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TIRUPUR 641 665

(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi and Affiliated to Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore
An I!" #$$%&'$$( Certified Instit)tion
Branch: B.Tech Year / Sem: II / III
1. How dyes are classified based on application?
2. Distinguish between i) a dye and pigment
Points of Difference Dyes Pigments
Solubility They are sol)ble
*igments are colo)rants that are insol)ble
in water and most of the solvents
Number Available in +arge n)mber Comparatively lesser in n)mber
Product resistance +ower as compared to pigments ,ery high
Light fastness
+ower Dyes are very m)ch v)lnerable-
+ights destroy colored ob.ects by brea/ing
open electronic bonding within the
Traditionally pigments have been fo)nd to
be more lightfast than dyes
Dye molec)les are comparatively smaller
it0s li/e comparing a football (pigment to
say a head of a pin (dye
*igment particles are abo)t %1' microns in
si2e- (% micron 3%4%$$$ meter-
It means that the particles can be seen
)nder a magnifying glass
Ta/ing the e5ample of dyeing a wood
s)rface, the dye and the s)bstrate (wood
that is dyed are chemicals, which have
certain feat)res called f)nctional gro)ps-
At the level of molec)les these gro)ps
serve as open poc/ets of electrostatic
charges (6 or 1-
The f)nctional gro)p in dyes, serve as a
method for attaching the dye to the wood
7or e5ample ta/ing the e5ample of a wood
s)rface *igment re8)ires the help of a
binder for gl)ing-
As it is an inert s)bstance which is merely
s)spended in a carrier4binder
Structure during
the application
D)ring application process there is a
temporary alteration in the str)ct)re of the
D)ring application, pigments have the
capacity to retain partic)late or crystalline
Imparting of
Dyes can only impart colo)r by selective
absorption of the dyes
*igments impart colo)rs by either
scattering of light or by selective
Ta/ing the e5ample of a Candle ma/ing
process, if the candles are dyed it is easily
comb)stible and can be applied thro)gho)t
the candle
In the e5ample of a candle ma/ing as
pigments are colored particles, they tend to
clog a wic/ when b)rned- This ma/es
them )ndesirable for a candle if it is
colored thro)gho)t and )sed for b)rning
Us)ally the dyes are organic (i-e- carbon1
based compo)nds
9hile pigments are normally inorganic
compo)nds, often involving heavy to5ic
Longevity factor
The dye based printing in/s do not last as
long as the pigment in/s
In case of in/ based printing prints made
with pigments lasts longer
Printing on
Compatible with almost all the s)bstrates
that needs to be dyed
"wing to the physical ma/e)p of the
pigment in/s the range for s)itable
s)bstrates are limited
Colour gamut
Ta/ing the case of printing in/s, dye based
in/s offers a wide variety
As compared to dye1based in/s, pigment
in/sets somewhat lags behind, on the same
paper stoc/
:- Indicate the fibres for which the following dyes have affinity:
a. Reactive dyes b. Acid dyes c. Vat dyes d. Disperse dyes e. Direct dyes?
;eactive dyes < cotton, wool, sil/, polyamide and viscose rayon
Acid dyes < sil/ and nylon
,at dyes < cotton
Disperse dyes < polyester and acrylic
Direct dyes < cotton and wool
4. Define : Substantivity or affinity
The process in which dye molec)les are attracted by physical forces at the molec)lar level to the te5tile-
The amo)nt of this attraction is /nown as =s)bstantivity=- The higher the s)bstantivity the greater the
attraction of the dye for the fiber
5. Define : Exhaustion
The amo)nt dyes absorbed by the fibre e5pressed in percentage is called as E5ha)stion
6. Define : M:L ratio
The relationship between material and li8)or that means amo)nt of dye li8)or re8)ired for dyeing of )nit
weight of material-
E5& >& +& ; is %&'$ means '$ liters of dye sol)tion re8)ired for dyeing of % /g fabric-
