 * * * But t$e mena%e o" t$e me%$ani%al baby tender is as not$in& %ompared to t$e
mena%e o" boo)s li)e 8alden Two* For Cr* -)inner4s utopia is a triump$ o" B%ultural en&ineerin&4 and Bbe$avioral
en&ineerin&4 #$ere t$e %onditioned re"le( is )in&* * * * Jn%e t$ey are trained' t$e in$abitants $ave B"reedom*4 But
it is t$e "reedom o" t$ose Eavlovian do&s #$i%$ are "ree to "oam at t$e mout$ #$enever t$e Bdinner4 bell invites
t$em to a non"ort$%omin& meal@ Fpp* 3/7-9G*
,,75
+$e title 21eyond "reedom and Dignity F1971G
,,77
3 must be ta)en literally* -)inner lets us )no# "rom t$e
outset t$at $e %onsiders t$e value pla%ed on our so-%alled "reedom to s$ape our o#n lives' as #ell as t$e vaunted
ideal o" t$e di&nity o" t$e individual' to be outmoded notions #$ose time $as past*
,,77
Le atta%)s t$em by insistin&
t$at a ?te%$nolo&y o" be$avior@ based on t$e prin%iples o" operant %onditionin& %ould produ%e a #orld as "ree "rom
%rime' un$appiness' and ine""i%ien%y as "rom our un"ortunate overestimation o" t$e #ort$ o" t$e individual and our
%ommon delusion t$at t$ere a%tually is su%$ a t$in& as "reedom o" t$e #ill*
,,79
• • •
-i&ni"i%ant "undin& o" psy%$olo&y by t$e "ederal &overnment started durin& World War !!' parti%ularly "rom
19/1 to 19/5 #$en t$e United -tates #as "ormally involved in t$e %on"li%t*
,,79
+$e #ar
$ad some bearin& on ea%$ o" t$e "ollo#in& events or developments= aG t$e a%%elerated &ro#t$ o" t$e
di%iplineH bG t$e e(pansion o" pro"essional Fparti%ularly %lini%alG psy%$olo&yH %G t$e spread o" t$e
psy%$oanalyti% in"luen%eH dG t$e "ormation o" &uidelines "or resear%$ usin& $uman sub1e%tsH eG studies on
anti--emitism' pre1udi%e' and rumorH "G analyses o" %on%entration-%amp e(perien%esH &G resear%$ on pea%e'
#ar' a&&ression' stress' and "rustrationH $G psy%$olo&i%al pro1e%ts soli%ited by t$e United OationsH iG
in%reased interest in %ondu%tin& interdis%iplinary resear%$H 1G investi&ations su&&ested or made possible by
te%$nolo&i%al developmentsH )G test development and validationH lG small-&roup resear%$ and t$e &ro#t$ o"
,,5,
Op. cit.
,,53
Op. cit.
,,5/
)&idem' p* 101*
,,55
)&idem' p* 100*
,,57
Op. cit.
,,57
Op. cit.
,,59
)&idem' p* 101*
,,59
Op. cit.
,,70
Op. cit.
,,71
Op. cit.
,,7,
Op. cit.
,,73
)&idem' pp* 101-10,*
,,7/
)&idem' p* 10,*
,,75
Op. cit.
,,77
Op. cit.
,,77
Op. cit.
,,79
Op. cit.
