## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

First things first – thanks for purchasing this eBook! I know you’ll find it helpful in conquering any anxiety you may feel about working with binary math and subnetting.

The methods you’ll learn in this book have helped thousands of students around the world pass computer certification exams – and just as importantly, prepared them for real-world networking success.

Right now, I’ll zip my lip so we can get started!

Chris Bryant

“The Computer Certification Bulldog:

Udemy: https://www.udemy.com/u/chrisbryant

(Over 30,000 happy students and growing every day!)

YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/u/ccie12933

(Over 325 free training videos!)

Website: http://www.thebryantadvantage.com

(New look and easier-to-find tutorials in Dec. 2013!

See you there -- Chris B.

**Copyright © 2013 The Bryant Advantage, Inc.
**

All rights reserved. This book or any portion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of the publisher except for the use of brief quotations in a book review.

No part of this publication may be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or reproduced in any way, including but not limited to photocopy, photograph, magnetic, or other record, without the prior agreement and written permission of the publisher.

The Bryant Advantage, Inc., has attempted throughout this book to distinguish proprietary trademarks from descriptive terms by following the capitalization style used by the manufacturer. Copyrights and trademarks of all products and services listed or described herein are property of their respective owners and companies. All rules and laws pertaining to said copyrights and trademarks are inferred.

Printed in the United States of America

First Printing, 2013

The Bryant Advantage, Inc.

9975 Revolutionary Place

Mechanicsville, VA 23116

Table of Contents

Converting Decimals to Binary Strings

Converting Binary Strings to Decimals

Determining The Number Of Valid Subnets

Determining The Number Of Valid Hosts

Determining The Subnet Of A Given IP Address

Determining The Broadcast Address & Address Range Of A Subnet

Subnetting From Scratch (Just called "Subnetting" in the header)

Your Final Exam

**Success Skill #1Converting Decimals to Binary Strings
**

Let’s get right to it!

One quick warning: This is one of those processes that seems complicated when you read about it, but once you’re doing it, you realize how simple it is.

Let’s start with the decimal 217 and our grid. Can you subtract 128 from 217? Sure, with a remainder of 89. Put a “1” under the 128.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

Can you subtract 64 from 89? Yes, with a remainder of 25. Put a “1” under the 64.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

Can you subtract 32 from 25? No, so that’s a zero under the 32. Moving to the right, can you subtract 16 from 25? Sure, with a remainder of 9. Put a “1” under the 16.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

0

1

Can you subtract 8 from 9? Certainly, and that leaves one. We’ll put a “1” under the 8, and then a zero under both the 4 and 2, since we can’t subtract those from 1.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

We have a remainder of 1. Subtract 1 from 1, and we’re done with our first conversion!

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

The decimal 217 converts to the binary string 11011001. That’s all there is to it – and this skill is the foundation of solving every binary and subnetting question you’ll see in this book and on your certification exams!

When it comes to full dotted decimal addresses, you just repeat the process four times, once for each octet.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

2

3

4

Speed on these questions (and the others we’ll tackle in this book) comes with practice, so I’ve included extra practice questions for you. Best of all, you can write your own practice exam questions, wherever you are. Just write down the first decimal that pops into your head, and then convert it to binary (and hex, if you like). That’s a great way to get extra practice, and that few minutes you spend here and there really adds up on exam day!

Let’s hit some more practice questions, and then we’ll head to the next section, which contains another vital subnetting skill.

Convert the dotted decimal 100.10.1.200 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

4

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

**Answer: 01100100 0000101000000001 11001000.
**

Convert 190.4.89.23 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

3

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

4

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

**Answer: 10111110 00000100 01011001 00010111.
**

Convert 10.255.18.244 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

4

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

**Answer: 00001010 11111111 00010010 11110100.
**

Convert 240.17.23.239 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

3

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

**Answer: 11110000 00010001 00010111 11101111.
**

Convert 217.34.32.214 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

2

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

3

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

4

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

**Answer: 11011001 00100010 00100000 11010110.
**

Convert 20.244.182.69 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

2

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

3

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

4

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

**Answer: 00010100 11110100 10110110 01000101.
**

Convert 145.17.206.89 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

2

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

3

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

4

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

**Answer: 10010001 00010001 11001110 01011001.
**

Convert 198.3.148.245 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

3

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

4

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

**Answer: 11000110 00000011 10010100 11110101.
**

Convert 14.204.71.250 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

2

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

3

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

**Answer: 00001110 11001100 01000111 11111010.
**

Convert 7.209.18.47 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

2

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

3

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

4

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

**Answer: 00000111 11010001 00010010 00101111.
**

Convert 184.61.80.9 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

2

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

3

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

**Answer: 10111000 00111101 01010000 00001001.
**

Convert 249.74.65.43 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

2

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

4

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

**Answer: 11111001 01001010 01000001 00101011.
**

Convert 150.50.5.55 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

2

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

4

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

**Answer: 10010110 00110010 00000101 00110111.
**

Convert 19.201.45.194 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

2

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

3

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

4

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

**Answer: 00010011 11001001 00101101 11000010.
**

Convert 43.251.199.207 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

3

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

4

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

**Answer: 00101011 11111011 11000111 11001111.
**

Convert 42.108.93.224 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

3

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

4

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

**Answer: 00101010 01101100 01011101 11100000
**

Convert 180.9.34.238 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

3

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

4

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

**Answer: 10110100 00001001 00100010 11101110.
**

Convert 21.249.250.5 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

3

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

**Answer: 00010101 11111001 11111010 00000101.
**

Convert 243.79.68.30 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

2

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

3

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

4

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

**Answer: 11110011 01001111 01000100 00011110.
**

Great work!

Let’s move forward to the next fundamental subnetting success skill – converting binary strings to decimals.

Success Skill #2:Converting Binary Strings to Decimals

This one’s even simpler than the previous section – with solid practice, of course!

For this conversion, all we’re doing is plugging the binary string of 1s and 0s into the same grid we used in the first section. Add the columns with a 1, and you’re done. It’s that simple!

Let’s work with the binary string 01100010. Just plug that into our grid…

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

2

3

4

**… add up the columns with a 1, and you’re done. The total is 98.
**

Let’s tackle a full 32-bit binary string: 01100010 00111100 11111100 01010101.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

2

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

3

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

4

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

**Add up each row and you have 98.60.252.85.
**

Speed on these questions increases with practice, so let’s get some serious practice in!

Convert 11110000 00110101 00110011 11111110 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

3

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

**Answer: 240.53.51.254.
**

Convert 00001111 01101111 00011100 00110001 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

2

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

3

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

4

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

Answer: 15.111.28.49.

Convert 11100010 00000001 11001010 01110110 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

3

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

**Answer: 226.1.202.118.
**

Convert 01010101 11111101 11110010 00010101 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

3

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

4

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

**Answer: 85.253.242.21.
**

Convert 00000010 11111001 00110111 00111111 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

2

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

3

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

4

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

Answer: 2.249.55.63

Convert 11001001 01011111 01111111 11111110 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

2

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

3

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

**Answer: 201.95.127.254
**

Convert 11111000 00000011 11111001 01100110 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

4

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

**Answer: 248.3.249.102.
**

Convert 00111110 11110000 01011010 01111110 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

2

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

3

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

4

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

**Answer: 62.240.90.126.
**

Convert 11001101 11110000 00001111 10111111 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

2

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

4

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

**Answer: 205.240.15.191.
**

Convert 10011001 11110000 01111111 00100101 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

2

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

3

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

**Answer: 153.240.127.37.
**

Convert 11011111 01110110 11000011 00111111 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

2

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

3

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

4

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

**Answer: 223.118.195.63.
**

Convert 00000100 00000111 00001111 00000001 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

3

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Answer: 4.7.15.1.

