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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

Question Bank
UNIT-I
Part A

1. Define Environment.
The Physical, chemical and biological presence of living and non-living things outside an individual species is called as its
environment. According to I! 1"##1, environment can be defined as, $urroundings in %hich an organi&ation operates,
including air, %ater, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans and inter relation'.

(. )hat are all the categories of environment*
The main categories of environment are biotic and abiotic environments. The abiotic environment can further be classified into
atmosphere +air,, lithosphere +soil,, and hydrosphere +%ater,. The biotic environment is called as biosphere.

-. )rite the components of environment*
Air +Atmosphere,
.and +.ithosphere,
)ater +/ydrosphere,
biosphere

". 0ention any t%o a%areness programme of environmental issues to student*
a. Participating in seminars and courses related to environment issues.
b. Discussion %ith people about the environmental problems.

1. Define deforestation*
Deforestation refers to the removal of plants in the forest.

2. .ist the 3auses of deforestation*
lash and 4urn farming.
3ommercial agriculture.
3attle ranching and livestoc5 gra&ing.
0ining and petroleum e6ploration.
Infrastructure development.
7uel %ood collection.
Tree Plantations.

8. Define urface %ater.
Precipitation that does not soa5 into the ground or return to the atmosphere by evaporation or transpiration is called surface
%ater. It forms streams, la5es, %etlands, and artificial reservoirs.

9. )hat is :round%ater*
The subsurface area %here all available soil and roc5 spaces are filled by %ater is called the &one of saturation, and the %ater
in these pores is called ground %ater.
;. )hat is <oc5*
<oc5 is any material that ma5es up a large natural, continuous part of the earth=s crust. ome 5inds of roc5, such as limestone
+calcium carbonate, or 3a3!-, and >uart&ite +silicon dio6ide or i!(,, contain only one mineral, but most roc5s consist of t%o
or more minerals.

1#. :ive the classification of 0ineral <esources.
Energy resources +coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, and geothermal energy? metallic mineral resources +iron, copper, and
aluminium, and nonmetallic minerals resources +salt, gypsum, and clay, sand, phosphates, %ater, and soil,.

11. 3lassify food production.
There are t%o types of food production
a. Industriali&ed Agriculture
b. Traditional Agriculture
ubsistence Agriculture
Intensive Agriculture

1(. Define Traditional Agriculture.
Traditional Agriculture can be classified as Traditional ubsistence agriculture and Traditional Intensive agriculture.
Traditional ubsistence agriculture produces enough crops or live stoc5 for a farm family=s survival and in good years, a
surplus to sell or put aside for hard times. In Traditional Intensive agriculture farmers increase their inputs of human and draft
labour, fertili&er, and %ater to get a higher yield per area of cultivated land to produce enough food.

1-. .ist some of the food resources available in the %orld.
0a@or food sources available in the %orld to cater the human=s hunger are 1( types of seeds and grains, - root crops, (#
common fruits and vegetables, 2 mammals, ( domestic fo%l, fe% fishes and other forms of marine life ,etc.

1". 3lassify energy resources*
Available conventional energy sources can be divided into t%o categories
a, <ene%able Energy ources
b, Aon <ene%able Energy ources

11. Dra% the flo% chart of petroleum fractionation process.

12. )rite the advantages and disadvantages of petroleum as a energy resources*
As a source of energy petroleum has many advantages
i. It is relatively cheap to e6tract and transport
ii. It re>uires little processing to produce desired products and
iii. It has relatively high net and useful energy yield.

/o%ever it has certain disadvantages also,
i. Produces Environmental pollution
ii. !il spills, in ocean cause %ater pollution and is e6pensive to clean up.

18. )rite short notes on petroleum gas.
It is the mi6ture of three hydrocarbons butane, propane and ethane. The main constituent of petroleum gas is butane. The
above gases are in gaseous state in ordinary pressure but they can be li>uefied under high pressure. o it is called as .P:.
+.i>uefied Petroleum :as,. A domestic cylinder contains 1" 5g of .P:. A strong smelling substance called ethyl mercaptian
is added to .P: gas cylinder to help in the detection of gas lea5age.

19. )hat are fission neutrons*
The fission process is accompanied not only by the release of energy also it releases neutrons called as fission neutrons.

1;. Aame the several types of nuclear reactors.
i. .ight %ater <eactor +.)<,
ii. /eavy %ater <eactor +/)<,
iii. :as 3ooled <eactor +:3<,
iv. 4oiling )ater <eactor +4)<,
v. Pressurised )ater <eactor +P)<,
vi. .i>uid 0etal 7ast 4reeder <eactor +.074<,

(#. .ist some of the rene%able energy sources.
i. olar energy
ii. )ind energy
iii. /ydro energy
iv. :eo-thermal energy
v. !cean thermal energy
vi. 4iogas

(1. )rite short notes on Tidal energy.
Tides, the alternate rise and fall of sea %ater possess lot of energy. The identified tidal po%er potential in India is around
;### 0). 3urrently 7rance, <ussia, china and 3anada are effectively utili&ing the tidal energy to produce ( to -B of their
energy demand.

((. Aarrate the advantages and disadvantages of the /ydel po%er.
/ydel po%er has the follo%ing advantages.
3lean ource of energy
Provides irrigation facilities
Provides drin5ing %ater to the people living around
It also has some environmental and socio-economic problems li5e submerged forests and agricultural land, loss of biodiversity,
%ater logging and silting etc.

