# January 27, 2005 11:57

l24-appa

Sheet number 1 Page number 727

black

APPENDIX A

Trigonometry Review
EXERCISE SET A
1. (a) 5π/12

(b) 13π/6

(c) π/9

(d) 23π/30

2. (a) 7π/3

(b) π/12

(c) 5π/4

(d) 11π/12

3. (a) 12◦

(b) (270/π)◦

(c) 288◦

(d) 540◦

4. (a) 18◦

(b) (360/π)◦

(c) 72◦

(d) 210◦

5.

sin θ

21/5

cos θ

tan θ

21/2

3/ 7

(c)

3/4

3/ 10

2/5

7/4

1/ 10

cos θ

1/ 2

tan θ

(a)

sin θ

1/ 2

(b)

3/5

(c)

1/4

4/5

15/4

3/4

1/ 15

(a)
(b)

6.

3

1

csc θ

5/ 21
4/3

10/3

sec θ

cot θ

2/ 21

7/3

5/2

4/ 7

10

1/3

csc θ

2

sec θ

2

cot θ

5/3

5/4

4/ 15

4/3

15

4

1

7. sin θ = 3/ 10, cos θ = 1/ 10
9. tan θ =

8. sin θ =

21/2, csc θ = 5/ 21

10. cot θ =

5/3, tan θ =

5/2

15, sec θ = 4/ 15

11. Let x be the length of the side adjacent to θ, then cos θ = x/6 = 0.3, x = 1.8.
12. Let x be the length of the hypotenuse, then sin θ = 2.4/x = 0.8, x = 2.4/0.8 = 3.
13.

θ

sin θ
cos θ
tan θ
csc θ
sec θ
cot θ

−1/ 2 −1/ 2
1
− 2
− 2
1

1/2
− 3/2 −1/ 3
2
−2/ 3 − 3

− 3/2
1/2
− 3
−2/ 3
2
−1/ 3

(a)

225◦

(b)

−210◦

(c)

5π/3

(d)

−3π/2

1

θ

sin θ

(a)

330◦

(b)

−120◦

(c)

9π/4

−1/2

− 3/2

1/ 2

(d)

−3π

0

14.

0

cos θ

3/2
−1/2

1/ 2
−1

1

0

tan θ
csc θ
sec θ cot θ

−1/ 3
−2
2/ 3 − 3

3
−2/ 3
−2
1/ 3

1
2
2
1
0

727

−1

January 27, 2005 11:57

l24-appa

Sheet number 2 Page number 728

black

728

Appendix A

15.

sin θ

cos θ

tan θ

csc θ

sec θ

cot θ

(a)

4/5

3/5

4/3

5/4

5/3

3/4

(b)

−4/5

(c)

1/2

(d)

−1/2

1/ 2

1/ 2

(e)
(f )
16.

3/5
−4/3

− 3/2 −1/ 3

3/2 −1/ 3

1/ 2
1

−1/ 2
−1

−5/4
2
−2

2

2

5/3
−3/4

−2 3 − 3

2/ 3 − 3

2
1

− 2
−1

cos θ
tan θ
csc θ
sec θ
cot θ

15/4
1/ 15
4
4/ 15
15
1/4

− 15/4 −1/ 15
4
−4/ 15 − 15
1/4

1/ 10
3
10/3
10
1/3
3/ 10

−3/ 10 −1/ 10
3
− 10/3
− 10
1/3

21/5
−2/5
− 21/2 5/ 21
−5/2
−2/ 21

21/2 −5/ 21
−5/2
2/ 21
− 21/5
−2/5
sin θ

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f )

17. (a) x = 3 sin 25◦ ≈ 1.2679

(b) x = 3/ tan(2π/9) ≈ 3.5753

18. (a) x = 2/ sin 20◦ ≈ 5.8476

(b) x = 3/ cos(3π/11) ≈ 4.5811

19.

sin θ
(a)
(b)
(c)

cos θ

9 − a2 /3
a/3

a/ a2 + 25 5/ a2 + 25

a2 − 1/a
1/a

tan θ

a/ 9 − a2

a/5
a2 − 1

csc θ

sec θ

3/a
3/ 9 − a2

a2 + 25/a
a2 + 25/5

a/ a2 − 1
a

cot θ
9 − a2 /a

5/a

1/ a2 − 1

20. (a) θ = 3π/4 ± 2nπ and θ = 5π/4 ± 2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(b) θ = 5π/4 ± 2nπ and θ = 7π/4 ± 2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
21. (a) θ = 3π/4 ± nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(b) θ = π/3 ± 2nπ and θ = 5π/3 ± 2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
22. (a) θ = 7π/6 ± 2nπ and θ = 11π/6 ± 2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(b) θ = π/3 ± nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
23. (a) θ = π/6 ± nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(b) θ = 4π/3 ± 2nπ and θ = 5π/3 ± 2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
24. (a) θ = 3π/2 ± 2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