,,79
)nternational $and&oo' o- Psychology' eds* Albert <* Iil&en D Carol K* Iil&en FO0= Ireen#ood Eress' !n%*' 1997G' p*
5/5*
190
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
so%ial psy%$olo&yH and mG talent sear%$es and #or) on %reativity 2FIil&en' A* <* F199,G* American psychology
since 8orld 8ar ))/ A pro-ile o- the discipline* Westport' C+= Ireen#ood Eress*' p* /5
,,70
G3*
,,71
+$e be$avioral orientation $as remained %entral to post-World War !! Ameri%an psy%$olo&y "or a variety o"
reasons' in%ludin& t$e interest on t$e part o" psy%$olo&ists' edu%ators' and $elpin& pro"essionals o" all types in #ays
to %$an&e $uman be$avior Fin"luen%e learnin& and per"orman%eGH "ait$ in laboratory resear%$' observable
p$enomena' e(perimental met$odolo&ies' and animal studiesH8and a belie" t$at' in &eneral' t$e a%tivities o" people
and ot$er $i&$er li"e "orms are molded more by t$e environment t$an &enes*
,,7,
As a #or)in& met$od' be$aviorism
$as proven itsel" remar)ably e""e%tive in many areas o" li"e*
,,73
,,70
)&idem' p* 555*
,,71
)&idem' pp* 5/9-5/9*
,,7,
)&idem' p* 5/9*
,,73
Larvey indess' a'ers o- Psychology/ The Personal "actor FO0= Luman -%ien%es Eress' !n%*' 1999G' p* 107*
191
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
%he :et
Conald 2J*3 Lebb F190/-1995G probably did more t$an any ot$er individual to reestablis$ modern p$ysiolo&i%al
psy%$olo&y as part o" be$avior t$eory*
,,7/
Lebbs4s %onditionin& #or) led to an o""er "rom <obert * 0er)es o"
0ale' #$i%$ $e de%lined' &oin& instead to C$i%a&o to study #it$ Karl >as$ley* W$en >as$ley #ent to Larvard in
1935' Lebb #ent #it$ $im' %ompletin& $is do%torate under >as$ley t$ere in 1937*
,,75
Lebb spent t$e years
19/,-19/7 at t$e 0er)es >aboratories o" Erimate Biolo&y in Jran&e Ear)' Florida* !t #as at 0er)es4s laboratory
t$at Lebb noti%ed t$e emotional response eli%ited by %$impan.ees on seein& a %lay model o" a %$impan.ee4s $ead*
+$eir response %ould be eli%ited by any deta%$ed body member su%$ as a $and* +$eir response also e(tended to
$umans' sin%e t$ey rea%ted to a manne:uin $and* +$is emotional response in%reased #it$ a&e*
,,77
Lebb %ontinued to deal #it$ t$e problem o" $uman intelli&en%e and brain a%tion* !t #as in 19// t$at $e
adopted t$e position t$at #ould %ome to be )no#n as t$e %ell assembly t$eory* Lebb tells us=
! "ound out t$at <a"ael >orente de Oe $ad re%ently s$o#n= F1G t$at reentrant or %losed %ir%uits #ere to be
"ound t$rou&$out t$e brain' #$i%$ t$us #as no lon&er to be seen as a t$rou&$-transmission' sensorimotor
me%$anism' but as one %apable o" a purely internal a%tivity also' as a possible basis o" t$ou&$tH and F,G t$at
one neuron by itsel" may not be able to e(%ite a se%ond neuron at t$e synapse' but %an do so i" supported by
simultaneous a%tion "rom anot$er neuron* F+$at is' t#o presynapti% neurons %an be e""e%tive #$en one is
not' #$i%$' in prin%iple' o""ers an e(planation o" t$e sele%tive e""e%t o" attention' #$en some a%tivity t$at is
&oin& on in t$e %orte( provides su%$ support "or one sensory input but not "or anot$er*G +$e "irst idea
o""ered a solution "or my earlier problem' W$at is a %on%eptP ; namely' t$at it is a &roup o" %orti%al neurons
e(%itin& and ree(%itin& ea%$ ot$er* +$e se%ond idea #as a "as%inatin& one' "or attention and set $ad been a
