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Mathematics 116

Supplementary
Materials

Geometry

Teacher’s Guide
Prepared by:
Olga Courtois............................ Massey Vanier High School, 1998
Peter Balyta............................... Massey Vanier High School, 1997
John Lou...................................Chateauguay Valley Regional High
School, 1998
George Calder............................ Howard S. Billings High School, 1997
Andre Del Castilho.....................Centennial Regional High School,
1997 - 1998
Tony Rosciano........................... Penfield Academy, 1997 - 1998
Kevin Harvey..............................Macdonald Cartier High School, 1998
Wendy Bain............................... Macdonald Cartier High School, 1997

Resource Personnel:
Carolyn Gould.................. MEQ, 1998
South Shore School Board, 1997
Françoise Boulanger..........MEQ, 1997
Louise Gauthier
Peter Balyta...................... South Shore School Board, 1998
Classification of Triangles

1. For homework prior to the classroom activity (individual activity):

Using only one 8 1/2” × 11” piece of paper, cut out 4 different triangles,
using as much of the sheet of paper as you can. State any
characteristics that came to mind when you were attempting to make
your triangles different.

eg.

This ∆
This ∆ has 2
has 1 right angle. equal sides.

Bring your triangles to class tomorrow.

2. Class Activity

Part 1 (Group Activity)

In groups of 4, sort your 16 triangles and state the characteristics that


you used to form each group.

eg. 1) 1 right angle


2) no right angles (oblique)
3) 3 congruent sides
4) 2 congruent sides
5) no congruent sides

Note: A triangle having no right angles is referred to as an oblique


triangle.

–1–
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Part 2 (Whole Class Activity)

Compare the categories which you have established with those


determined by other groups.

Part 3 (Small Group Activity)

Number each of your triangles from 1 through 16. Place each of your
group’s 16 triangles in the appropriate cell on the classification grid.
Label each triangle with the correct terms (eg. right scalene).

Two cells are impossible to fill. Can you tell why? Write the word
“impossible” in these cells.

If any other one of your cells does not contain a triangle, produce one or
more new triangles that would fit in that cell.

Classification of Triangles
(answers will vary)
By Sides
Scalene Isosceles Equilateral
By Angles

Acute

Right impossible

Obtuse impossible

–2–
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Part 4 (Group Activity)

Label each of your triangles ABC. Measure each angle and side and
record your data on the table below.

answers will vary

Measure of –

AB BC AC ∠BAC ∠ABC ∠BCA

Equilateral 1
2
3
Isosceles 1
2
3
Scalene 1
2
3
Right 1
2
3

On the basis of the data from the table, what conjectures would you
make:

• about equilateral triangles? all sides equal


all angles = 60°

• about isosceles triangles? two sides equal


two angles equal

• about scalene triangles? no equal sides


no equal angles

–3–
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
• about right triangles? one right angle
the other two angles are acute
and complementary
can be scalene or isosceles

• about the sum of the interior


angles of any triangle? they add up to 180°

Part 5 (Group Activity)

Make sure you have 4 acute scalene triangles each labelled ABC.

Fold the triangles to produce the following special segments.

(A) The perpendicular bisector of side AC.

(B) The angle bisector of ∠B.

(C) The median from B to AC.

(D) The altitude from B to AC.

Part 6 (Individual Practice Activity)

1. Construct a scalene triangle having a perimeter of 17 cm.


6
4

2. Construct an equilateral triangle ABC with a perimeter of 18 cm.


What is the length of altitude AD?
A

6 cm 6 cm

B D C
6 cm AD = 5.2 cm

3. How does the length of BD compare with that of DC?


They are congruent.

–4–
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Constructing Altitudes of Triangles

1. An altitude is a line segment drawn from one vertex perpendicular to the


opposite side. An altitude can be constructed using a set square, a
protractor and ruler, or a compass and ruler.

Draw the three altitudes for each of the following triangles. Name the
vertex and its corresponding base.