Convert 11100000 00000111 10001111 00000100 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

3

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

4

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

**Answer: 224.7.143.4.
**

Convert 11000000 00000011 11011011 00100101 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

3

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

4

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

**Answer: 192.3.219.37.
**

Convert 10000000 01111111 00110011 10000011 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

4

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

**Answer: 128.127.51.131.
**

Convert 11111011 11110111 11111100 11111000 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

4

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

**Answer: 251.247.252.248.
**

Great work! Let’s head to the next section, where we’re coming in after the subnetting’s been done – and we’re asked a very important question that we must be able to answer accurately!

Success Skill #3:Determining The Number Of Valid Subnets

The odd thing about this type of question is that we’re coming in after the subnetting’s actually been done, and we have to figure out how many valid subnets we have as a result of the subnetting.

Of course, it’s a good idea to figure this out BEFORE you do the subnetting. “Measure twice, cut once!” With this question type, Cisco’s figuring out if you really know what you’re doing – and after this section, you’ll be ready to answer any “valid subnets” question they ask you in a rapid and efficient manner.

We’ll work with these examples:

“How many valid subnets are there on the 10.0.0.0 /12 network?”

“How many valid subnets exist on the 10.0.0.0 255.240.0.0 network?

These two questions are actually asking you the same thing, just in different formats. The number/slash combination is prefix notation, and of these two it’s the most common method of expressing a subnet.

On your certification exams, you should be ready to work with the mask expressed in dotted decimal and prefix notation. To get you ready for that, I’ll use both formats throughout this book.

To solve “valid subnets” questions, you must have the network masks, ranges, and number of host and network bits in each one down cold. Here’s the info:

Class A

Class B

Class C

**1st Octet Range
**

1 – 126

128-191

191-223

Network Mask

255.0.0.0 (/8)

255.255.0.0 (/16)

255.255.255.0 (/24)

# Network Bits

8

16

24

# Host Bits

24

16

8

We don’t get to say “never” often in networking, and here’s one of those rare opportunities: The number of network bits never changes. Subnetting always borrows from the host bits – always!

All we need to do is determine the number of subnet bits. With a great deal of solid practice, you’ll be able to answer this question type in seconds, in an efficient and accurate manner.

Once you know the number of subnet bits, just plug that value into this simple formula:

Number of Valid Subnets = 2 to the nth power, with n=number of subnet bits.

Don’t let the “nth power” thing intimidate you – it’s easy, you’ll see!

To get the number of subnet bits, just compare the subnet mask with the network mask. The subnet bits are where the subnet mask has a “1” and the network mask has a “0”.

I’m going to write out the full masks in this example, but once you see that the subnet mask and network mask have zeroes in the same place, you can stop writing them out.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

00000000

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11110000

00000000

00000000

The subnet bits are bolded, and since we have four of them, that means that 2 to the 4th power is our number of subnets. 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 16. And that’s it!

I’m showing you this method so you can see exactly what’s going on, bit by bit. There is a faster way to determine the number of subnet bits, and there’s no trick to it. Just subtract the number of network bits from the mask, and you have your number of subnet bits.

For example, in the previous walkthrough we worked with a Class A network. We know that has a network mask of /8. The subnet mask we were given was /12, so just subtract 8 from 12 and you have your number of subnet bits … 4 of them. Then just calculate 2 to the 4th power and you’re done!

For each of the following practice questions, I’ll show you how to get the answer both ways. Be sure to use the first method until you’re totally comfortable with it, and then feel free to use the second method.

I’m also going to list the networks first, without the answers, and the answers follow. Let’s get started!

Determine the number of valid subnets in each of the following networks:

15.0.0.0 /13

222.10.1.0 /30

145.45.0.0 / 25

20.0.0.0 255.192.0.0

130.30.0.0 255.255.224.0

128.10.0.0 /19

99.0.0.0 /17

222.10.8.0 /28

30.0.0.0 255.254.0.0

210.17.90.0 /29

130.45.0.0 /26

190.1.1.0 /26

45.0.0.0 255.240.0.0

222.33.44.0 255.255.255.248

23.0.0.0 255.255.224.0

111.11.0.0 /15

130.45.0.0 /19

99.0.0.0 /16

34.0.0.0 /18

200.10.56.0 /29

128.10.0.0 /18

And now…. The Answers!

15.0.0.0 /13

Method 1: Compare the NW and SN masks to determine the number of subnet bits, then bring 2 to the power of that number.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

00000000

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111000

00000000

00000000

**5 subnet bits = 2 to the 5th power = 32.
**

Method 2: Class A network, /8 mask, subtract 8 from 13, that gives us 5. 2 to the 5th power = 32.

222.10.1.0 /30

Method 1: Compare the NW and SN masks to determine number of subnet bits.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111100

**We have six subnet bits, and 2 to the 6th power is 64.
**

Method 2: Class C network, NW mask of /24, subtract 24 from 30, that gives us 6. 2 to the 6th power is 64.

145.45.0.0 /25

Method 1: Compare the NW and SN masks to determine the number of subnet bits, then bring 2 to the power of that number.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

10000000

**We have 9 subnet bits. 2 to the 9th power is 512.
**

Method 2: Class B network, mask of /16, subtract 16 from 25, gives us 9. 2 to the 9th power is 512.

20.0.0.0 255.192.0.0

Method 1: Compare the NW and SN masks, calculate number of subnet bits, bring 2 to the power of that number.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

00000000

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11000000

00000000

00000000

**We have two subnet bits, and 2 to the 2nd power is 4.
**

Method 2: Class A network, NW mask of /8, subtract 8 from 10, result is 2. 2 to the 2nd power is 4.

130.30.0.0 255.255.224.0

Method 1: Compare the NW and SN masks to calculate the number of subnet bits, then bring 2 to that power.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11100000

00000000

**We have three subnet bits, and 2 to the third power is 8.
**

Method 2: Class B network, NW mask of /16, subtract 16 from 19, result is 3. 2 to the 3rd power is 8.

128.10.0.0 /19

Method 1: You know the drill.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11100000

00000000

**We have three subnet bits, and 2 to the 3rd power is 8.
**

Method 2: Class B network, NW mask /16, subtract 16 from 19, result is 3. 2 to the 3rd power is 8.

99.0.0.0 /17

Method 1: Compare, calculate, subtract, succeed.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

00000000

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

10000000

00000000

**We have nine subnet bits, and 2 to the 9th power is 512.
**

Method 2: Class A network, NW mask /8, subtract 8 from 17, result is 9. 2 to the 9th power is 512.

222.10.8.0 /28

Method 1: Compare, calculate, subtract, succeed!

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11110000

**We have 4 subnet bits, and 2 to the 4th power is 16.
**

Method 2: Class C network, NW mask /24, subtract 24 from 28, result is 4. Two to the 4th power is 16.

30.0.0.0 255.254.0.0

Method 1: Figure out how many subnet bits we have…..

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

00000000

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111110

00000000

00000000

**We have 7 subnet bits, and 2 to the 7th power is 128.
**

Method 2: Class A network, mask /8, 15 − 8 = 7, 2 to the 7th power = 128.

210.17.90.0 /29

Method 1: Calculate the number of subnet bits, and bring 2 to that power.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111000

**We have 5 subnet bits, and 2 to the 5th power is 32.
**

Method 2: Class C network, 24 NW bits, 29 − 24 = 5, 2 to the 5th power = 32.

130.45.0.0 /26

Method 1: You know the drill!