%omplete mystery up to t$at time * * * and no# ! $ad a possible solution 2FC* J* Lebb and W* <* +$ompson' ?+$e
-o%ial -i&ni"i%an%e o" Animal -tudies'@ in Iardner >ind.ey' et*' $and&oo' o- Social Psychology' FCambrid&e' ass*=
Addison-Wesley' 1979G' Mol* ,' pp* 53,-571
,,77
G3*
Lebb #as no# loo)in& at t$ou&$t ?as a se:uen%e o" brain events' ea%$ e(%ited 1ointly by t$e pre%edin& event
and by t$e sensory stimulation o" t$e moment* +$e s%$ema implied t$at t$ou&$t must be disrupted in a stran&e
environment #it$ un"amiliar %ontin&en%ies 2FC* J* Lebb' ?C* J* Lebb'@ p* ,95
,,79
G3*
,,79
!t #as t$en t$at Lebb t$ou&$t
ba%) to t$e %$impan.ees at 0er)e4s laboratory and t$eir "ear rea%tions to dismembered or&ans* Le %on%luded t$at
?emotional disturban%e is a disruption o" t$ou&$t due to a %on"li%t #it$ environmental events or to a la%) o" usual
sensory support@ 2F)&id*' p ,97
,,90
G3* +$is notion #ould be%ome part o" Lebb4s %ell assembly t$eory*
,,91
A %ell assembly is a &roup o" neurons %lustered to&et$er "un%tionally be%ause o" a past $istory o" bein&
stimulated to&et$er* +$eir main %$ara%teristi% is t$at t$ey are %apable o" a%tin& to&et$er "or a time as a %losed
system* +$ey may $ave been produ%ed t$rou&$ some sensory event' or t$ey may $ave been aroused by some
previously e(istin& assembly* Jne %ell assembly may a%tivate anot$er assembly*
,,9,
Cell assemblies t$at are a%tivated at t$e same time may be%ome or&ani.ed into ?p$ase se:uen%es'@ #$i%$ are a
se:uen%e o" %ell assembly "un%tions* +a)in& t$e %$ild as $is sub1e%t' Lebb tells us t$at #$en a baby $ears "ootsteps
an assembly is e(%itedH #$ile t$is is still a%tive' $e sees a "a%e and "eels $ands pi%)in& $im up' #$i%$
e(%ites ot$er assemblies ; so t$at ?"ootsteps-assembly@ be%omes %onne%ted #it$ ?"a%e assembly@ and t$e
?bein&-pi%)ed-up assembly*@ A"ter t$is $as $appened' #$en t$e baby $ears "ootsteps only' all three
assemblies are e(%itedH t$e baby t$en $as somet$in& li)e a per%eption o" a mot$er4s "a%e and t$e %onta%t o"
$er $ands be"ore s$e $as %ome in si&$t ; but sin%e t$e sensory stimulations $ave not ta)en pla%e' t$is is
ideation or ima&ery' not per%eption 2FC* J* Lebb' Te%t&oo' o- Psychology' 3rd ed* FE$iladelp$ia= W* B* -aunders'
197,G' p* 77
,,93
G3*
,,9/
,,7/
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' pp* /91-/9,*
,,75
)&idem' p* /9,*
,,77
Op. cit.
,,77
)&idem' p* /99*
,,79
Op. cit.
,,79
)&idem' pp* /9,-/93*
,,90
)&idem' p* /99*
,,91
)&idem' p* /93*
,,9,
Op. cit.
,,93
)&idem' p* /99*
,,9/
)&idem' p* /93*
19,
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Lebb stated t$at ?Oeural transmission is not simply linear' but apparently al#ays involves some %losed or
re%urrent %ir%uitsH and a sin&le impulse %annot ordinarily %ross a synapse ; t#o or more must a%t simultaneously'
and t#o or more a""erent "ibers must' t$ere"ore' be a%tive in order to e(%ite a t$ird to #$i%$ t$ey lead@ 2F)&id*
,,95
G3*
+$e re"le( ar% is not a simple loop but one t$at may $ave many loops built into it' some o" #$i%$ may be re%urrent
or reverberatory and ot$ers o" #$i%$ are simply %losed* Le also opposed t$e notion t$at t$e nervous system #as a
passive transmitter o" sensory in"ormation "rom re%eptors* Le based $is opposition on t$e idea t$at t$e %entral
nervous system may be a%tivated #it$out e(ternal stimulation*