(a) A Vertex Base

A BC

B AC

C AB
B C

(b) D F Vertex Base

D EF

E DF

F DE

(c) M Vertex Base

M NO

O N MO

O MN

–5–
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
(d) A Vertex Base

A BC

B AC

C AB
C

(e) E Vertex Base


G E GF

F EG

G EF

What do you notice in each triangle about the three altitudes?

intersect at a central point

What conjecture can you make?

the altitudes of any triangle meet at a central point

Note for the teacher: The point of intersection of the altitudes of a


triangle is called the orthocentre.

–6–

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
2. Draw the following triangles, each having one altitude of 5 cm.
(answers will vary)
(a) an acute triangle

5 cm

(b) an obtuse triangle

5 cm

(c) a right triangle

5 cm

–7–
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
3. Given the following triangle:

A
in cm in mm

m AB 4.8 48

m AC 4.8 48

m BC 6.8 68
C B
(a) Find the perimeter of this triangle, in both centimetres and
millimetres. 16.4 cm and 164 mm
(b) Calculate the area of this triangle, in both centimetres and
millimetres. 11.52 cm2 and 1152 mm2
(c) Without using your protractor, find the measures of angles B and
C and justify your work.

Note: Some students may calculate the area using AB and AC as base
and altitude. Others may draw the altitude from A and use base BC. An
interesting discussion may ensue.
Statement Justification

m ∠A = 90° given right angle

m AB = m AC given isosceles triangle

m ∠C = m ∠B The measures of the angles


opposite the equal sides of an
isosceles triangle are equal.
m ∠A + m ∠B + m ∠C = 180° The sum of the measures of
the interior angles of a
triangle is equal to 180°.

m ∠B + m ∠C = 90° The acute angles in a right


triangle are complementary.
m ∠B = 45°

m ∠C = 45°

Note: Justifications may be presented in different forms.

–8–
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
4. An axis of symmetry is a line which divides the figure in two so that
each part is the reflection of the other.

Draw all the axes of symmetry for the following triangles.

(a) These lines of symmetry could be obtained


by folding, use of Mira, construction of
right bisectors, angle bisectors.

equilateral

(b)

isosceles

(c)

scalene

–9–
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Axes of Symmetry of Triangles

5. On the dot paper provided below, draw a picture, if possible, of a large


triangle that has exactly one axis of symmetry.

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

If you were able to draw such a triangle, what kind of triangle have you
drawn?

isosceles triangle

– 10 –

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Axes of Symmetry of Triangles (continued)

6. On the dot paper provided below, draw a picture, if possible, of a large


triangle that has exactly three axes of symmetry.

If you were able to draw such a triangle, what kind of triangle have you
drawn?

equilateral triangle

– 11 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Axes of Symmetry of Triangles (continued)

7. On the dot paper provided below, draw a picture, if possible, of a large


triangle that has exactly two axes of symmetry.

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

If you were able to draw such a triangle, what kind of triangle have you
drawn?

– 12 –

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Axes of Symmetry of Triangles (continued)

8. On the dot paper provided below, draw a picture, if possible, of a large


triangle that has no axes of symmetry.

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

If you were able to draw such a triangle, what kind of triangle have you
drawn?

scalene triangle

– 13 –

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Constructing a Perpendicular Bisector of a Segment

9. A perpendicular (right) bisector is a line which passes through the


midpoint of a line segment at a 90° angle.

Construct the perpendicular bisector (right bisector) of each segment


pictured.
B

5.1 cm
A

(use compass
and ruler)

5.1 cm

D
(use protractor
F and ruler)

E
(use another
method of your
choice) eg. set square and ruler
– 14 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Constructing a Perpendicular Bisector of a Segment (continued)

10. Construct the perpendicular bisectors of all the sides of the triangles
pictured.

4 cm
4 cm

3.2 cm
(use compass 3.4 cm
and ruler)

3.2 cm
3.4 cm
(use protractor
and ruler)

(use another eg. use set


method of square and
your choice) ruler

What do you notice, in each triangle, about the three perpendicular


bisectors?
They all have one point of intersection.

What conjecture would you make?


The three perpendicular bisectors of any acute triangle have one point of
intersection within the triangle. For obtuse triangles, the point of intersection
lies outside the triangle.