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11000000

**We have 10 subnet bits, and 2 to the 10th power is 1024.
**

Method 2: Class B network, 16 NW bits, 26 − 16 = 10, 2 to the tenth power = 1024.

200.1.1.0 /26

Method 1: 2 to the power of the number of subnet bits:

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11000000

**We have 2 subnet bits, and 2 to the 2nd power equals 4.
**

Method 2: Class C network, 24-bit mask, 26 − 24 = 2, 2 to the 2nd power = 4.

45.0.0.0 255.240.0.0

Method 1: Break both masks down to binary, then compare, calculate, succeed!

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

00000000

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11110000

00000000

00000000

**We have four subnet bits, and 2 to the 4th power equals 16.
**

Method 2: Class A network, 8-bit mask, 12 − 8 = 4, 2 to the 4th power = 16.

222.33.44.0 255.255.255.248

Method 1: Break it down, calculate it, subtract it, nail it!

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111000

**We have five subnet bits, and 2 to the 5th power is 32.
**

Method 2: Class C network, 24-bit mask, 29 − 24 = 5, 2 to the 5th power = 32.

111.11.0.0 /15

Method 1: Calculate it and nail it!

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

00000000

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111110

00000000

00000000

**We have 7 subnet bits, and 2 to the 7th power equals 128.
**

Method 2: Class A, 8-bit mask, 15 − 8 = 7, 2 to the 7th power = 128.

130.45.0.0 /19

Method 1: Calculate the number of subnet bits, and then power 2 by that value.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11100000

00000000

**We have three subnet bits, and 2 to the third power is 8.
**

Method 2: Class B, 16-bit mask, 19 − 16 = 3, 2 to the third power = 8.

99.0.0.0 /16

Method 1: Compare the masks and identify your subnet bits.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

00000000

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

**We have 8 subnet bits, and 2 to the 8th power is 256.
**

Method 2: Class A network, 8-bit mask, 16 − 8 = 8, 2 to the 8th power = 256.

34.0.0.0 /18

Method 1: Write out the masks and identify the subnet bits.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

00000000

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11000000

00000000

**We have 10 subnet bits, and 2 to the 10th power = 1024.
**

Method 2: Class A with 8-bit NW mask, 18 − 8 = 10, 2 to the 10th power = 1024.

200.10.56.0 /29

Method 1:

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111000

**We have 5 subnet bits, and 2 to the 5th power = 32.
**

Method 2: Class C with 24-bit mask, 29 − 24 = 5, 2 to the 5th power = 32.

128.10.0.0 /18

Method 1:

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11000000

00000000

**We have 2 subnet bits, and 2 to the 2nd power = 4.
**

Method 2: Class B with 16-bit mask, 18 − 16 = 2, 2 to the 2nd power = 4.

All riiiiiiiiight!

With this skill mastered, let’s figure out how many hosts we have on each of these subnets – coming up next!

Success Skill #4:Determining The Number Of Valid Host Addresses On Our Subnets

The method for determining the number of valid hosts on a subnet is similar to the method for determining the number of overall valid subnets. Similar, but not identical!

We’re going to compare the network and subnet masks again, but this time we’re identifying the host bits, and those are where the NW mask and SN mask both have zeroes. We’ll bring two to the power of the number of host bits.

THEN – and this merits all caps for just a word or two – THEN we’re going to subtract two from the result. That’s to compensate for two unusable addresses in each subnet:

The “All-Zeroes” address, which is the network address itself

The “All-Ones” address, the broadcast address for that subnet

Let’s tackle a “valid hosts” question and you’ll see what I mean!

How many valid hosts are there on the 150.10.0.0 /23 subnet?

Comparing the masks, we see….

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111110

00000000

The bits where each mask has a zero are the host bits, and we have nine of those. 2 to the 9th power is 512. Subtract two from that and you have 510 valid hosts on each of the subnets.

Now that you see exactly what’s going on with this operation, let me show you a really quick way of calculating the number of valid hosts.

Just subtract the number of 1s in the subnet mask from 32, and you have the number of host bits. Take 2 to the power of that number, subtract 2, and you’re done.

In the previous example, we had a mask of /23. You can just subtract that 23 from 32, which gives you nine… and 2 to the 9th power is 512. Subtract 2 and you have 510, and you’re done in well under a minute.

Practice makes perfect, so let’s dive right into some serious practice. I’ll break each question down into the NW and SN masks so you can get a bit-by-bit picture of what’s going on, and in the exam room you should feel more than free to use the second method.

I’ll give you the full list of subnets first, and they’re listed again with the answers after the first list. Let’s hit it!

Determine the number of valid host addresses on each of these subnets:

220.11.10.0 /26

129.15.0.0 /21

50.0.0.0 /20

222.22.2.0 /30

212.10.3.0 /28

221.10.78.0 255.255.255.224

143.34.0.0 255.255.255.192

128.12.0.0 255.255.255.240

125.0.0.0 /24

221.10.89.0 255.255.255.248

134.45.0.0 /22

And now… the answers!

220.11.10.0 /26

Method 1: Identify the host bits, bring 2 to that power, subtract 2.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11000000

We have six host bits, and 2 to the 6th power is 64. Subtract 2 and you have 62 valid hosts in this subnet.

Method 2: 32 − 26 = 6, 2 to the 6th power = 64, 64 − 2 = 62.

129.15.0.0 /21

Method 1: Get the host bits number and bring 2 to that power, then subtract 2.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111000

00000000

**We have 11 host bits. 2 to the 11th power equals 2048. 2048 − 2 = 2046.
**

Method 2: 32 − 21 = 11, 2 to the 11th power = 2048, 2048 − 2 = 2046.

50.0.0.0 /20

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11110000

00000000

**We have 12 host bits. 2 to the 12th power = 4096, and 4096 − 2 – 4094.
**

Method 2: 32 − 20 = 12, 2 to the 12th power = 4096, 4096 − 2 = 4094.

(It’s unlikely your exams will make you go to the 11th or 12th power of 2, but it certainly doesn’t hurt to prepare for it.)

222.22.2.0 /30

Method 1:

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111100

We have two host bits. 2 to the 2nd power is 4; subtract 2 and we have 2 valid host addresses!

Method 2: 32 − 30 = 2, 2 to the 2nd power = 4, 4 − 2 = 2.

212.10.3.0 /28

Method 1:

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11110000

We have four host bits. 2 to the 4th power = 16; subtract 2 and we have 14 valid host addresses.

Method 2: 32 − 28 = 4, 2 to the 4th power = 16, 16 − 2 = 14.

221.10.78.0 255.255.255.224

Method 1:

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11100000

We have five host bits. 2 to the 5th power = 32; subtract 2 and we have 30 valid hosts.

Method 2: 32 − 27 = 5, 2 to the 5th power = 32, 32 − 2 = 30 valid hosts.

143.34.0.0 255.255.255.192

Method 1:

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11000000

We have six host bits, and 2 to the 6th power = 64. Subtract 2 and you have 62 valid host addresses.

Method 2: 32 − 26 = 6, 2 to the 6th power = 64, 64 − 2 = 62.

128.12.0.0 255.255.255.240

Method 1:

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11110000

**We have 4 host bits. 2 to the 4th power = 16, and 16 − 2 = 14 valid addresses!
**

Method 2: 32 − 28 = 4, 2 to the 4th power = 16, 16 − 2 = 14.

125.0.0.0 /24

Method 1:

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

00000000

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

We have 8 host bits, and 2 to the 8th power is 256. Subtract two from that and we have 254 valid host addresses.

Method 2: 32 − 24 = 8, 2 to the 8th power = 256, 256 − 2 = 254.

