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Explain the dyeing of polyester fabric with disperse dyes using HTHP method
with neat diagram.
The dyeing of polyester with disperse dyes at the boil is slow because of the low rate of
diffusion of the dyes into the fibre.
The activation energy for diffusion is quite high and raising the dyeing temperature
from 100 to 130 C considerably increases the rate of dye diffusion.
Dyeing at this higher temperature under pressure without a carrier considerably
increases the rate of dyeing and gives better coverage of filament irregularities because
of the improved migration of the dyes.
Dyeing is then also possible using higher molecular weight dyes whose rates of
diffusion at 100 C are unacceptable.
This permits production of dyeing with better fastness to light and to sublimation
during permanent pleating.
!or those fabrics and yarns that lose bul" when dyed at 130 C dyeing at a lower
temperature #110$1%0 C& in the presence of some carrier is preferred.
Step involved Process:
1. 'reparation fabric
%. 'reparation of dye solution
3. 'reparation machine
(. Dyeing
). *insing
+. *eduction clearing
,. *insing
-. .ydro e/tractor
0. Drying
1. Preparation fabric
To ma"e fabric white
To ma"e the fabric is better wettablity due to remove the natural coluring matters.
. Preparation of dye solution
Ta"e the required quantity of dye stuff and dispersing agent based on the shade
percentage and weight of the material
1dd few drops of water and ma"e the paste
1dd remaining amount of water and dissolving dyestuff with stirring at )02C
Disperse dyes 3 / 4
Dispersing agent 3 1gpl
Temperature 3 )02C
Time 3 30 mins
!ole of dispersing agent:
i. To disperse the dyes
ii. To reduce the molecule si5e of dyes
iii. To facilitate for easily dissolve in water
!ole of temperature:
i. To dissolve the dyes in water
". Preparation machine
To clean the machine with water and load the fabric
1dd the water with wetting agent depends 67 ratio 18) to 1810
!abric is free run at water for 10 $ %0 mins to ma"e the fabric for wet condition and
release the air
#. $yeing
Dyes $ depends on shade percentage
9etting agent $ 0.)gpl
1cetic acid $ enough to get p. 3 ) to +
7eveling agents $ 0.) to 1gpl #optional&
:nitial 3 )0 2C
!inal 3 13) 2C
Time $ )0 mins
p. 3 ) to +
The dye bath is set at )0 2C with dispersing agent and leveling agents
Then add the acetic acid for ad;ust the p. of the dye bath is ) to +
The fabric is run at 1) mins at )0 2C for this solution
The first portion of dye solution is added and run at %0 mins
Then add second portion of dye solution and raise temperature 002 C
*aise the temperature 002 C to 1102 C at very slow rate of 0.)2 C per minutes
*aise the temperature further for 13)2C at same rate
Dyeing is continue with 303() mins for this conditions
1fter dyeing once again reduce the dye bath temperature 13)2 C to 002 C for
settle fabric to

<riginal state and dye with 1) mins for this temperature.
%. !insing
The dyed fabric rinsed with hot water for 10 mins in two times
&. !eduction clearing
The dyed fabric treats with caustic soda #=a<.& and .ydrose #sodium hydrosulphite& at
+02 C for %0 $ 30 minutes.
This treatment is to remove the any unfi/ed dye from the fabric
Caustic soda #=a<.& 8 1 gpl
.ydrose 8 1 gpl
#>odium .ydrosulphite&
Temp 8 +02C
Time 8 %0330 mins
'. !insing
The dyed fabric rinsed with hot water for 10 mins
!ollowed with cold water for 10 mins

(. Hydro extractor
To remove the water from dyed material with help of hydro e/tractor
To facilitate to drying
). $rying
To dry the fabric with dryer or sun light.