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Pre-Algebra

Supplementary

Materials

“Patterns and

Sequences”

Teachers’ Guide

Prepared by:

1) Peter Balyta.....................Massey Vanier High School

2) George Calder..................Howard S. Billings High School

3) Andre Del Castilho...........Centennial Regional High School

4) Tony Rosciano..................Penfield Academy

5) Colin D’Souza...................Macdonald Cartier High School

Resource Personnel:

Françoise Boulanger........ MEQ

Louise Gauthier

Carolyn Gould..................South Shore School Board

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

Mathematics 116: General Objective 1

Pre-Algebra

years. The development of these pre-algebra skills should focus on:

2. arithmetic properties and the understanding of the equal sign

difficulties that students experience in algebra are not so much difficulties

in algebra itself as problems in arithmetic that remain uncorrected. In

doing arithmetic operations, students are often not aware of the underlying

structure of the operations and of their properties. This is why attention

has to be given to these pre-algebra objectives. Also, conceptual obstacles

arise less frequently and are easier to overcome when an understanding of

variables and algebraic expressions is built through generalizing activities

with patterns.

“It is important to take time to lay the necessary foundations for algebraic

thinking. Symbol usage should be avoided until it becomes useful ...

Topics shouldn’t be presented too rapidly – time should be spent exploring

and investigating without the addition of mastering symbol manipulation as

a goal.” (Algebra for the 21st Century: p. 7)

“... the first encounter with algebra should be through rich mathematical

settings and applications followed by abstraction that comes from the need

to describe or represent the patterns in the settings.” (Algebra for the 21st

Century: p. 11)

algebra skills. It is not an “introduction to algebra” course.

Triangle, the 100’s chart, etc.

There are several different kinds of sequences:

on a preceding term;

e.g. “Determine the rule and the next three terms of the

sequence 1, 2, 5, 10, 17, 26, ...”

.../2

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

–2–

on several preceding terms;

sequence into the terms of the second?

Sequence #1: 0, 1, 2, ...

Sequence #2: 0, 15, 30, ...

skills because they lead to generalizations using simple

algebraic expressions. This is the type of pattern that we focus

on in Secondary I.

before children are ready to do so. It is extremely important

for students to spends lots of time seeing patterns and saying

them, even if these activities seem not to be explicitly algebraic

in nature.

concept, an “I’ve got it!” discovery;

to articulate how the pattern is formed;

letters;

shall look at appropriate questions / instructions that give

students time to grasp the concept. We must remember to

make use of various modes of representation (tactile, visual,

verbal, symbolic, etc.) to help students who have different

learning styles.

.../3

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

–3–

Example 1

Instructions for Students

shapes in the sequence. grasp the pattern mentally:

to see it.

needed to produce the 5th and

6th shapes?

needed to form the 11th

shape?

This saying action focuses on

(d) State how the pattern grows. articulating the pattern.

(e) Describe how you would find the student sufficient? Does

the number of toothpicks it need to be refined?

needed for the 20th shape.

N.B. The first few experiences with patterns can be limited to

these two stages shown above.

This 3rd stage, writing, might

(f) State in your own words a rule be expressed in many ways:

that will allow you to find the (1) “The number of

number of toothpicks in the toothpicks is the

100th shape. number of triangles

times 2 plus 1.”

(2) “___ = q × 2 + 1”

(3) “You double your

number and add one”

requires refinement to

clarify the “number” of

what.

(g) How many triangles could be has the student solving an

formed in the sequence if you equation when he uses his

had 151 toothpicks? generalization to solve a

related problem.

N.B. This “using” stage (g) may be delayed until the student is

ready to attain this level.

.../4

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

–4–

Example 2

the teacher should indicate that the first shape is called the

first term of the sequence, etc.

Questions / Comments for Teachers

Instructions for Students

shapes in the sequence.

to produce the 5th and 6th

shapes?

to form the 15th shape?

(d) State how the pattern grows. saying - There are many

equivalent ways to express

the pattern. The number of

squares is the same as:

(1) the rank plus one less

than the rank

(2) twice the rank minus one

(3) the square of the rank

minus one less than the

rank

(e) Describe how you would find writing - There are many

the number of squares in the equivalent ways that the

100th shape (term). student might express the

pattern symbolically or in

words.

E.g. (1) n + (n – 1)

(2) 2n – 1

(3) n2 – (n – 1) 2 etc.

is the rank (position) of the

term (shape) in the sequence?

of the first 3 shapes (terms)? connection between geometry

and pre-algebra.

perimeter of the 20th shape

(term)?

.../5

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

–5–

throughout the year rather than used as one block.

on such tasks as determining the perimeter of the figure, etc.

mode of representation to another, a skill that is important to

develop for future use in algebra.

additional examples.

course material.

standing” should be done prior to the module “Patterns and

Sequences.”

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS and SEQUENCES

“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

1)

iii) Express orally how the pattern grows. (answers will vary) “Saying”

determine the number of triangles in the 20th term?

If not, can you refine your expression so that you can use it to

find the number of triangles in the 150th term?