– 15 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Constructing a Line Perpendicular to a Given Line
Through a Given Point

11. (a) Construct a line through point A perpendicular to line l .

eg. use set square & ruler


A use compass & ruler

(b) Construct a line through point B perpendicular to line m.

eg. use set square & ruler


m

– 16 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Constructing a Perpendicular Bisector of a Segment

12. Construct the perpendicular bisectors of all the sides of the given right
isosceles triangle.

1 4

2 3

∆1
∆2
∆3
∆4
∆1 & 2 together
∆3 & 4 together
∆1 & 2 & 3 & 4 together

Where is the point of intersection of the three bisectors of a right


isosceles triangle located?

The midpoint of the side opposite the right angle.

How many right isosceles triangles are now found in the diagram?

There are seven right isosceles triangles.

Note for your information: The point of intersection of the perpendicular


bisectors is called the circumcentre.

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
– 17 –
Bisecting Angles

13. Bisect the given angles.

(use compass
C and ruler only)

D E

(use a method
of your choice)

eg. use protractor and ruler

122° = 60°
2

– 18 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Bisecting Angles (continued)

14. Use a method of your choice to bisect all the angles of the given
triangles.

These angle bisectors can be constructed by means of folding, use of


Mira, compass and ruler, ruler and protractor.

– 19 –

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Bisecting Angles (continued)
14. (continued)

What do you notice in each triangle about the three angle bisectors?
All three angle bisectors of the triangles intersect at one point.

What conjecture can you make?


For any triangle, the three angle bisectors will intersect at one point within
the triangle.

Note: The point of intersection of the angle bisectors of a triangle is


the incentre.
– 20 –

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Constructing Medians of a Triangle
15. A median is a line segment from a vertex of a triangle to the
midpoint of the opposite side.

Draw the three medians for each of the following triangles.


A
These medians can be drawn
by first constructing a right
bisector of the side opposite
the vertex.
P

B C

M
R

What do you notice in each triangle about the three medians?


They all meet at one intersecting point roughly in the “middle.”

What conjectures can you make?


For any triangle, the three medians intersect at one point within the triangle.

Note for your information: The point of intersection of the medians of a


triangle is called the centroid.

– 21 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Constructing Medians of a Triangle (continued)

17. Draw a triangle such that:

(a) only one median is also an axis of symmetry;

axis of symmetry

isosceles triangle

(b) all the medians act as axes of symmetry.

equilateral triangle

– 22 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Investigating Special Relationships in Triangles

Aim: (MEQ Terminal Objective 3.3) The objective of this exercise is for students to
discover the following:

• In any triangle, the length of any side is less than the sum of the lengths
of the other two sides.
• In any triangle, the length of any side is greater than the difference of
the lengths of the other two sides.
• In any triangle, the longest side is opposite the largest angle.

Possible Materials: Linguine


Spaghetti
Straws
Coffee Straws
String

The teacher will establish a unit length such that four units are equal to the
total length of the materials being used. (One piece for each length is easier to
work with.)
eg: 1 straw is equal to 4
You will need three of each of the following lengths: units
1 unit is equal to one
1 unit, 2 units, 3 units and 4 units. quarter of a straw

The teacher or one of the students can construct these lengths.

The students will manipulate the selected lengths to attempt to create


triangles. Each row of the chart must be completed before proceeding to the
next one. Students should draw their own hypotheses using each of the ten
cases.

Students must then record their conclusions.

Note: Page 26A in this guide is a blank table if you wish to use it.

Part A

1. Use the materials provided and try to construct triangles using the sides
given in the chart.
2. In the fourth column of the chart, answer the questions “Is it a
triangle?”
3. Sketch as accurately as possible the figure formed by the three sides.
4. On the sketch, circle the vertex of the largest angle.
– 23 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Investigating Triangles (continued)
Part B

Answer these questions only after you have completed the chart.

1. Consider the first triangle:

(a) What is the sum of the lengths of sides #1 and #2?

What is the length of side #3?

(b) What is the sum of the lengths of sides #1 and #3?