7. Define: Shade percentage.
The 8)antity of dyest)ff ta/en for a dyeing e5pressed as a percentage of the dry weight of the fibre to be
dyed- !hade percentage is ' means ' gram of dyes ta/en for dyeing of %$$g of a te5tile material-
8. List the common dyeing assistants used dyeing.
9ater softening, E5ha)sting agents, 9etting Agent, Dispersing agents, +eveling agents, ;etarding
9. Write down the liquor ratio commonly used in the following machines.
?igger, @ier, 9inch, ATA* machines for yarn and fabric, !oft overflow .et dyeing, Barn pac/age dyeing
?igger < %-C
@ier < %& C
9inches < %& '$ to %& D$
ATA* machines for yarn and fabric 1 %&( to %&%$
!oft overflow .et dyeing < %&( to %&%$
Barn pac/age dyeing < %&C
10. What classes of dye are suitable for dyeing cotton fabric?
;eactive dye, direct dye, s)lph)r dye, a2oic dyes and vat dyes
11. What are the advantage & disadvantage of a beam dyeing machine?
The fabric is p)t )nder controlled tension, and is wo)nd on to a perforated beam- This res)lts in
elimination of creases from the fabric- It also ens)res total control of dimensions of the roll of fabric-
The fabric is not allowed to do any movement d)ring the process of dyeing- This act)ally means that
there is no application of mechanical action on to the fabric- As shown in the fig)re, there is no
movement of the fabric as the hydrostatic press)re of the p)mp forces the dye li8)or thro)gh the fabric
The machine is not s)itable for light weight and /nitted fabric dyeing-
12. What are steps involved for mechanism of dyeing?
*enetration and
13. Give the relative strength, dyes and suitable fibers for following bonds.
a- van der 9aalsE forces b- Aydrogen bonds c- salt lin/age d- Covalent bonds
,an der 9aalsE forces 1 %
Aydrogen bonds 1 :
!alt lin/age 1 F
Covalent bonds 1 :$
14. Why are direct dyes also called as substantive`?
Direct dyes have direct affinity with cotton fibres- !o that it is called s)bstantive dyes-
15. List any four properties of direct dyes.
Direct dyes give bright shades b)t e5hibit poor wash fastness-
Direct dyes are defined as anionic dyes with s)bstantivity for cell)losic fibres, normally applied from
an a8)eo)s dye bath containing an electrolyte, either sodi)m chloride (NaCl or sodi)m s)lfate
Their ionic nat)re is anionic
They are sol)ble in water
They have an affinity for a wide variety of fibers s)ch as cotton ,viscose, sil/ .)te ,linen etc
16. How are direct dyes classified?
!elf < leveling dyes
!alt controllable dyes
Temperat)re controllable dyes
17. Why are reactive dyes so called? Classify the reactive dyes with examples on the basis of
Its chemically react with cell)lose fibre to form a covalent bond- !o that it is called as reactive dyes-
Aot brand
Cold brand
,! brand
18. List any four properties of reactive dyes.
;eactive dyes are cationic dyes, which are )sed for dyeing cell)lose, protein and polyamide
;eactive dyes are fo)nd in power, li8)id and print paste form-
D)ring dyeing the reactive gro)p of this dye forms covalent bond with fibre polymer and
becomes an integral part of the fibre-
;eactive dyes are sol)ble in water-
They have very good light fastness with rating abo)t
The dyes have very stable electron arrangement and can protect the degrading effect of )ltra1
violet ray-
Te5tile materials dyed with reactive dyes have very good wash fastness with rating abo)t D1C d)e
to strong covalent bonds formed between fibre polymer and reactive gro)p of dye-
;eactive dye gives brighter shades and has moderate r)bbing fastness-
Dyeing method of reactive dyes is easy- It re8)ires less time and low temperat)re for dyeing-
;eactive dyes are comparatively cheap
;eactive dyes have good perspiration fastness with rating D1C- ;eactive dyes have good
perspiration fastness-
19. In reactive dyeing,
a) Why salt is added in two or more portion?