,,97
• • •
Eer$aps t$e lar&est sin&le %$an&e in Ameri%an psy%$olo&i%al orientation sin%e World War !! $as been t$e rise o"
%o&nitive psy%$olo&y* +$ere is no one sour%e "or its development* +$e "oundin& o" t$e movement is o"ten dated
#it$ t$e appearan%e o" Ulri%$ Oeisser4s .ogniti(e Psychology in 1977 2FUlri%$ Oeisser' .ogniti(e Psychology FOe# 0or)=
Appleton-Century-Cro"ts' 1977G
,,97
G3*
,,99
2Oeisser3 &ives #$at is still per$aps t$e best de"inition o" %o&nitive psy%$olo&y=
t$e term ?%o&nition@ re"ers to all t$e pro%esses by #$i%$ t$e sensory input is trans"ormed' redu%ed'
elaborated' stored' re%overed' and used* !t is %on%erned #it$ t$ese pro%esses even #$en t$ey operate in t$e
absen%e o" relevant stimulation' as in ima&es and $allu%inations* -u%$ terms as sensation' per%eption'
ima&ery' retention' re%all' problem-solvin&' and t$in)in&' amon& ot$ers' re"er to $ypot$eti%al sta&es or
aspe%ts o" %o&nition 2FUlri%$ Oeisser' .ogniti(e Psychology FOe# 0or)= Appleton-Century-Cro"ts' 1977G
,,99
G3*
Oeisser re%o&ni.ed t$at t$is de"inition &ave t$e impression t$at %o&nitive psy%$olo&y studied everyt$in& a $uman
mi&$t possibly do*
,,90
Oeisser8dis%riminates amon&
,,91
2dynami% psy%$olo&y'
,,9,
3 %o&nitive psy%$olo&y and
p$ysiolo&y' alt$ou&$ $e does not %$allen&e t$e validity or value o" ea%$ o" t$ese positions o#n approa%$es to t$e
sub1e%t matter*
,,93
Eer$aps t$e best %andidate "or an ori&in date "or t$e movement is 1957 #it$ t$e appearan%e o" A Study o-
Thin'ing by Jerome Bruner' Ja%:ueline Ioodno#' and Ieor&e A* Austin 2FJerome Bruner' J* J* Ioodno#' and I* A*
Austin' A Study o- Thin'ing FOe# 0or)= Jo$n Wiley and -ons' 1957G
,,9/
G3* Bruner uses t$at date $imsel" 2FJerome Bruner' )n
Search o- ind/ 7ssays in Auto&iography FOe# 0or)= Larper and <o#' 1993G' p* 1,0
,,95
G3* +$e boo) #as a produ%t o" t$e
Larvard Co&nition Ero1e%t' "ounded by Bruner and %ondu%ted in t$e >aboratory o" -o%ial <elations at Larvard
be&innin& in 195,*
,,97
2Jne3 development t$e aut$ors %redited %ame dire%tly "rom t$e #ar e""ort* !t #as in"ormation t$eory #$i%$
arose "rom %ommuni%ations resear%$* Just as #it$ stimulus-response psy%$olo&y' t$e
inputs and outputs o" a %ommuni%ation system' it soon be%ame apparent' %ould not be dealt #it$ e(%lusively
in terms o" t$e nature o" t$ese inputs and outputs alone nor even in terms o" su%$ internal %$ara%teristi%s as
%$annel %apa%ity and noise* +$e %odin& and re%odin& o" inputs ; $o# in%omin& si&nals are sorted and
or&ani.ed ; turns out to be t$e important se%ret o" t$e bla%) bo( t$at lie at$#art t$e %ommuni%ation %$annel
2FJerome Bruner' )n Search o- ind/ 7ssays in Auto&iography FOe# 0or)= Larper and <o#' 1993G' p* vii-viii
,,97
G3*
!t #as "rom t$is ba%)&round o" %ommuni%ations resear%$ t$at in"ormation pro%essin& t$eory ori&inated* !n 19/9
Oorber Wiener at !+ %oined t$e #ord cy&ernetics in $is boo) .y&ernetics/ Or .ontrol and .ommunication in the
Animal and the achine* +$e notion o" "eedba%) me%$anisms #as parti%ularly in"luential in t$e later %o&nitive
s%ien%e*
,,99
• • •
,,95
)&idem' p* /99*
,,97
)&idem' pp* /93-/9/*
,,97
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' p* 7,9*
,,99
)&idem' p* 7,,*
,,99
)&idem' p* 7,9*
,,90
)&idem' p* 7,/*
,,91
Op. cit.
,,9,
)&idem' p* 7,3*
,,93
)&idem' p* 7,/*
,,9/
)&idem' p* 7,9*
,,95
Op. cit.