What is the length of side #2?

(c) What is the sum of the lengths of sides #2 and #3?

What is the length of side #1?

What conjecture might you make?

Will vary with individual students.

Verify this conjecture for the other nine cases. Do your


calculations mentally.

Conclusion:

The length of any side of a triangle is less than the sum of the lengths

of the other 2 sides.

– 24 –

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
2. Consider the first triangle:
(a) Find the difference between sides #1 and #2 0
What is the length of side #3? 1
(b) Find the difference between sides #1 and #3 0
What is the length of side #2? 1
(c) Find the difference between sides #2 and #3 0
What is the length of side #1? 1
What conjecture can you make?
Will vary with individual students.

Verify this conjecture for the other nine cases. Do your


calculations mentally.

Conclusion:
The lengths of any side of a triangle is greater than the difference of
the lengths of the other 2 sides.

3. (a) In cases where triangles exist, check the position of the longest
side in relation to the largest angle. Describe in words what this
relation is.
Will vary.
__________________________________________________________________

(b) In cases where triangles exist, check the position of the shortest
side in relation to the smallest angle. Describe in words what this
relation is.
Will vary.
__________________________________________________________________

Conclusion:
The longest side of a triangle is opposite the largest angle, and vice
versa.

– 25 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Investigating Triangles

Sketch your construction.


Length of Length of Length of Is it a Indicate the side lengths.
Side # 1 Side # 2 Side # 3 Triangle? Circle the largest angle.

1 1
yes
1 1 1 1 1

2 1 1 2 no

2 2

3 2 2 2 yes
2

4 1 2 3 no

yes 2 2

5 2 2 3 3

no
6 1 3 4
2 3
yes
7 2 3 4 4

3 3
yes
8 3 3 4 4

9 1 2 4 no

1 4

10 4 1 4 yes 4

– 26 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Investigating Triangles

Sketch your construction.


Length of Length of Length of Is it a Indicate the side lengths.
Side # 1 Side # 2 Side # 3 Triangle? Circle the largest angle.

10

– 26A –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Interior Angles of Triangles

1. Find the missing angles:

∆ABC is equilateral. BE, AD and CF are medians.

A a) 90°
m ∠1 = ________
60°
m ∠2 = ________
30°
m ∠3 = ________
30°
m ∠4 = ________
F E
1 60°
m ∠5 = ________
2
5 90°
m ∠6 = ________
3
6 4
B C Justify your answers.
D

All
b) Which triangles are congruent? __________________________________

2. Find the missing angles.

∆ABC is a right isosceles EF, DF and BF are the perpendicular


triangle. bisectors of the sides.

A a) 45°
m ∠1 = ________
45°
m ∠2 = ________
90°
m ∠3 = ________

E F 45°
m ∠4 = ________
14
90°
m ∠5 = ________
45°
m ∠6 = ________
2 3 5 6
B D C Justify your answers.

b) All
Which triangles are right isosceles? ______________________________

– 27 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Interior Angles of Triangles (continued)

3. Find the missing angles:

DF // AC ∆ADE, ∆DEF, ∆BDF and ∆CEF are congruent.

DE // BC

B
100°

D 3 4
5
F
1 2 6

8
30° 9 7 50°
A C
E

a) 100°
m ∠1 = ________ 50°
m ∠4 = ________ 30°
m ∠7 = ________

50°
m ∠2 = ________ 30°
m ∠5 = ________ 100°
m ∠8 = ________

m ∠3 = ________
30° m ∠6 = ________
100° 50°
m ∠9 = ________

Justify your answers.

Corresponding angles are equal in congruent triangles.

– 28 –

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Who Am I?