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

2)

iii) Express orally how the pattern grows. (answers will vary) “Saying”

determine the number of circles in the 30th term? If not, can

you refine your expression so that you can use it to find the

number of circles in the 150th term?

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

3)

iii) Express orally how the pattern grows. (answers will vary) “Saying”

refine your expression so that you can use it to find the number

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

4)

iii) Express orally how the pattern grows. (answers will vary) “Saying”

determine the number of people in the 25th term? If not, can

you refine your expression so that you can use it to find the

number of people in the 100th term?

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

5)

iii) Express orally how the pattern grows. (answers will vary) “Saying”

determine the number of ‘s in the 20th term? If not, can

you refine your expression so that you can use it to find the

number of ‘s in the 50th term?

vii) What is the rank of the term which contains 47 ‘s? 15th “Using”

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

6)

iii) Express orally how the pattern grows. (answers will vary) “Saying”

determine the number of squares in the 25 th term? If not, can

you refine your expression so that you can use it to find the

number of squares in the 100th term?

vii) A certain term contains 56 squares. What is its rank? 19th “Using”

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

7)

iii) Express orally how the pattern grows. (answers will vary) “Saying”

iv) How many squares will there be in the 40th term? 123

determine the number of squares in the 10 th term? If not, can

you refine your expression so that you can use it to find the

number of squares in the 100th term?

30

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

Add Ons

8) Use the space below to draw additional shapes and record their

perimeters.

an identical triangle is “added” onto the first, the perimeter becomes

four units.

1. Triangles

1

1 1 1

1

1 1

2. Squares

Polygons Figure #1 Figure #2

1 3 4

2 4 6

3 5 8

4 6 10

5 7 12

... - - - - - -

10 12 22

... - - - - - -

n n + 2 2n + 2

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

“Seeing, Saying, Writing, Using!”

Add Ons

9) Use the space below to draw additional shapes and record their

perimeters.

identical pentagon is “added” onto the first, the perimeter becomes

eight units.

1. Pentagons

1 1 1 1

1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

2. Hexagons

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

Polygons Figure #1 Figure #2

1 5 6

2 8 10

3 11 14

4 14 18

5 17 22

... - - - - - -

10 32 42

... - - - - - -

n 3n + 2 4n + 2

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

10)

Express the pattern using

Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

In the first hour, he caught no fish.

In the second hour, he caught one

fish. In the third hour, he caught

two fish, and so on. H1

H2

H3

and/or algebraically.

a given hour, H always one fish less than the

number of hours past.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

11)

Express the pattern using

Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

triples every year.

T1 T2 T3

and/or algebraically.

year, T year.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

12)

Express the pattern using

Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

Clinic made $3000 profit. In its 2nd $ $ $ $ $ $

year, she made $5000 profit and in

its 3rd year she made $7000.

Y1 Y2 Y3

and/or algebraically.

Ann’s Clinic where y represents the profit by multiplying the number of

number of years years elapsed by two and then

adding one.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

13)

Express the pattern using

Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

only two guests in the 1st hour. In the

second hour, three more people

showed up. After 3 hours there were

8 guests.

T1 T2 T3

and/or algebraically.

number of hours elapsed by three and then subtract

one in order to obtain the number of

guests at that hour.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

14)

Express the pattern using

Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

some extra money. She charged $ $ $ $ $ $

$7.50 an hour. How much will she

make after 5 hours? 15 hours?

etc.

T1 T2 T3

$ = 7.50

and/or algebraically.

7.50(T) = Ann’s income after (T) hours You simply multiply the number of

worked hours worked by $7.50 to obtain her

income.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

15)

Express the pattern using

Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

During the first week of her 5.6 km

4 km 4.8 km

training she ran 4 km. She will

increase her distance by 800

metres every week. At which

week of her training will she be

able to run 12 km? W1 W2 W3

and/or algebraically.

able to run after (W) weeks 0.8W = 8.8

W = 11

11 weeks.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

16)

Express the pattern using

Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

and won 4 more marbles for each hour

after that.

T1 T2 T3

and/or algebraically.

number of hours have passed by four and then

subtract one to obtain how many he

has at that hour.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

17)

Express the pattern using

Word Problem diagrams or pictures.

marbles. The first student is given

a bag with one marble in it. The

2 nd is given a bag with 3 marbles.

with 7 marbles, and so on. How

many marbles does the 50 t h

student have in his bag?

and/or algebraically.

rank of the student that the student’s place number

multiplied by 2 followed by a

subtraction of one will determine

the number of marbles he/she has.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES

“Toothpick” Beams

construct a beam of any given length? 4n – 1

19) In Ms. Jones’ class, students were asked to state a rule which related

the length of a beam to the number of toothpicks needed to construct

a beam of any length.

Suzanne: 3×n+n–1

Paul: n + (n × 2) + (n – 1)

Anna: 3n + (n – 1)

Jon: 2n + n + (n – 1)

Julie: 3 + 4(n – 1)

Oanh: 4n – 1

how each student “saw” the pattern in order to come up with the

generalization (rule) shown.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,

L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).

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