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Mathematics 116

Pre-Algebra
Supplementary
Materials

“Patterns and
Sequences”

Teachers’ Guide
Prepared by:
1) Peter Balyta.....................Massey Vanier High School
2) George Calder..................Howard S. Billings High School
3) Andre Del Castilho...........Centennial Regional High School
4) Tony Rosciano..................Penfield Academy
5) Colin D’Souza...................Macdonald Cartier High School

Resource Personnel:
Françoise Boulanger........ MEQ
Louise Gauthier
Carolyn Gould..................South Shore School Board

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
Mathematics 116: General Objective 1
Pre-Algebra

The Secondary I programme builds the foundation for algebra in later


years. The development of these pre-algebra skills should focus on:

1. patterns and their generalization


2. arithmetic properties and the understanding of the equal sign

Algebra in many respects can be seen as “generalized arithmetic” and the


difficulties that students experience in algebra are not so much difficulties
in algebra itself as problems in arithmetic that remain uncorrected. In
doing arithmetic operations, students are often not aware of the underlying
structure of the operations and of their properties. This is why attention
has to be given to these pre-algebra objectives. Also, conceptual obstacles
arise less frequently and are easier to overcome when an understanding of
variables and algebraic expressions is built through generalizing activities
with patterns.

“It is important to take time to lay the necessary foundations for algebraic
thinking. Symbol usage should be avoided until it becomes useful ...
Topics shouldn’t be presented too rapidly – time should be spent exploring
and investigating without the addition of mastering symbol manipulation as
a goal.” (Algebra for the 21st Century: p. 7)

“... the first encounter with algebra should be through rich mathematical
settings and applications followed by abstraction that comes from the need
to describe or represent the patterns in the settings.” (Algebra for the 21st
Century: p. 11)

Please note that the Secondary I programme involves developing pre-


algebra skills. It is not an “introduction to algebra” course.

A. Patterns and Sequences

1) Patterns can be found in many areas of mathematics: Pascal’s


Triangle, the 100’s chart, etc.

2) Sequences constitute one example of patterns in mathematics.


There are several different kinds of sequences:

• some are formed as a result of performing some operation


on a preceding term;

e.g. “Determine the rule and the next three terms of the
sequence 1, 2, 5, 10, 17, 26, ...”
.../2
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
–2–

• some are formed as a result of performing some operation


on several preceding terms;

e.g. “The Fibonacci sequence: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, ...”

• some are formed from another sequence;

e.g. “What rule is used to transform the terms of the first


sequence into the terms of the second?
Sequence #1: 0, 1, 2, ...
Sequence #2: 0, 15, 30, ...

The above are but a few possibilities.

Some patterns are more appropriate in developing pre-algebra


skills because they lead to generalizations using simple
algebraic expressions. This is the type of pattern that we focus
on in Secondary I.

3) Charting a Route in the Classroom

There is always a tendency to rush towards using variables long


before children are ready to do so. It is extremely important
for students to spends lots of time seeing patterns and saying
them, even if these activities seem not to be explicitly algebraic
in nature.

There are 4 stages in working with patterns and sequences:

(i) seeing a pattern: an insight or understanding of the


concept, an “I’ve got it!” discovery;

(ii) saying a pattern either aloud or in your head: an attempt


to articulate how the pattern is formed;

(iii) writing a pattern using words and/or symbols other than


letters;

(iv) using a generalization of a pattern.

Now, let’s explore these 4 stages in a simple example. We


shall look at appropriate questions / instructions that give
students time to grasp the concept. We must remember to
make use of various modes of representation (tactile, visual,
verbal, symbolic, etc.) to help students who have different
learning styles.

.../3
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
–3–

Example 1

Using toothpicks, reproduce the following 3 shapes:

Questions / Comments for Teachers


Instructions for Students

(a) Make or draw the next 3 This stage helps students to


shapes in the sequence. grasp the pattern mentally:
to see it.

(b) How many toothpicks are


needed to produce the 5th and
6th shapes?