(-. Define oil Erosion.
oil erosion is the movement of soil components, especially surface litter and top soil, from one place to another. The t%o
main movers are flo%ing %ater and %ind.

(". )rite short notes on Desertification.
It is a problem %here by the productive potential of arid or semiarid land falls by 1#B or more and is caused mostly by
human activities.
Desertification is classified into three categories
1. 0oderate - /aving 1# to (1B drop in productivity
(. evere - /aving (1 to 1#B drop in Productivity
-. Cery evere- /aving 1#B or more, creating huge gullies and sand dunes.

(1. .ist some %ays to protect soil.
a. )hen the buildings are constructed, all the trees shall be saved.
b. etting a composite bin and it shall be used for producing mulch and soil conditioner for yard and
garden planets.
c. !rganic methods can be used for gro%ing vegetables.
d. trictly enforcing la%s and policies that minimi&e soil erosion, salt buildup and %ater logging.

(2. )hat is e>uitable use of resources*
The E>uitable use of resources is a concept that deals %ith the rational use of resources so that a harmony bet%een man=s
resource re>uirement and its availability can be established.
Part B
1. E6plain about the importance of environmental study.
Any12 points %ith e6planation

(. E6plain about the %ays to create public a%areness in environmental issues.
12 points %ith e6planation

-. Discuss about over-e6ploitation of forests.
i. 3auses
ii. 3onse>uences
iii. A case study
". E6plain briefly about the conventional energy sources.
i. 3oal
ii. !il or Petroleum
iii. Aatural gas
iv. Auclear energy

1. )hat are the role of individual in conservation of natural resources and sustainability*
i. 3onserve %ater
ii. 3onserve energy
iii. Protect the soil
iv. Promote sustainable agriculture

UNIT-II
Part A

1. Define ecosystem.
Ecosystem has been defined as a system of interaction of organisms %ith their surroundings. Aumerous dynamic interactions
are occurring %ith in an ecosystem and these are comple6.

(. .ist any four characteristics of ecosystem.
+i,. Ecosystem is the ma@or ecological unit
+ii,. It contains both biotic and abiotic components.
+iii,. The boundary of the ecosystem is not rigidly defined and it is fle6ible.
+iv,. Through the biotic and abiotic components nutrient cycle and energy flo% occur.

-. )hat are the different types of ecosystem*
Aatural Ecosystem
Artificial Ecosystem
Incomplete Ecosystem

". )hat are the biotic components of an ecosystem*
a. Producers +Autotrophs,
b. 3onsumers +/eterotrophs,
c. Decomposers

1. )hat are the autotrophs*
Producers or Autotrophs are organisms that are capable of ma5ing their re>uired food themselves. +AutoDself, trophDfeeder,.
:reen plants, grasses, mosses, shrubs, etc., are some of the e6amples of autotrophic components.

2. Define heterotrophs*
Those organisms %hich depend on others +Producers-Autotrophs, for their energy re>uirements are 5no%n as 3onsumers or
/eterotrophs. ince the animals are not having chlorophyll, they are unable to produce their o%n food. +/eteroDother,
trophDfeeder,.

8. .ist the abiotic components of an ecosystem.
a. 3limatic factors-olar radiation, Temperature, )ind, )ater current, rainfall, etc.
b. Physical factors-.ight, 7ire, pressure, etc.,
c. 3hemical factors E Acidity, alinity, Inorganic nutrients, etc.

9. Differentiate bet%een Finetic energy and Potential energy.
Finetic energy is the energy possessed by virtue of its motion from one place to another. This is measured by the amount of
%or5 done in bringing the body to rest.

;. Define ecological succession.
Ecological succession is defined as the process in %hich communities of plant and animal species in a particular area are
replaced over time by a series of different and often more comple6 communities.

1#. Define primary succession.
The succession ta5ing place in areas that have not already been occupied by any community
11. Define secondary succession.
Development of a ne% community in an area %here the previously e6isting community %as removed and the ecological
conditions are favourable is termed as secondary succession.

1(. )hat do you 5no% about autogenic succession and allogenic succession*
Allogenic succession +AlloDoutside, genicDrelated, is the type of development occurred in the ecosystem due to the interaction
of e6ternal physical forces acting on it. Autogenic succession +AutoDinside, self propelling, is the type of development
occurred in the ecosystem due to the developmental process generated %ith in the system.

1-. )hat are the characteristics of pioneer species*
i. It has less population.
ii. Its nutrient re>uirement is very less.
iii. The rate of gro%th should be as lo% as possible.
iv. It should be more dynamic to face interspecific and intraspecific competitions.

1". Define seral stage.
eral stage is defined as the development of secondary community from the pioneers. Each seral stage appears, gro%s and
finally disappears as the environmental changes occur. Each seral stage has its particular community called seral community.

11. )hat are the three theories related to clima6 communities*
a. 0ono clima6 theory
b. Poly clima6 theory
c. 3lima6 pattern theory.

12. )hat do you 5no% about food chain and food %eb*
A food chain is a picture or model that sho%s the flo% of energy from Autotrophs to a series of organisms in an environment.
The net%or5 li5e interaction of organisms is called as food %eb.

18. Aame three types of food chains.
a. :ra&ing food chain
b. Detrius or Decomposer food chain
c. Parasitic food chain
19. Define ecological pyramids.
The representation of amount of energy stored in the bodies of living thing is called as Ecological pyramids.

1;. )hat is a forest*
A forest is a living community of various species of trees and smaller forms of vegetation. This type of biome contains
moderate to high average annual rainfall.