To provide the )niform dyeing for entire fabric-
b) Why Glauber`s salt is preferred in the case of dyesG
;e8)ired less amo)nt salt and provide the higher e5ha)stion rate
20. Why is after-treatment necessary for the reactive dyed goods?
To remove the fi5ed dyes from s)rface dyed fabric-
To improve the fastness properties of dyed materials-
21. What are the advantages of reactive dyes over other dyes classes with respect to dyeing cellulosic
Hood washing fastness d)e to formation of covalent bond between the fibres and dyes
Iright colo)r and more shades are possible
+ow cost
Easy to apply
22. What steps are involved in the application of a reactive dye to a cellulose fibre?
*reparation fabric
*reparation of dye sol)tion
23. What dyeing assistants are used in reactive dyeing? State their functions.
E5ha)sting agents < To promote e5ha)stion process or dye )p ta/e- E5- Common salt
7i5ing agents 1 To increase the pA val)e to %$ to%% (al/aline pA
1 To fi5 the dye molec)le on the fibre to ma/e covalent bond
24. Indicate the colour fastness properties of reactive dyes.
9ashing fastness < good (D1C
+ight fastness < moderate and good (:1D
Dyeing with Vat Dyes
25. What are vat dyes?
The dye is named from the container (,at that )sed for rotting the dye with al/ali sol)tion
26. State the sub-classes of vat dyes.
The %N (indanthrene normal1gro)p of dyeing temperat)res of J$KC- In s)ch dyeing s)bstances no salt is
added to the dye bath beca)se they have high portion of le)co dyes for cotton-
The %9 (indanthrene 9arm 1 gro)p of dyeing temperat)res of C$KC- In s)ch dyeing s)bstances some
addition of salt is re8)ired so to aid e5ha)stion-
The I@1 gro)p of dyeing s)bstances re8)ires low concentration of Na"A with dyeing temperat)re of
27. How would you classify the vat dyes according to the chemical constitution?
1 Anthra8)inonoid vat dyes
1 Indigoid vat dyes
1 !)lph)rised vat dyes
28. What is vatting?
,atting is a process of insol)ble vat dyes is convert to sol)ble by )sing of hydrose and sodi)m hydro5ide-
29. Write down the properties of vat dyes?
1 !)perior color fastness properties, which are e5ceptional in other dye classes
1 Needs vatting for application
1 9ater insol)ble dyes
1 A n)mber of colors can be prod)ced
1 ;)bbing fastness is not good, b)t is can be easily lessened with special treatments to the fabric
1 Especially )sed for cell)lose fiber with pA (meas)re of hydrogen ion concentration control-
30. State the different methods of oxidation of vat dyed goods.
Air o5idation
Chemical o5idation
31. What fibres can be dyed with vat dyes?
Cotton fibres
32. What are the dyeing conditions for vat dyes?
Temp 1 ($KC
Time < ' hrs
pA 1 Al/aline (%$
33. Write down the steps involved in the dyeing of cotton with vat dyes.
*reparation fabric
*reparation of dye sol)tion
"5idation (7i5ation
Disperse dyes
34. Why are disperse dyes called so?
Dyes with e5tremely low sol)bility in water which is in finely dispersed state-
35. List any four properties of disperse dyes.
Disperse dyes are nonionic dyes- !o they are free from ioni2ing gro)p-
They are ready made dyes and are insol)ble in water or have very low water sol)bility-
They are organic colo)ring s)bstances which are s)itable for dyeing hydrophobic fibres-
Disperse dyes are )sed for dyeing man made cell)lose ester and synthetic fibres specially acetate and
polyester fibres and sometimes nylon and acrylic fibres-
Carrier or dispersing agents are re8)ired for dyeing with disperse dyes-
Disperse dyes have fair to good light fastness with rating abo)t D1C-
The wash fastness of these dyes is moderate to good with rating abo)t :1D-
"f all dyest)ffs disperse dyes are of smallest molec)lar si2e-
Henerally disperse dyes are derivatives of a2o, anthro8)inone, nitro and 8)inine gro)ps-
They do not )ndergo any chemical change d)ring dyeing-
In presence of nitro)s o5ide, te5tile materials dyed with certain bl)e and violet disperse dyes with an
anthra8)inone str)ct)re will fade- This is called gas fading of disperse dyes which is a defect of this
