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Mathematics 314

568-314

Spatial Sense

Answer Key

PEOPT grant from the MEQ:

Linda CarrŽ, Richelieu Valley Regional High School

Howard Pasoff, Centennial Regional High School

Ursula Price, St. Johns High School

Michael Supino, Chambly County High School

Project Coordinator: Carolyn Gould

Layout and Design: Heather Hopkins

Spatial Sense

Activity 1

I. Describe the characteristics of a cube. You may wish to talk about angles,

edges, vertices, faces, surface area, volume, etc.

II. 1. Using the isometric dot paper, reproduce the cube shown.

Spatial Sense Activity 1 continued

solid to be different, it must differ from other arrangements even when it

is rotated and/or flipped. Are the surface area and volume the same for

these different solids? surface area 14 units2 for both; volume 3 units3

for both

5. How many unique solids can be made from 4 cubes? 8 As you construct

each solid record the arrangement on the isometric dot paper provided.

6. After you have constructed all the possible arrangements of two, three or

four cubes, complete the sheet entitled Cube Constructions.

Spatial Sense Activity 1 continued

2 1 0 1 2

3 1 1 2 6

4 2 6 8 32

NB. Teachers who subscribe to AIMS magazine are granted permission to copy this page for their students.

Spatial Sense Activity 1 continued

You have sorted your solids into regular (rectangular) and irregular (non-rectangular)

shapes. The irregular arrangements made from at most four cubes constitute the

Soma cube pieces.

lecture on quantum physics by Werner Heisenberg.

While the noted German physicist was speaking of

a space sliced into cubes, Piet Hein’s supple

imagination caught a fleeting glimpse of the

following curious geometrical theorem. If you take

all the irregular shapes that can be formed by

combining no more than four cubes, all the same

size and joined at their faces, these shapes can be

put together to form a larger cube.

Hein named the puzzle after the drug in Huxley’s

Brave New World which created a dreamlike trance

in its users. While he invented many other puzzles,

the Soma cube is the most widely known.

Before tackling the problem of building the cube from all 7 pieces, try the “warm-up”

activities on the next page.

Note: If you are using interlocking cubes, do not lock any of the basic 7 irregular

shapes together. If you do, you will lose track of the original arrangements.

Note: These shapes are now available in a game called Block by Block™ (Puzzle

Adventures in Three Dimensions!) from Binary Arts, available in most toy stores.

Spatial Sense Activity 1 continued

7.

NB. Teachers who subscribe to AIMS magazine are granted permission to copy this page for their students.

Spatial Sense Activity 1 continued

NB. Teachers who subscribe to AIMS magazine are granted permission to copy this page for their students.

Spatial Sense

Activity 2

I. Several cubes are piled in the corner of a room.

build a cube of n layers. The chart below may help.

A B C D E F

Layer No. of Total # of No. of Total # of Total of Cubes

Visible Visible Invisible Invisible (C & E)

1 1 1 0 0 1

2 2 3 1 1 4

3 3 6 3 4 10

4 4 10 6 10 20

5 5 15 10 20 35

6 6 21 15 35 56

7 7 28 21 56 84

...

2 2 6

Spatial Sense Activity 2 continued

II. How many cubes do you see? 6 or 7 depending on the perspective from

which you view the cube.

III. How many blocks does each of these figures contain? Compare your answer

with your neighbour’s. What assumptions did each of you make when

determining your answer?

assumptions made for

columns a and b.

b

Spatial Sense Activity 2 continued

Spatial Sense Activity 2 continued

• copy the design

• count the number of cubes used in your design

• compare this number to the number of cubes in the solid

5

8

12

10

10

* Adapted from Spatial Visualisation, The Mathematics Teacher, vol. 77, no. 8, November 1984.

Spatial Sense Activity 2 continued

1 2

3 4

5 6

Spatial Sense Activity 2 continued

For solids 1 to 4:

• take away the cube (or cubes) which are shaded and draw the resulting solid.

1 2 3 4

* Adapted from Spatial Visualisation, The Mathematics Teacher, vol. 77, no. 8, November 1984.

Spatial Sense Activity 2 continued

For solids 5 to 7:

• add a cube to each shaded face and draw the resulting solid

5 6 7

* Adapted from Spatial Visualisation, The Mathematics Teacher, vol. 77, no. 8, November 1984.

Spatial Sense Activity 2 continued

Brain Teasers

1) There are 14 cubes in the structure, which sits on a table. The face of each

cube has an area of 1 m 2. If you paint the exposed surface, how many square

metres do you paint?

33 m2

2) Assume that there are no cubes missing from the back of this stack.

28

(a) How many cubes are in the stack?

(b) If you painted the outside of the stack green, including the bottom, what

fraction of the cubes would have the following numbers of green faces?

6

i. 1 = 3

28 14

ii. 2 11

28

5

iii. 3

28

6 = 3

iv. 4 28 14

Activity 3 I: To be photocopied and cut into cards for distribution.

There is a red cube directly below There is a red cube directly on top

a yellow cube. of a yellow cube.

bottom level. level.

yellow cube.

The orange cube shares a face There is a red cube on the bottom

with a green cube and two others. level.

The blue cube touches red and A yellow cube touches an orange

green cubes only along edges. cube only along an edge.

bottom level.

Activity 3 I: To be photocopied and cut into cards for distribution.

with each of the other five cubes.

The two red cubes do not touch The two blue cubes do not touch

each other. each other.

Each red cube shares an edge Each blue cube shares one edge

with the yellow cube. with each of the red cubes.

Spatial Sense

Activity 3

Different Views

I. Your teacher will provide you with a bag containing ten cubes: 2 green, 2 red,

2 blue, 2 yellow, 1 orange and 1 black.