(#. /o% can you classify forests*
Tropical rain forests
Temperate forests
Polar +or, 4oreal forests

(1. )hat do you 5no% about grasslands*
:rasslands are grassy, %indy, partly-dry biome. Almost one- fourth of the Earth=s land area is covered by grassland. Any
more, the land %ould become a forest. Any less, the land %ould become a desert. The grasslands mostly separate forests from
deserts. 0ost of the grasslands are found in the interiors of continents and rain shado%s.

((. )hat are the types of grasslands*
Tropical grasslands +avannah,
Temperate grasslands
Polar grasslands +Tundra,

(-. .ist the three types of savannahs*
3limatic savannah
Edapic savannah
Derived savannah.

(". )hat are ma@or human impacts on grasslands*
3onversion of grassland to cropland
!vergra&ing of grassland by farm animals.
Damage by oil production, air and %ater pollution and vehicles movement.

(1. /o% do the desert plants adopt to the climate*
0ost of the plants have the ability to lac5 of rainfall. They have %idespread roots %hich are close to the surface. This enables
the roots to absorb %ater >uic5ly, before it evaporates. Plants li5e G3actus= survives because of their thic5 %a6y layer on the
outside of its stems and leaves. This helps to retain %ater and protect tissues severe sunlight.

(2. )hat are the different types of desert biome*
/ot and dry deserts
emiarid deserts
3oastal deserts
3old deserts.

(8. Define fresh%ater.
7resh%ater is defined as %ater %ith less than 1B salt concentration. Plants and animals live in fresh%ater are ad@usted to its
lo% salt concentration.

(9. /o% can you differentiate ponds and la5es*
Ponds are small fresh %ater bodies surrounded by land and la5es are large fresh %ater bodies surrounded by land. 0ost of the
ponds are seasonal and e6ist for @ust fe% months or years or more.

(;. )hat are the different &ones of ponds*
.ittoral &one,
.imnetic &one, and
Profundal &one.

-#. )hat are estuaries*
The places %here fresh%ater streams or rivers connect together %ith the salt %ater are called estuaries.

-1. .ist the importance of estuaries.
These are important as nursery sites for many 5inds of fish and crustaceans li5e flounder and shrimp
0i6ing of many pollutants in the ocean is prevented by the action of trapping of sediments %hich are carried by the
river.

-(. )hat are coral reefs*
3orals are animals, %hich contain algae called &ooanthellae and tissues of animal polyp. A reef is a roc5y outcrop rises from
the sea floor %hich is made up of calcareous material, concealed by the coral animals themselves and by red and green algae.
ince reef %aters tend to be nutritionally poor, corals obtain the re>uired energy from the photosynthetic algae that live in the
reef.

--. )hat are the three basic forms of coral reef*
7ringing reefs
4arrier reefs
Atolls

-". Define bio diversity.
4iodiversity is defined as Grichness of species +micro- organisms, plants and animals, occurring in a given habitat=. It is the
sum of genes, species and ecosystems.

-1. )hat are the three types of biodiversity*
:enetic .evel or :enetic diversity
pecies .evel or pecies diversity
Ecosystem .evel or Ecosystem diversity.

-2. Define genetic diversity.
:enetic diversity is the variation of genes %ithin species. :enes are the basic units of all life on earth. They are responsible for
both the similarities and the differences bet%een organisms.

-8. Define species diversity.
pecies diversity is the number of different species of living things available in an area. pecies is a group of plants or animals
that are similar and able to breed and produce viable offspring under natural conditions. This type of diversity is the most
common level of diversity.

-9. Define ecosystem diversity.
Ecosystem diversity is the variety of ecosystems in a given place. An ecosystem is a community of organisms and their
physical environment interacting together. An ecosystem can cover a large area, such as a %hole forest, or a small area, such
as a pond.

-;. )hat are the t%o main functions of biodiversity*
It is the source of species on %hich the human compete depends for food, fiber, shelter, fuel and medicine.
It depends on the biosphere, %hich in turn leads to the stability in climate, %ater, soil, air, and the overall health
of biosphere.

"#. Define biogeography.
The study of the geographical distribution of biological species relating to the geological, evolutionary, climatological,
geographical, biological reasons for the distribution is called biogeography.

"1. )hat are the three 5inds of deserts in India*
The desert of %estern <a@asthan
The desert of :u@arat
The high-altitude cold desert of Hammu and Fashmir and /imachal Pradesh.

"(. Define biodiversity hotspot.
4iodiversity hotspots are areasI
J <ich in plant and animal species, particularly many endemic species, and
J Knder immediate threat from impacts such as land clearing, development pressures, salinity, %eeds and feral animals.

"-. !n %hat basis a region is designated as hotspot*
The biological basis for hotspot designation is plant diversity. A region is >ualified as hotspot, only if the region supports
1,1## endemic plant species, #.1B of the global total.
A region is >ualified as hotspot, only if the region has lost 8#B of its original habitat.

"". .ist some of the ma@or biodiversity threats.
/abitat destruction
E6tension of agriculture
7illing up of %etlands
3onversion of rich bio-diversity site for human settlement and industrial development
Destruction of coastal areas
Kncontrolled commercial e6ploitation

"1. )hat are the main causes of habitat loss*
Agricultural activities,
E6traction +including mining, fishing logging and harvesting, and
Developmental activities +human settlements, industry and associated infrastructure,

"2. Define fragmentation.
7ragmentation is defined as the process of division of a population into number of small and smaller groups. /abitat loss and
fragmentation leads to the formation of isolated, small, scattered populations.