(b) θ = π ± 2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

25. (a) θ = 3π/4 ± nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

(b) θ = π/6 ± nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

26. (a) θ = 2π/3 ± 2nπ and θ = 4π/3 ± 2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(b) θ = 7π/6 ± 2nπ and θ = 11π/6 ± 2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

January 27, 2005 11:57

l24-appa

Sheet number 3 Page number 729

black

Exercise Set A

729

27. (a) θ = π/3 ± 2nπ and θ = 2π/3 ± 2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(b) θ = π/6 ± 2nπ and θ = 11π/6 ± 2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
28. sin θ = −3/5, cos θ = −4/5, tan θ = 3/4, csc θ = −5/3, sec θ = −5/4, cot θ = 4/3

29. sin θ = 2/5, cos θ = − 21/5, tan θ = −2/ 21, csc θ = 5/2, sec θ = −5/ 21, cot θ = − 21/2
30. (a) θ = π/2 ± 2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(c) θ = π/4 ± nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(e) θ = ±2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

(b) θ = ±2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(d) θ = π/2 ± 2nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(f ) θ = π/4 ± nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

31. (a) θ = ±nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(c) θ = ±nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(e) θ = π/2 ± nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

(b) θ = π/2 ± nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(d) θ = ±nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(f ) θ = ±nπ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

32. Construct a right triangle with one angle equal to 17◦ , measure the lengths of the sides and
hypotenuse and use formula (6) for sin θ and cos θ to approximate sin 17◦ and cos 17◦ .
33. (a) s = rθ = 4(π/6) = 2π/3 cm
34. r = s/θ = 7/(π/3) = 21/π
36. θ = s/r so A =

35. θ = s/r = 2/5

1
1
1 2
r θ = r2 (s/r) = rs
2
2
2

37. (a) 2πr = R(2π − θ), r =
(b) h =

(b) s = rθ = 4(5π/6) = 10π/3 cm

2π − θ
R
2π  

R2 − r2 = R2 − (2π − θ)2 R2 /(4π 2 ) =

4πθ − θ2
R

38. The circumference of the circular base is 2πr. When cut and ﬂattened, the cone becomes a circular
sector of radius L. If θ is the central angle that subtends the arc of length 2πr, then θ = (2πr)/L
so the area S of the sector is S = (1/2)L2 (2πr/L) = πrL which is the lateral surface area of the
cone.

39. Let h be the altitude as shown in the ﬁgure, then

1 √
h = 3 sin 60◦ = 3 3/2 so A = (3 3/2)(7) = 21 3/4.
2

3

h
60°
7

40. Draw the perpendicular from vertex C as shown in the ﬁgure,
then

h = 9 sin 30◦ = 9/2,
a
=
h/
sin
45
=
9
2/2,

c1 = 9 cos 30√
= 9 3/2, c2 = a cos 45◦ = 9/2,
c1 + c2 = 9( 3 + 1)/2, angle C = 180◦ − (30◦ + 45◦ ) = 105◦
41. Let x be the distance above the ground, then x = 10 sin 67◦ ≈ 9.2 ft.
42. Let x be the height of the building, then x = 120 tan 76◦ ≈ 481 ft.

C
9
A

a

h
45°

30°
c1

c2

B

January 27, 2005 11:57

l24-appa

Sheet number 4 Page number 730

black

730

Appendix A

43. From the ﬁgure, h = x − y but x = d tan β,
y = d tan α so h = d(tan β − tan α).
h
x
y
β α

d

44. From the ﬁgure, d = x − y but x = h cot α,
y = h cot β so d = h(cot α − cot β),
d
.
h=
cot α − cot β

h
α

β

d

y
x

45. (a) sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ = 2( 5/3)(2/3) = 4 5/9
(b) cos 2θ = 2 cos2 θ − 1 = 2(2/3)2 − 1 = −1/9

46. (a) sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − cos α sin β = (3/5)(1/ 5) − (4/5)(2/ 5) = −1/ 5

(b) cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β = (4/5)(1/ 5) − (3/5)(2/ 5) = −2/(5 5)
47. sin 3θ = sin(2θ + θ) = sin 2θ cos θ + cos 2θ sin θ = (2 sin θ cos θ) cos θ + (cos2 θ − sin2 θ) sin θ
= 2 sin θ cos2 θ + sin θ cos2 θ − sin3 θ = 3 sin θ cos2 θ − sin3 θ; similarly, cos 3θ = cos3 θ − 3 sin2 θ cos θ
48.

cos θ
cos θ
cos θ sec θ
cos θ sec θ
=
=
= cos2 θ
=
2
2
sec θ
sec θ
(1/ cos θ)
1 + tan θ

49.

cos θ tan θ + sin θ
cos θ(sin θ/ cos θ) + sin θ
=
= 2 cos θ
tan θ
sin θ/ cos θ

50. 2 csc 2θ =

2
2
=
=
sin 2θ
2 sin θ cos θ

51. tan θ + cot θ = 

1
sin θ 

1
cos θ 

= csc θ sec θ

sin θ
cos θ
sin2 θ + cos2 θ
1
2
2
+
=
=
=
=
= 2 csc 2θ
cos θ
sin θ
sin θ cos θ
sin θ cos θ
2 sin θ cos θ
sin 2θ