221.10.89.0 255.255.255.248

Method 1:

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111000

We have three host bits, and 2 to the 3rd power equals 8. Subtract 2 and you have 6 valid host addresses.

Method 2: 32 − 29 = 3, 2 to the 3rd power = 8, 8 − 2 = 6.

134.45.0.0 /22

Method 1:

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111100

00000000

We have 10 host bits, and 2 to the 10th power is 1024. Subtract 2 and we have 1022 valid host addresses!

Method 2: 32 − 22 = 10, 2 to the 10th power = 1024, 1024 − 2 = 1022.

And that’s it! We’ll now take the skills we’ve perfected in the first four sections and apply them to questions that some certification candidates don’t know how to approach or solve – but you will!

Let’s go!

Success Skill #5:Determining The Subnet Of A Given IP Address

Of all the skills you’re going to learn in this book, the one we’re about to concentrate on is the one you’ll use most in the real world. Quite a few troubleshooting scenarios arise in production networks when a host is thought to be on one subnet and it’s actually on another. In turn, that can lead to some serious communications issues.

I’m going to share a lightning-fast way for you to determine the exact subnet that you’ll find a given IP address on – and this skill will serve you VERY well on your certification exams!

Let’s say you’re given the IP address 100.17.48.200 /23, and you’re asked to give the subnet upon which that address resides.

All you have to do is break the address down into binary, and from left to right convert thebits in the subnet mask back to decimal. You’re done!

Here’s what I mean:

100.17.49.200 = 01100100 00010001 00110001 11001000

Then convert the first 23 bits back to binary.

01100100 00010001 0011000x xxxxxxxx = 100.17.48.0 /23

That’s all there is to it! Even better, you don’t even have to convert the entire address if you don’t want to (it is good practice, though). Just convert the number of bits represented by the subnet mask and add ‘em up!

Let’s do another one here and then we’ll hit the practice exam questions.

On what subnet can the 10.17.2.14 255.255.192.0 address be found?

This question has a dotted decimal mask, but that’s no problem for us. That mask converts to /18 in prefix notation.

To determine the subnet containing this address, we just need to convert the address to binary and then convert the first 18 bits back to binary.

10.17.2.14 = 00001010 00010001 00xxxxxx xxxxxxxx

Add up those numbers and you have 10.16.0.0 /18. That’s it!

Let’s get to the practice exam questions and get ready to smack this exam in the mouth. I’ll list the addresses first, and then again with the answers, which follow at the end of this section.

Identify the subnet where you’ll find each of these IP addresses.

210.17.23.200 /27

24.194.34.12 /10

190.17.69.175 /22

111.11.126.5 255.255.128.0

210.12.23.45 255.255.255.248

222.22.11.199 / 28

111.9.100.7 /17

122.240.19.23 /10

184.25.245.89 /20

210.67.39.5 / 30

99.140.23.143

10.191.1.1 /10

187.23.191.95 /27

222.17.32.244 /28

And now… the answers!

210.17.23.200 /27

Convert the address to binary and add up the first 27 bits.

210.17.23.200 = 11010010 00010001 00010111 110xxxxx

Add those up and you have 210.17.23.192 /27. That’s your subnet!

24.194.34.12 /10

Convert the address to binary and add up the first 10 bits.

24.194.34.12 = 00011000 11xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx

Add up the first 10 bits and you have 24.192.0.0 /10.

190.17.69.175 /22

Convert that address to binary and add up the first 22 bits!

190.17.69.175 = 10111110 00010001 010001xx xxxxxxxx

Add up those first 22 bits and you have 190.17.68.0 /22. That’s your subnet!

111.11.126.5 255.255.128.0

Convert to binary and add up the first 17 bits, as that mask converts to /17.

111.11.126.5 = 01101111 00001011 0xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx

Add up those 17 bits and you have 111.11.0.0 255.255.128.0, also expressed as 111.11.0.0 /17.

210.12.23.45 255.255.255.248

Convert to binary, add up the first 29 bits, and you’re done.

210.12.23.40 = 11010010 00001100 00010111 00101xxx

Add up the first 29 bits and you have 210.12.23.40 255.255.255.248, also expressed as 210.12.23.40 /29.

222.22.11.199 / 28

Convert to binary, add up the first 28 bits, and you’re done!

222.22.11.199 = 11011110 00010110 00001011 11000111

The subnet is 222.22.11.192 /28, also expressed as 222.22.11.192 255.255.255.240.

111.9.100.7 /17

Convert the address to binary, convert the first 17 bits back to decimal, and you’re done.

111.9.100.7 = 01101111 00001001 0xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx

The first 17 bits add up to 111.9.0.0, with a /17 mask (255.255.128.0).

122.240.19.23 /10

Convert the address, add up the first 10 bits, and you’re done!

122.240.19.23 = 01111010 11xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx

The first 10 bits add up to 122.192.0.0, with a /10 mask (255.192.0.0).

184.25.245.89 /20

Convert, add, convert, done!

184.25.245.89 = 10111000 00011001 1111xxxx xxxxxxxx

Add the first 20 bits and you have 184.25.240.0, mask /20 (255.255.240.0).

210.67.39.5 / 30

Convert, add, convert, done!

210.67.39.5 = 11010010 01000011 00100111 000001xx

Add the first 30 bits and you have 210.67.39.4 /30 (255.255.255.252).

99.140.23.143 /10

Convert the address and add the first 10 bits to get the subnet.

99.140.23.143 = 01100011 10xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx

Add the first 10 bits and you have 99.128.0.0 /10.

10.191.1.1 /10

Convert the address and add the first 10 bits to get the subnet.

10.191.1.1 = 00001010 10xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx

Add the first 10 bits and you have 10.128.0.0 /10.

187.23.191.95 /27

Convert it, add the first 27 bits, you have the subnet!

187.23.191.95 = 10111011 00010111 10111111 010xxxxx

Add the first 27 bits and you have 187.23.191.64 /27 (255.255.255.224).

222.17.32.244 /28

Convert the address, add the first 28 bits, done!

222.17.32.244 = 11011110 00010001 00100000 1111xxxx

The first 28 bits add up to 222.17.32.240 /28 (255.255.255.240).

Let’s head to the next section, where you’ll learn how to slay two subnetting dragons with one stone!

Success Skills 6 & 7:Determining The Broadcast Address Of A SubnetDetermining The Range Of Valid IP Addresses Of A Subnet

I know you enjoyed that last section and seeing how easily you can find the subnet any IP address is a part of, and you’ll enjoy this section twice as much!

I’m saying that with confidence, because I’m going to show you exactly how to solve two different questions with one simple, quick operation.

The questions:

What’s the broadcast address for this subnet?

What’s the valid host address range for this subnet?

Answering those two questions is a vital skill to have in networking, as well as your exam prep, so let’s get right to it!

We know we have two unusable addresses per subnet:

The subnet number itself (the “All-Zeroes” address)

The broadcast address for that subnet (the “All-Ones” address)

Not sure why we call those the “all-zeroes” and “all-ones” addresses? No worries, I’m about to clear that up for you.

When you need to determine the range of valid IP addresses for a subnet, or for the broadcast address of a subnet, you’re going to perform the exact same operation, and it’s a familiar one – convert the address to binary and identify the host bits.

To pull this off even faster, you don’t have to write out the entire IP address you’re converting. If you want to, that’s fine, but the only octets that need to be written out are the octet where the subnet mask goes from 1s to 0s AND any following octets.

That will be much clearer after we walk through an example and you solve the practice questions in this section.