(c) How many toothpicks are


needed to form the 11th
shape?
This saying action focuses on
(d) State how the pattern grows. articulating the pattern.

Is the description given by


(e) Describe how you would find the student sufficient? Does
the number of toothpicks it need to be refined?
needed for the 20th shape.
N.B. The first few experiences with patterns can be limited to
these two stages shown above.
This 3rd stage, writing, might
(f) State in your own words a rule be expressed in many ways:
that will allow you to find the (1) “The number of
number of toothpicks in the toothpicks is the
100th shape. number of triangles
times 2 plus 1.”
(2) “___ = q × 2 + 1”
(3) “You double your
number and add one”
requires refinement to
clarify the “number” of
what.

This u s i n g stage, in effect,


(g) How many triangles could be has the student solving an
formed in the sequence if you equation when he uses his
had 151 toothpicks? generalization to solve a
related problem.
N.B. This “using” stage (g) may be delayed until the student is
ready to attain this level.
.../4

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
–4–

Example 2

N.B. To introduce the notion of “rank” or position in a sequence,


the teacher should indicate that the first shape is called the
first term of the sequence, etc.
Questions / Comments for Teachers
Instructions for Students

(a) Make or draw the next 3 seeing


shapes in the sequence.

(b) How many squares are needed


to produce the 5th and 6th
shapes?

(c) How many squares are needed


to form the 15th shape?

(d) State how the pattern grows. saying - There are many
equivalent ways to express
the pattern. The number of
squares is the same as:
(1) the rank plus one less
than the rank
(2) twice the rank minus one
(3) the square of the rank
minus one less than the
rank

(e) Describe how you would find writing - There are many
the number of squares in the equivalent ways that the
100th shape (term). student might express the
pattern symbolically or in
words.
E.g. (1) n + (n – 1)
(2) 2n – 1
(3) n2 – (n – 1) 2 etc.

(f) If you have 119 squares, what using


is the rank (position) of the
term (shape) in the sequence?

(g) What is the perimeter of each This extension makes a


of the first 3 shapes (terms)? connection between geometry
and pre-algebra.

(h) How would you determine the


perimeter of the 20th shape
(term)?
.../5
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
–5–

Suggestions for Using the Resource Package

1) This pre-algebra objective should be integrated into the programme


throughout the year rather than used as one block.

2) Extension to the Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using! activities could focus


on such tasks as determining the perimeter of the figure, etc.

3) Activities 10 through 17 incorporate the notion of moving from one


mode of representation to another, a skill that is important to
develop for future use in algebra.

A template is included so that teachers (or pupils) can produce


additional examples.

4) Activities 18 and 19 are considered to be “challenges,” not regular


course material.

5) The module “Pre-Algebra: Strengthening Arithmetic Under-


standing” should be done prior to the module “Patterns and
Sequences.”

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS and SEQUENCES
“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

1)

i) Draw the next 3 terms of this sequence. “Seeing”

ii) How many triangles will be in the 7th term? 14

iii) Express orally how the pattern grows. (answers will vary) “Saying”

iv) How many triangles will be in the 20th term? 40

v) Does the expression you stated in part (iii) allow you to


determine the number of triangles in the 20th term?

If not, can you refine your expression so that you can use it to
find the number of triangles in the 150th term?

vi) Write the rule using words or symbols. 2n “Writing”

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

2)

i) Draw the next 3 terms of this sequence. “Seeing”

ii) How many circles will appear in the 8th term? 10

iii) Express orally how the pattern grows. (answers will vary) “Saying”

iv) How many circles will there be in the 30th term?

v) Does the expression you developed in part (iii) allow you to


determine the number of circles in the 30th term? If not, can
you refine your expression so that you can use it to find the
number of circles in the 150th term?

vi) Write the rule using words or symbols. n + 2 “Writing”