"8. )hat do you 5no% about conservation of biodiversity*
G3onservation is defined as the management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit
%hile maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations=.

"9. )hat are the t%o types of biodiversity conservation*
a. In-situ conservation and
b. E6-situ conservation

";. )hat do you 5no% about in-situ conservation and e6-situ conservation*
In-situ conservation is defined as the conservation of genetic resources through their maintenance %ithin natural or even
human made ecosystems in %hich they occur.
E6-situ conservation is defined as the conservation made outside of the habitat of an ecosystem.


Part B

1. E6plain briefly about the characteristic of ecosystems.
Any 1# points %ith e6planation
(. /o% can you classify the ecosystems*
i. Aatural ecosystem
ii. Artificial ecosystem
iii. Incomplete ecosystem

-. Discuss about the structural and functional components of an ecosystem.
i. tructural 3omponents
4iotic structure
Abiotic structure
ii. 7unctional components
7ood chain, food %eb, trophic structure
iii. Energy 7lo%
iv. 3ycling of nutrients
v. Primary and secondary production
vi. Ecosystem development and regulation
". )ith a neat s5etch e6plain about the energy and nutrient flo% through an ecosystem.
i. Energy flo% la%s
ii. 0odel
iii. Autrient cycling
Aitrogen cycle
3arbon cycle
Phosphorus cycle
/ydrological cycle

1. E6plain about the different types of biodiversity.
i. :enetic diversity
ii. pecies diversity
iii. Ecosystem diversity
2. Discuss regarding biogeographical classification of India.
India=s ma@or biogeographic habitats

8. 3lassify and e6plain about the value of biodiversity.
i. 3onsumptive use value
ii. Productive use value
iii. ocial value
iv. Ethical value
v. Aesthetic value
vi. !ption values
vii. Ecosystem service value

UNIT III
Part A

1. Define Air pollution.
Air pollution may be defined as the presence of impurities in e6cessive >uantity and duration to cause adverse effects on
plants, animals, human beings and materials.

(. )hat are the different sources of air pollution*
The t%o main sources of air pollution are
a. Aatural ources
b 0an made or anthropogenic sources
Aatural sources include dust storms, volcanoes, lightening sea salt, smo5e, forest fires, etc.
The man made sources are agricultural activities, industrial gro%th, domestic %astes, automobile e6hausts, etc,

-. )hat do you 5no% about particulate*
In general the term Gparticulate= refers to all atmospheric substances that are not gases. They can be suspended droplets or
solid particles or mi6tures of the t%o. Particulates can be composed of materials ranging in si&e from 1##mm do%n #.1 mm
and less. The chemical composition of particulate pollutants is very much dependent upon the origin of the particulate.

". )hat are the prime sources of particulate matter*
i. 3oal fired po%er plants
ii. Automobiles

1. Define suspended particulate matter*
uspended Particulate 0atter +P0, is a comple6 mi6ture of small and large particles %ith si&e less than 1##u varying origin
and chemical composition.

2. Differentiate bet%een 0ist and 7og.
0ist
0ist is made up of li>uid droplets generally smaller than 1#um %hich are formed by condensation in the atmosphere
or are released from industrial operations.
7og
7og is similar to mist but the droplet si&e bigger +L 1#u, and %ater is the li>uid.
7og is sufficiently dense to incomprehensible vision.

8. )hat are gaseous pollutants*
These are to6ic and poisonous gases such as carbon mono6ide, chlorine, ammonia, hydrogen sulphate, sulphur dio6ide,
nitrogen o6ides and carbon dio6ide.

9. )hat are the ma@or sources of air pollution from automobiles*
The ma@or sources of air pollution from automobiles are
E6haust pipe -L8#B
3ran5 case emission -L(#B
Evaporations from fuel tan5 and 3arburetor -L1#B

;. )hat are effects of air pollution on animals*
Animals ta5e up fluorides of air through plants. Their mil5 production falls and their teeth and bones are affected. They are
also prone to lead poisoning and paralysis.

1#. .ist some of the effects of air pollution on physical properties of atmosphere.
J Decrease in the visibility
J <eduction of olar radiation
J Effects on %eather conditions
J Effects on atmospheric constituents

11. 4riefly describe about the impacts of carbon mono6ide on human health.
At lo%er doses, they can impair concentration and neurobehavioral function %hereas in higher doses they can cause heart pain
and even death. )hen inhaled it has the ability to combine %ith haemoglobin of blood and reduce its ability in transfer of
o6ygen to the brain, heart, and other important organs. 4ut carbo6y haemoglobin contents of blood depend on the 3! contents
of the air inhale, time of e6posure and the activity of the person inhaling. It is particularly dangerous to babies and people %ith
heart disease.

1(. /o% air pollution can be controlled at source*
J Proper use of the e6haustion e>uipment
J 3hange in process
J 0odification or <eplacement of e>uipments
J Installation of controlling e>uipments

1-. )hat are the gaseous control e>uipments*
J )et and dry adsorption
J 3ombustion or 3atalytic incineration

1". )hat are the particulate control e>uipments*
J :ravitational settling chambers
J 3yclone separators
J 7abric filters +or, 4ag filters
J Electrostatic precipitators
J )et scrubbers +or, )et collectors

11. )hat are bag filters*
4ag filters are the %oven or non-%oven fabrics used to filter the particulate laden gases. These generally of tubular shape or
envelope shape. Its efficiency is about ;;B and it can be used to remove particular small as #.#mm

12. )hat are the factors to be considered in selection of type or fabric in fabric filters*
J Temperature of the gas
J 3ostiveness or abrasiveness of the particles

18. Aame some of the types of %et scrubbers*
J pray to%ers
J 3entrifugal scrubbers
J Centuri scrubbers and
J Pac5ed bed columns

19. Define %ater pollution.
)ater pollution is defined as any physical, chemical or biological change in >uality of %ater that has a harmful effect on living
organisms or ma5es the %ater unsuitable for needs.