36. List the auxiliaries used in disperse dyeing of polyester stating their function.
9etting agents < ;ed)ce s)rface tension of water and ma/e water wettablity
Disperse dyes < To disperse the dyes and red)ce the molec)le si2e of dyes-
Acetic acid < To maintain the pA of dye sol)tion (pA 1 D- $
37. What is the principle of carrier dyeing?
It is nothing b)t swelling the polyester fibres with help of carrier sol)tion and increase the pore si2e of
polyester fibres to facilitate dye penetration-
38. State the factors to be considered while selecting a carrier for polyester dyeing?
Economy, leveling and barer coverage
Effect on light fastness high, ;esistance to spotting, Ease of removal
To5icity, "dor d)ring and after dyeing
39. List the different machines used for dyeing polyester with disperse dyes.
ATA* Ieam dyeing machine, ATA* !oft flow dyeing m4c, ATA* .igger m4c
40. List the different method used for dyeing polyester with disperse dyes.
Carrier method
ATA* dyeing method
Thermosol >ethod
41. Why the reduction clearing treatment given to the polyester dyed goods?
1 To remove the )nfi5ed dyes with help of hydrose-
42. What are the advantage and disadvantage of a jet dyeing machine?
1 Dyeing time is short compared to beam dyeing-
1 >aterial to li8)or ratio is %&C (or %&J
1 *rod)ction is high compared to beam dyeing machine-
1 Cloth is dyed in rope form
1 ;is/ of entanglement
1 Chance for crease formation-
43. State the steps involved in thermosol process.
7o)r steps involved for dyeing
i- padding the material
ii- Drying the padded fabric
iii- 7i5ation of the dyest)ff
Dry heat at %($LC for #$ seconds (or
Dry heat at '%$LC for J$ seconds
iv- After treatment
44. What are the advantages of the thermosol process.
1 Ieing contin)o)s, large lots can be dyed economically-
1 !ince no carrier is involved, resid)es, and fastness problems are red)ced-
1 Dye fi5ation is e5cellent-
1 ;ope mar/s are eliminated beca)se the fabric is processed in open width-
1 Aeat1setting and dyeing may be carried o)t sim)ltaneo)sly-
1 Dyeability is not affected by prior heat1setting
45. Why is heat setting necessary for polyester fabric dyeing?
Aeat1setting thermoplastic fibres helps the polymer molec)les settle into conformations 9here they are
closer together- Intermolec)lar attractive forces are increased- This may decrease both the rate of dyeing
and the amo)nt of dye that can be e5ha)sted to the fabric- If this is a problem, heat1setting may be done
after the fabric has been dyed
46. What are the methods used for polyester and cotton blend dyeing?
E5ha)st Dyeing >ethods&
%- Two Iath Dyeing *rocesses & 7irst to dye the polyester and then cotton
'- "ne Iath Dyeing *rocess& Disperse and ,at, Disperse and ;eactive, Disperse and Direct Dyes
:- Inverse >ethod& 7irst to dye the cotton and then polyester
Contin)o)s processes
%- Contin)o)s dyeing with Disperse and ,at dyes, Disperse and ;eactive, Disperse and Direct Dyes
'- Thermosol4thermo1fi5ation process with disperse and reactive dyes
:- Contin)o)s dyeing with pigment colo)rs
D- Contin)o)s dyeing with Disperse and sol)bilised ,at dyes
C- Contin)o)s dyeing with Disperse dyes alone )sing a special a)5iliary
47. What do you mean by fastness properties?
7astness is the resistance colo)r of a te5tile material to specific chemical agencies
Color fastness refers to the resistance of color to fade or bleed of a dyed or printed te5tile materials to
vario)s types of infl)ences e-g- water, light, r)bbing, washing, perspiration etc- to which they are
normally e5posed in te5tile man)fact)ring and in daily )se-
48. List out the fastness method.
9ashing, ;)bbing, Daylight, Artificial light, *erspiration, Dry cleaning, Aeat setting