,,97
)&idem' p* 7,3*
,,97
)&idem' p* 7,9*
,,99
)&idem' p* 7,3*
193
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
+$e study o" %omputers' ?t$in)in& ma%$ines'@ #ould provide a model "or many "uture resear%$ers in
%o&nition*
,,99
Esy%$olo&ists are &iven to t$in)in& o" $uman pro%esses in terms o" t$e status o" t$e p$ysi%al s%ien%es
o" t$e day* -o it is not suprisin& t$at a number o" %o&nitive psy%$olo&ists des%ribe $uman in"ormation pro%essin& in
%omputer s%ien%e %on%epts su%$ as input and output and bits o" in"ormation*
,300
ost neurobiolo&ists today believe t$at neurons are t$e a%tive elements in brain "un%tion*
,301
+$e $uman brain
%ontains about 100 billion o" t$ese s#i%$in& elements*
,30,
For every neuron in t$e brain' t$ere are rou&$ly ten &lial
%ells F"rom t$e &ree) #ord "or ?&lue@G' #$i%$ $old t$e neuronal stru%ture to&et$er* An avera&e neuron in t$e
$uman brain $as bet#een 1'000 and 10'000 synapses*
,303
!t is no# )no#n t$at t$e brain %ontains mi%ro%ir%uits8
Fabout 1R10'000 o" a %entimeterG made up o" neurons and synapses*
,30/
+$ese mi%ro%ir%uits seem to in%rease in
abundan%e #it$ t$e %omple(ity o" a parti%ular li"e "orm*
,305
+$e e(istan%e o" su%$ mi%ro%ir%uits su&&ests t$at intelli&en%e may be t$e result o" t$e abundan%e o" spe%iali.ed
s#it%$in& elements in t$e brain*
,307
Oeural net#or)s are &ood at solvin& problems involvin& multiple %onstraints
su%$ as ima&e pro%essin&* Eattern re%o&nition' "or e(ample' is easy "or a neural net#or) be%ause su%$ net#or)s %an
pro%ess many t$in&s in parallel*
,307
• • •
Kven be"ore birt$' t$e brain is a""e%ted by environmental %onditions' su%$ as t$e nouris$ment and stimulation a
developin& "etus re%eives* Brain %ells and neurons be&in to develop #$ile t$e baby is in t$e uterus* Curin& early
nurturin& t$ey ma)e %onne%tions #it$ ea%$ ot$er %alled synapses*
,309
!n"ants #$o $eard The .at in the $at 2F-euss' Cr* F+* -* IeiselG
,309
G3 prenatally pre"erred to $ear it a"ter birt$*
,310

+$ere is a%%umulatin& eviden%e t$at ne#borns may e($ibit a postnatal pre"eren%e "or a spe%i"i% passa&e or melody
e(perien%ed prenatally F2CeCasper' A* J*' D -pen%e' * F1997G* Oe#eborns pre"er a "amiliar story over an un"amiliar one* )n-ant
1eha(ior and De(elopment' 9' 133-150H CeCasper' A* J*' D -pen%e' * F199,G* Auditorily mediated be$avior durin& t$e perinatal
period= A %o&nitive vie#* !n New&orn attention/ 1iological constraints and the in-luence o- e%perience* Oor#ood* OJ= Able(H Fi"er'
W* E*' D oon' C* F1999G* Auditory e(perien%e in t$e "etus* !n W* E* -mot$erman D -* <* <obinson FKds*G' 1eha(ior o- the -etus Fpp*
175-197G* Cald#ell' OJ= +el"ord Eress3G*
,311
+$e "irst t$ree years o" li"e are #$en t$e vast ma1ority o" 2synapses3 are produ%ed* A"ter t$e "irst "e# years a
)ind o" prunin& o%%urs and unne%essary #irin& is eliminated*
!n t$e "irst t$ree years' a baby4s potential "uture #irin& "or intelli&en%e' sense o" sel"' trust and motivation "or