Let’s work with the 150.10.64.0 /18 network. That mask ends in the 3rd octet, so we only have to write that one out and the one that follows it. Since the subnet mask covers the first and second octet completely, those values will stay the same and there’s no need to convert them.

Convert those two octets to binary and then identify the host bits. With that mask, we know the last 14 bits are the host bits, which are bolded.

Subnet Add.

150

10

01000000

00000000

Broad Add.

150

10

That address is the subnet number, and it’s called the “all-zeroes” address because the host bits are all set to zeroes. That’s the first address we can’t assign to hosts.

To determine the broadcast address, just change every host bit to a 1. You can quickly just erase those zeroes on your board in the exam room and change them to ones.

Subnet Add.

150

10

01000000

00000000

Broad Add.

150

10

01111111

11111111

Our subnet address is 150.10.64.0, and the broadcast address is 150.10.127.255. Every address between those two are your valid addresses, and in this case it’s the range 150.10.64.1 – 150.10.127.254. That’s all there is to it!

With your solid foundation of binary conversion skills, you’ll easily and rapidly solve this question type. Let’s get in some practice right now, and for each subnet given, we’ll determine both the broadcast address and the range of valid host addresses.

I’ll list the subnets first, followed by the answers. Let’s go!

The subnets:

222.23.48.64 /26

140.10.10.0 /23

10.200.0.0 /17

198.27.35.128 /27

132.12.224.0 /27

211.18.39.16 /28

10.1.2.20 /30

10.10.128.0 255.255.192.0

221.18.248.224 /28

And now… the answers!

222.23.48.64 /26

The mask goes from 1s to 0s in the 4th octet, so we only have to work with that octet, since we know 222.23.48 will remain the same. (If you’re more comfortable writing the entire mask out, that’s fine!)

Convert the 4th octet to binary. For the broadcast address, change the six host bits in that octet to 1. Everything between those two addresses is a valid IP address for this subnet!

Subnet Add.

222

10

48

01000000

Broad Add.

222

10

48

01111111

**Subnet address: 222.23.48.64 /26
**

Broadcast address: 222.23.48.127 /26

Range of valid addresses: 222.23.48.65 – 222.23.48.126 /26

140.10.10.0 /23

That mask goes from 1s to 0s in the 3rd octet, so we only need to convert that one and the one that follows it. We know that 140 and 10 will remain the same.

To get the broadcast address, change the 9 host bits to 1. Everything between these two addresses is a valid IP host address.

Subnet Add.

140

10

00001010

00000000

Broad Add.

140

10

00001010

00000000

**Subnet address: 140.10.10.0 /23
**

Broadcast address: 140.10.11.255 /23

Range of valid addresses: 140.10.10.1 – 140.10.11.254 /23

10.200.0.0 /17

The mask goes from 1s to 0s in the third octet, so we only have to convert the last two octets. 10 and 200 will remain the same. To get the broadcast address, change the 15 host bits to 1s.

Subnet Add.

10

200

00000000

00000000

Broad Add.

10

200

01111111

11111111

**Subnet address = 10.200.0.0 /17
**

Broadcast address = 10.200.127.255 /17

Range of valid addresses: 10.200.0.1 – 10.200.127.254 /17.

198.27.35.128 /27

The mask goes from 1s to 0s in the 4th octet, so that’s the only octet we need to convert. 198, 27, and 35 will remain the same. To get the broadcast address, change the five host bits to 1s.

Subnet Add.

198

27

35

10000000

Broad Add.

198

27

35

10011111

**Subnet address = 198.27.35.128 /27
**

Broadcast address = 198.27.35.159 /27

Range of valid addresses: 198.27.35.129 – 198.27.35.158 /27.

132.12.224.0 /27

The mask goes from 1s to 0s in the 4th octet, so that’s the only octet we need to convert. To get the broadcast address, change the five host bits to 1s.

Subnet Add.

132

12

224

00000000

Broad Add.

132

12

224

00011111

**Subnet address = 132.12.224.0 /27
**

Broadcast address = 132.12.224.31 /27

Range of valid addresses = 132.12.224.1 – 132.12.224.30 /27.

211.18.39.16 /28

The mask goes from 1s to 0s in the 4th octet, so we’ll just convert that octet. 211, 18, and 39 remain the same. For the broadcast address, change the four host bits to ones.

Subnet Add.

211

18

39

00010000

Broad Add.

211

18

39

00011111

**Subnet address = 211.18.39.16 /28
**

Broadcast address = 211.18.39.31 /28

Range of valid addresses = 211.18.39.17 – 211.18.39.30 /28.

10.1.2.20 /30

The mask goes from 1s to 0s in the 4th octet, making that octet the only one we need to convert. For the broadcast address, change the two host bits to ones and you’re done!

Subnet Add.

10

1

2

00010100

Broad Add.

10

1

2

00010111

Subnet address = 10.1.2.20 /30

Broadcast address = 10.1.2.23 /30.

The two addresses between those two, 10.1.2.21 /30 and 10.1.2.22 /30, are the sole valid IP addresses on that subnet.

10.10.128.0 255.255.192.0

The mask transitions from ones to zeroes in the third octet, so we only have to convert the third and fourth octets. To determine the broadcast address, change the 14 host bits to ones.

Subnet Add.

10

10

10000000

00000000

Broad Add.

10

10

10111111

11111111

**Subnet address = 10.10.128.0 255.255.192.0
**

Broadcast address: 10.10.191.255 255.255.192.0

Range of valid addresses: 10.10.128.1 – 10.10.191.254 255.255.192.0

221.18.248.224 /28

The mask transitions from zeroes to ones in the 4th octet, so that’s the only one we have to convert. For the broadcast network, change the four host bits to ones.

Subnet Add.

221

18

248

11100000

Broad Add.

221

18

248

11101111

**Subnet address: 221.18.248.224 /28
**

Broadcast address: 221.18.248.239 /28

Range of valid addresses: 221.18.248.225 – 221.18.248.238 /28

Let’s head to the next section and do some real-world subnetting!

Success Skill #8:Subnetting!

Hey, we finally get to do some subnetting on our own instead of answering questions about someone else’s subnetting!

A typical question:

Using 150.50.0.0, you must design a subnetting scheme that allows for at least 200 subnets, but no more than 150 hosts per subnet. What subnet mask is the best choice for these requirements?

We have to watch a few things…

Watch “minimum” vs. “maximum”. The number of subnets is a “minimum” in this question, and the number of hosts is a “maximum”. Some questions will have two minimums, others may have two maximums.

If you’re given choices for such a question, you could be asked to give the mask in either dotted decimal or prefix notation, which is no problem for you.

If you’re given choices, watch masks that meet one requirement but not the other, because both requirements have to be met by the mask you choose.

We also need to be able to immediately identify the network class and remember how to calculate the number of valid host addresses and subnets, and that’s no problem for you. All the work you’ve done in previous sections will now pay off big time.

We know this is a Class B network, and those networks have a 255.255.0.0 network mask. We have 16 bits we can borrow for subnetting.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

Host Bits

00000000

00000000

**Quickly reviewing the formulas for our number of subnets and number of hosts:
**

No. of valid subnets = (2 to the power of subnet bits)

No. of valid hosts = (2 to the power of host bits) − 2

To get more than 200 subnets, we need to borrow at least 8 host bits, so we’ll start there. 2 to the 8th power = 256 valid subnets, and that would leave 8 host bits.

Proposed Solution: 255.255.255.0

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

11111111

Host Bits

00000000

That meets one requirement, but what about the other? With 8 host bits remaining, we have 254 valid hosts (2 to the 8th power, then subtract 2). That’s too many hosts.