1;. /o% can you differentiate point ource from non-point source of pollution*
Point sources discharge pollutant at a specific place through pipe lines, se%er lines, or ditches into %ater bodies. Aon point
sources discharge pollutants from large and scattered area. These sources have no specific location.

(#. )hat are the effects of inorganic substances in %ater*
J 0a5es the %ater unfit for drin5ing and other purposes.
J 3orrosion of metals e6posed to such %aters.
J 3auses s5in cancers, damages to spinal, 3A, liver and 5idneys.
J <educes crop yield.

(1. /o% do the nutrients from agricultural fields affect the %atershed*
Enrichment of nutrients +Eutrophication, from surrounding %atershed affects the penetration of light through the %ater,
causing damage to the characteristic of %ater and a>uatic life.

((. Define soil pollution.
The introduction of substances, biological organisms, or energy into the soil, resulting in a change of the soil >uality, %hich is
li5ely to affect the normal use of the soil or endangering public health and the living environment.
(-. Define marine pollution.
0arine pollution is defined as $Introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy in to the marine
environment +including estuaries, resulting in such destructive effects harm to living resources, ha&ard to human health,
hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of >uality for use of sea-%ater, and reduction of amenities.'

(". )hat is the cause of noise pollution*
<oad traffic noise
Air traffic noise
<ail traffic noise
Domestic noise
Industrial noise
Incompatible land use

(1. /o% can you define thermal pollution*
GThe e6cessive raising or lo%ering of %ater temperature above or belo% normal seasonal ranges in streams, la5es, or estuaries
or oceans as the result of discharge of hot or cold effluents in to such %ater=.

(2. )hat are solid %astes*
The %astes generated and discarded from human and animal activities that are normally solid are called as solid %astes.

(8. )hat are solid 5no% about on Esite handling*
The activities involved in handling of solid %astes, at the point of generation, until they are placed in the containers used for
their storage before collection are called as on Esite handling. /andling re>uires to move the filled containers to the collection
point and to return the empty containers to the generation point for the ne6t collection.

(9. )hat is the purpose of on-site processing*
!n-site processing of solid %astes is used to recover the reusable materials from the solid %astes. This process also helps in
reducing the volume of solid %astes or altering the physical form of the solid %astes.

(;. Aame any three on-rite processing methods.
0anual sorting
3ompaciton
Incineration

-#. )hat are the types of municipal solid %astes collection system*
J /auled container
J tationary container systems

-1. 0ention the three types of containers used in collection of municipal %astes.
Tilt frame container
/oist truc5
Trash trailer

-(. )hat are the main purposes of processing techni>ues used in solid %aste management*
J To improve the efficiency of solid %aste management systems
J To recover the usable materials for reuse.
J To recover conversion products and energy.

--. .ist out the techni>ues of processing of solid %astes.
J 3ompaction +0echanical volume reduction,
J Incineration +3hemical volume reduction,
J hredding +0echanical si&e reduction,
J 3omponent separation
J Drying and De%atering +0oisture content reduction,.

-". Aame some of the mechanical separation methods of solid %astes*
J Air separation
J 0agnetic separation
J creening

-1. .ist out the three types of system used in the collection of %aste%ater.
eperation ystem
3ombined ystem
Partially eparate system

-2. )hat is the main ob@ective of sludge digestion*
To brea5 the organic matter of the sludge into li>uid and sample compounds %hich are stable and unfold in nature.

-8. /o% can you define ha&ardous %astes*
)astes that create danger to the living community, immediately or over a period of time, are called as ha&ardous %astes.

-9. Define half-life period.
The half-life of a radioactive substance is defined as the time ta5en for decaying of half of the material present.

-;. )hat are biomedical %astes*
Any solid, semi solid or li>uid %aste including its containers and any intermediate product %hich are generated during
diagnosis, treatment or immuni&ation of human beingM animals or in production and testing of biological parts.

"#. 3an you list out some of the benefits of pollution prevention*
0inimi&es health ris5s.
<educes the production of pollutants to a minimum or eliminates them.
Accelerates the reduction or elimination of pollutants.
/elps avoid transferring pollutants from one medium to another, thereby preventing diffusion in the environment.
/elps promote a more effective use of energy, materials and resources.

"1. Define tsunami.
A tsunami +pronounced tsoo- nah-mee, is a %ave train, or series of %aves, generated in a body of %ater by an impulsive
disturbance that vertically displaces the %ater.