Your team must construct a solid using these cubes. Each member of the

team will receive a card showing one of six characteristics of the solid. Work

together to build the solid.

object are the two-dimensional pictures which you see when you stand directly

in front of each face of the object.

In the picture below, the bee sees a different picture as he flies from face to

face.

Describe the position of the bee when he sees each of the figures below.

left view from back

2.

top view from right

3.

front

view from front

4. view from bottom

(with permission from Carrousel 3 (CEC))

Spatial Sense Activity 3 - Different Views continued

Left Front

Back

Top

Bottom

Right

Spatial Sense Activity 3 - Different Views continued

important skill. Taking 2-dimensional drawings of an object and building the

3-dimensional figure is also useful.

1. Build the following 3-dimensional shape using 7 cubes. The front view,

right-side view, top view and base design are shown. The base design is

the top view with numbers giving the number of cubes in each position.

2. On grid paper, sketch the front view, right-side view, top view and base

design for each of the following shapes.

NB. Teachers who subscribe to AIMS magazine are granted permission to copy this page for their

students.

Spatial Sense Activity 3 - Different Views continued

Front Right Side Top Base Design

IV. 2 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

A

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

2 3

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

1 1

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

B

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

3

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

1 1 1 1

•C • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 •

1 3

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

1 1

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

•D • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 2 •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • 3 • 1 • 1 •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

•E • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 3 • 2 •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 • 1 • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Spatial Sense Activity 3 - Different Views continued

IV. 2 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

F Front Right Side Top Base Design

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

2

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

2 1 1

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

1

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Spatial Sense Activity 3 - Different Views continued

Draw the base design on grid paper.

1

3 2 Base Design

1

2 1 3

Base Design

1

1

2 2 1 Base Design

1

4. The front and top views of models built with 7 cubes are shown.

A B

2

2 22 11

11 1 1

Build the model. On grid paper, draw the right-side view and the base design.

Is there more than one solution? Compare with a classmate’s solution. (see

next page)

Spatial Sense Activity 3 - Different Views continued

IV

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

right-side view

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

4 B

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

or right-side view

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

base design

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

2 2 2 or 2 1 2

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

1 2

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Spatial Sense Activity 3 - Different Views continued

2

9

8

Spatial Sense Activity 3 - Different Views continued

1. 2.

left side

bottom

3.

top

4.

top

5.

left side front

Spatial Sense

Activity 4

Polyhedra

polyhedrons.)

Polyhedra

Convex Concave

A prism is a A pyramid is a

polyhedron with 2 polyhedron that has

parallel, congruent one base and the

bases joined by the same number of

same number of triangular faces as

parallelograms as there are sides on the

there are sides on base.

each base.

Regular Regular

Platonic Solids

cube

tetrahedron

octahedron

dodecahedron

icosahedron

Spatial Sense Activity 4 - Building Solids from Nets continued

I. Each group will be given a set of patterns, called nets, with which to construct

certain solids. Patterns available in Mathpower 7, Teacher’s Edition.

pyramid pyramid pyramid pyramid

prism prism prism

Spatial Sense Activity 4 - Building Solids from Nets continued

triangle quadrilateral pentagon hexagon octagon decagon

cube tetrahedron

octahedron icosahedron

dodecahedron

Spatial Sense Activity 4 - Building Solids from Nets continued

Solids

solids with two parallel solids with one base solids determined by a

and congruent bases opposite a single vertex curved surface only

Solids

(polyhedrons)

polyhedra polyhedra

Spatial Sense Activity 4 - Building Solids from Nets continued

II.

M A T H

Place the M, T and H in the correct direction and on the right face of the

diagram below so that the cube can be constructed to read MATH in exactly

the same way in which it would appear on the cube above when it is

assembled.

H M

T

Spatial Sense Activity 4 - Building Solids from Nets continued

III. Shown below are all possible representations of hexaminos made from six

squares. Which of them can be folded to make a cube?

√ √

√ √

√ √ √ √ √

√ √

Spatial Sense Activity 4 - Building Solids from Nets continued

IV. Shown below are the nets of several prisms. Identify the solids involved and

complete the table on the following page to discover any patterns.

triangular

prism

cube

(square prism)

pentagonal

prism

Spatial Sense Activity 4 - Building Solids from Nets continued

In this table:

3 6 5 9 11

4 8 6 12 14

5 10 7 15 17

6 12 8 18 20

7 14 9 21 23

8 16 10 24 26

n 2n n+2 3n 3n+2

Can you find a pattern among the variables V, F and E? State it.

V+F=E+2

*Adapted from Woodward, Ernest and Rebecca Brown, Polyhedrons and Three-Dimensional Geometry,

in Arithmetic Teacher, April 1994, pp. 451 - 458.

Spatial Sense

Activity 5

I. Translations

translations.

(a) (b)

triangular

rectangular prism prism

(c) (d)

square prism or

rectangular

prism or cube

depending on

translation

distance

rectangular

prism

(e)

cylinder

Spatial Sense Activity 5 - Generating Solids Through Transformations

continued

II. Rotations

(a) Describe the solid obtained under the following rotations of 360°.

opposite sides

of a common

base

(b) Describe the solid obtained after the following rotations of 360°.

cylinder opposite sides two cylinders “silo” or

of a common cylinder on top

base of a hemisphere

v. vi. vii. viii.

opposite sides

of a common

top of a cylinder,

base cylinder hemisphere

Spatial Sense

I. In each of the following illustrations a plane cuts a solid to produce two solids.

square

circle

trapezoid

triangle

rectangle

square

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