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Notes on

1.63 Advanced Environmental Fluid Mechanics

Instructor: C. C. Mei, 2001

ccmei@mit.edu, 1 617 253 2994

October 15, 2002

3-8impulsive.tex

3.8 Impulsive motion of a blunt body and tendency for

separation

Ref: H. Schlichting, Boundary layer theory, p 400 .

As an example of unsteady boundary layer, let us consider the initial stage (U

o

T/L 1)

of a boundary layer due to the impulsive start of motion near a blunt body, see the sketch

in Figure 3.8.1.

Figure 3.8.1: Boundary layer around a blunt body

.

Let us start with the boundary layer approximation and introduce a perturbation expan-

sion in powers of the small ratio U

o

T/L,

u = u

(1)

+

U

o

T

L

u

(2)

+

U

o

T

L

2

u

(3)

, (3.8.1)

p = p

(1)

+

U

o

T

L

)p

(2)

+ (

U

o

T

L

2

p

(3)

+ (3.8.2)

We then get

u

(1)

x

+ v

(1)

y

+

U

o

T

L

u

(2)

x

+ v

(2)

y

+ = 0, (3.8.3)

2

and

u

(1)

t

+

U

o

T

L

u

(2)

t

+

U

o

T

L

(u

(1)

u

(1)

x

+ v

(1)

u

(1)

y

) + O

U

o

T

L

2

=

U

o

T

L

UU

x

+ u

(1)

yy

+

U

o

T

L

u

(2)

yy

+ O

U

o

T

L

2

(3.8.4)

(3.8.5)

Equating the coecients of

U

o

T

L

0

we get the rst (leading) order perturbation equations

in normalized coordinates,

u

(1)

x

+ v

(1)

y

= 0, (3.8.6)

u

(1)

t

= u

(1)

yy

(3.8.7)

subject to the initial conditions:

u

(1)

= v

(1)

= 0. t = 0, y; (3.8.8)

and the boundary condtions

u

(1)

= v

(1)

= 0. y = 0, t; (3.8.9)

u

(1)

= U, y (3.8.10)

Equating the coecient of

U

o

T

L

normalized coordinates,

u

(2)

x

+ v

(2)

y

= 0, (3.8.11)

u

(2)

t

+ (u

(1)

u

(1)

x

+ v

(1)

u

(1)

y

) = UU

x

+ u

(2)

yy

+ O

U

o

T

L

2

(3.8.12)

subject to the same initial and boundary conditions on the wall as the rst order problem,

except that

u

(2)

0, y (3.8.13)

.

To return to physical variables, we need only add the coecient in front of the viscous

stress term u

yy

in (3.8.7), and (3.8.12). The rst order problem for the tangential velocity

is precisely the Rayleigh problem

u

(1)

t

= u

(1)

yy

(3.8.14)

subject to the initial conditions:

u

(1)

= 0. t = 0, y; (3.8.15)

and the boundary condtions

u

(1)

= 0. y = 0, t; (3.8.16)

3

u

(1)

= U, y (3.8.17)

The solution is

u

(1)

(x, y, t) = U(x)erf() = U(x)

2

Z

0

e

2

d (3.8.18)

where

=

y

2t

(3.8.19)

Integrating the continuity equation (3.8.6) we get

v

(1)

=

Z

y

0

u

1

x

dy =

dU

dx

2

t

Z

0

erf() d (3.8.20)

To simply the notation we introduce

erf() =

0

0

(),

Z

0

erf() d =

0

() (3.8.21)

so that

u

(1)

= U(x)

0

0

(), v

(1)

=

dU

dx

2

t

0

() (3.8.22)

The second-order approximation is

u

(2)

t

u

(2)

yy

= UU

x

u

(1)

u

(1)

x

v

(1)

u

(1)

y

(3.8.23)

subject to the initial and boundary conditions that

u

(2)

(y, 0) = 0, u

(2)

(y, t) = 0 fory = 0, (3.8.24)

The right hand side of (3.8.23) can be worked out so that

u

(2)

t

u

(2)

yy

= UU

x

1 (erf())

2

+ e

2

Z

0

erf() d

= UU

x

h

1 (h

0

)

2

+ hh

00

i

= UU

x

F() (3.8.25)

A similarity solution is possible. Let us seek a one-parameter transformation,

u

(2)

=

a

u

(2)

0

, t =

b

t

0

, y =

c

y

0

From (3.8.23) we get

ab

u

(2)

0

t

0

a2c

2

u

(2)

0

y

0

2

= UU

x

F(

cb/2

0

)

Note that x is just a parameter. Clearly a = b = 2c so that we can take

u

(2)

t

= f()UU

x

(3.8.26)

4

Substituting (3.8.26) into (3.8.25), we get a linear ordinary dierential equation

f

00

+ 2f

0

4f = 4

h

(

0

0

)

2

00

0

1

i

(3.8.27)

subject to the boundary conditions that

f = 0, = 0, (3.8.28)

The solution is not dicult (see Schlichting, eq. 15.43, p. 400).

f = erfc()

"

2

+ 2

+

4

3

!

+

2

(2

2

+ 1)

#

+

1

2

(2

2

1)erfc

2

() +

2

3

e

2

2

(3.8.29)

+ e

2

"

4

3

+

+

4

3

!#

The solution is plotted in Figure 3.8.2.

The total solution is

u = Uerf() + tUU

x

f() (3.8.30)

Figure 3.8.2: Solution to the problem of impulsive start.

.

Separation

For a given U(x) when and where will separation rst occur? Namely, when is

u

y

= 0aty = 0

5

Let us use (3.8.30) for a crude estimate. Since

u

y

= [U(erf)

0

+ UU

x

t f

0

()]

y

It can be show n that at = 0,

(erf)

0

=

2

, f

0

() =

2

1 +

4

3

It follows that

U + t

s

1 +

4

3

UU

x

= 0

or

t

s

=

0.7

UU

x

(3.8.31)

Note that t

s

> 0 only for U

x

< 0, i.e., a decelerated ow. This is a very crude and mathe-

matically illigitimate estimate since we are equating two terms of dierent order.

Neveltherless let us apply this result to the impulsive ow passing a circular cylinder

from the left. Let U

o

be the constant velocity at innity and the polar angle be measured

from the upstream stagnation point, then x = a where a is the radius, see Figure 3.8.3. It

is well known in the potential theory that the potential is

= U

o

r +

a

2

r

!

cos( )

The tangential velocity along the cylinder r = a is

1

r

=

U

o

r

r +

a

2

r

!

sin( ), r = a

or

U = 2U

o

sin( ) = 2U

o

sin() = 2U

o

sinx/a

The minimum t

s

occurs at the riear stagnation point, x = a at which

t

s

=

0.35a

U

o

, or

U

o

t

s

a

= 0.35

Note that the last condition indicates the illigitimacy of this estimate. Nevertheless we use

it here as an order-of-magnitude guide which may be improved by working out higher order

terms.

In oshore stuctures, wave induced oscillatory ows acound a pile can be separated and

hence aect the drag force on the pile. As an order estimate we take U

o

= A where

=frequency and A =wave amplitude. Hence there is no separation if

At

s

a

< 0.35, or

A

a

<

0.35

t

s

6

Since ow changes direction after every half period /, there is no separation in every half

period if

A

a

<

0.35

= 0.1

This is of course very crude. Experimentally Keulegan and Carpenter have estiblished

that separation occurs in waves if A/a exceeds 1. The ratio A/a is now known as the

Keulegan and Carpenter number.

Figure 3.8.3: Denition of coordinates for a circular cylinder.

.

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