Part B
1. )hat are the different sources and types of air pollutants*
i. Aatural ources
ii. 0an made or anthropogenic sources

(. /o% do you control air pollution*
i. Dilution
ii. 3ontrol at source

-. )hat do you 5no% about soil pollution* )hat are the different sources of soil pollution*
Definition
ources
o Krban %astes
o Industrial %astes
o Agricultural
o oil conditioners
o 7arm house %astes
o <adioactive %astes
o 4iological agents

". )hat are the different sources of marine pollution*
i. .and based sources
ii. Air based sources
iii. 0aritime transportation
iv. Dumping of %astes
v. !ffshore production

1. )hat are the causes of noise pollution*
i. <oad traffic noise
ii. Air traffic noise
iii. <ail traffic noise
iv. Domestic noise
v. Industrial noise
vi. Incompatible land use noise

2. E6plain clearly about the stages of solid %aste management.
i. :eneration
ii. !nline handling and processing
iii. 3ollection and Transportation
iv. Processing
v. Disposal

8. )hat are the important stages of ha&ardous %aste management*
i. torage
ii. 3ollection and transportation
iii. Treatment
iv. Disposal

UNIT IV
Part A

1. tate the declaration about the sustainable development.
The <io declaration states that, $human beings are at the center or concern for sustainable development. They are entitled to a
health and productive life in harmony %ith the nature. Every generation should leave air, %ater and soil resources %ithout any
pollution as pure as it came to the Earth.'

(. Define sustainable development.
ustainable Development is defined as,= the development to meet the needs of the present %ithout compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their o%n needs.=

-. )hat are the three important components of sustainable development*
The three important components of sustainable development are
i. Economic development +li5e industrial development, creating @ob opportunities, utili&ation of natural resources for
developing the >uality of life,
ii. 3ommunity development +providing food, shelter, cloth, education, and other essentials for the human beings,.
iii. Environmental protection +providing clear air, %ater and environment for the present and future generations and
utili&ation of resources in a sustainable manner,.

". Define sustainable development indicators*
ustainable development Indicators +DI, is various statistical values that collectively measure the capacity to meet present
and future needs. DI %ill provide information crucial to decisions on national policy and to the general public.

1. )hat are the uses of sustainable development indicators*
The indicators are used by decision ma5ers and the policy ma5ers at all levels in order to monitor the progress to%ards
attaining sustainable development. These are also used to increase focus on the sustainable development.

2. Define sustainability.
ustainability can be defined as the ability of a society or ecosystem to continue functioning into the indefinite future %ithout
being forced into decline through complete loss of its strength or overloading of 5ey resources on %hich that system depends.

8. Define resistance stability and resilience stability.
<esistance stability is the ability of a system to remain stable in the face of stresses and <esilience stability of the system to
recover from the disturbance occurred due to the activities happened.

9. .ist some of the characteristics of a sustainable society.
i. All the material processes %ill be designed to be of cyclic nature.
ii. There %ill not be any %aste material or pollution of air, %ater, land and environment.
iii. The output from one system %ill be used as input to other systems.
iv. !nly rene%able energy %ill be used in the society, either directly or in the forms of hydro-po%er, %ind po%er
solar po%er and biomass.
v. The human population %ill be either stable in si&e or gradually declining.

;. Define urbani&ation.
Krbani&ation is defined as Gthe process movement of human population from rural areas to urban areas in search in search of
better economic interests %ith better education, communication, health, civic facilities and other day to day needs.=

1#. )hat are problems or discomforts faced by rural people*
. .ac5 of moderni&ation of agricultural sector
. .ac5 of @ob opportunities
. Poor life style
. Poor health facilities
. Poor education facilities
. Poor transportation facilities
. Poor availability of energy

11. )hat are the uses of energy in urban areas*
Energy is used in an urban area for the follo%ing.
+a, 7or industrial activities
+b, 7or transportation
+c, 7or %ater apply
+d, 7or building N commercial use
+e, 7or cleaning of pollutants
+f, 7or essential services.

1(. Define %ater conservation. Also indicate some of the %ater conservation techni>ues.
The production, development and efficient management of %ater resources for beneficial use is called as %ater conservation.
The follo%ing are some of the techni>ues for %ater conservation.
<ain %ater harvesting
)atershed management
3onstruction of storage reservoirs
<euse of industrial %aste%ater
4etter agricultural practices

1-. )hat do you 5no% about %atershed*
A %atershed is defined as the geographic area from %hich %ater in a particular stream, la5e or estuary originates. It includes
entire area of land that drains into the %ater body. It is separate from other system by high points in the area such as hills or
slopes.

1". )hat is %atershed management*
)atershed management is a process aimed at protecting and restoring the habitat and %ater resources of a %atershed,
incorporating the needs of multiple sta5eholders.

11. )hat are the impacts of human activities on %atershed*
1. Alteration of %ater course
(. Addition of pollution sources
-. Krbanisation
". ecuring of channels.

12. )hat are the t%o important principles of %atershed management*
The t%o important principles of %atershed management areI
i. To preserve the environment, and
ii. To use the most cost-effective means to achieve this goal.

18. Aame some of the factors causing relocation of people.
+a, Development activities
+b, Aatural and man-made disasters
+c, 3onservation initiatives

19. Define resettlement and rehabilitation.
<esettlement is defined as the process of simple relocation or displacement of human population %ithout considering their
individual, community or societal needs.
<ehabilitation is defined as the process of replacing the lost economic assets, rebuilding the community system that have been
%ea5ened by displacement, attending to the psychological trauma of forced separation from livelihood.

1;. /o% do you define term GEnvironmental Ethics=*
Environment Ethics is the branch of ethics %hich is analy&ing about human use or Earth=s limited resources.