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

3)

i) Draw the next 2 terms of this sequence. “Seeing”

ii) How many will appear in the 8th term? 17

iii) Express orally how the pattern grows. (answers will vary) “Saying”

iv) How many will there be in the 40th term? 81

v) Does the expression you developed in part (iii) allow you to

determine the number of in the 40th term? If not, can you


refine your expression so that you can use it to find the number

of in the 120th term?

vi) Write the rule using words or symbols. 2n + 1 “Writing”

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

4)

i) Draw the next 3 terms of this sequence. “Seeing”

ii) How many people will appear in the 9th term? 8

iii) Express orally how the pattern grows. (answers will vary) “Saying”

iv) How many people will there be in the 25th term? 24

v) Does the expression you developed in part (iii) allow you to


determine the number of people in the 25th term? If not, can
you refine your expression so that you can use it to find the
number of people in the 100th term?

vi) Write the rule using words or symbols. n – 1 “Writing”

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

5)

i) Draw the next 3 terms of this sequence. “Seeing”

ii) How many ‘s will appear in the 7th term? 23

iii) Express orally how the pattern grows. (answers will vary) “Saying”

iv) How many ‘s will there be in the 20th term? 62

v) Does the expression you developed in part (iii) allow you to


determine the number of ‘s in the 20th term? If not, can
you refine your expression so that you can use it to find the
number of ‘s in the 50th term?

vi) Write the rule using words or symbols. 3n + 2 “Writing”

vii) What is the rank of the term which contains 47 ‘s? 15th “Using”

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

6)

i) Draw the next 3 terms of this sequence. “Seeing”

ii) How many squares will appear in the 7th term? 20

iii) Express orally how the pattern grows. (answers will vary) “Saying”

iv) How many squares will there be in the 25th term? 74

v) Does the expression you developed in part (iii) allow you to


determine the number of squares in the 25 th term? If not, can
you refine your expression so that you can use it to find the
number of squares in the 100th term?

(answers will vary)

vi) Write the rule using words or symbols. 3n – 1 “Writing”

vii) A certain term contains 56 squares. What is its rank? 19th “Using”

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

7)

i) Draw the next 3 terms of this sequence. “Seeing”

ii) How many squares will appear in the 8th term? 27

iii) Express orally how the pattern grows. (answers will vary) “Saying”

iv) How many squares will there be in the 40th term? 123

v) Does the expression you developed in part (iii) allow you to


determine the number of squares in the 10 th term? If not, can
you refine your expression so that you can use it to find the
number of squares in the 100th term?

(answers will vary)

vi) Write the rule using words or symbols. 3n + 3 “Writing”

vii) What is the rank of the term which contains 93 squares?“Using”


30

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”
Add Ons

8) Use the space below to draw additional shapes and record their
perimeters.

NOTE: An equilateral triangle has a perimeter of three units. When


an identical triangle is “added” onto the first, the perimeter becomes
four units.

Follow the above method for the remaining four polygons.

1. Triangles
1

1 1 1
1

1 1

2. Squares

Use the patterns you discover to complete this table.

Number of Perimeter of Perimeter of


Polygons Figure #1 Figure #2
1 3 4
2 4 6
3 5 8
4 6 10
5 7 12
... - - - - - -
10 12 22
... - - - - - -
n n + 2 2n + 2

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”
Add Ons

9) Use the space below to draw additional shapes and record their
perimeters.

NOTE: A regular pentagon has a perimeter of five units. When an


identical pentagon is “added” onto the first, the perimeter becomes
eight units.

Follow the above method for the remaining four polygons.

1. Pentagons
1 1 1 1
1

1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
2. Hexagons

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

Use the patterns you discover to complete this table.

Number of Perimeter of Perimeter of


Polygons Figure #1 Figure #2
1 5 6
2 8 10
3 11 14
4 14 18
5 17 22
... - - - - - -
10 32 42
... - - - - - -
n 3n + 2 4n + 2

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
10)
Express the pattern using
Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

Sean went fishing with his friend.


In the first hour, he caught no fish.
In the second hour, he caught one
fish. In the third hour, he caught
two fish, and so on. H1

H2

H3

Express the pattern symbolically My Explanation


and/or algebraically.