To reduce the number of hosts, we’ll borrow one more subnet bit.

Proposed Solution: 255.255.255.128

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

11111111

1

Host Bits

0000000

**With 9 subnet bits, we have 512 valid subnets.
**

With 7 host bits, we have 126 valid hosts. Both requirements are met!

Subnetting is easy with the fundamental skills you’ve perfected in this book. You just have to be careful and meet all the requirements you’re given, not just one!

Let’s hit another example.

Using network 220.10.10.0, develop a subnetting scheme that allows for at least 25 subnets, but no subnet should have more than four hosts.

We have a Class C network here, so we only have eight host bits to borrow for subnetting.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

Host Bits

00000000

The first number of subnet bits that gives us at least 25 subnets is five, so let’s start with that. We’d have three host bits left:

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

11111

Host Bits

000

**5 subnet bits = 2 to the 5th power = 32 valid subnets
**

3 host bits = 2 to the 3rd power – 2 = 6 valid hosts per subnet

That’s too many hosts. We’ll need another subnet bit, which gives us ….

6 subnet bits = 64 valid subnets

2 host bits = 2 to the 2nd power – 2 = 2 valid host addresses

Done and done! The mask we need is 255.255.252.0, or /30.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

111111

Host Bits

00

**Let’s get some more practice in …
**

Using the network 140.10.0.0, come up with a mask that allows for at least 250 subnets and allows at least 250 valid host addresses per subnet.

With a Class B network, we have 16 network bits and 16 host bits, and only the latter can be borrowed for subnetting.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

Host Bits

00000000

00000000

The first number of subnet bits that gives us at least 250 subnets is eight, so we’ll start there.

8 subnet bits = 256 valid subnets

8 host bits = 254 valid hosts per subnet

That meets both requirements, so the mask is 255.255.255.0 (/24).

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

11111111

Host Bits

00000000

Given the network number 200.10.10.0, what mask will allow at least 15 subnets, and will allow no more than six hosts per subnet?

It’s a Class C network, so we have only eight host bits to borrow for subnetting.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

Host Bits

00000000

**The first number of subnet bits that gives us at least 15 subnets is four, so we’ll start there.
**

4 subnet bits = 16 valid subnets

4 host bits = 16 − 2 = 14 valid hosts per subnet, too many for the requirement.

To reduce the number of valid hosts, we’ll borrow another subnet bit.

5 subnet bits = 32 valid subnets

3 host bits = 8 − 2 = 6 valid hosts per subnet.

That mask of 255.255.255.248 (/29) works!

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

11111

Host Bits

000

Given the network number 134.100.0.0, what mask will allow at least 500 subnets while limiting the subnets to no more than 120 hosts per subnet?

With this Class B network, we have 16 network bits, and 16 host bits just waiting for us to subnet!

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

Host Bits

00000000

00000000

**The first number that gives us 500+ subnets is 9, so let’s start there.
**

9 subnet bits = 512 valid subnets

7 host bits = 128 − 2 = 126 valid hosts, too many for these requirements.

To bring the number of hosts down, we’ll borrow one more subnet bit.

10 subnet bits = 1024 valid subnets

6 subnet bits = 64 − 2 = 62 valid hosts

The mask of /26 works for us! (255.255.255.192)

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

11111111

11

Host Bits

000000

Using the network 202.10.40.0, what mask gives us at least 10 subnets but will allow no more than 10 hosts on a subnet?

This Class C network gives us 8 host bits to borrow from.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

Host Bits

00000000

**The first number of subnet bits that gives us at least 10 subnets is four. Let’s start there!
**

4 subnet bits = 16 valid subnets

4 host bits = 16 − 2 = 14 valid hosts, too many for these requirements. Let’s borrow one more subnet bit to lower the number of hosts.

5 subnet bits = 32 valid subnets

3 host bits = 8 − 2 = 6 valid hosts

That’ll do it! The resulting mask is /29, or 255.255.255.248.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

11111

Host Bits

000

Given the network 157.200.0.0, come up with a mask that will allow no more than 150 valid subnets and will allow at least 200 hosts per subnet.

This Class B network gives us 16 host bits to borrow from:

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

Host Bits

00000000

00000000

The lowest number of subnet bits that gives us no more than 150 subnets is 7, so we’ll start there.

7 subnet bits = 128 valid subnets

9 host bits = 512 − 2 = 510 valid host addresses

That works! The resulting mask is 255.255.254.0, or /23.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

1111111

Host Bits

0

00000000

Given the network 130.245.0.0, what subnet mask will give us between 60 and 70 subnets while allowing at least than 250 valid hosts per subnet?

Class B, you know the drill!

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

Host Bits

00000000

00000000

**The only number that gives us 60 – 70 valid subnets is six, so that better do the job!
**

6 subnet bits = 64 valid subnets

10 host bits = 1024 − 2 = 1022 valid hosts per subnet

That’s it! Our mask is 255.255.248.0, or /22.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

111111

Host Bits

00

00000000

Let’s head to the Final Exam section and review all of our binary and subnetting topics!

Time For Your Final Exam!

Here are some additional practice exam questions to strengthen your binary and subnetting skills, and get you ready for exam-room and real-world success! Let’s jump right in – and if you have trouble with any of these questions, just head back in the book and review that section. Practice does indeed make perfect!

Converting Binary to Dotted Decimal

Convert 01010101 11100010 01101010 01001010 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

2

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

3

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

**Answer: 85.226.106.74.
**

Convert 11110000 00001111 01111111 1000000 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

3

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

**Answer: 240.15.127.128.
**

Convert 11001101 00000011 11110010 00100101 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

4

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

**Answer: 205.3.242.37.
**

Convert 00110010 00100011 11110011 00100111 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

2

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

4

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

Answer: 50.35.243.39

Convert 10000111 00111111 01011111 00110010 to dotted decimal.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

2

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

4

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

Answer: 135.63.95.50

Converting Decimal to Binary

Convert 195.29.37.126 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

3

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

4

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

**Answer: 11000011 00011101 00100101 01111110.
**

Convert 207.93.49.189 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

2

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

3

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

4

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

**Answer: 11001111 01011101 00110001 10111101.
**

Convert 21.200.80.245 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

2

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

3

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

4

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

**Answer: 00010101 11001000 01010000 11110101.
**

Convert 105.83.219.91 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

2

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

3

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

4

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

**Answer: 01101001 01010011 11011011 01011011.
**

Convert 123.54.217.4 to a binary string.

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

2

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

3

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

4

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

**Answer: 01111011 00110110 11011001 00000100.
**

Determining The Number Of Valid Subnets:

How many valid subnets on the 222.12.240.0 /27 network?

Method 1: Compare the NW and SN masks, calculate the number of subnet bits, then bring 2 to the power of that number.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11100000

**We have three subnet bits, and 2 to the 3rd power is 8.
**

Method 2: Class C network, with a NW mask of /24, 27 − 24 = 3, 2 to the 3rd power = 8.

How many valid subnets on the 15.1.0.0 /17 network?

Method 1: Compare the masks, identify number of subnet bits, bring 2 to the power of the number of subnet bits.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

00000000

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

10000000

00000000

**We have 9 subnet bits, and 2 to the 9th power = 512.
**

Method 2: Class A network, /8 mask, 17 − 8 = 9, 2 to the 9th power = 512.

How many valid subnets on the 111.0.0.0 /14 network?

Method 1: Compare the NW and SN masks, calculate number of subnet bits, and bring 2 to the power of that number.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

00000000

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111100

00000000

00000000

**We have six subnet bits, and 2 to the 6th power is 64.
**

Method 2: Class A network, /8 NW mask, 14 − 8 = 6, 2 to the 6th power = 64.