1. Who am I?

(a) I am the only triangle with no axis of symmetry.


scalene
__________________________________________________________________

(b) I am the only triangle with exactly 1 axis of symmetry.


isosceles
__________________________________________________________________

(c) I am the only triangle with 3 axes of symmetry.


equilateral
__________________________________________________________________

(d) I am the only triangle with no perpendicular medians.


scalene
__________________________________________________________________

(e) I am the only triangle with exactly 1 perpendicular median.


isosceles
__________________________________________________________________

(f) I am the only triangle with 3 perpendicular medians.


equilateral
__________________________________________________________________

(g) I am the only triangle with an altitude which is one of my sides.


right triangle
__________________________________________________________________

(h) I am the only triangle with exactly 1 axis of symmetry which is


also a median and a right bisector.
isosceles
__________________________________________________________________

(i) I am the only triangle that has exactly 1 altitude which is also a
perpendicular bisector and a median.
isosceles
__________________________________________________________________

(j) I am the only triangle whose medians, angle bisectors and


altitudes are one and the same.
equilateral
__________________________________________________________________

– 29 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Classifying Quadrilaterals

In recent years, the notion of a trapezoid has evolved. The current definition is
as follows:

A trapezoid is a quadrilateral having at least one pair of parallel sides.

The following hierarchical diagram of quadrilaterals incorporates this


definition.

The general rule of the hierarchy is that any property held by a figure is also
held by all the figures below it to which it is connected.

Convex Quadrilaterals

Kite Trapezoid Other

Parallelogram Isosceles Trapezoid

Rhombus Rectangle

Square

– 29A –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Properties of the Diagonals of Quadrilaterals

A diagonal is a line segment joining two non-adjacent vertices.

The properties of the diagonals of the following quadrilaterals will be explored:


square, rhombus, rectangle, parallelogram, isosceles trapezoid.

Compile your results in the table at the end of this section (see page 38).

1. Square

E J
B D

(a) Do the diagonals of squares bisect each other?


yes
__________________________________________________________________

(b) Are the diagonals of squares perpendicular?


yes
__________________________________________________________________

(c) Are the diagonals of squares congruent?


yes
__________________________________________________________________

(d) Draw two other squares and verify that your findings are still valid.

– 30 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Properties of the Diagonals of Quadrilaterals

2. Rhombus

A D
E

B C F

(a) Do the diagonals of rhombuses bisect each other?

yes
__________________________________________________________________

(b) Are the diagonals of rhombuses perpendicular?

yes
__________________________________________________________________

(c) Are the diagonals of rhombuses congruent?


no
__________________________________________________________________

(d) Draw two other rhombuses and verify that your findings are still
valid.

– 31 –

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Properties of the Diagonals of Quadrilaterals

3. Rectangles

E H
A D

B C F G

(a) Do the diagonals of rectangles bisect each other?


yes
__________________________________________________________________

(b) Are the diagonals of rectangles perpendicular?

no
__________________________________________________________________

(c) Are the diagonals of rectangles congruent?


yes
__________________________________________________________________

(d) Draw two other rectangles and verify that your findings are still
valid.

– 32 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Properties of the Diagonals of Quadrilaterals
4. Parallelograms

B G

C J

E
I
A

F
D

(a) Do the diagonals of the parallelograms bisect each other?


yes
__________________________________________________________________

(b) Are the diagonals of the parallelograms perpendicular?


no
__________________________________________________________________

(c) Are the diagonals of the parallelograms congruent?


no
__________________________________________________________________

(d) Draw two other parallelograms and verify that your findings are
still valid.

– 33 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Properties of the Diagonals of Quadrilaterals

5. Isosceles Trapezoid

A D E H

F G
B C

(a) Do the diagonals of isosceles trapezoids bisect each other?


no
__________________________________________________________________

(b) Are the diagonals of isosceles trapezoids perpendicular?


no
__________________________________________________________________

(c) Are the diagonals of isosceles trapezoids congruent?


yes
__________________________________________________________________

(d) Draw two other isosceles trapezoids and verify that your findings
are still valid.

– 34 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Properties of the Diagonals of Quadrilaterals

6. Kite

B D

F H

G
C

(a) Do the diagonals of kites bisect each other?


no
__________________________________________________________________

(b) Are the diagonals of kites perpendicular?

yes
__________________________________________________________________

(c) Are the diagonals of kites congruent?


no
__________________________________________________________________

(d) Draw two other kites and verify that your findings are still valid.