(#. )hat are the factors that influence climate change on the earth*
3limate change on the earth is influenced by the follo%ing factors.
Cariations in the Earth=s orbital characteristics
Atmospheric carbon dio6ide variations
Colcanic eruptions
Cariations in solar output

(1. .ist out any four effects of climate change.
0ean sea level is increased on an average of around 1.9mm per year.
0any ecosystems of the %orld have to adapt to the rapid change in global temperature.
The rate of species e6tinction %ill be increased.
/uman agriculture, forestry, %ater resources and health %ill be affected.

((. Define :lobal %arming.
:lobal %arming is defined as the increase in temperature of the earth, %hich causes more changes in climate.

(-. /o% can global %arming be controlled*
i. <eduction in consumption of fossil fuel such as coal and petroleum.
ii. Kse of biogas plants.
iii. Kse of nuclear po%er plants.
iv. Increasing forest cover.
v. Kse of unleaded petrol in automobiles.
vi. Installation of pollution controlling devices in automobiles and industries.
(". )hat are the t%o principal acids present in acid rain*
ulphuric acid +/(!", and Aitric acid +/A!-,

(1. Define %et deposition and dry deposition. Is there any difference in damage due to these t%o types of deposition*
)et deposition refers to acidic rain, fog, and sno%. As this acidic %ater flo%ers over and through the ground, it affects plants
and animals in many %ays. Dry deposition refers to acidic gases and particles. About half of the acidity in the atmosphere
falls bac5 to earth through dry deposition. 4oth %et and dry deposition can cause the same damage.

(2. .ist any four impacts of acid rain.
i. 4oth dry and %et deposition of sulphur dio6ide significantly increases the rate of corrosion of lime stone, sand and
marble.
ii. 7orest tree population is effected by acid rain.
iii. Acid rain in combination %ith o&one may damage the %a6y coating on leaves and needles. This may %ea5en or
damage them and provide opportunities for disease to enter the tree.
iv. Acid rain may change the characteristics of soil and eventually pollute the streams and la5es.

(8. /o% can %e minimi&e the formation of acid rain*
i. 4y reducing pollution from industries,
ii. 4y using other sources of energy, and
iii. 4y using cleaner automobiles.

(9. Define o&one.
!&one is an odorless, colorless gas composed of three atoms of o6ygen +!-,.

(;. Aame any three most important types of 373 %hich are responsible for o&one depletion.
a. Trichlorofluoromethene, 373I- +called as 373-11,
b. Dichlorodifluoromethane, 37(3I( +373-1(,
c. 1, 1, ( Trichlorotrifluoroethane, 37(3I3731( +373-11-,

-#. Define o&one depletion potential.
The o&one depletion potential +!DP, of a compound is defined as the measure of its ability to destroy the stratospheric o&one.

-1. )hat do you 5no% about Dobson unit*
Dobson Knit +DK,is the scale for measuring the amount of o&one occupying a column overhead.
!ne Dobson unit +1DK, is defined as #.#1mm at #
#
3 and 1 atmospheric pressure.
-(. )hat are the harmful effects of o&one layer depletion on human beings*
i. <eddening of s5in in sun shine +un burn,
ii. 5in 3ancer
iii. <eduction in body=s immunity to disease
iv. Eye disorders li5e 3ataracts and 4lindness

--. Define %aste land.
)aste lands are defined as the lands %hich re unstable in ecologically and topographically %ith complete loss or its fertility
status. In these types of lands the to6icity for the gro%th of crops or trees are developed due to environmental or
anthropogenic problems.

-" )hat are the causes for formation of %aste land*
Deforestation
Desertification
oil loss and
Industrial pollution

-1. )hat is the need for %aste land reclamation*
Population of the %orld is increasing at an alarming rate. This increases demand for food and demand of land for shelter and
other resources. The available land area should be properly utili&ed for ma5ing food for increasing population of the %orld.


Part B
1. )hat do you 5no% about Gsustainable development=* )hat are the important components of sustainable development*
i. Definition
ii. Aspects
iii. 0easures
iv. -< concept
v. 3arrying capacity

(. )hat do you 5no% about G%ater conservation=* 0ention some of the techni>ues of %ater conservation.
i. Decreasing run-off losses
ii. <educing evaporation losses
iii. toring %ater in soil
iv. <educing irrigation losses
v. <e-use of %ater
vi. Preventing %astage of %ater
vii. Increasing bloc5 pricing

-. )rite a brief note on the problems and concerns about resettlement and rehabilitation of people.
i. Problems and concerns
ii. 3ase study
iii. <ehabilitation issues
iv. <ehabilitation policies

". )hat are the impacts of acid rain on the environment*
Any 12 points %ith e6planation

1. )hat do you 5no% about G!&one= and G!&one layer depletion=*
i. Definition
ii. E>uations %ith e6planation
iii. 7actors affecting depletion
iv. Effects of depletion

UNIT V
Part A

1. /o% the population problem in India is analysed*
India=s population problem may be vie%ed from three aspects
+1, The absolute si&e of population
+(, The rate of gro%th of the population
+-, The age structure of the population.

(. )hat is population e6plosion*
Population e6plosion means rapid population gro%th %hich is une6pected and unimaginable. The graph of recent gro%th is
referred to as a GH= curve as it follo%s the shape of that letter, starting out lo% and s5yroc5eting straight up.

-. .ist the effect of population e6plosion.
Enormous increase in population results in
Increased consumption of resources available in the environment and depletion of the same >uic5ly.
Due to over Econsumption of natural resources, the environment gets deteriorated and polluted.
There %ill be desertification, deforestation, soil erosion, loss of fertility and poor productivity.
0ass poverty, poor per-capital availability of food for consumption and prevalence of disease on large scale.
<apid urbani&ation resulting in gro%th of slums in cities and to%ns.
Inefficient management and ineffective control at all levels leading to poor >uality of life.