How many valid subnets on the 172.12.0.0 /19 network?

Method 1: Compare the NW and SN masks of this Class B network and identify the number of subnet bits. Bring 2 to that power and you’re done.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11100000

00000000

**We have three subnet bits, and 2 to the 3rd power = 8.
**

Method 2: Class B network, /16 mask, 19 − 16 = 3, 2 to the 3rd power = 8.

How many valid subnets on the 221.23.19.0 /30 network?

Method 1: Compare the NW and SN masks, calculate the number of subnet bits, and power 2 by that value.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111100

**We have six subnet bits, and 2 to the 6th power is 64.
**

Method 2: Class C network, /24 NW mask, 30 − 24 = 6, 2 to the 6th power = 64.

How many valid subnets on the 17.0.0.0 255.240.0.0 network?

Method 1: Compare the NW and SN masks to get the number of subnet bits, then power 2 by that number.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

00000000

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11110000

00000000

00000000

**We have four subnet bits, and 2 to the 4th power = 16.
**

Method 2: Class A network, /8 NW mask, 12 − 8 = 4, 2 to the 4th power = 16.

(255.240.0.0 = /12)

How many valid subnets on the 210.12.200.0 255.255.255.248 network?

Method 1: You know the drill by now!

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111000

**We have five subnet bits, and 2 to the 5th power = 32.
**

Method 2: Class C network, /24 NW mask, 29 − 24 = 5, 2 to the 5th power = 32.

How many valid subnets on the 155.200.0.0 255.255.255.128 network?

Method 1: Here we go!

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

10000000

**We have nine subnet bits, and 2 to the 9th power = 512.
**

Method 2: Class B network, NW mask /16, 25 − 16 = 9, 2 to the 9th power = 512.

Determining The Number Of Valid Hosts

How many valid host addresses on the 211.254.12.0 /27 subnet?

Method 1: Identify the number of host bits, bring 2 to that power, subtract 2.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11100000

We have five host bits. 2 to the 5th power is 32; subtract two and you have 30 valid hosts per subnet.

Method 2: 32 − 27 = 5, 2 to the 5th power is 32, 32 − 2 = 30 valid hosts per subnet.

How many valid addresses on the 178.34.0.0 /28 subnet?

Method 1: Identify the number of host bits by comparing the masks, bring 2 to that power, and subtract 2.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11110000

We have four host bits, and 2 to the 4th power is 16. Subtract 2 to account for the all-zeroes and all-ones addresses on that subnet, and you’re all set with 14 valid host addresses.

Method 2: 32 − 28 = 4, 2 to the 4th power = 16, 16 − 2 = 14 valid hosts.

How many valid host addresses on the 211.12.45.0 /30 subnet?

Method 1: Compare the SN and NW masks, calculate the number of host bits, and bring 2 to that power. Subtract 2 from the result.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111100

**2 to the 2nd power equals 4, and we subtract 2 to arrive at two valid host addresses.
**

Method 2: 32 − 30 = 2, 2 to the 2nd power = 4, 4 − 2 = 2.

How many valid host addresses on the 210.34.34.0 255.255.255.248 subnet?

Method 1: Compare the NW and SN masks, calculate the number of host bits, and bring 2 to that power. Subtract 2 from the result. Done!

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111000

We have 3 host bits, and 2 to the 3rd power = 8. Subtract 2 and you have 6 valid host addresses.

Method 2: 32 − 29 = 3. 2 to the 3rd power = 8. 8 − 2 = 6 valid host addresses.

How many valid host addresses on the 145.100.0.0 255.255.254.0 subnet?

Method 1: Compare the NW and SN masks, determine the number of host bits, and power 2 to that value. Then subtract 2 and you’re done!

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

NW Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

SN Mask

11111111

11111111

11111110

00000000

We have nine host bits, and 2 to the 9th power equals 512. Subtract those two nasty addresses and you have 510 valid host addresses!

Method 2: 32 − 23 = 9. 2 to the 9th power = 512. 512 − 2 = 510.

Determining The Subnet Number Of A Given IP Address

On what subnet can the IP address 142.12.38.189 /25 be found?

To get the subnet, convert the address to binary, and add up the first 25 bits. It’s all yours!

Subnet = 10001110 00001100 00100110 1xxxxxxx = 142.12.38.128 /25.

On what subnet can the IP address 170.17.209.36 /19 be found?

Convert the address to binary and add up the first 19 bits.

Subnet = 10101010 00010001 110xxxxx xxxxxxxx = 170.17.192.0 /19.

On what subnet can the IP address 10.178.39.205 /29 be found?

Convert the address to binary, add up the first 29 bits, and you have it!

Subnet = 00001010 10110010 00100111 11001xxx = 10.178.39.200 /29.

On what subnet can the IP address 190.34.9.173 /22 be found?

Convert the address to binary, add up the first 22 bits, and you’re done.

Subnet = 10111110 00100010 000010xx xxxxxxxx = 190.34.8.0 /22.

On what subnet can the IP address 203.23.189.205 255.255.255.240 be found?

Convert the address to binary, add up the first 28 bits, and you’re done!

Subnet = 11001011 00010111 10111101 1100xxxx = 203.23.189.192 255.255.255.240.

On what subnet can the IP address 109.89.45.204 255.255.224.0 be found?

Convert the address to binary, add up the first 19 bits, and you’re done!

Subnet = 01101101 01011001 001xxxxx xxxxxxxx = 109.89.32.0 255.255.224.0.

On what subnet can the IP address 31.189.234.245 /17 be found?

Convert the address to binary, add up the first 17 bits, and you’re gold.

Subnet = 00011111 10111101 1xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx = 31.189.128.0 /17.

On what subnet can the IP address 100.10.13.176 /21 be found?

Convert to binary, add up the first 21 bits, and you’re done!

Subnet = 01100100 00001010 00001xxx xxxxxxxx = 100.10.8.0 /21.

On what subnet can the IP address 190.98.35.17 /27 be found?

Convert to binary, add up the first 27 bits, and you’re done.

Subnet = 10111110 01100010 00100011 000xxxxx = 190.98.35.0 /27.

Determining Broadcast Addresses and Valid IP Address Ranges

For each subnet given, determine the broadcast address and the range of valid IP addresses.

The subnet is 100.100.45.32 /28.

The mask goes from 1s to 0s in the 4th octet, so that’s the only one we really have to write in binary. The first three octets will remain the same.

Subnet Add.

100

100

45

00100000

Broad Add.

100

100

45

00101111

**Subnet address: 100.100.45.32 /28
**

Broadcast address: 100.100.45.47 /28

Valid addresses: 100.100.45.33 – 100.100.45.46 /28.

The subnet is 208.72.109.8 /29.

The mask ends in the 4th octet, so again we only have to write out the last octet. The first three will remain the same.

Subnet Add.

208

72

109

00001000

Broad Add.

208

72

109

00001111

**Subnet address: 208.72.109.8 /29
**

Broadcast address: 208.72.109.15 /29

Valid addresses: 208.72.109.9 – 208.72.109.14 / 29

The subnet is 190.89.192.0 255.255.240.0.

The mask ends in the third octet, so we only have to write out the last two octets.

Subnet Add.

190

89

11000000

00000000

Broad Add.

190

89

11001111

11111111

**Subnet address: 190.89.192.0 255.255.240.0
**

Broadcast address: 190.89.207.255 255.255.240.0

Range of valid addresses: 190.89.192.1 – 190.89.207.254 255.255.240.0.

The subnet is 101.45.210.52 /30.

The mask ends in the 4th octet, so that’s the only one we have to write out in binary.