– 35 –

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Properties of the Diagonals of Quadrilaterals

7. Trapezoid (with only one pair of parallel sides)

A D E H

F G
B C

(a) Do the diagonals of these trapezoids bisect each other?

no
__________________________________________________________________

(b) Are the diagonals of these trapezoids perpendicular?

no
__________________________________________________________________

(c) Are the diagonals of these trapezoids congruent?

no
__________________________________________________________________

(d) Draw two other similar trapezoids and verify that your findings are
still valid.

– 36 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Properties of the Diagonals of Quadrilaterals
4. What figure is obtained when the diagonals:

• intersect at right angles?


kite
square
rhombus

• intersect at right angles and only one diagonal bisects the other?

kite

• bisect each other?


rectangle
square
parallelogram
rhombus

• are congruent and bisect each other?

rectangle
square

• are perpendicular and bisect each other?

square
rhombus

• are congruent, perpendicular and bisect each other?

square

– 37 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Properties of the Diagonals of Quadrilaterals (continued)

5. Complete the table which summarizes the properties of the diagonals


within different quadrilaterals.

Diagonals Diagonals Diagonals Diagonals are


Properties are Bisect are Perpendicular
Congruent Each Perpendicular Bisectors of
Other Each Other
Quadrilaterals

Trapezoid (with only


one pair of parallel sides)

Isosceles Trapezoid √
Parallelogram √
Rectangle
√ √
Rhombus
√ √ √
Square √ √ √ √
6. Justify each of the following statements:

(a) A square is a rhombus.

4 congruent sides, opposite interior angles are congruent, opposite


__________________________________________________________________
sides are parallel.
(b) A rectangle is a trapezoid.
It has at least 1 set of parallel sides.
__________________________________________________________________

(c) a rhombus is a trapezoid.


It has at least 1 set of parallel sides.
__________________________________________________________________

(d) A square is a parallelogram.

Opposite sides are equal and parallel and interior opposite angles
__________________________________________________________________
are congruent.

– 38 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Classifying Quadrilaterals

Shade the whole box if it has an incorrect figure. The shading will cause a
“desert” shape to occur.

– 39 –

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Classification of Polygons
Simple Closed Curves

Concave Convex Polygons Simple Closed Curves

Triangles

Equilateral Isosceles Scalene

Acute Right Obtuse

Convex Quadrilaterals

kite
isosceles

No Sides Parallel Trapezoids Parallelograms

Rhombuses Rectangles Squares

Convex Quadrilaterals
Trapezoids
Parallelograms There are many ways to sort polygons.
Many with three and four sides have special
Rec
ses

names.
Squares
bu

tan
om

gles
Rh

– 40 –

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
As Easy As 1, 2, 3
This activity is an experience in subdividing a set of geometric figures into
smaller related subsets. The activity is written for 30 geometric figures but you
might like to use fewer figures. Thirty figures and a sample subdivision are
included on page 38 (see Activity 1b).
In this activity students will:
(1) Subdivide the set of 30 figures into subsets of related figures.
(2) Write a description of each subset, so that anyone reading the
descriptions could separate the figures into exactly the same subsets.
Groups of 4 to 5 students are
given identical sets of 30
randomly numbered figures. The
students are asked to separate
the figures into subsets of related
figures. Some students may sort
by number or colour (if you make
the figures different colours).
Others may separate the figures
into 4-sided and not 4-sided
figures or into curved and not
curved figures. Any group
finishing early in its
classification could be
encouraged to develop another
system that gives a larger number
of related subsets. For example,
you could suggest that the group
try to find a classification that
gives five subsets of related
figures. One system could be
figures with 3 sides, 4 sides, 5
sides, 6 sides or others.
Have each group of students
write a description of its subsets.
For future reference have
one student in each group record
the number of the figures in each subset. Later in the class period or the next
day have pairs of groups trade descriptions. The groups will then try to
subdivide the figures into subsets according to the other group’s description.
Finally have each pair of groups meet to discuss the results.Idea from: Lab

Geometry, Teacher’s Edition. Permission to use granted by Bellevue Public Schools.