52.

sin 2θ cos θ − cos 2θ sin θ
sin θ
sin 2θ cos 2θ

=
=
= sec θ
sin θ
cos θ
sin θ cos θ
sin θ cos θ

53.

sin θ + (1 − 2 sin2 θ) − 1
sin θ(1 − 2 sin θ)
sin θ + cos 2θ − 1
=
=
= tan θ
cos θ − sin 2θ
cos θ − 2 sin θ cos θ
cos θ(1 − 2 sin θ)

54. Using (47), 2 sin 2θ cos θ = 2(1/2)(sin θ + sin 3θ) = sin θ + sin 3θ
55. Using (47), 2 cos 2θ sin θ = 2(1/2)[sin(−θ) + sin 3θ] = sin 3θ − sin θ
56. tan(θ/2) =

sin(θ/2)
2 sin2 (θ/2)
1 − cos θ
=
=
cos(θ/2)
2 sin(θ/2) cos(θ/2)
sin θ

January 27, 2005 11:57

l24-appa

Sheet number 5 Page number 731

black

Exercise Set A

57. tan(θ/2) =

731

2 sin(θ/2) cos(θ/2)
sin θ
sin(θ/2)
=
=
2
cos(θ/2)
2 cos (θ/2)
1 + cos θ

58. From (52), cos(π/3 + θ) + cos(π/3 − θ) = 2 cos(π/3) cos θ = 2(1/2) cos θ = cos θ
1
59. From the ﬁgures, area = hc but h = b sin A
2
1
so area = bc sin A. The formulas
2
1
1
area = ac sin B and area = ab sin C
2
2
follow by drawing altitudes from vertices B and C, respectively.

C

b

A

60. From right triangles ADC and BDC,
h1 = b sin A = a sin B so a/ sin A = b/ sin B.
From right triangles AEB and CEB,
h2 = c sin A = a sin C so a/ sin A = c/ sin C
thus a/ sin A = b/ sin B = c/ sin C.

B

c

C

h1

b

a
h2

E
A

61. (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

a

h

D
c

B

sin(π/2 + θ) = sin(π/2) cos θ + cos(π/2) sin θ = (1) cos θ + (0) sin θ = cos θ
cos(π/2 + θ) = cos(π/2) cos θ − sin(π/2) sin θ = (0) cos θ − (1) sin θ = − sin θ
sin(3π/2 − θ) = sin(3π/2) cos θ − cos(3π/2) sin θ = (−1) cos θ − (0) sin θ = − cos θ
cos(3π/2 + θ) = cos(3π/2) cos θ − sin(3π/2) sin θ = (0) cos θ − (−1) sin θ = sin θ

sin(α + β)
sin α cos β + cos α sin β
=
, divide numerator and denominator by
cos(α + β)
cos α cos β − sin α sin β
sin β
sin α
and tan β =
to get (38);
cos α cos β and use tan α =
cos α
cos β
tan α + tan(−β)
tan α − tan β
tan(α − β) = tan(α + (−β)) =
=
because
1 − tan α tan(−β)
1 + tan α tan β

62. tan(α + β) =

tan(−β) = − tan β.
63. (a) Add (34) and (36) to get sin(α − β) + sin(α + β) = 2 sin α cos β so
sin α cos β = (1/2)[sin(α − β) + sin(α + β)].
(b) Subtract (35) from (37).

A−B
1
A+B
cos
= (sin B + sin A) so
2
2
2
A+B
A−B
sin A + sin B = 2 sin
cos
.
2
2
(b) Use (49)
(c) Use (48)

64. (a) From (47), sin

α−β
α+β
cos
, but sin(−β) = − sin β so
2
2
α−β
α+β
sin
.
sin α − sin β = 2 cos
2
2

65. sin α + sin(−β) = 2 sin

January 27, 2005 11:57

732

l24-appa

Sheet number 6 Page number 732

black

Appendix A

66. (a) From (34), C sin(α + φ) = C sin α cos φ + C cos α sin φ so C cos φ = 3√and C sin φ = 5, √
square and add√to get C 2 (cos2 φ + sin2 φ) = 9 + 25, C 2 = 34. If C = 34 then cos φ = 3/ 34
and sin φ = 5/ 34√so φ is the ﬁrst-quadrant angle for which tan φ = 5/3.
3 sin α + 5 cos α = 34 sin(α + φ).

(b) Follow the procedure of part (a) to get C cos φ = A and C sin φ = B, C = A2 + B 2 ,
tan φ = B/A where the quadrant in which φ lies is determined
by the signs of A and B because

cos φ = A/C and sin φ = B/C, so A sin α + B cos α = A2 + B 2 sin(α + φ).
67. Consider the triangle having a, b, and d as sides. The angle formed by sides√a and b is π − θ so
from the law of cosines, d2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos(π − θ) = a2 + b2 + 2ab cos θ, d = a2 + b2 + 2ab cos θ.