Subnet Add.

101

45

210

00110100

Broad Add.

101

45

210

11111111

**Subnet address: 101.45.210.52 /30.
**

Broadcast address: 101.45.210.55 /30.

Valid addresses: 101.45.210.53 and 101.45.210.54 /30.

The subnet is 90.34.128.0 /18.

The mask ends in the 3rd octet, so those are the only two we need to write in binary.

Subnet Add.

90

34

10000000

00000000

Broad Add.

90

34

10111111

11111111

**Subnet address: 90.34.128.0 /18.
**

Broadcast address: 90.34.191.255 /18.

Range of valid addresses: 90.34.128.1 – 90.34.191.254 /18.

The subnet is 205.186.34.64 /27.

The mask ends in the 4th octet, so that’s the only one we have to write in binary.

Subnet Add.

205

186

34

01000000

Broad Add.

205

186

34

01011111

**Subnet address: 205.186.34.64 /27.
**

Broadcast address: 205.186.34.95 /27.

Range of valid addresses: 205.186.34.65 – 205.186.34.94 /27.

The subnet is 175.24.36.0 255.255.252.0.

The mask ends in the 3rd octet, so we’ll write that one and the 4th octet in binary.

Subnet Add.

175

24

00100100

00000000

Broad Add.

175

24

00100111

11111111

**Subnet address: 175.24.36.0 /22.
**

Broadcast address: 175.24.39.255 /22.

Range of valid addresses: 175.24.36.1 – 175.24.39.254 /22.

The subnet: 10.10.44.0 /25.

The mask ends in the 4th octet, so that’s the only one that you need to write out in binary.

Subnet Add.

10

10

44

00000000

Broad Add.

10

10

44

01111111

Subnet address: 10.10.44.0 /25.

Broadcast address: 10.10.44.127 /25.

Range of valid addresses: 10.10.44.1 – 10.10.44.126 /25.

The subnet: 120.20.240.0 /21.

The mask ends in the 3rd octet, so we’ll write that one in binary as well as the octet that follows it.

Subnet Add.

120

20

11110000

00000000

Broad Add.

120

20

11110111

11111111

**Subnet address: 120.20.240.0 /21.
**

Broadcast address: 120.20.247.255 /21.

Range of valid addresses: 120.20.240.1 - 120.20.247.254 /21.

Meeting Requirements

Using the network number 135.13.0.0, determine the best network mask to use when you want at least 500 subnets, and each subnet should contain as many hosts as possible while not exceeding 100 hosts.

We have a Class B network, so there are 16 network bits and then 16 host bits we can borrow subnet bits from.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

Host Bits

00000000

00000000

What’s the largest number of host bits we can have without exceeding 100 hosts? Six of them, which results in 62 valid host addresses. To get to that point, we’d need to borrow 10 subnet bits, which gives us 1024 valid subnets, which meets the other requirement.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

11111111

11

Host Bits

000000

**The resulting mask: 255.255.255.192, or /26.
**

Working with the network number 223.12.23.0, you need to determine the mask that will give you at least 30 valid hosts per subnet, while still giving you the maximum number of subnets. What’s the best mask to use?

We’re starting with a Class C network, which means we have only eight host bits to borrow for subnetting.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

Host Bits

00000000

This question’s a little different from the others, since we’re asked to come up with a minimum number of valid hosts per subnet while still maximizing the number of subnets. What’s the least number of host bits we can have that will allow at least 30 valid hosts?

Five host bits will give us exactly 30 valid host addresses. We could borrow another bit to give us more host addresses, but we were asked to have as many subnets as possible while meeting the host address requirement. If we keep five host bits, we’re borrowing 3 subnet bits, resulting in a mask of 255.255.255.224, or /27.

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

111

Host Bits

00000

Using the network number 131.10.0.0, come up with a subnet mask that will give us at least 50 subnets, while ensuring that no single subnet can contain over 1000 host addresses.

We have a Class B network, so we know the drill by now…

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

Host Bits

00000000

00000000

**The lowest number of subnet bits that give us 50 subnets is 6, so we’ll start there.
**

That gives us 64 subnets, and leaves 10 host bits, which results in 1022 valid host addresses per subnet. We’ve met one requirement, but not the other. To get the number of valid hosts per subnet below 1000, we have to borrow one more subnet bit.

7 subnet bits = 128 valid subnets

9 host bits = 510 valid host addresses

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

1111111

Host Bits

0

00000000

**The resulting mask is 255.255.254.0, or /23.
**

Given the network number 47.0.0.0, come up with the subnet mask that gives us at least 625 subnets while giving us the maximum number of host addresses per subnet.

Straightforward enough! We have a Class A network, so we have plenty of host bits to borrow for subnetting – 24 of them, in fact!

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

Subnet Bits

Host Bits

00000000

00000000

00000000

To meet the “maximum number of host addresses” requirement, we need to borrow as few bits as possible while still ending up with 625 subnets.

The lowest number of subnet bits that will give us that many subnets is 10, which results in 1024 valid subnets. (Nine subnet bits would give us 512 subnets, not enough to meet the requirement.)

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

**NW Mask Bits
**

11111111

11111111

Subnet Bits

11111111

11

Host Bits

000000

**The resulting mask is /26, or 255.255.255.192.
**

Whew! That was a lot of binary and subnetting – and you got the job done!

Thanks for purchasing this book, and please visit me on the following pages for more help with your certifications and your career!

Chris Bryant

“The Computer Certification Bulldog”

YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/ccie12933

Facebook: http://on.fb.me/nlT8SD

Website: http://www.thebryantadvantage.com

(All-new site coming in December 2013!)

Udemy: https://www.udemy.com/u/chrisbryant

That page contains a full list of my free and almost-free courses on Udemy, including my $10 “Conquering Binary And Subnetting” Video Boot Camp!

https://www.udemy.com/bulldogbinarymath

You get those same videos with my 27-hour CCNA Video Boot Camp, which is only $44 with the BULLDOG60 coupon code! The following link has the discount code built right in!

https://www.udemy.com/ccna-on-demand-video-boot-camp/?couponCode=bulldog60&ccManual=

Thanks again, and I’ll see you on YouTube and Udemy!

Chris B.

- Mastering Binary Math and Subnetting
- CCNP Route Guide
- The Bryant Advantage CCNP SWITCH- Chris Bryant
- Ccna Icnd2 Labs
- CCNA Study Guide Vol1
- CCNA`
- Ccna Virtual Lab
- CCNA Study Guide Vol2
- CCNA Command Guide - Adam Vardy
- Ultimate Chris Bryant Study Package
- Subnetting Secrets Book 1
- CCNA Routing and Switching 200-120 Flash Cards and Exam Practice Pack
- Subnetting Secrets Book 2
- Jdv1g.chris.bryants.ccnp.SWITCH.300115.Study.guide
- Cisco-c
- CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain_1st Edition_Full Version
- Cisco Ccna
- CCNA SUBNETTING
- 10 Books Every Cisco Engineer Should Read - Paul Browning
- CCNP Practical Studies Routing
- CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide
- Ccna Security
- Pearson.ccna.Routing.and.Switching.200 125.Exam.cram.5th.edition.
- 203758199-Cisco-a-Beginner-s-Guide-Fifth-Edition.epub
- CCNA Quick Reference Sheets
- CCNA 300 Questions
- CCIE.routing.and.Switching.v5.0.Configuration.practice.labs.Third.edition
- CCNA Command Quick Reference
- Bryant Advantage Ultimate Ccna Study Guide
- How Become a CCNA by Chris Bryant

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulRead Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading