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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE

PERIOD ARCHITECTURE ARCH'L CHARACTER SYSTEM OF CONSTN DESCRIPTION


Egyptian
Cols are hide
West Asiatic
1. Mesopotamian
-babylonian/chaldean pd Massive, military, Arch & Vault
non-columnar
2. Assyrian
Doorways:
-semi-circular arch
Roof:
-flat externally
-barrel vault inside
No cols
No Mouldings
Sculpture:
-monsters @ doorways
3. Persian
Columnar & treabeated Wooden, monumental,
magnificent,commanding,
formal, decorative
Cols:
-stone
Walls:
-bricks
Wall surfacing:
-bricks (polychrome)
Roof:
-timber (flat)
Openings:
-square headed
Mouldings:
- copied from egypt
Ornaments:
- copied from mesopotamia
Greek
1. Mycenean/Minoan/aegean
2. Greek/Hellenistic
Simple & Harmonious Post & Lintel Purity of line, perfect proportions,
define details, monumental,
formal, static, columnar
Openings:
-windowless
-door-square headed
Roof:
-covered w/ marble
Roman
Vassiness & Arctuated & trabeated Wall surfacing
ornamentation Buttresses
Orientation & magnifi- Semi-circular openings
cent Vaulted roof
Mouldings: profiles of circles
Ornaments: scroll of acantus
statues, mural painting, mosaic
Wall: brick
Floor:chevron
4th-12th century Christian simplicity Arcaded & trabeated Walls: Recycled from romans
horizontality Openings: semi-circular headed
Roof: Domed, semi-domed
barrel vaults on side aisles
timber truss on naves
Columns: assorted
Mouldings: Recycled from roman
Ornament: mosaic & fresco
1834-15th Cent Byzantine simple exterior, trabeated & domical Walls: bricks diff patters-interior
rich interior palin cement-exterior
Openings: Semicircular, horshoe
Roofs: domical
Cols: simple w/ dosseret
Ornements: peacock, endlless-
nop, sacred monoblock of rice
Ceiling: head & shoulder of christ
Pendentives: 4-evangelistic fig
Walls: biblical stories-paintings
8th-12th century Romanesque Sovern & dignified Arctuated Walls: corbel arches, pilaters
"roman-like-art" Window: wheel window
Doors: Main-projecting porches
Roof: Vaulting
Columns: coupled
Mouldings: Sculptures
Ornaments: pre-fresco
1. Italian Romanesque
Central Italy Ornamental arcade
Faade: divided into 4
Northern Italy Faade: w/ projecting
porch
Southern Italy & Sicily Strike of colored marble
-influence by muslims
North & southern France Pointed arch
no side aisles
Flanking towers on
both sides
Gernman western apse,
entrance on lateral sides
12th-16th Cent Gothic Lofty & aspiring quality Arctuated & Plan: arrange for convenience
"departure from classic arch" "style ogivale" painted arches Walls: Rubble masonry