". )hat is health*
/ealth is considered as a >uality of life that enables the individual to live most and serve best.

1. Define %ellness.
)ellness is a state of optional %ell being. )ellness emphasi&es each individual=s responsibility for ma5ing decisions that %ill
lead not only to the prevention for disease but to the promotion of a high level of health.
2. Aame some health related fitness components.
a. 0uscular strength and endurance
b. 7le6ibility
c. 4ody composition
d. 3ardio-vascular endurance

8. Define Demography.
It refers to the science of dealing %ith the study of si&e, composition and territorial distribution of population? it includes study
of natality, fertility, mortality, migration, and social mobility.

9. )hat is vital statistics*
Cital statistics are referred to systematically collected and compiled data relating to vital events of life such as birth, death,
marriage, divorce, adoption, etc. Cital statistics are an indication of the given situation and help us in ans%ering many health-
related >ueries.

;. Aame the fundamental rights of an Indian citi&en.
a. <ight to e>uality
b. <ight to freedom of peech and Activity
c. <ight against E6ploitation
d. <ight to 7reedom of <eligion
e. 3ultural and Educational <ights
f. <ight to 3onstitutional <emedies.

1#. )rite short notes on common property resources.
!ur environment has a ma@or component that does not belong to individuals. There are several commonly o%ned resources
that all of us use as a community. The %ater that nature recycles, the air that %e all breathe, the forests and grasslands %hich
maintain our climate and soil, are all common property resources.

11. )hat is /IC and AID*
/IC stands for /uman Immuno-deficiency Cirus and is a virus that can damage the body=s defence system so that it cannot
fight off certain infections. AID stands for +Acc>uired Immuno Deficiency yndrome,. An /IC infected person receives a
diagnosis of AID after developing one of the AID indicator illness, A positive /IC test result does not mean that person has
AID. A diagnosis of AID is made by a physician using certain clinical criteria +EgI AID indicator illnesses,.

1(. )hat is opportunistic infection*
Infection %ith /IC can %ea5en the immune system to the point that it has difficulty fighting off certain infections. These types
of infections are 5no%n as $opportunistic infections' because they ta5e the opportunity to %ea5en the immune system %hich
causes illness of the body.

1-. .ist the means of /IC transmission.
There are four main %ays in %hich /IC can be passed onI
i. 4y having vaginal, anal or oral se6 %ithout a condom %ith someone %ho has /IC.
ii. 4y using needles, syringes or other drug-in@ecting e>uipment that is infected %ith /IC.
iii. 7rom a %oman %ith /IC to her baby +before or during birth, and by 4reast feeding.
iv. 4y receiving infected blood, blood products or donated organs as part of medical treatment.

1". Aame some tests available to find /IC infection.
In addition to the EIA or E.IA and )estern blot, other tests no% available includeI
<adio Immuno Precipitaion Assay +<IPA,
Dot Eblot immuno binding assay
Immuno fluorescence assay
Aucleic acid testing
Polymerase 3hain <eaction +P3<,
11. .ist the special features of 3omprehensive programme on %omen and child %elfare.
i. Personality
ii. <eduction of Deprivation
iii. 3o-ordinational Effectivity
iv. 0aternity and 0otherhood

12. )hat is information*
The term $information' has been defined by Eliahu /offinan asI $an aggregate +3ollection and accumulation, of statements,
or facts or figures %hich are conceptually by %ay of reasoning, logic, ideas, or any other mental $mode operation'
interrelatedMconnected.

18. Aame some applications of IT in health.
Apart from helping in the administration of hospitals, IT is playing a 5ey role in the health industry. !n the, medical care, the
IT has varied applications right from the diagnosis, %here there are latest tools li5e 3T scans, Kltrasound onography etc.
)hich use It as their basis for diagnosis of ailments. 0ost of the I3K=s +Intensive 3are Knits, are no% using computers to
monitor the progress and condition of the patient, undergoing treatments. Apart from this, %ith help of IT, e6pert opinions
from doctors a%ay from the place can be sought %ith help of IT tools li5e video conferencing etc. Apart from this can be used
in the analysis and research on various potential medicines Mdrugs to be used in medical treatments.

19. .ist the applications of IT in environment.
a. <emote ensing
b. :eographic Information ystem +:I,
c. :lobal Positioning ystem +:P,
d. 0eteorology

Part B
1. E6plain about population characteristics and population e6plosion.
i. Definitions on E6ponential gro%th, doubling time, Total fertility rates, Infant mortality rate, replacement level, age
structure
ii. Pyramids
iii. Indian scenario on population e6plosion
iv. Cie%s on population gro%th

1. )rite notes on human rights.
i. /uman rights conferences
ii. /uman rights in India
iii. <ights and duties of a citi&en
iv. Draft declaration of human rights and environment

-. )rite notes on value education.
i. Definition
ii. Aecessity
iii. Calue education in the conte6t of environment
iv. Principles

". E6plain about %omen and child %elfare.
i. )omen %elfare
ii. 3hild %elfare

1. E6plain about role of Information Technology in Environment and human health.
i. Information
ii. Aeed for computeri&ation
iii. <ole of IT
iv. Application of IT in environment
v. Application of IT in health
vi. Application of IT in environment and health