learnin& is laid do#n* Warm' responsive %are in t$ese early years is %riti%al*
,31,
>ovin& parents tal)' sin& and read
to t$eir babies* +$ey $u& and %uddle t$em* +$e %urrent resear%$ emp$asi.es $o# %riti%al t$is #arm approa%$
is*
,313
?C$ildren need a lot o" intera%tion #it$ adults to learn lan&ua&e and %on%epts about $o# t$e #orld
operates'@ e(plains 2University o" Was$in&ton FUWG pro"essor Kat$ryn3 Barnard* ?+$e more #e learn
about early brain development' #e learn t$at' unless t$e brain &ets appropriate stimulation' it4s not &oin& to
develop as #ell*@
-usan -pie)er' Barnard4s "ello# UW resear%$er' adds t$at bondin& in t$e "irst year o" li"e is %ru%ial to
learnin&* ?Babies need a se%ure base "rom #$i%$ to e(plore and learn* !n a $i&$-ris) environment' babies
$ave to learn a #$ole ot$er pattern o" be$avior "or survival ; and t$at is not %omplatible #it$ t$e type o"
learnin& t$at needs to ta)e pla%e*@
,31/
,,99
<obert !* Watson' -r* D <and B* Kvans' The 3reat Psychologists/ A $istory o- Psychological Thought' 5t$ ed* FO0=
LarperCollins Eubl*' !n%*' 1991G' p* 7,/*
,300
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* ,5*
,301
neurons' <i%$ard E* Brennan' Dictionary o- Scienti-ic !iteracy' FO0= Jo$n Wiley D -ons' !n%*' 199,G*
,30,
Op. cit.
,303
Op. cit.
,30/
Op. cit.
,305
Op. cit.
,307
Op. cit.
,307
)&idem' neural net#or)*
,309
+* Berry Bra.elton' +$e symbiosis o" nurture and nature' San "rancisco .hronicle' 19 ay 1997' p* C9*
,309
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* !-1/*
,310
)&idem' p* 1,1*
,311
)&idem' p* 1,0*
,31,
+* Berry Bra.elton' +$e symbiosis o" nurture and nature' San "rancisco .hronicle' 19 ay 1997' p* C9*
,313
Op. cit.
,31/
Carey Auan Ielernter' Iivin& tots an e:ual startH some Was$in&ton babies &ain a 1ump-start on Lead -tart t$rou&$
lo%al pro&rams' The Seattle Times' ,7 April 1997' 15F17G' p* 1*
19/
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Cryin& is a%tually a buildin& blo%) to learn $o# to tal)' s$e e(plains* A baby #$ose %ryin& is met #it$
%om"ort' learns to use it to %ommuni%ate ; and eventually to substitute tal)in& "or %ryin&* !&norin& %ryin&
%an lead to lan&ua&e delays*
,315
-o%ioe%onomi% status 2i3s an2ot$er3 important predi%tor o" #$i%$ %$ildren8
do23 better in s%$ool* But by "ar t$e bi&&est predi%tor #as $o# mu%$ t$e %$ildren #ere tal)ed to be"ore a&e
3 ; and t$is #as independent o" so%ioe%onomi% status' and o" ra%e*
,317
-u%%ess"ul )ids are tal)ed-to )ids*
,317
+$e avera&e number o" #ords %$ildren $eard per $our #as ,'150
in pro"essional "amiliesH 1',50 in #or)in&-%lass "amiliesH and 7,0 in #el"are "amilies*
,319
By measurin&
vo%abulary &ro#t$' be%ause it is stron&ly asso%iated #it$ rates o" intelle%tual development' t$ey "ound t$at
by a&e /' patterns o" &ro#t$ #ere already establis$ed and intra%table*
,319
Eoverty %an be bro)en' but it ta)es an edu%ation*
,3,0
Besides t$e s$eer amount o" tal)' #$at mattered
#as t$e ratio o" ne&ative instru%tions F?:uit t$at'@ ?don4t tou%$'@G %ompared to ot$er tal)*
,3,1
?2-ome3
parents did not 2even3 ta)e t$e bus to t$e .oo' or turn t$e +M on to B-esame -treet'4 and t$ey did not tal) to
t$eir %$ildren very mu%$*@
,3,,
,orti!al +lasti!ity
Be"ore puberty' a %$ild %an a%$ieve t$e "luen%y o" a native spea)er in any lan&ua&e For even in t#o or more
lan&ua&es simultaneouslyG #it$out spe%ial trainin&* A"ter puberty' it is e(tremely di""i%ult to learn a "irst lan&ua&e*
!n %ases o" spee%$ disruption due to brain dama&e' youn& %$ildren o"ten re%over t$eir lan&ua&e %apa%ity rapidly and
%ompletelyH i" t$e brain dama&e o%%urs a"ter puberty' t$e pro&nosis "or t$e re%overy o" lan&ua&e is poor F2>enneber&'
K* L* F1977G* 1iological -oundations o- language* Oe# 0or)= Wiley
,3,3
3G*
,3,/
We no# reali.e t$at t$e %on%ept o" t$e adult mammalian brain as lar&ely stati% is no lon&er tenable* Oumerous
studies s$o# t$at e(perimental manipulations %an lead to &ro#t$ and plasti%ity in t$e adult brain* We $ave
%on"irmed t$at &ro#t$ and plasti%ity' in%ludin& neuro&enesis and synapto&enesis 2Ft$e ability to modi"y t$e number'
nature' and level o" a%tivity o" its synapses
,3,5
G'3 %an also o%%ur t$rou&$out t$e animal4s natural li"e*
,3,7
Classi% studies in %ats
2 ,3,73
&enerated "our prin%iples o" "un%tional malleability or ?plasti%ity@ in t$e developin&
visual %orte(* +$ey are t$e %on%epts o" spe%i"i%ity' &atin&' %onsolidation' and t$e %riti%al period* <e%ent studies o"
adult $umans and mon)eys revealed t$at t$e a%:uisition o" s)ills' or pro%edural learnin&' seems to s$are many o"
t$e same %$ara%teristi%s*
,3,9
Ero%edural 2Fimpli%itG
,3,9
3 learnin& is t$e "ormation o" ?$o# to@ memories= a &ain in per"orman%e o" a tas) is
a%:uired impli%itly durin& t$e a%tual e(e%ution o" t$e tas)*
,330
!mpli%it memory8re"ers to be$avioral )no#led&e o"
an e(perien%e #it$out %ons%ious re%all* A %$ild #$o demonstrates )no#led&e o" a s)ill Fe*&*' bi%y%le ridin&G
#it$out re%allin& $o# $eRs$e learned it' or an adult #$o $as an a""e%tive rea%tion to an event #it$out understandin&
t$e basis "or t$at rea%tion Fe*&*' a %ombat veteran #$o pani%s #$en $e $ears t$e sound o" a $eli%opter' but %annot
remember t$at $e #as in a $eli%opter %ras$ #$i%$ )illed $is best "riendG are demonstratin& impli%it memories in t$e
absen%e o" e(pli%it re%all*
,331
,315
Op. cit.
,317
Carey Auan Ielernter' -u%%ess"ul )ids are tal)ed-to )ids' The Seattle Times' ,7 April 1997' 15F17G' p* 3*
,317
Op. cit.
,319
Op. cit.
,319
Op. cit.
,3,0
Jerry >ar&e' Eoverty %an be bro)en' but it ta)es an edu%ation' The Seattle Times' ,7 April 1997' 15F17G' p* 3*
,3,1
Carey Auan Ielernter' -u%%ess"ul )ids are tal)ed-to )ids' The Seattle Times' ,7 April 1997' 15F17G' p* 3*
,3,,
Op. cit.
,3,3
K* avis Let$erin&ton D <oss C* Ear)e' .hild Psychology/ A .ontemporary 2iewpoint' /t$ ed* FO0= %Ira#-Lill'
!n%*' 1993G' p* <-37*
,3,/
)&idem' p* ,57*
,3,5
C* W* Cotman D * Oieto--ampedro' Cell biolo&y o" synapti% plasti%ity' Science' ,1 -ep 199/' ,,5F/779G*
,3,7
* -* Kaplan FCepartment o" <e$abilitation edi%ine' -inai Lospital' Baltimore' C ,1,15G' Elasti%ity a"ter brain
lesions= %ontemporary %on%epts' Archi(es o- Physical edicine and Reha&ilitation' Oov 1999' 79F11G*
,3,7
+$e studies dis%overed' amon& ot$er t$in&s' t$at )ittens reared in environments devoid o" verti%al stimuli run into le&s
o" %$airs as adults' and )ittens reared in environments devoid o" $ori.ontal stimuli miss tar&ets #$en leapin& as adults*
Kittens reared in a deprived environment su""er as adults in an enri%$ed environment*
,3,9
Avi Karni' *C* FMisitin& Asso%iate in t$e >aboratory o" Brain and Co&nition at O!L and $olds a 1oint appointment
in t$e Cepartment o" Oeurobiolo&y at t$e Wei.mann !nstitute and t$e Cepartment o" Oeurolo&y at t$e -$eba edi%al
CenterG' Adult %orti%al plasti%ity and reor&ani.ation' Science and edicine' Jan-Feb 1997' /F1G' p* ,/*
,3,9
-tatement on memories o" se(ual abuse FAmeri%an Esy%$iatri% Asso%iation statementG' *++, )n-ormation Please F+G
Almanac' Annual 1995' p* /39F1G*
,330
Avi Karni' *C* FMisitin& Asso%iate in t$e >aboratory o" Brain and Co&nition at O!L and $olds a 1oint appointment
in t$e Cepartment o" Oeurobiolo&y at t$e Wei.mann !nstitute and t$e Cepartment o" Oeurolo&y at t$e -$eba edi%al
CenterG' Adult %orti%al plasti%ity and reor&ani.ation' Science and edicine' Jan-Feb 1997' /F1G' p* ,/*
195
Kevin Crosby 30 June 1997
Ce%larative 2Fe(pli%itG
,33,
3 learnin& is t$e "ormation o" ?#$at@ memories= t$e e(pli%it re%olle%tion o" events and
"a%ts*
,333' 2 ,33/3
+o a%:uire a s)ill su%$ as readin&' #$i%$ is a pro%edural memory tas)' re:uires a di""erent memory
pro%ess t$an to remember somet$in& re%ently read' #$i%$ is a de%larative memory tas)* emori.in& a te(t'
espe%ially "or re%itation' may involve bot$ systems* Eronun%iation and prosody 2Fmetri%al styleG'3 "or e(ample' may
be retained t$rou&$ pro%edural memory*
,335
+$is distin%tion bet#een e(pli%it and impli%it memory is "undamental be%ause t$ey $ave been s$o#n to be
supported by di""erent brain systems' and be%ause t$eir di""erentiation and identi"i%ation may $ave important
%lini%al impli%ations*
,337
Kveryone $as "irst-$and e(perien%e #it$ t$e "a%t t$at ?pra%ti%e ma)es per"e%t*@ Eer"orman%e o" a tas) improves
#it$ repetition' and a"ter a %riti%al amount o" trainin&' $i&$ly s)illed per"orman%e levels are attained* !t is
reasonable to assume t$at a &ain in per"orman%e re"le%ts' and indeed is subserved by' a %$an&e in neural pro%essin&
t$at is tri&&ered by pra%ti%e* +$ese neural %$an&es may be :uite lon&-lastin&' as many s)ills' on%e a%:uired' are
retained over lon& time intervals*
,337
Karly li"e %orti%al plasti%ity is spe%i"i%' %ontrolled' and time-dependentH
,339
8
measurements o" adult $uman s)ill learnin& re"le%t t$e same prin%iples*
,339
Cov -a&i o" t$e Wei.mann !nstitute and 2Avi Karni3 "ollo#ed t$e time %ourse o" development o" a
dis%rimination s)ill in $uman adults* 2+$eir3 observations su&&est t#o sta&es in t$e a%:uisition o" improved
per%eption*
,3/0
A "ast improvement' o%%urrin& early in trainin&' %an be indu%ed by a limited number o" trials' on a
time s%ale o" a "e# minutes or less' but only i" $i&$-:uality sensory input is provided* !t o%%urs %onsistently early in
t$e initial pra%ti%e sessions o" naive sub1e%ts and t$en saturates' #it$ per"orman%e remainin& stable #it$in t$e