H – 1 = number of fish caught in The number of fish caught is


a given hour, H always one fish less than the
number of hours past.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
11)
Express the pattern using
Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

The price of a new found diamond


triples every year.

T1 T2 T3

Express the pattern symbolically My Explanation


and/or algebraically.

3T = cost of a diamond in any given The price of diamonds triples each


year, T year.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
12)
Express the pattern using
Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

In its first year of operation, Ann’s $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $


Clinic made $3000 profit. In its 2nd $ $ $ $ $ $
year, she made $5000 profit and in
its 3rd year she made $7000.
Y1 Y2 Y3

Express the pattern symbolically My Explanation


and/or algebraically.

2y + 1 = annual profit generated by Anna is able to calculate her annual


Ann’s Clinic where y represents the profit by multiplying the number of
number of years years elapsed by two and then
adding one.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
13)
Express the pattern using
Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

At Fred’s birthday party, there were


only two guests in the 1st hour. In the
second hour, three more people
showed up. After 3 hours there were
8 guests.
T1 T2 T3

Express the pattern symbolically My Explanation


and/or algebraically.

3 (T) – 1, where T represents the Multiply the number of hours


number of hours elapsed by three and then subtract
one in order to obtain the number of
guests at that hour.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
14)
Express the pattern using
Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

Ann mowed the lawn to make


some extra money. She charged $ $ $ $ $ $
$7.50 an hour. How much will she
make after 5 hours? 15 hours?
etc.

T1 T2 T3

$ = 7.50

Express the pattern symbolically My Explanation


and/or algebraically.

7.50(T) = Ann’s income after (T) hours You simply multiply the number of
worked hours worked by $7.50 to obtain her
income.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
15)
Express the pattern using
Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

Jasmine is training for a race.


During the first week of her 5.6 km
4 km 4.8 km
training she ran 4 km. She will
increase her distance by 800
metres every week. At which
week of her training will she be
able to run 12 km? W1 W2 W3

Express the pattern symbolically My Explanation


and/or algebraically.

0.8(W) + 3.2 = # of km that she will be 0.8W + 3.2 = 12


able to run after (W) weeks 0.8W = 8.8
W = 11

She will be able to run 12 km after


11 weeks.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
16)
Express the pattern using
Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

Eddy had 3 marbles in the first hour


and won 4 more marbles for each hour
after that.

T1 T2 T3

Express the pattern symbolically My Explanation


and/or algebraically.

4r – 1 where r represents the Multiply the number of hours that


number of hours have passed by four and then
subtract one to obtain how many he
has at that hour.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
17)
Express the pattern using
Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

Students are given bags of


marbles. The first student is given
a bag with one marble in it. The
2 nd is given a bag with 3 marbles.

The 3 r d is given a bag with 5

marbles. The 4th is given a bag


with 7 marbles, and so on. How
many marbles does the 50 t h
student have in his bag?

Express the pattern symbolically My Explanation


and/or algebraically.

2s – 1 where s represents the The students are placed in order so


rank of the student that the student’s place number
multiplied by 2 followed by a
subtraction of one will determine
the number of marbles he/she has.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES
“Toothpick” Beams

18) Use toothpicks to reproduce the following beam.

This is considered to be a beam of length 4.

Construct a beam of length 6.

How could you determine the number of toothpicks needed to


construct a beam of any given length? 4n – 1

19) In Ms. Jones’ class, students were asked to state a rule which related
the length of a beam to the number of toothpicks needed to construct
a beam of any length.

Below are some of the rules given by various students:

Suzanne: 3×n+n–1
Paul: n + (n × 2) + (n – 1)
Anna: 3n + (n – 1)
Jon: 2n + n + (n – 1)
Julie: 3 + 4(n – 1)
Oanh: 4n – 1

Each student had visualized the pattern in a different way. Explain


how each student “saw” the pattern in order to come up with the
generalization (rule) shown.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).