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Mathematics 116

Supplementary
Materials

Rational Numbers

Teacher’s Guide
Prepared by:
1) Peter Balyta.....................Massey Vanier High School
2) George Calder..................Howard S. Billings High School
3) Andre Del Castilho...........Centennial Regional High School
4) Tony Rosciano..................Penfield Academy
5) Colin D’Souza...................Macdonald Cartier High School

Resource Personnel:
Françoise Boulanger........ MEQ
Louise Gauthier
Carolyn Gould..................South Shore School Board

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
Rational Numbers

Introduction

The Mathematics 116 course includes the study of rational numbers,


both positive and negative. Students must be able to order these numbers
as well as perform the five operations of addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division and exponentiation (with natural number
exponents).

In elementary school the concept of fractions was “part of the whole.”


In the 116 course, the student should develop the concept of a rational
number, i.e. a number that can be written in different forms: fraction,
decimal, percent.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
Rational Numbers

Activity 1: Ordering Rational Numbers

1. Prepare 8 1/2 x 11 cards displaying one rational number:

eg. –10 5 –3 4 0 –2 –7
–20 15 5.25 –3.4 –2.8 –5.1 4.2
1 7 4 0 2
5.3 –3.7 – –
3 5 5 3 3

3 5 4 7 8 3
– – – –0.4 –
4 7 3 10 5 5

9 3
30% 4.5 – – 40% 0.1% 150%
2 10

1.1% etc.

2. Distribute 1 numbered card to each student.

3. Students are asked to position themselves across the front of the


classroom by ordering themselves according to their number.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
Rational Numbers

Activity 2: “The Clothes Line”

1. This activity is similar to Activity 1. However, it allows for the


accommodation of multiple representations of a number more easily.

2. Materials: • A piece of cord that can stretch across the front of the
classroom.
• 1 clothespin per student.
• 8 1/2 x 11 cards, each bearing a rational number.

The students place their card in the appropriate place.

3 2 4
eg. 0.4 1.25 2 133 13
2 5 3

4 6
–0.8 – – –1.2 40% 150% –10%
5 5

5 2 1 1 3
– 15% – –0.2
4 3 4 5 5

5 7
0.6 –140% – 0.25 60% 0.7
4 8

0.8 etc.

Additional Activities may be found in the NCTM Addenda Series:


Number Sense Grades 5 – 8.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
– 1 –

1. Order of Operations (Rationals)

2
–2  –3 3  1 –1  –1 1
(a) + =– (b) + =–
3  5 4 10 2  2 4

–2 3 –2 7  2 1
(c) × + ÷4 =– (d) –5 + 3 ÷ 16 = –
5 4 3 15  5  10

2 3
 –1  –1 1
(e)
 2
+
 2
= (f) (–0.1)2 + (–0.1)3 = 0.009
8

–3 1 9
(g) (1 – 0.7)3 – 0.973 = –0.946 (h) + ×3 =
5 2 10

3
 –1 3 1 1 5 1
(i) + × =0 (j) 3 × –2 + × 1 = –4
 2 4 6 4 3 2

 1 3 4 3 19 2  –5 3  –5 3
(k) –5 + 3 – × = –2 (l) + + =–
 2 4 5 2 20 3 8 4 6 4

–6.8 × 3.5
(m) (0.02)3 + 23 + (–1)5 = 7.000008 (n) = –47.6
0.5

1 1
–5 ×2
(o) 3
3 9
2 = –16 (p) (–2)3 + 32 × (–3)2 = 73
÷
4 10

.../2
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).
– 2 –

2. Order of Operations (Rationals)

3 1 2 11 –1 2 1 4
(a) – × =1 (b) + × =–
2 5 3 30 3 7 2 21

2
 –1 4 1 1 1
+ =1 –22 + + (–2) =
2
(c) (d)
 2 5 20 5 5

2
 –1 3   2 1  3  1 2  –1 1
(e) + ÷ – = (f) – ÷ =–
 2 5  4 3 5  2 3  6 6

1
(g) (–2 – 6) – (–2)2 = –8 (h) (0.2)2 + (0.3)2 = 0.13
2

–2 2
(i) – (–2) × (–3) = –6 (j) –1.72 + 2.3 = –0.59
3 3

2 1 1 1   1 1 1
(k) (–10 – 5) + (–3 – 7) = –15 (l) 5 –
 5 10 
–6 –
 3 6
=–
3 2 2

(m) (1.8 + –0.96 ÷ 1.2) + (–1) × 0.3 = 0.7


5

(n) 2.5 – 0.3(–4.5 ÷ 0.15 + −3) = 12.4

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by the Direction régionale de la Montérégie (MEQ).