– Activity 1a –

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
As Easy As 1, 2, 3 (continued)

Thirty Sample Figures

Idea from: Lab Geometry, Teacher’s Edition. Permission to use granted by Bellevue Public Schools.

– Activity 1b –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Polygon Pass-Out

You will need:

(1) a deck of cards with geometric figures on them

(2) two teams

(3) a clue-giver for each team

Rules:

(1) The game is played like Password. The clue-giver for team 1 draws a card
and gives a clue to his team. One person on the team tries to guess the
geometric figure. If the guess is correct team 1 receives five points.

(2) If the guess is not correct the clue-giver for team 2 gives a clue and team
2 makes a guess. A correct guess would score four points.

(3) If no correct answer is given, go back to team 1, etc.

(4) If after 5 rounds neither team has guessed the figure, the shape is
revealed and a new round is begun.

(5) Team 2 starts the next round.

(6) The team with the highest score at the end wins.

Idea from: Ideas for Manipulative Materials Elementary Mathematics. Permission to use granted by
Northern Colorado Educational Board of Cooperative Services.

– Activity 2 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
What’s the Difference?

You will need: Sample Questions

(1) a set of questions (see samples) What’s the difference between...


• a rectangle and a triangle?
(2) two teams
• a circle and a triangle?
• a parallelogram and a square?
(3) one person to read the questions
• a parallelogram and a rectangle?
Procedure:
What can you say about...
(1) The person reads one questions. • a triangle but not a circle or a square?
(For example, “What’s the • a square but not a triangle or a rhombus?
difference between a rectangle • a and a triangle?
and a triangle?”

(2) Team 1 responds and scores one point if correct. (i.e. “A rectangle has
four sides; a triangle has three.”)

(3) team 2 responds to the same question, but must give another answer to
score one point if correct. (i.e. “The sum of the angles of a rectangle is
360° - twice that of the triangle.”)

(4) Team 1 responds again. (i.e. “A rectangle has four interior angles; a
triangle has three angles.”)

(5) Team 2 continues with another answer. (i.e. “The triangle is a rigid
figure; a rectangle is not.”)

(6) Play alternates until both teams exhaust their answers and pass in
succession.

(7) Team 2 starts the next round.

(8) The team with the highest score wins.

Idea from: Ideas for Manipulative Materials Elementary Mathematics. Permission to use granted by
Northern Colorado Educational Board of Cooperative Services.

– Activity 3 –

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Construction of Triangles

1. Construct a triangle that has:

(a) sides measuring 7 cm, 6 cm and 4 cm

4 cm
6 cm

7 cm

(b) an angle of 30° contained by sides measuring 20 mm and 40 mm

20 mm
30°
40 mm

(c) angles of 78° and 52° at the endpoints of a segment measuring


6 cm.

78° 52°
6 cm

– 40 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Construction of Triangles (continued)

2. How many isosceles triangles can be formed with a side of 4 cm and an


angle of 50°?

Construct your solutions. 50°

50°

4 cm
50° 50°
4 cm 4 cm

4 cm 4 cm

50° 50°

3. Construct an isosceles triangle having:

• an angle of 50° contained by its two congruent sides

• an altitude of 5 cm from the vertex of the 50° angle

5 cm
25°
25°

– 41 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Construction of Quadrilaterals

1. Construct the following quadrilaterals with the given measurements:

(a) a square with side measuring 4.2 cm

4.2 cm

(b) a rhombus with diagonals measuring 5 cm and 8 cm

(c) a rhombus with side measuring 3 cm and one angle of 40°

40° 140°

3 cm
140° 40°

– 42 –
Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.
Construction of Quadrilaterals (continued)

2. Construct a parallelogram with sides measuring 5 cm and 7 cm and an


angle of 65°.

5 cm

65°
7 cm

3. Construct a rectangle with diagonals measuring 6 cm, forming an angle


of 30°.

6 cm

– 43 –

Math 116 materials prepared by teachers of the South Shore, Chateauguay Valley (Protestant), District of Bedford,
L’Eau-Vive and Brossard School Boards with funding provided by a PEOPT grant.