Structural Honesty w/ flying butresses
& Economy Openings: pointed arches
Windows: tracery
Doorways: jambs
Roof: slate or lead coverings
ribbed & panel vaulting
Cols: om higher pier
Mouldings: varied as per country
Ornaments: stained glass, figure,
sculpture
French 1. lancet period
-pointed arches &
geometric traceried wdos
2. Rayonnant period
-circular wdos w/ wheel
traceries
3. Flambouyant prd.
-flame-like of free flowing
tracery
Dutch Barge board
Belgian
German "hall church" absence of triforum
Italian
England
Spanish influence by french
gothic
Rennaissance dignity & formality Plan:symmetrical
"rebirth of classic" mystic Wall: Ashlar,rustication(exterior),
Openings:Semi-circular arches
Jambs: recessed
Roof: barell vault, dome w/ drum
Columns: Classic order
Mouldings: adapted to romans
Ornaments: fresco (walls & ceiling)
Sgraffito
1. Baroque: -arch're of curve lines
1.twisted cols
2.curve & broken pedi
ment
italian baroque
-seen in the interior
French Baroque
-rococo
2. Spanish Rennaisance
"plateresque"-earlier
"churriguerresque" -later
3. English Rennaisance
"elizabethan period"
19th century Revival
1830-1850 1. Britain revival greek-roman revival
-augustus pug-in
-sir joseph paxton
-sir william chambers
-sir john soanne
1830-1848 2. Continental European Revival new rennaissance
-vignola
-chalgrin
-bradenburg gate
1850-1875 3. Gothic & Rennaissance
-sir g.g. scott
-sir c. barry
1875-1901 Late Victorian Eclectic architecture
1848-1870 Second empire high neo-rennaissance
1870-1914 Third republic neo-baroque
-charles garnier
Queen ann style-norman
shaw
20th century Industrial Revolution
Art Noveau arts & Craft Movement Reinforced concrete
France: Le Modern Style
Gremany: Jugenstile
Austria: sezzione
Italy: style liberty
Spain: Modernismo
Art Deco: Metro politan -Organic & dynamic forms
-curving designs
-whiplash lights
Modern Architecture glass & steel Glass, steel, & R.C.
Folded Slab- Eugene Freysinet
Flat Slab- Robert Millart
Laminated Timber
American Architecture
Colonial Giorgian arch-india
National Classical Revival
Githic Revival
Asian Architecture
Muslim
stalactite
arches
India Opposite of muslim
Hinduism-chaitya temples
Vihama
Gopura
Buddhism-stupa
vihara, chaitya, stambha
China Stupa-pagoda
Japanese Tokyo-braket Roof: accdg to mans wealt
Thailand influence by the chinese
Cambodian
Indonesian
Myanmar (Burma)
Nepal
Tibet
Philippine
STRUCTURES MATERIALS ARCHL HIGHLIGHT
1. Tomb
-mastaba
-pyramid
-rock-cut/hewn
-temple
-sphinx
-obelisk
1. Zigurrats Brick Flatform
2. Palace -mud bake
-sun dried
1. Zigurrats Chiseled alabaster Battlemented &
2. Palace slab crestings
1. Palace Flatform
bricks & stones
1. Palace
-followed by megaron Stonework
2. Tomb
1. Temple marble lacunaria @ ceiling
2. Theatre
3. Public Bldgs
-agora
-stoa
-prythaneon
-bouleterion
-stadium
-hippodrome
-palaestra
-gymnasium
4. Domestic Bldg
5. Tomb
1. forum fountains
2. temple
3. basilica
4. thermae
5. theatre
6. burial places
7. commemorative
monuments
8. palaces
9. roman houses
*garden
*aqueducts
*churches
1. Churches
1. basilica bricks -no icons (prohibited)
2. churches cement
1. church stone -bell towers
w/ monasteries
cathedral stone *famous architects
France:
Villard de Henecourt
Italy:
Arnolfo De Cambio
Germany:
Peter parler
England:
Henry Yevelle Hugh
Herland
Brick
st. peter's
oriel & bay window
topiary hall
imp. Arch
-Sullivan & Wright
Int'l Style
-philip johnson
"Skyscrapper"
-america's contr
Mosque - place of
prostration
Pagoda tatami
1. wat
2. bot
3. phara chedi
4. mondop
5. kuti
angkor wat
Burabudur
1. Zedi
2. Kyaung
3. Thein
4. Pitakat-Taic
1. Chorten
2. Sakya
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
Cols.;
Entrance gateway: Pylon
Palaces:
-wider than mesopotamia
Col: slender
temple: towards east
Col: entassis
Entrance gateway: Propylea
Entrance gateway: Prothyrum
Church: Basilican
Temples & basilica:
based from greek plan
Cemeteria:
changed to catacomb
Churches: "greek cross"
Churches: "Latin cross"
retado/reredo -iconostasis
intro of rejas
palaces build inside a "cortili"
gopura-gateway
Pailou-gateway
Torii-gateway
stupa: phara chedi
library: mondop
monastery: kuti
Stupa: Zedi
Monastery: Kyaung
Library: Pitakat-taic
Stupa: chorten
Monastery: Sakya